Circles, Triangles and Squares: Sacred Symbols in the Mayan Culture

Tags: Mexico, the Mayas, Tula, circles, squares, Maya civilization, stone pillars, hieroglyphic writing, religious ceremonies, Kukulcan, triangles, The Spanish conquerors, Rune Pettersson Abstract, remarkable buildings, bishop Diego de Landa, The World Book Encyclopedia, graphic symbols, verbal symbols, geometric shapes, pictorial symbol, Sacred Symbols, Stora Focus, Pictorial symbols, Mayan civilization, highly developed, Tula Quetzalcoatl, Maya cities, temple, Itza, god Quetzalcoatl, Toltecs Quetzalcoatl, Quetzalcoatl, Temple Cities Ancient Maya, the Maya, Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl, Diego de Landa, Maya city, Mayan cities, human sacrifice, astronomical observatories
Content: Circles, Triangles and Squares: Sacred Symbols in the Mayan Culture The 29th Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association University Park, Pennsylvania, October 18 - 22, 1997 by Rune Pettersson
Abstract. The circle and the triangle, as well as the square, are shapes that have been natural to man for a very long time. There have always been circles and triangles in our natural environment, and they have already been used as important symbols in pre-historic cultures. This paper presents the use of circles, triangles and squares as sacred symbols in the old Mayan civilization. The paper also presents one of the oldest forms of mediated communication through moving images, the "moving picture" in Chichйn Itzб, Mexico.
Symbols Symbols are signs representing objects or ideas. In spe- cific areas symbols are a supplement to all languages to help create better and faster understanding. Today symbols have evolved to the point of universal acceptance in such areas as music, mathematics, and many branches of science. Taking up only a very small amount of space, symbols can convey a message containing a large amount of varying information, equivalent to one or more sentences of text. Image perception is very rapid, virtually "instantaneous". Reading and comprehending the equivalent message in words takes much more time. So symbols permit rapid reading. This is important in numerous situations, e.g., in traffic, industry, and aviation. Some figurative graphic symbols are pictorial and representational (Pettersson, 1993). They are "image related" and simplified pictures. Pictorial symbols resemble the objects they represent. They can be characterized as silhouettes or profiles with no surface detail. An old traffic sign with a silhouette of a locomotive, to denote a railroad crossing, is an example of a pictorial symbol. In the design process, some pictorial symbols may be successively simplified into figurative and abstract graphic symbols (op. cit.). They still look like the objects they represent but have less detail than pictorial symbols. In athletic contests, like the olympic games, abstract graphic symbols are often used to denote the different kinds of sports. Good abstract graphic symbols are intuitive. We should be able to understand their meaning. Some figurative symbols are arbitrary graphic symbols (op. cit.). They are invented and constructed from the designer's imagination. Usually arbitrary graphic symbols have no resemblance at all to the objects or to the ideas that they represent. Many are based on geometric shapes. Many signposts and traffic signs are often good examples of arbitrary symbols. They are unambiguous by convention; we agree and decide on their meanings. Just as new words have to be learned when we begin to study a new topic, we have to learn arbitrary graphic symbols. Many non-figurative verbal symbols, written charac-
ters, and letters of various alphabets have evolved from simplified pictures (op. cit.). Verbal symbols are used in written languages and in many branches of science. In many areas, verbal symbols have reached universal acceptance. When small children scribble they make dots, lines, and endless open circular movements (Kellog, 1955). Already at the age of three children may draw solid circles, triangles and squares (Berefelt, 1977). In my view, we perceive circles, triangles and squares at a low cognitive level without any special analysis (Pettersson, 1989). Due to their simplicity, circles, triangles and squares are often used as icons or symbols in modern verbo-visual communication, and as picture elements in schematic pictures. However, this simplicity also means that these simple shapes can be perceived in many ways by different people. Functional, instructive graphic symbols are probably older than words, and they are probably found in every culture however primitive. From the following example, the old Maya civilization, we can see that it is possible to trace a meaningful use of basic geometric shapes as symbols far back in time and history. Circles, triangles and squares were important for the Mayans, and they were probably also important in many other prehistoric cultures. The Maya Civilization The first humans who came to North America where tribes of nomadic hunter-gatherers from Siberia. They followed the big game over the land connection between Asia andAlaska.This was some 30,000 ­ 40,000 years ago (Coe et al.,1986; Stora Focus, 1987­1989). These groups of people gradually moved south without further contacts with the old world.Already 5,000 ­ 6,000 years ago people began to grow maize (or corn) in different places in Mesoamerica, a region stretching from northern central Mexico to Costa Rica in Central America (Harrell, 1994). Cultivation of maize was a prerequisite for groups of people and tribes to settle down into farming villages, and thus also a prerequisite for the later high civilizations in Mesoamerica.
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Already more than 3,000 years ago the Maya Indians spoke dialects of the Mayan language in the highlands of Guatemala and Belize (Blacker, 1965; Salmoral, 1990). Maya traders had the advantage of a common language. The oldest Mayan ceramics and pottery, dated at 2,500 B.C., has been found in Belize (Brunius, 1992). Early Mayas were settled. They grew maize, beans and root vegetables on burn-beaten lands and they developed remarkable cultures. At its first height, the "Classic Period", from the A.D. 250's to the 900's (Harrell, 1994), this society may have included about two million people (The World Book Encyclopedia, 1963). The Maya lived in isolated and independent city-states in dense forests in present-day Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras, as well as in present-day Belize (Coe et al.,1986). For some unknown reason, the Maya civilization declined within these areas. The Mayas moved north to low lands in South Eastern Mexico, especially to the Yucatбn peninsula. Here the Maya civilization had a second height for a period of 300 years, from the A.D. 600's to the 900's, before it started to degenerate (Harrell, 1994). Never-ceasing fights and civil wars among the city-states in the Yucatбn peninsula weakened the strength of the Mayas and destroyed the highly cultivated society and the conditions for prosperity. According to Vidal-Naquet (1987) the society collapsed from within. C T Yucatаn Schematic map showing the approximate locations of Tula (T) and Chichйn Itza (C). The Mesoamerican Indian civilizations, Olmec, Toltec, Mayan, and the other high cultures culminated in theAztec empire. When the Spaniards invaded Mexico at the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Aztecs ruled over 20 million subjects. The empire opened on to two oceans, controlling the trade routes through Central America (VidalNaquet, 1987). The ruling dynasty had only been in power for 150 years. The Aztec regime had invented and introduced a new religion, which included holy wars and holy
human sacrifice. This united the priesthood and the army and had served as the cornerstones in an aggressive expansion policy. It was this empire which Cortes conquered with the aid of 600 soldiers, sixteen horses, ten cannons and thirteen arqueuses. The Aztecs revered Cortes as a "god of light". He was considered to be the bearded and sacred white man which they had been waiting for (Dineen, 1992). The Spanish conquerors destroyed as much as they could of the cultures in Mesoamerica (Blacker, 1965). Only ten years after the first fights (1519) Mexico was captured. The invaders brought diseases like smallpox, measles, and typhus. The original populations had no resistance to these New Diseases. More people died from diseases than from the cruel treatment from the Spaniards. However, in some places the local resistance was strong. The last Maya city, Tayasal, did not surrender until 1697 (Harrell, 1994). Temple Cities Ancient Maya achievements include superb art and architecture, a highly developed style of hieroglyphic writing and of mathematics, and a precision in tracking time day by day over centuries. Hundreds of Maya cities were centers for religious festivals, markets, and courts of justice (The World Book Encyclopedia, 1963). These temple cities are spread throughout south-eastern Mexico and Guatemala. They are also believed to have served a function similar to universities of today. Each major Maya city was carefully planned with monumental and remarkable buildings of stone, such as temple-topped pyramids and palaces in the center, astronomical observatories, dwells, aqueducts, and decorated stone pillars, a nearby ball court for the famous pre-Hispanic team sport (Ventura and Ceserini, 1982). During the religious ceremonies the priests lived in the ceremonial center of the town. The priests and the nobility had embroided or painted clothings made of cotton and decorated with feathers. Common people had clothes of pounded tree bark or sisal hamp. Many had necklaces of seeds or beetle wings. The common people lived throughout the countryside in simple huts made of poles, mud, grass and palm leaves. They grew maize, beans, squash, chili peppers, avocado, sweet potatoes, papaya and some other crops. Stone-surfaced roads connected cities and parts of cities. This was at a time when their European counterparts were largely dependent on dirt tracks. Some of the most important Mayan cities are Bonampбk, Chichйn Itzб, Copбn, Labnб, Palenque, Piedras Negras, Tikal and Uxmal (Coe et al.,1986). The Mayan architects built their pyramids, temples, and observatories with cores of dirt which they covered with
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facings of limestone. One of the Maya's unique contributions to architecture is the Korbal Arch, also called the Maya Arch. This was formed by projecting stone blocks out from each side of a wall until they met forming a peak. This technique was a good substitute for a true arch (Coe et al.,1986; Stora Focus, 1987­1989). Some of these almost "solid" buildings have lasted for hundreds of years. Since they had no wheeled vehicles, people had to carry all the building materials. Decorated stone pillars, reliefs and mural paintings tell us about the daily life of the Mayas. Extraordinary mural paintings were discovered in a small temple in Bonampбk in Mexico in connection with a movie production in the 1940s. The pictures show musicians playing drums, trumpets and maracas (Salmoral, 1990). Unfortunately the colors started to fade in contact with the air outside the temple. Maya traders came to the markets in the cities. They had developed complicated networks in the southern parts of Mexico and in the northern parts of Central America (Dineen, 1992). Local farmers brought maize, beans, squash, chili peppers, avocado, sweet potatoes, papaya and honey. People of the lowlands traded jaguar pelts, feathers, copal incense, lime, flint knives, and edible hearts of palm trees. In return, they received the highly prized quetzal feathers and jade of the highlands, and sharp obsidian, or volcanic glass, which was used for knives. After the Spanish invasion the temple cities were forgotten for centuries. They were covered by trees and other plants. During an expedition 1839­1840 the American lawyer John Stephens and the British artist Frederick Catherwood discovered the three cities Copбn, Palenque and Uxmal. Their findings became a sensation, of the same order as the first expedition to the moon in our time. It is quite possible that people will discover temple cities still unknown in the vast jungles in Mesoamerica. Calculation of Time Science was in the hands of the Mayan priesthood. Priests were very good at astronomy and mathematics (Ventura and Ceserini, 1982; Harrell, 1994). The astronomers developed systems for accurate calculation of time. Every division of time was "lucky" or "unlucky", and was ruled by a separate god. The priests made calendres and tables of dates on which to prepare religious ceremonies and daily life. The year of the sun, tun, had 365 days and was divided in 18 periods of 20 days. In addition there was an "unlucky" period of five days without ruling by any god. Many evil things could happen during these five days. The other calendre was a sacred year comprising of 260 days and divided into 13 periods of 20 days. The Mayans believed that history would repeat itself in cycles of 260
years. In contrast to other high civilizations the Mayas created a system of numbering which included a symbol roughly equivalent to our zero, although it really stood for completion (The World Book Encyclopedia, 1963). Therefore it was possible for astronomers and mathematicians to make calculations with large numbers. The Mayan system of numbering was vigesimal and based on the number 20 (the number of fingers and toes) instead of ten, as in our numbering system. Numbers one to four are written with dots. Number five is a dash. Zero is a symbol for a shell of a clam. Vertical positions of the three symbols denominate their values. Numbers on the baseline (kin) are multiplied by one. Numbers in the second position (uinal) are multiplied by 20, numbers in the third position (tun) are multiplied by 360, numbers in the fourth position (katun) are multiplied by 7,200, and finally numbers in the fifth position (baktun) are multiplied by 144,000. The Maya had a more advanced type of writing than any other Indian group. Their symbols stood partly for sounds and partly for ideas. It was a kind of hieroglyphic writing. One glyph may stand for a word. Only fragments of the rich literature are preserved.Archeologists, linguists and other researchers are still trying to understand the hieroglyphic writing of the Mayas. Much of this work is done in archives in Spain, Guatemala and Mexico. Religious Ceremonies The Spanish monk and Bishop Diego de Landa arrived in Mexico a few years after the conquest. Through his careful notes and through his letters to the Spanish king researchers today know a lot of the religious lives of the Aztecs, the Toltecs and the Mayas, and especially about their special religious sacrifice ceremonies (Salmoral, 1990; Dineen, 1992). Diego de Landa had a genuine interest for the Mayas, but he fought against their religion. He ordered the conquistadors to burn as many of the Mayan bark-cloth books, or rather manuscripts, as they could find. Diego de Landa thought these books contained nothing but superstitions and falsehoods of the Devil (Brunius, 1992). Only three of the manuscripts survived, each called a codex. These manuscripts are now kept in museums in Dresden, Madrid and Paris. Pictures are painted in red, yellow, blue and black. The Indian civilizations in CentralAmerica and in Mexico all had several gods. People were very religious and worshipped the powerful forces in nature. The gods appeared in various forms and ruled over all aspects of human life. Gods decided on birth and death, on rain and dry weather, on warmth and cold weather, on good crops or bad crops which results in hunger and starvation. The
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Maya priests read in their calenders, and made astrological interpretations of their astronomical observations. They knew what kind of sacrifice and what kind of religious ceremonies that were needed in each case in order to make the gods happy. Several of the gods demanded blood, above all blood from humans. When it was needed a person was placed on a special altar. Several priests held the person to be sacrificed. The master of ceremonies used a sharp knife of flint or obsidian and cut the heart out of the body. Then he offered the heart to the god. Later the body was prepared for a ritual meal (Salmoral, 1990; Dineen, 1992). Some of the gods where pleased with more simple sacrifices, like blood from humans or animals, incense, pearls, beautiful and rare feathers or products from farming. The superior gods of the Mayas lived above the earth on nine levels in heaven (Harrell, 1994). The most powerful gods lived at the top level. Heaven was supported by four gods standing in the four corners of the world and suspended above the world like a ceiling. Red was the holy color for east, black for west, white for north, and yellow for south. In my view we can name the hanging heaven the sacred square of the Mayas. Mayas believed that all the gods and all human beings descended from father sun and mother moon. The moon goddess looked out for women's activities, particularly weaving and childbirth. There are special temples for the sun god as well as for the moon goddess in several Maya cities. In my view we can name the sun and the moon the sacred circles of the Mayas. Since these gods lived high in the sky it was necessary to build their altars and temples as close to the gods as possible. According to the legends the god Quetzalcoatl was one of the most important gods in the city of Tula, North West of Mexico City (Blacker, 1965; Moltke-Hoff, 1990). Tula was the center for the Toltec culture. At its height, a period of 300 years, from the A.D. 900's to the 1200's, Tula may have included up to 30,000 inhabitants. Before that Quetzalcoatl was an important god in the older city Teotihuacan, north east of Mexico City. During a long period of prosperity, from the B.C. 200's to the A.D. 700's, Teotihuacan sometimes had more than 125,000 inhabitants. Later the Aztecs revered him as the god of light returning from the east. That was the reason for the weak resistance and easy surrender to the Spaniards. For the Toltecs Quetzalcoatl was the god of the wind, of learning and of knowledge (Salmoral, 1990). He fertilized the ground and he was very special to the priesthood. In Tula Quetzalcoatl used to be disguised as a Toltec ruler, Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl, but he could also appear as an eagle, as well as a big snake. Thus Quetzalcoatl was called "the Great Feathered Serpent".According to Mayan
legend a prominent war god chased Quetzalcoatl out of Tula in the joint between two time cycles, A.D. 987 (Coe et al., 1986). Together with a group of people Quetzalcoatl fled in a boat across the sea and moved to the city Chichйn Itza, strategically located in the center of the Yucatбn peninsula. There he changed his name to Kukulcan (Blacker, 1965). The Mayans regarded Kukulcan as the great organizer who founded cities, formulated laws and invented the Mayan calendar. The "Moving Picture" in Chichйn Itza Today Chichйn Itza, 120 km east of Mйrida, may be the most famous of the Mayan ruins, and it is also the best excavated and restored. This ancient city was already founded 445A.C.The city covers an area of approximately six square kilometers. It was the religious and political center for the whole Mayan culture during the second height, from the A.D. 600's to the 900's, (Harrell, 1994). The Itzб, a group of Maya from Guatemala, entered the Yucatбn peninsula and conquered Chichйn Itza in 918. In about 975 the inhabitants had to surrender to the Toltecs. As noted above they forced the Mayas to worship their god Quetzalcoatl with the new name Kukulcan. Toltecs and Mayas built several new buildings in order to develop Chichйn Itza into a better version of Tula. Chichйn Itza became a strong central machinery of power on theYucatбn peninsula. The cities could no longer survive just by crops from the poor soil in the jungle. People in the ruling cities got their food by trade and they required taxes from people whom they had conquered in war. During the 12th century, the cities Izamal and Mayapбn joined forces, and together they defeated Chichйn Itza. Mayapбn became the new capital and Chichйn Itza was abandoned. The Spaniards came to Chichйn Itza in 1541. The remains of the abandoned Chichйn Itza were re-discovered at the end of the 19th century. The ruined city was cleared from trees and other plants and partly reconstructed in the 1920s and 1930s. On top of the big pyramid in Chichйn Itza is a temple built on a square platform. (As noted earlier the heaven was a square.) The temple, El Castillo, (the castle) was completed about 830 A.D. for the god Kukulcan. Actually the pyramid is a huge calendar, rising 21 meters above the jungle floor. The view from the sacred square platform is magnificent. You can see that the original city stretched for miles in all directions out to the jungle. From this main temple you have a view of several other buildings like the "Pyramid of the Warriors" where a stiffly posed figure called "chac mol" holds a receptacle for offerings, the "Pyramid of the Jaguar", and the "Ball Court", all more spectacular than the buildings at Tula (Coe et al., 1986).
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Chac mol was the Mayan divine messenger. Twenty or so structures of the several hundred at the site have been fully explored. The pyramid is built in nine square terraces or levels, one for each month in the Mayan calendar, also indicating the nine heavens; 54 indented squares, one for each week; and 365 steps, one for each day of the year. Each side of the pyramid has a steep staircase with 91 steps.All the steps and the square platform makes 365. At the bottom of the staircase at the northern side of the pyramid, there are two snake heads in stone, which represent Kukulcan. The sun travels 182 days to the north and returns 182 days to the south again every Mayan Earth year. This is the season or cycle of the solstices. At the midpoint of this season/cycle is another cycle of the east and the west called the Equinoxes. On the Equinox, the sun crosses at a center point of all four seasons making exact 90 degrees angles directly on top of the pyramid of Kukulcan. At the vernal equinox (March 21) and at the autumnal Equinox (September 21) up to 40,000 people gather on the ground in front of the pyramid. They want to experience a remarkable phenomenon, a "story" produced by light and shadow on the pyramid. These days the light from the dying sun casts shadows from the terraces in such a way that an illuminated image of a snake appears on the northern staircase. During the hours before sunset "the feathered serpent" appears to move, slither and wriggle from his temple at the top of the pyramid and down to the ground. To the Mayans, this represented their god coming down to reward his loyal followers and to ensure a good harvest. At El Castillo "the feathered serpent", Kukulcan, appears to move from his temple at the top of the pyramid and down to the ground. It is the mathematical exact precision with attention to solar astronomy and geometry in the construction of the huge calendar pyramid, and the play of light and shadow which produces a "movie" twice a year. The continuous
images are formed by seven illuminated triangles on the dark stones of the staircase. To the Mayans these seven triangles represent the awakening of seven centers of the physical human body and this illustrates their connection with the group of stars called the Plejades (Yaxk'in, 1995). This may, in fact, be the oldest "movie" in the world, seen by many thousands of people throughout the centuries. In my view these images of the feathered serpent can be called the sacred triangles of the Mayas. No doubt the Mayan culture was far ahead of its time. In a sacred prophesy in the year 1475, before the arrival of the Spanish invadors, "The Supreme Maya Council" revealed that the following two cycles of 260 years should be a decline of the culture and for the worship of the sun god (Yaxk'in, 1994, 1995). There should be a "dark period" for humanity. 520 years later humanity should leave a "time of belief" and look forward to the beginning of prosperous times for the next 260 years, with a new interest in worship of the sun. In the spring of 1995, humanity was reawakenes into the "Age of Knowledge". Many researchers have written that we now have left the "Industrial Age" and entered the "Age of Information" or the "Age of Knowledge".Yaxk'in (1995) explains how to perform a simple solar ceremony for the modern sun-worshipper. Facing the rising sun the sun-worshipper begins to mediate and says the name of the sun K'IN (K'ieeeeeennn) seven times for the body, seven times for the spirit, and seven times for the awakening of the cosmic human. Some other examples of Sun-worshippers Around the world people have worshiped the sun throughout history. Also many other monuments from the past demonstrate that people knew about the movements of the sun. A "four-storied" temple-topped pyramid in Tula, called Pyramid B, was an inspiration for the architecture of the Pyramid of the Warriors at Chichйn Itza. According to maps in Coe et al. (1986) pyramid B has approximately the same geographic orientation (15o NE) as El Castillo (17.5o NE) and the Pyramid of the Warriors. Tula is 1,000 kilometers west of Chichйn Itza. Pyramid B has only got one staircase, mainly facing south. Thus there are no serpent-like shadows at sunset. The staircase to the large "Sun-pyramid" in Teotihuacan mainly faces east and is illuminated at sunrise. Also this pyramid has approximately the same geographic orientation (15o NE). At Dzibilchaltun, also on the Yucatбn peninsula, long streams of sunbeams hit the exact center of two windows opposite each other while at Edzna, Campeche, the mask of the sun god is beautifully illuminated during the Equinox.
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Newgrange (3,400­3,000 B.C.), is an interesting old prehistoric grave-field in Ireland, in Western Europe. This neolithic site has most impressive megalithic monuments made of large stones and used as tombs or places of ritual. The most famous passage-tomb was originally built about 3,100 B.C., on top of a hill. Today it is restored. The monument consists of a turf mound almost circular, 200,000 tons of stone, 79­85 meters in diameter and 13.5 m high, containing a passage leading to a burial chamber. Outside the base, 12 out of the original estimated 38 large boulders form a ring of about 104 m in diameter. The base of the mound is retained by 97 large stones, many with carved designs of spiral, lozenge, zigzag and other symbols. The grave was built so that the very first beams of light from the rising midwinter sun (December 21) exactly illuminates an altar-stone inside the main burial chamber for about twenty minutes (Burenhult, 1981). The light passes a small, rectangular shutter, above the entrance to the 19 m narrow, uphill slope leading to the 6.5 x 6.2 m burial chamber, 6 m from the floor to the corbelled roof. For this to happen it is necessary first to remove a stone, fitting the shutter 25 m from the altar. According to Irish mythology, Newgrange was the alleged burial place of the prehistoric kings of Tara, and also the home of a race of Irish supernatural beings, the people of the godess Danu. Another very impressive ancient sophisticated construction and monument is Stonehenge on the Salisbury Plains in the southern part of England (Coe et al.,1986; Stora Focus, 1987­1989). Today Stonehenge is a group of huge, rough-cut stones. In the past, thirty blocks of grey sandstone, each about nine meters in length and weighing up to 50 tons, stood in a circle with a diameter of 30 m. A continuous circle of smaller blocks was laid on top of them. Inside was a circle of about 60 blue stones. Inside this inner circle were two sets of stones in a U-shape, opening toward the northeast. Some of the stones had to be brought some 380 kilometers to this site. Stonehenge was constructed during a long period of time, from 2,800 to 1,550 B.C. Every stone was carefully placed in a calculated position with reference to the movements of the sun, the moon and the seasons. Stonehenge was designed as an observatory, and the openings in the arches were probably used to make intricate astronomical observations. A special stone was set to cast a shadow 25 m away on a stone altar inside the inner U-shape at dawn of the summer solstice (June 21). An earth wall about 97 m in diameter surrounded the monument. There are over 900 other stone circles found throughout Britain and Ireland, although none of them are as elaborate in their structure as Stonehenge. Also the great pyramids in Egypt were positioned with reference to the movements of the sun.
We may conclude that circles, triangles and squares have been used as important symbols by mankind for thousands of years. References Berefelt, R. (1977). Barn och bild. Stockholm. Blacker, I, R. (1965). Cortes and the Aztec conquest. New York: American Heritage Publishing Co. Bonniers Lexikon. (1964­1967). Bonniers Lexikon. Stockholm: AB Nordiska Uppslagsbцcker. Brunius, S. (1992). Maya. Stockholm: Folkens museum. Burenhult, G. (1981). Stenеldersbilder. Hдllristningar och stenеldersekonomi. Stockholm: Sturefцrlaget. Coe, M., Snow, D., & Benson, E. (1986). Atlas of Ancient America. New York: Facts On File Publications. Dineen, J. (1992). The Aztecs. London: Heineman Educational Books Ltd. Harrell, M-A. (1994). Mesoamerica. In: Wonders of the Ancient World. National Geographic Atlas of Archeology. National Geographic Society. Kellog, R. (1955). What children scribble and why. San Francisco. Moltke-Hoff, A-M. (1990). Maya. Leksand. Nationalencyklopedin. (1989­1996). Nationalencyklopedin. Hцganдs: Bokfцrlaget Bra Bцcker. Pettersson, R. (1989). Visuals for Information: Research and Practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational technology Publications. Pettersson, R. (1993). visual information. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications. Salmoral, M, L. (1990). Amйrica ­ retrato de un continente hace quinientos anos. (Amerika 1492. Den nya vдrlden fцr femhundra еr sedan.) Fenice 2000 s.r.l., Milano: Anaya. (Wiken, 1992) Stora Focus. (1987­1989). Stora Focus. Stockholm: Esselte Focus Uppslagsbцcker AB. The World Book Encyclopedia. (1963). The World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago: Field Enterprises Educational Corporation. Ventura, P. , & Ceserini, G. P. (1982). I Maya L'avventura di un mondo. Milano: Arnoldo Mondadori Editore S.P.A. Vidal-Naquet, P. (Ed.) (1987). The Collins Atlas of World History. London: Collins. Yaxk'in, A, J. (1994). Mayan Prophesy. The Reawakening of Cosmic Human. Published on Internet: [email protected] Yaxk'in, A, J. (1995). Mayan Prophesy. The Reawakening of Cosmic Human. Published on Internet: [email protected] (CMCIMS)
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