Concurrent engineering fundamentals

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Content: CONCURRENT ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS VOLUME II Integrated Product Development Biren Prasad PRENTICHEALLINTERNATIOSENRAIELS IN ~NDUSTRIALAND SYSTEMSENGINEERING To join a Prentice Hall PTR internet mailing list, point to: http://www.prenhall.com/register Prentice Hall PTR Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 http://www.prenhall.com
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-PublicationData
Prasad, Biren
Concurrent engineering fundamentals: integrated product
development / Biren Prasad.
p. cm. -(Prentice-Hall international series in industrial and systems engineering)
Includes bibliographicalreferences and index.
ISBN &13-3969464
1. Production engineering. 2. Concurrent engineering. 3. Design,
Industrial. 1. Title. 11. Series.
TS 176.P694 1996
670.4--dc20
95-43 132
CIP
Acquisitions editor: Bernard Goodwin Cover designer: Design Source Cover design director: Jerry Votta Manufacturingbuyer: Alexis R. Heydt Compositor/Productionservices:Pine Tree Composition,Inc.
O 1997 by Prentice Hall PTR Prentice-Hall, Inc. A Simon & Schuster Company Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
The publisher offers discounts on this book when ordered in bulk quantities.For more information contact: Corporate Sales Department Prentice Hall PTR One Lake Street Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Phone: 80&382-3419 Fax: 201-236-7141 email: [email protected]
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Printed in the United States of America
ISBN: 0-33-3767q6-0 Prentice-Hall International (UK) Limited, London Prentice-Hall of Australia Pty. Limited, Sydney Prentice-Hall Canada, Inc., Toronto Prentice-Hall Hispanoamericana,S.A., Mexico Prentice-Hallof India Private Limited, New Delhi Prentice-Hall of Japan, Inc., Tokyo Simon & Schuster Asia Pte. Ltd., Singapore Editora Prentice-Halldo Brasil, Ltda., Rio de Janeiro
WHAT OUR READERSIREVIEWERS SAY ABOUT VOLUME I?
In the last few years, several books have been published in Concurrent Engineering. The book Concurrent Engineering Fundamentals is the first comprehensive text book, which balances coverage of fundamental concepts, original research results, industrial applications and practical experiences. It deals with all major issues involved in CE ranging from information technology to life cycle management. Concurrent Engineering Fundamentals is essential reading for engineers, managers and academics who are working in the field of concurrent engineering. ...It is an excellent text book for senior undergraduate students and graduate students in the field of manufacturing engineering, production engineering, industrial engineering and business schools. Peihua Gu, Ph.D. and P.Eng. Professor and NSERC/AECL Chair Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada
I found Concurrent Engiyleering Fundamentals to be an easy-to-read introduction to an area that has
intrigued me for several years. The book is rich in illustrations and tables, and this abundance of visual
material helped me make sense of the concepts and jargon introduced in the book. Furthermore, I
found that I could skip around the book to topics of particular interest without too much trouble. That
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is, the book permits the reader to select topics of interest without having to read it in its entirety.
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...The Concurrent Engineering Fundamentals book will be eminently useful both to students
taking a course in Concurrent Engineering and to engineers seeking to update their skills on their own.
Raphael (Raji) T. Haftka, Ph.D. Professor, University of Florida Department of Aerospace Engineering Mechanics and engineering science Gainesville, Florida
This book Concurrent Engineering Fundamentals-although it has Fundamentals in its title-is a book not only for the newcomers to the field, but also for the experts, too. What distinguishes this book from others is that it really embodies concurrent engineering in its writing. Concurrency is well maintained throughout-among the concepts, methodologies including discussions of the social and technical backgrounds. Further, these concepts and methodologies are so well illustrated that newcomers will not find any difficulty in understanding them. The well indexed technical terms help a great deal for the newcomers to understand. Experts will also find Concurrent Engineering Fundamentals very informative because there are so many descriptions and comparisons of different cultures. There are also many descriptions about Japan. Even to a Japanese like me, I found that the book contains many new findings about our Japanese industrial backgrounds that I did not know before. ...I would like to recommend Concurrent Engineering Fundamentals for all who have inter- ests in CE, newcomers and experts as well. Shuichi Fukuda, Ph.D. Chair Professor and Deparment Chair Department of Production, Information and Systems Engineering Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Technology Asahigaoka, Hino, Tokyo, JAPAN
A long needed book ...Concurrent Engineering Fundamentals is the first comprehensive text in the rapidly developing area of CE that covers the very fundamentals.. .. Apart from its merits of high quality and timely content, the book is very well organized editorially. The book will appeal to both the engineering and management practitioner, as well as the academic community, where it can serve as a textbook. Dr. Marek B. Zaremba Professor, Dept. of Computer Science University of Quebec, CANADA
The cost and time it takes to do product and process engineering has been escalating over the last
few decades due to several reasons among them: increasing customer satisfaction, increasing gov-
ernment regulations, and increasing design alternatives due to material and process innovations.
Concurrent Engineering Fundamentals rightly sets forth the philosophy and methodology neces-
sary to conduct a modem concurrent engineering process.
...Concurrent Engineering Fundamentals will be a very welcomed addition to the literature
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in this important growing field.
Mounir M. Kamal, Ph.D.
Executive Director (Retired)
General Motors Research Laboratory
I
Warren, Michigan
1
Concurrent Engineering Fundamentals is a very comprehensive, thorough, and visionary analysis
of the concurrent engineering process. It serves a wide range of needs from an engineering text-
,
book to a highly useful reference. In this day of exploding knowledge, intensifying global competi-
tion, and more demanding customers, it is imperative to significantly improve the engineering
process. No longer is an undisciplined and often ad hoc process good enough. The entire process
must be managed following a very disciplined approach.
Concurrent Engineering Fundamentals is a book that brings both breadth and depth to the
issue. It is a coherent work integrating the "alphabet soup" of current thidcing and new techniques re-
\
lated to the overall product development process and should help individuals, work teams, and com-
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panies improve their effectiveness. Key performance factors, including quality, time to market, and cost are given appropriate attention as is the important issue of continuous improvement and re-
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engineering. ...I recommend Concurrent Engineering Fundamentals to all who are faced with challenges of improving the effectiveness and efficiency of their engineering process.
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David E. Cole, Ph.D.
Director, Transportation Research Institute
Oficefor the Study of Automotive Transportation
The University of Michigan
I
Ann Arbor, Michigan
Concurrent Engineering Fundamentals offers a lot of new information ... new material and focused. Frankly speaking, no book exits in the market to this-CE Fundamentals book.. .. Nanua Singh, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Wayne State University, Detroit, MI
To Pushpa, Rosalie, Gunjan, and Palak, for your patience and support
Trademarks (TM) pro/EngineerTM:Parametric Technology Corp., Waltham, MA. I-DEAS Master seriesTM:SDRC, Milford, OH. CADDS 5TM:ComputervisionCorp., Bedford, MA. Anvil 5 0 0 0 ~M: anufacturing & Consulting Series, Scottsdale, AZ. catiaTMSolutions: Dassault Systems, North Hollywood, CA. unigraphicsTM:EDS Unigraphics,Maryland Heights, MO. HP ~ ~ l ~ o l i d ~ e s Hi ~ewnleett-rP~ac:kard,Ft. Collins, CO. lcADTM: Concentra Corporation, Burlington, MA. I / E M S ~ I:ntergraph Corp., Huntsville, AL.
Acronyms Preface Acknowledgments 1 Concurrent Function Deployment Introduction 1 Components of QFD 2 Limitations in Deploying QFD 10 Concurrent Product Development 13 Concurrent Function Deployment 13 CFD Methodology 17 Applications of CFD 25 Formulation of CFD as an Optimization Problem 29 Horizontal Deployment 32 CFD Tier-based Vertical Deployment 41 Ihplementation Issues 47 References 49 Test Problems: Concurrent Function Deployment 50 2 CE Metrics and Measures 2.0 Introduction 52 2.1 Metrics of Measurements 56
xiii xvi i xxxvii
2.2 Establishing Life-cycle Measures 59 2.3 Value CharacteristicMetrics (VCM) 61 2.4 Simulations and Analyses 65 2.5 Product Feasibility and Quality Assessment 70 2.6 "Design for X-ability" Assessment 77 2.7 Process Quality Assessment 91 2.8 VCM Management 106 References 106 Test Problems: CE Metrics and Measures 108
Contents
3 Total Vallie Management Introduction 111 Total Quality Management 113 Total value management 123 Methodology for TVh4 124 Major Elements of TVM 128 TVh4 in the P~oducDt evelopment Process 130 TVM Measures of Merits 135 Value Management Tools 144 Concurrent Process for TVM 152 TVM Measures 154 References 160 Test Problems: Total Value Management 161
4 Product Development Methodology Introduction 164 IPD Process Invariant 167 Integrated Product Development Process 173 Steps in IPD Methodology 178 Product Requirements Planning and Management 181 Work Structuring and CE Team Deployment 182 Methodology Systemization 183 Product and Process Systemization 187 problem identification and Solving Methodologies 193 Integrated Problem Formulation 194 Collaboration and Cross-functional Problem Solving 198 Continuous Monitoring and Knowledge Upgrade 200 Concurrent IPD Methodology 20 1 References 203 Test Problems: Product Development Methodology 204
Contents 5 Frameworks and Architectures Introduction 207 General Architecture 208 Distributed Computing 221 Work Group Computing 225 Product Information Management (PIM) 23 1 CE Architecture 239 CE Sub-architectures 245 CE Computational Architecture 248 Standards 254 References 258 Test Problems: Frameworks and Architectures 259 6 Capturing Life-cycle Intent 6.0 Introduction 261 6.1 Design Classification 263 6.2 Life-cycle Capture 267 6.3 Language for Life-cycle Capture 275 6.4 Capture Product Models 281 6.5 Creation of Smart or Intelligent Models 285 6.6 Smart or Intelligent Models 301 References 308 Test Problems: Capturing Life-cycle Intent 310 7 Decision Support Systems 7.0 Introduction 313 7.1 Basis of Decision Making 315 7.2 Typical Progressive Models 322 7.3 Intelligent Models 328 7.4 Smart Regenerative System 334 7.5 Life-cycle Values 338 7.6 Total Life-cycle Cost 346 7.7 Compatibility Analysis 350 7.8 Sensitivity Analysis 351 7.9 Life-cycle Ranking or Rating Scheme (LCRS) 351 References 353 Test Problems: Decision Support Systems 355 8 Intelligent Information System 8.0 Introduction 358 8.1 Enabling Elements 364
Major Bamers 367 Vision of the Future 374 Levels of Intelligence 379 Product Intelligence 384 Process Intelligence 385 Technical Memeory 392 Flexible Computer Integrated Manufacturing (FCIM) 396 Groupware 398 References 401 Test Problems: Intelligent Information System 401 9 Life-cycle Mechanization Introduction 405 CE Mechanized Environment 409 Concurrent Product Development (CPD) 414 CE Network Tools and Services 415 IPD Automation Modules (Preprocessing) 419 IPD Automation Modules 423 Library of Parts 427 Synthesis Models 427 Decision Support Tools or Models 429 Knowledge-based Product and Process Models 432 Computer-basedTraining Tools 432 Cost and risk reduction Tools 433 IPD Automation Modules (Post-processing) 433 Unified or Single PPO Concept 440 References 443 Test Problems: Life-cycle Mechanization 444 10 IPD Deployment Methodology 10.0 Introduction 447 10.1 Strategic CE Ideals 447 10.2 Ten Commandments of IPD Deployment 452 10.3 CE Case Histories 472 10.4 Computation of Savings 474 References 478 Test Problems: IPD Deployment Methodology 478 Index
Contents
8Ws AFNOR AMICE ANSI API ATIS BOMs BSI C4 CA CAD CAE CALS CALS CAM
Policy, Practices, and Procedures Fourth Generation language models, Methods, Metrics, and Measures Six Resource Elements (Materials, Manpower, Methods, Management, Money, and Machine)-(Figure 3.8Nolume I) Talents, Tasks, Teams, Techniques, Technology, Time, and Tools (Figure 4.1Nolume I) Collaboration,Commitment, Communications,Compromise, Consensus, Continuous Improvement, and Coordination Eight Waste Components (Figure 3.4Nolume I) French Association for Standardization European CIM Architecture-in reverse American National Standards Institute Application Programming Interface A Tools' Integration Standards Bill-of-materials British Standard Institution CADICAMICAEICIM Computational Architecture Computer-aided design Computer-aided Engineering Computer-aided Acquisition and Logistics Support (old) Computer-aided Acquisition and Life-cycle Support (new) Computer-aided Manufacturing xiii
xiv
Acronyms
CAPP
Computer-aidedProcess Planning
CASA
Computer-aided Society of Manufacturing Engineers
CASE
Computer-aidedProcess Engineering or
Computer-aided Simultaneous Engineering
CEC
Commission of the European Communities
CERA
Concurrent Engineering: Research and Applications
CFD
Concurrent Function Deployment
CFI
CAD Framework Initiative
CIM
Computer-integrated Manufacturing
CIMOSA
Open System Architecture for CIM
COe
Consistent Office environment
CORBA
Common Object Request Broker Architecture
I
CPU
Central Processing Unit
CWCe
Consistent Work group Computing environment
DARPA
Defense Agency for research projects
DBMS
Data Base Management Systems
DDL
Dynamic Data Linking
DECnet
Digital Electronic Computer (DEC) Network
DFM
Design for Manufacturability
DFm
Distributed File management
DICE
DARPA Initiative in Concurrent Engineering
DIN
German Industrial Standards Institute
DNS
Distributed Name Service
E-mail
Electronic-mail
EAL
Engineering Analysis Language
EC ESPRINT European Strategic Program for Research and Development in
Information Technology
ED1
Electronic Data Interchange
ESPRIT
European Strategic planning for Research in Information Technology
EWS
Engineering Workstations
FEA
Finite Element Analysis
FEM
Finite Element Modeling
FMEA
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
GUI
Graphics User Interface
GKS
Graphics Kernel System
ICAM
Integrated Computer-AidedManufacturing
IDL
ICAD Design Language
IEEE
Institute of Electricals and Electronics Engineers
IGES
Initial Graphics Exchange Specification
10s
InputlOutput Sub-systems
IPPO
Integrated Product and Process Organization
IPD
Integrated Product Development
IPPD
Integrated Product and process development
IPR
Interactive Photorealistic Rendering
Acronyms
International Standard Organization
International Standard OrganizationOnitialGraphics Exchange
Specification
ISPE
International Society for Productivity Enhancement
JISC
Japanese Industrial Standards Committee
LAN
Local Area Network
MAP
Manufacturing Automation Protocol
MCAE
Mechanical Computer-aided Engineering
MFLOPS
Million Instructions Per Second
MIS
Mainframe Information System
MRP
Manufacturing Resource Planning
NAS
Network Application Services
NC
Numerical Control
NCS
Network Computing System
NFS
Network File System
NIST
National Institute of Standards and Technology
NURBS
Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines
OSF
Open System Foundation
OSI/MAP
Open System InstituteManufacturing Automation Protocol
PC
Personal Computer
PD~
Product, Design, Development and Delivery
PDES
Product Data Exchange using STEP
PDES/Express A Language developed using PDES
PDMS
Product Database Management System
PHIGS
Programmers' Hierarchical Interactive Graphic Standard
PIM
Product Information Management
PPO
Product, Process, and Organization
PsBS
Process Breakdown Structure
PtBS
Product Breakdown Structure
QC QFD RDBMS
Quality Control Quality Function Deployment Relational Data Base Management System
RISC
Reduced Instruction Set Computing
RPC
Remote Procedure Call
SARA
Systems Automation: Research and Applications
SBU
Strategic Business Unit
SLA
Stereolithography Apparatus
SME
Society of Manufacturing Engineers
SNA
Systems Network Architecture
SPEC
System Performance Evaluation Cooperative
SQL
Structured Query Language
SSD
Secondary Storage Device
STEP
- Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data
TaskBroker (HP) TaskBroker program
xvi TCP/IP TQM TVM UI v-c WAN WBS WC
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Total Quality Management Total Values Management User Interface Video-conferenceing Wide Area Network Work Breakdown Structure Work-group Computing
Acronyms
As the name implies, the book describes the fundamentals of Concurrent Engineering (CE) and explains the basic principles on which this very subject is founded. Most of the material in this book is either original ideas or their extension to CE. Most is never reported elsewhere and is based on the author's successes while practicing CE on the job. They encompass decades of his research and learning while working with electronic, automotive, aerospace, computer, and railroad industries including Ford, General Motors, Electronic Data Systems, Association of American Railroads, NASA, and numerous other places. Concurrent Engineering approach to product design and development has two major themes. The first theme is establishing an integratedproduct and process organization (PPO). This is referred herein as process taxonomy. The second theme is applying this process taxonomy (or a set of methodologies) to design and develop a total product system. This is referred to as integrated product development (IPD). Each theme is divided into several essential parts forming major chapters of this book. The first volume called product and process organization (PPO)had nine chapters. The second volume sub-titled integrated product development has ten chapters. The materials in these two volumes have been brought together to balance the interests of both the customers and the companies. The contents of "Volume I" were Manufacturing competitiveness, Life-cycle Management: Process Re-engineering, Concurrent Engineering Techniques, Cooperative Work groups, System Engineering, Information Modeling, The Whole System, and Product Realization Taxonomy. The contents of "Volume 11" are Concurrent Function Deployment, CE Metrics and Measures, Total Value Management, Product Development Methodology, Frameworks and Architectures, Capturing Life-Cycle Values, Decision Support Systems, Intelligent Information System, Life-Cycle Mechanization, and IPD Deployment Methodology. xvii
xviii
Preface
In Concurrent Engineering (CE) system, each modification of the product represents a taxonomical relationship between specifications (inputs,requirements, and constraints),outputs, and the concept it (the modification) represents. At the beginning of the design process, the specificationsare generallyin abstractforms. As more and more of the specificationsare satisfied, the product begins to take shape-begins to evolve into a physical form. To illustrate how a full CE system will work, and to show the inner-working of its elements, author defines this CE system as a set of two synchronized wheels. The representationis analogous to a set of synchronized wheels of a bicycle. Figure P1 shows this CE wheel set:
CONCURRENT ENGINEERING WHEELS The first CE wheel represents the integrated product and process organization (PPO). The second CE wheel accomplishes the integrated product development (IPD).The two wheels together harmonize the interests of the customers and the CE organization (also frequently referred as an enterprise). The contents of first wheel were described in volume I and contents of second wheel are described in volume I1 of the CEfundamental books. Three concentric rings represent the three essential elements of a wheel. The innermost ring of the wheels constitutes the hubs of the wheels. A hub represents four supporting "M" elements: models, methods, metrics and measures. The chapters from the two volumes that contribute to " M elements are contained in the following table.
Innermost Ring (Hub) Models Methods Metrics & Measures
Volume I-PPO
-
-
Information Modeling (Chap. 7)
Product Realization Taxonomy (Chap. 9)
-
Volume 11-IPD IPD Deployment Methodology (Chap. 10) CE Metrics and Measures (Chap. 2)
Life-cycle mechanization and IPD deployment methodology constitute the middle ring of the IPD wheel. The two are discussed in Chapters 9 and 10 of volume 11, respectively. Each sector in the outer ring represents a chapter of this book. The sectors for the first wheel are discussed in volume I. Volume I explains how the CE design process (called herein CE process taxonomy) provides a stable, repeatable process through which increased accuracy is achieved. The sectors of the second wheel are discussed in volume 11. Volume I1 explains how a product can be designed, developed and delivered using a process-based taxonomy of volume I. A separate chapter in the books is dedicated to discussing each part of the two CE wheels.
First CE Wheel: Integrated Product and Process Organization The innermost ring of the first CE wheel is a hub. The layout of hub is the same for both wheels. The hub represents four supporting "M" elements: models, methods, metrics and measures. Models refer to information modeling. Methods refer to product realization
Preface
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taxonomy. They are discussed in Chapters 7 and 9 of volume I, respectively. CE Metrics and Measures are discussed in Chapter 2 of volume 11. The middle ring represents the CE work groups, which drives the customer and the enterprise like how a human drives a bike. The work groups are divided into four quadrants representing the four so called CE teams. These teams are: personnel team, technology team, logical team and the virtual team. They are discussed in Chapter 5 of volume I. The outer ring for each wheel is divided into eight parts. Volume I starts with an introductory chapter on manufacturing competitivenessreviewing the history and emerging trends. The remaining chapters of the book (volume I) describe CE design techniques, explain how concurrent design process can create a competitive advantage, describe CE process taxonomy, and address a number of major issues related to product and process organization. The complexity of the product design, development, and delivery (pD3) process differs depending upon the
1. Types of information and sources 2. Complexity of tasks 3. Degree of their incompleteness or ambiguity
Other dimensions encountered during this pD3 process that cannot be easily accommodated using traditional process (such as serial engineering) are:
4. Timing of decision making 5. Order of decision making 6. Communication mechanism
The elements of the first CE wheel define a set of systems and processes that have the ability to handle all of the above six dimensions. In the following some salient points of the volume I chapters are briefly highlighted:
Manufacturing Competitiveness: Price of the product is dictated by world economy and not by one's own economy or a company's market edge alone. Those companies that can quickly change to world changing market place can position themselves to complete globally. This chapter outlines what is required to become a market leader and compete globally. Successful companies have been the ones who have gained a better focus on eliminating waste, normally sneaked into their products, by understanding what drives product and process costs and, how can value be added. They have focused on product and process delivery-system-how to transform process innovations into technical success and how to leverage the implementation know-how into big commercial success. Many have chosen to emphasize high-quality flexible or agile production in product delivery rather than highvolume (mass) production. Life-cycle Management: Today, most companies are under extreme pressure to develop products within time periods that are rapidly shrinking. As the market changes so do the requirements. This has chilling effect in managing the complexity of such continuously varying product specifications and handling the changes
Integrated Product Development (7PD)Wheel FIGURE P I A synchronizedset of CE Wheels
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within this shrinking time period. The ongoing success of an organization lies in its ability to: continue to evolve; quickly react to changing requirements; reinvent itself on a regular basis; and keep up with ever changing technology and innovation. Many companies are stepping up the pace of new product introduction, and are constantly learning new ways of engineering products more correctly the first time, and more often thereafter. This chapter outlines life-cycle management techniques, such as change management, and process improvement to remain globally competitive. Process Reengineering: The global marketplace of 1990s has shown no sympathy to tradition. The reality is that if the products manufactured do not meet the market needs, demand declines and profits dwindle. Many companies are finding that true increase in productivity and efficiency begins with such factors as clean and efficient process, good communication infrastructure, teamwork, a constancy of shared vision and purpose. The challenge is simply not to crank up the speed of the machines so that it outputs (per unit of time) are increased or doubled, but to change the basic machinery or process that produces the outputs. To accomplish the latter goals, this chapter describes several techniques to achieve competitive superiority such as benchmarking, CPI, organizational restructuring, renovation, process reengineering, etc. CE Techniques: The changing market conditions and international competitiveness are making the time-to-market a fast shrinking target. Over the same period, diversity and complexity of the products have increased multi-folds. Concurrency is the major force of Concurrent Engineering. Paralleling describes a "time overlap" of one or more work groups, activities, tasks, etc. This chapter describes seven CE principles to aim at: Parallel work-group; Parallel Product Decomposition; Concurrent Resource Scheduling; Concurrent Processing; Minimize Interfaces; Transparent Communication; and Quick Processing; This chapter also describes the seven forces that influence the domain of CE (called here as enabling agents or 7Ts) namely: talents, tasks, teams, techniques, technology, time and tools. Cooperative Work Groups: It has been the challenge for the design and manufacturing engineers to work together as teams to improve quality while reducing costs, weight, and lead-time. A single person, or a team of persons, is not enough to provide all the links between: human knowledge and skills; logical organization; technology; and a set of 7Cs coordination features. A number of supporting teams is required, some either virtual or at least virtually collocated. For the waltz of CE synthesis to succeed, CE teams need clear choreography. This chapter describes for the first time the four collaborative teams that are essential for managing a CE organization. Examples of collaborative features include capabilities of electronic meeting such as message-posting and interactions through voice, text, graphics and pictures. System Engineering: Most groups diligently work to optimize their subsystems, but due to lack of incentives they tend to work independently of each other. This results in a product, which is often suboptimized at each decomposed level. System engineering requires that product realization problem is viewed as a "system-centered"
xxii
Preface
problem as opposed to "component-centered." Systems Engineering does not disagree with the idea of compartments or divisions of works, but it emphasizes that the interface requirements between the divisions (inter-divisional) and across the levels should be adequately covered. That way, when the time comes to modernize other components of the system, an enterprise has the assurance that previously introduced technologies and processes will work logically in a fully integrated fashion, thereby increasing the net efficiency and profitability. Information Modeling: A successful integrated product development (IPD) requires a sufficient understanding of the product and process behaviors. One way to achieve this understanding is to use a series of reliable information models {or planning, designing, optimizing and controlling each unit of an IPD process. The demands go beyond the 3-D CAD geometric modeling. The demands require schemes that can model all phases of a product's life-cycle from cradle to grave. The different aspects of product design (planning, feasibility, design, process-planning), process design (process-execution,production, manufacturing,product support), the human behavior in teamwork, and the organization or environment in which it will operate, all have to be taken into account. Five major classes of modeling schemata are discussed in this chapter. They are: 1. Product representation schemes and tools for capturing and describing the product development process and design of various interfaces, such as designmanufacturing interface 2. Schemes for modeling physical processes, including simulation, as well as models useful for product assessments, such as DFAfDFX, manufacturability evaluation of in-progress designs 3. Schemes for capturing (product, process, and organization structure) requirements or characteristics for setting strategic and business goals 4. Schemes to model enterprise activities (data and work flow) in order to determine what types of functions best fit the desired profitability, responsiveness, quality and productivity goals 5. Schemes to model team behavior, because most effective manufacturing environments involve a carefully orchestrated interplay between teams and machines. The Whole System: Often while designing an artifact, work groups forget that the product is a system. It consists of a number of subassemblies,each fulfilling a different but distinct function. A product is far more than the collection of components. Without a structure or some "constancy-of-purpose" there is no system. The central differencebetween a CE transformationsystem and any other manufacturingsystem, such as serial engineering, is the manner in which the tasks' distribution is stated and requirements are accomplished.In a CE transformation system, the purpose of every process step of a manufacturing system is not just to achieve a transformation but to accomplish this in an optimal and concurrent way. This chapter proposes a systembased taxonomy, which is founded on parallel scheduling of tasks. This chapter also proposes a set of breakdown structuresfor product,process and work to realize a drastic reduction in time and cost in product and process realizations.
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Product Realization Taxonomy: This constitutes a "state of series of evolution or transformation" leading to a complete design maturity. Product Realization Taxonomy involves items related to design incompleteness, product development practices, readiness feasibility, and assessing goodness. In addition, CE requires these taxonomies to have a unified "product realization base." The enterprise integration metrics of the CE model should be well characterized and the modeling methodologies andor associated ontology for developing them should be adequate for describing and integrating enterphse functions. The methodologies should have built-in product and service accelerators. Taxonomy comprises of the product, process descriptions, classification techniques, information concepts, representation, and transformation tasks (inputs, requirements, constraints and outputs). Specifications, describing the transformation model for product realization. They are included as part of the taxonomy descriptions.
Second CE Wheel: Integrated Product Development The second CE wheel defines the integrated product development (IPD). This is discussed in this book (Volume 11). IPD in this context does not imply a step-by-step serial process. Indeed, the beauty of h i s IPD wheel is that it offers a framework for a concurrent P D ~ process. A framework within which, a CE team has flexibility to move about, fitting together bits of the jigsaw as they come together. A CE team has an opportunity to apply a variety of techniques contained in this volume (such as: Concurrent Function Deployment, Total Value Management, Metrics and Measures, etc.) And through their use, teams could avail the opportunity to achieve steady overall progress towards a finished product. Concurrent Function Deployment: The role of the organization and engineers is changing today, as is the method of doing business. Competition has driven organization to consider concepts such as time compression (fast-to-market), Concurrent Engineering, Design for X-ability, and Tools and Technology (such as Taguchi, Value Engineering) while designing and developing an artifact. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) addresses major aspects of "quality" with reference to the functions it performs but this is one of the many functions that need to be deployed. With conventional deployment, it is difficult, however, to address all aspects of Total Values Management (TVM) such as X-ability, Cost, Tools and Technology, Responsiveness and Organization issues. It is not enough to deploy just the "Quality" into the product and expect the outcome to be the World Class. TVM efforts are vital in maintaining a competitive edge in today's world marketplace. CE Merits and Measures: Metrics are the basis of monitoring and measuring process improvement methodology and managing their effectiveness. Metric information assists in monitoring team progress, measuring quality of products produced, managing the effectiveness of the improved process, and providing related feedback. Individual assurances of DFX specifications (one at a time) do not capture the most important aspect of Concurrent Engineering-the system perspec-
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tives, or the trade-off across the different DFX principles. While satisfying these DFX principles in this isolated manner, only those which are not in conflict are usually met. Concurrent engineering views the design and evaluates the artifact as a system, which has a wider impact than just suboptimizing the subsystems within each domain. Total Value Management: The most acclaimed slogan for introducing a quality program in early corporate days simply was to provide the most value for the lowest cost. This changed as the competitivenessbecame more fierce. For example, during the introduction of traditional TQM program in 1990 "getting a quality product to market for a fair price" was the name of the game. The new paradigm for CE now is total value management (TVM). TVM mission is "to provide the total value for the lowest cost in the least amount of time, which satisfies the customers the most and lets the company make a fair profit." Here use of value is not just limited to quality. To provide long lasting added value, companies must change their philosophy towards things like x-ability, responsivepess, functiot~ality,tools and technology, cost, architecture, etc. Product Development Methodology: A systematic methodology is essential in order to be able to integrate: 1. Teamwork 2. Information modeling 3. Product realization taxonomy 4. Measures of merits (called CE metrics), and quantitatively assess the effective- ness of the transformation. This may involve identification of performance metrics for measuring the product and process behaviors. Integrated product development methodology is geared to take advantage of the product realization taxonomy. Frameworks & Architectures: In order to adequately support the CE and the 4Ms (namely: modeling, methods, metrics and measurements), it is necessary to have a flexible architecture. An architecture that is openly accessible across different CE teams, Information Systems, platforms, and networks. Architecture consists of information contents, integrated data structures, knowledge bases, behavior and rules. An architecture not only provides an information base for easy storage, retrieval, and tracking version control, but can also be accessed by different users simultaneously, under ramp-up scheduling of parallel tasks, and in synchronization.We also need a product management system containing work HOW management capabilities integrated with the database. This is essential because in CE there exists a large degree of flexibility for parallelism that must be carefully managed in conjunction with other routine file and data management tasks. Capturing Life-cycle Intent: Most CADICAM tools are not really capture tools. In static representation of CAD geometry, configuration changes cannot be handled easily, particularly when parts and dimensions are linked. This has resulted in loss of configuration control, proliferation of changes to fix the errors caused by other changes, and sometimes ambiguous designs. By capturing "design intent" as opposed to "static geometry," configuration changes could be made and
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controlled more effectively using the power of language constructs than through traditional CAD attributes (such as lines and surfaces). The power of a "capture" tool comes from the methods used in capturing the "design intent" initially so that the required changes can be made easily and quickly if needed. "Life-cycle capture" refers to the definition of the physical object and its environment in some generic form. "Life-cycle intent" means representing the life-cycle capture in a form, which can be modified and iterated until all the life-cycle specifications for the product are fully satisfied. * Decision Support System: In CE, cooperation is required between CE teams, man- agement, suppliers, and customers. A knowledge based support system will help the participating teams in decision making and to reflect balanced views. Tradeoffs between conflicting requirements can be made on the basis of information obtained from sensitivity, multi-criterion objectives, simulation, or feedback. The taxonomy can be made a part of decision support system (DSS) in supporting decisions about product decomposition. By keeping track of what specifications are satisfied, teams can ensure common visibility in the state of product realization, including dispatching and monitoring of tasks, structure, corporate design histories, etc. * Intelligent Information System (11s): Another major goal of CE is to handle infor- mation intelligently in multi-media-audio, video, text, graphics. Since IIS equals CIM plus CE, with IIS, many relevant CE demands can be addressed and quickly processed. Examples include: 1. Over local or wide area networks, such as SQL, which connects remote, multiple databases and multimedia repositories 2. Any needed information, such as recorded product designers' design notes, figures, decisions, etc. They can be made available on demand at the right place at the right time 3. Any team can retrieve information in the right format and distribute it promptly to other members of the CE teams. 0 Life-cycle Mechanization: Life-cycle mechanization equals CIM + Automation + CE. Life-cycle mechanization is arranged under a familiar acronym: CAE, for CIM, -Automation, and CE. Since CAE also equals IIS plus automation, the major benefits of mechanization in CAE come from removing or breaking barriers. The three common barriers are: a. Integration (this is a term taken from CIM) b. Automation c. Cooperation (which is a term taken from CE). 0 CE provides the decision support element, and CIM provides the framework & architecture plus the information management elements. Life-cycle Mechanization refers to the automation of life-cycle functions or creation of computerized modules that are built from one another and share the information from one another. This includes integration and seamless transfer of data between commercial computerbased engineering tools and product-specific in-house applications. This tends to reduce the dependency of many CE teams on communication links and product realization strategies, such as decomposition and concatenation.
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IPD Deployment Methodology: The purpose of this chapter is to offer an implementation guideline for product redesign and development through its life-cycle functions. IPD implementation is a multi-track methodology. The tracks overlap, but still provide a structured approach to organizing product ideas and measures for concurrently performing the associated tasks. Concurrency is built in a number of ways (similar to what was discussed in volume I), depending upon the complexity of the process or the system involved. This chapter proposes a set of "Ten Commandments," that serves to guide the product and process iterative aspects of IPD rather than just the work group collaborative aspects required during the development cycle. The CE teamwork in the center of the wheel ensures that both local or zonal iterative refinements and collaborative refinements take place during each concurrent track.
A SYNCHRONIZED WHEEL-SET FOR CE All the above nineteen parts of CE put together creates a synchronized wheel-set for CE, as shown in Figure P1. The teamwork, with four cooperating components (technological teams, logical teams, virtual teams, and personnel teams), is in the middle ring. The 4Ms (models, metrics, measurements and methodology) form the center of this wheel. The center ring has four parts to it: Information Madeling; Product Realization Taxonomy; Measures of Merit and IPD deployment methodology. The 4Ms are shown in the center because it provides the methodology for guiding the product realization process. The two inner rings, which are same for both wheels, makes the wheels a synchronized set. The teams in the middle ring are the driving force of the methodology (4Ms listed in the center) and controller of the technologies (listed as sectors on the suter ring). The emphasis of a team-centered wheelfor CE is a departure from a conventionalfunction-centered approach. Outer rings of each wheel contain the remaining parts of an integrated product and process organization-PPO (volume I) and integrated product development-IPD (Volume 11),respectively. The idea of this middle ring is to provide a team-centered 7Cs (Collaboration, Commitment, Communications, Compromise, Consensus, Continuous Improvement, and Coordination) interplay across layers of enabling technologies and methodologies. Everything is geared towards cutting and compressing the time needed to design, analyze, and manufacture marketable products. Along the way, costs are also reduced, product quality is improved and customer satisfaction is enhanced due to the synchronized process. There is, however, a finite window in which the benefits of time compression and cost cutting are available. As more manufacturers reduce lead time, what once represented a competitive advantage can become a weakening source. Fortunately, the CE wheel provides a continuum (dynamic) base through which new paradigms (process, tools, technology and 7Ts) can be launched to remain globally competitive for a long haul. Before we take a closer look at the different parts of this wheel as different chapters of this book, it is important to note that all the parts of the wheel-set are not of the same kind. They emphasize different aspects of CE. The four major aspects are (see Figure P2):
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Asped FIGURE P2 Four Aspects of CE *'Philosophical aspect *'Methodological aspect *'Conceptual aspect 0' Virtual aspect *'Philosophical Aspect: Personnel CE team governs the philosophical aspects of CE. Philosophical aspect deals with the boundaries of the responsibility and the authority, culture, empowerment. It also includes team's make-up, program organization, supplier rationalization, management styles or philosophies, change management, workplace organization and visual control, physical proximity (collocation), management and reporting structure, etc. The chapters on Cooperative Teamwork and Life-cycleManagement emphasize more of this aspect than others. *'Methodological Aspect: This aspect of CE is governed by technology team. Methodological aspect deals with system thinking, approaches to system complexity, system integration, transformation model of the manufacturing system. It also deals with CE enterprise system taxonomy, integrated product and process development, transformation system for product realization, pull system for product realiza-
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tion, track and loop methodology, etc. The chapters on Systems Engineering, The Whole System and Product Realization Taxonomy emphasize more of this aspect than others. Conceptual Aspect: Logical CE team governs the co?ceptual aspect of CE. Conceptual aspect mostly deals with the major principles of CE, concurrency and simultaneity, modes of concurrency, modes of cooperation. It also deals with understanding and managing change, reengineering approaches, work flow mapping, information flow charting, process improvement methodology, etc. The chapters on CE Definitions and Process Re-engineering emphasize more of this aspect than others. Virtual Aspect: This aspect of CE is governed by a virtual CE team. Virtual aspect mostly deals with capturing life-cycle intent, information modeling, electronic capture of CE invariants. These CE invariants deal with product model class, process model class, specification model class, cognitive model class, communication through virtual proximity, agile virtual company, artifact intent definitions, etc. The chapters on Information Modeling and Life-cycle Mechanization emphasize more of this aspect than others.
MAJOR FEATURES OF THIS BOOK Whether you are a firm CE believer, or this is your first introduction to CE, this two volume (book) set provides a full view of CE from all of the above aspects and perspectives. The management perspective, which is a part of philosophical aspect, relates to organization and culture. Complete with a historical review and context, the author articulates these CE aspects by illustrating the differences between the best methodologies (or the best taxonomies) and what are being practiced in industries today. Some examples of topics included in this volume are: What is required to control one's own process-identifying and satisfying the needs and expectations of consumers better than the competitions and doing so profitably faster than any competitor.. You will understand why QFD is not enough for IPD. How to consider deployment of competing values simultaneously. You will discover why TQM is not enough to gain competitive edge in the global marketplace. Why is it not enough to deploy "Quality" into the product and expect the outcome to be a world-class? How to incorporate "Voice of the Customers" into all necessary tracks of the product development cycle. Why individual assurances of DFX specifications (one at a time) do not capture the most important aspect of Concurrent Engineering-the system perspective. How to build a product that optimizes a number of value objectives intrinsically, not just on the basis of Quality. A set of twenty-five metrics and measures for concurrent engineering.
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Three-layer structure for a CE logical framework to provide a flexible application development environment.
Integrated Product Development (volume 11) deals with methodology-applying the process taxonomy for CE. Methodology (development and deployment) is necessary to adequately classify, integrate and automate core functions of a complex enterprise in a P D ~ process. The innermost core of this deployment methodology is its foundation, which has four supporting M elements: models, methods, metrics and measures as mentioned earlier. The Table P1 summarizes the major features of this second volume.
TABLE P I Major Features of Volume II of the CE Fundamentals Book
Features of Volume I1
How do these features benefit readers?
What chapters or sections of the book contain these features or examples of them?
a This is the first CE book that emphasized all aspects of Total Values Management (TVM) such as X-ability, cost, tools and technology, responsiveness and organization issues. What is required is a total control of one's process-identifying and satisfying the needs and expectations of consumers better than the competitions and doing so profitably faster than any competitor. b In this volume, author has expanded the original definition of QFD, discussed in Volume I, to include parallel deployments. This provides a method to consider the deployment of competing values simultaneously. This volume calls this approach as Concurrent Function Deployment (CFD). c This is the first time this CE book points out that the deployment of many artifact functions (values) can proceed in parallel with what we know today as quality function deployment (QFD) or quality FD. CFD enforces the notion of concurrency and deploys simultaneously a number of competing artifact values, not just the "Quality asfound in QFD."
It is not enough to deploy Quality into the product and expect the outcome to be a world-class. The competitors are always finding better and faster ways of doing things. Catching up in quality only makes a company at par with its competitors in terms of inheriting some of their product quality characteristics but relatively speaking it gets you there a few years later. The intent of CFD is to incorporate "Voice of the Customers" into all nine phases of the product development cycle, and finally into continuous improvement, support and delivery (see Figure 4.2, volume I) phases. CFD breaks the multi-year QFD ordeal by allowing work-groups to work concurrently on a number of conflicting values and compare their notes at common check points. CFD is a simple and powerful tool that leads to long range thinking and better communication across several value functions. Examples are: X-ability (performance), tools and technology, cost, responsiveness and infrastructure.
Chapters 1 and 3 (see Figures 1.4.3.1, and 3.5) Chapter 1 (Section 1.4, see Figures 1.1 through 1.4) Chapter 1 (see Figures 1.4 through 1.9, Section 1.5) (continued)
TABLE PI (continued) Features of Volume II
How do these features benefit readers?
-
--
What chapters or
sections of the book
contain these features
or examples of them?
d No book has yet been published encompassing concurrentfunction deployment, CE metrics and measures, total value management, product development methodology, frameworks and architectures, capturing life-cycle intent, decision support systems, intelligent information system, life-cycle mechanization, deployment methodology and integration issues all described within a unified IPD (integrated product development) theme. e This book, for the first time, identifies twenty-five CE metrics and measures. Metrics and measures are categorized into f o u ~ groups: simulations and analysis, product feasibility and quality assessment, design for X-ability assessment, and process quality assessment. They are arranged in four file drawers of a file cabinet. f For the first time, this book proposes Total Value Management (TVM) as a concept to replace Total Quality Management (TQM). The six major recognized objectives of TVM are: Quality (function-wise), X-ability (performance-wise), Cost (profitwise), Tools and Technology (innovation-wise), Responsiveness (time-wise) and Infrastructure (business-wise). g The book introduces for the first time a concuirent process of quality engineering (QE) -wherein Quality begins with concurrent product and process design running in parallel with an off-line quality control. Inspection oriented QC methods are shown replaced by online quality control (QC) or quality process control (QPC) methods. h This book for the first time introduces Process invariants as
It allows the readers to consider a wider view meaning "integrating over the enterprise" while implementing CE. This eliminates the common problem of blindly automating tasks-meaning repeating the same mistakes but doing it more often and more quickly. Individual assurances of DFX specifications (one at a time) do not capture the most important aspect of Concurrent Engineering-the system perspective or the trade-off across the different DFX principles. Product Development Teams (PDTs) can draw upon these metrics and measures to influence an enterprise P D p~rocess. It allows the PDT groups to build a product that optimizes these six value objectives intrinsically, not just on the basis of Quality. How effectively, efficiently, and quickly the work-groups are able to succeed in this endeavor depends upon many factors that need to be considered. TVM is meant to provide a winning path to increase global market share and profitability. The design-oriented QC methods, shown as being part of the product design step, provide an important defect prevention mechanism. Quality circles or work-groups can establish a QE methodology following this concurrent approach. The invariants provide a common ground for the work-groups to
Chapters 1 through 10. Chapter 2 (see Figures 2.6 through 2.8). Chapter 3 (Section 3.1, see Figures 3.5 through 3.6). Quality in the aforementioned sense plays only a minor role in fostering a total optimized product from a worldclass perspective. Chapter 3 (many of these methods are shown in Figures 3.3 and 3.4) Chapter 4 (see Figures 4.2 and 4.3). The basic structure of model
XXX
TABLE P i (continued) Features of Volume II
How do these features benefit readers?
What chapters or sections of the book contain these features or examples of them?
key contributors of an IPD realization process that are constant or stationary (always present) in the process dimension of IPD. The process invariants are vertical cross sections of the IPD realization process. Model invariants are horizontal cross sections of IPD realization process. i The book for the first time views the IPD methodology as consisting of eight parts called IPD building blocks. The first four blocks provide a conceptual framework for understanding the IPD challenges and opportunities. The last four parts provide the building blocks for an analytical framework for decision making and improvements. j The book introduces a three-layer structure for a CE logical framework to provide a flexible application development environment. The lowest layer is the computing platform. The second-layer-intelligent interface-provides the primary programming interface to application developers. The top layer consists of end-user applications communicating among themselves (horizontally) and to the intelligent interface (vertically). k Benefits of life-cycle capture stem from a few basic CE principles. The book describes the three lifecycle capture languages on which life-cycle capture is founded. Languages are means of capturing the knowledge for the design and development of a product. These language-based systems use the intent-driven techniques to generically capture product lifecycle values. Such developments are dynamic in nature when it comes down to managing changes.
represent enterprise or businessdriven, product-driven, and process-driven works, activities, features, functions and decisions. The process and model invariants are linked by taxonomic relationships. The purpose of this IPD methodology is to improve the performance characteristics of the product or process relative to customer needs and expectations. It builds the theory of knowledge through systematic revision and extension of the paradigms introduced in previous Chapters. When work-groups integrates the computing platforms with intelligent interface over the applicable standards, this results in a long life of the end-user applications developed on the top layer. The architecture shields enduser applications from possible downstream changes. Models are the results of such knowledge capture. They are suited for altering a part geometry, say using variable dimensions, or capturing its engineering design intent. The primary goal of a knowledge-capture formalism is to provide a means of defining ontology. An ontology is a set of basic attributes and relations comprising the vocabulary of the product realization domain as well as rules for combining the attributes and relations.
invariants and their interactions are shown in Figure 7.11 of volume I. Chapter 4 (see Figures 4.7 through 4.9) Figure 5.24 shows a logical view of this CE sub-architecture, which forms the basis for the flexible CE environment described in this book. Chapter 5 (see Figure 5.24) In the present form, most C4 (CADICAMICAEICIM) systems are mainly suitable for analyzing a problem or for capturing an explicit, static geometric representation of an existing part. Chapter 6 (see section 6.3) (continued) xxxi
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TABLE P l (continued)
Features of Volume I1
How do these features benefit readers?
1 The types of decisions that engineers make today to solve design problems are bounded by a spectrum with cognitive aspect at one end and progressive aspect at the other end. The book for the first time describes two types of cognitive models and seven types of progressive models. m The book for the first time describes how CIM plus CE equals US. Today, CIM systems are merely being applied to integration and processing (storage and automation) of data, communication, and processes (common systems and standards). n The book for the first time describes the 8 enabling elements of Intelligent Information System (US) applicable to product development. o The book for the first time describes thirteen barriers that inhibit work groups regain full potential of manufacturing competitiveness. p This book for the first time describes a network of 12 modules, which form the infrastructure for life-cycle mechanization process. Five modules belongs to C M , four relates to automation; and three deals in C E topics. q The book explains that the concurrent movement of 1990s is not just a "bunch" of concurrent programs. It is the realization that certain fundamental ideals need to be enforced during an IPD deployment. These ideals can have a profound impact on the long-term success of a business or for
The work group can use these aspects to choose possible design models during decision making. Progressive models can be used to calculate, analyze or to evaluate design alternatives, or to come up with a new or revised product. Intelligent handling of information through computer techniques can yield a better CIM system since it can monitor and correct problems. IIS reduces the need for frequent manual intervention. CE brings forth three missing links of CIM. The effective implementation of product development process control strategies can be facilitated by a systematic collection and monitoring of relevant enabling elements of IIS. The key to the successes of IIS is understanding the obstacles and barriers to unifying CE with existing CIM processes and identifying new opportunities for improvement. The criteria of mechanization are global in nature (such as 7Ts, 4Ms, and 3Ps) with the overall company goal of making maximum profits and great product. A common implementation mistake committed by a concurrent workgroup is to confuse a CE program with a CE Ideal. CE programs are the vehicles for implementing the ideals in an organization.
What chapters or sections of the book contain these features o r examples of them? Chapter 7 (see Figures 7.2 and 7.3) Chapter 8 (see Figure 8.2). Chapter 8 (see sectlon 8.1, Figure 8.3) Chapter 8 (see section 8.2, Figures 8.4 through 8.7) Chapter 9 (Figure 9.4) Chapter 10 (see Table 10.1).
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TABLE P I (continued) Features of Volume II ensuring manufacturing competitiveness. r The book offers a set of ten implementation guidelines for product redesign and development through its life-cycle functions. This "Ten Commandments" serves to guide the product and process iterative aspects of IPD rather than just the work-group collaborative aspects of a P D c~ycle. - ---- BEST PRACTICES
How do these features benefit readers?
What chapters or sections of the book contain these features or examples of them?
Deployment consists of a number of activity-plans arranged in increasing order of enrichment. The activity-plans overlap, and provide a structured approach to organizing product ideas and measures for concurrently performing the associated tasks.
Chapter 10 (IPD deployment is a multi-plan methodology as shown in Figure 10.1)
Sixty-six senior mangers from 33 progressive companies were surveyed in a NSF study to validate the importance of 56 "best practices" (see Table P3) for both new BS mechanical engineering (ME) graduates and for experienced MEs. The results indicated that [ASME/NSF, 19961 53 of the identified 56 identified "best practices" are in use in more than two-thirds of the companies surveyed. "Concurrent Engineering" practice received the highest number of votes for all the three questions in the "Knowledge of P R P category. The three questions that were asked are listed in Table P2.
TABLE P2 Product Realization Process Survey Results (66 Industry Respondentsfrom 33 Industries)<
Question Number #1 #2 #3
What was the question posed? - Are the following (56) PRP "Best Practices" currently used in your business unit? How important is it for experienced mechanical engineers (5+ years) to have a working knowledge of the following (56) best practices? How important is it for entry level mechanical engineers (new BS Graduate) to have a working knowledge of the following (56) Best Practices?
Respondents, who answered Concurrent Engineering (CE) as their answer. 88% 91% 74%
Ranking based on what respondents Judged (compared to answers in "Knowledge of PRP" best practice category) Highest "YES" answers Highest number judged CE-very important Highest number judged CE-very important
1 ASMENSF, 1996,Integrating the Product Realization Process (PRP)into the Undergraduate Curriculum,New York: ASME Council of Education, NSF Grant # 9354772, New York.
TABLE P3 Ranking of Best Practices for New BS Graduates and Experienced ME'S by 66 Industrial Respondents
Serial Number from ASMEINSF PRP Report
Elements of the PRP "Best Practice" identified by ASMEINSF [I9961 study'
SectiodChapterI Volume where material is covered or described
Serial Number from ASMEINSF PRP Report
Elements of the PRP "E!est Practice" identified by ASMEINSF [I9961 study'
Design for SewiceRepair
Communication
Product Testing
SectiodChapterI Volume where material is covered or described 2.6.6l; 2.6.lGl l l ; 7.9l
Design for Manufacture
Process ImprovementsTools
CAD systems professional ethics
Tools for "Customer Centered design Information Processing
Creative Thinking Design for Performance Design for Reliability Design for Safety Concurrent Engineering
Leadership Statistical Process Control Test Equipment Industrial Design Design for Cornmonality- Platform
Design for Cost Application of Statistics Reliability Geometric Tolerancing Value Engineering Design Reviews Manufacturing Processes Systems Perspective Design for Assembly Design of Experiments Project Management Tools Design for Environment Solid ModelingIRapid Prototyping Systems Design for Ergonomics (human factors) Finite Element Analysis Physical Testing Total Quality Management
Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) Design Standards Mechatronics Testing Standards Electro-mechanical Packaging Conflict Management Robotics and Automated Assembly Knowledge of the Product Realization Process Design for Dis-assembly Budgeting Project Risk Analysis Competitive Analysis Process Standards Manufacturing Flow~Workcell Layout Bench Marking Corporate Vision and Product Fit Materials Planning-Inventory Business Functions (Mktg., Legal, etc.)
ASMENSF, 1996,Integrating the Product Realization Process (PRP)into the Undergraduate Curriculum,New York: ASME Council of Education, NSF Grant # 9354772, New York.
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The two volumes together contains 50 of those 56 best practices that were initially proposed for the new BS graduates and experienced ME'S [ASMENSF, 19961. The primary sections or chapters, where those best practices are discussed in this book, are listed in Table P3.
TEST PROBLEMS
At the end of each chapter, test problems are included. The instructor may choose a set of
problems (ten or less) that he or she has covered in the class for that week from each
chapter. Most test problems are based on the materials covered in the chapter itself. Some
are based on materials covered in the earlier chapters thus stretching the student's grasp
and understanding of the subject matters covered so far. Only a few test problems require
'
stretching the students' imagination beyond what is discussed in this book. A rich reference section is provided for professors to reinforce the materials beyond what is discussed
therein. The generous use of self-explanatory illustrations and bullets makes this book an
easy and pleasant reading for everyone. Illustrations provide a quick visual grasp of the
materials without the use of long and wordy sentences and paragraphs.
Biren Prasad Electronic Data Systems General Motors Account P.0.Box 250254, W.Bloomfield, MI 48325, USA Email:
Over the last several years, having associated with Concurrent Engineering: Research and Applications (CERA) Journal as a founding editor and having attendedorganized numerous conferences dealing on this subject, I have steadily built up a massive collection of precious knowledge on concurrent engineering (CE). Many of the ideas set forth in this book are formulated based on the rigorous analysis of what has been reported in those journals and conferences, of what we found worked well in practice, and from our research of what we observed was essential and relevant for those that failed to be successful. In most cases, the materials in the book are mostly built on trying these ideas on problems facing the automotive, electronic, aerospace, and software industries (working with Ford Motor Company, General Motors, Electronic Data Systems, NASA, and other Delphi Automotive System customers). Many CE concepts contained herein, therefore, are reported for the first time. The others are extensions to the ideas4erived from various CE books, journal articles, and my research papers presented at various meetings-but never published. Relevant references are contained at the end of each chapter. Many thanks to those who supplied reprints of their articles and thesis included therein. The author wishes to acknowledge the contributors of the CERA Journal and the members of its two editorial boards with whom the author corresponded on numerous occasions, which helped solidify many of the concepts reported in this book. A very important aspect of almost any technical publication is the exposition of key definitions of fundamental terms, and this book has a lot of them. In those areas, I can only take credit for bringing them together and packaging them in what is, I hope, a convenient format. To this end, many thanks are due to my professional colleagues in a number of fields relevant to CE, TQM, quality circles, QFD, knowledge-based engineering (KBE), and product design and development. xxxvi i
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Acknowledgments
The author wishes to acknowledge the assistance of General Motors, Electronic Data Systems, and Delphi Automotive Systems for providing the environments and opportunities, and assistance of our Automated Concurrent Engineering (ACE) colleagues and customers, with whom I worked, particularly Mr. Pat Race. In addition, I thank the people who reviewed this manuscript including Ross P. Corbett and several others. Thanks are also due to my colleagues, who spent time in reviewing the Volume I and providing their candid comments, which are published in the front few pages of this volume. Thanks also to many of my close teaching associates, students and friends for the valuable guidance they gave me in making this book more useful to our readers and students. A special thanks is extended to my spouse Pushpa and to my lovely daughters-Rosalie, Gunjan, and Palak-for their patience and understanding throughout these never-ending years while I was busy writing.
Biren Prasad Electronic Data Systems/General Motors Account P.0.Box 250254, W.Bloomfield, MI 48325, USA Email: [email protected]
1-T loops, 421 2-T loops, 421,423, 433, 437, 439,441,467 3-D CAD, 30,327 3-T loops, 4 2 1 , 4 2 3 , 4 4 3 4 5 , 4 4 7 4 9 , 4 5 1 , 4 5 3 , 455,457,459,463,467 ~ P s1, 11, 113, 162,217,280,304,315,349-350, 389,397,414 4Ms, 395 7Cs, 162,220-221,262,268,271,275,369 7Ts, 106, 113-1 14,117-1 18, 166167,182,184, 225,263,271,286,393 Abstractions and formalisms, 414 Accountability, 1, 174 Activity-based decomposition (AcD), 291, 299 Affinity diagram, 322 Age of control, 1,91 Age of flexibility, 1 Aggregation or integration process, 450 process, 45 1 with several cores, 452 Agile manufacturing modularlflexibleproduction system, 29, 31 virtual company, 26,311-312,314,317 virtual manufacturing,313 Agility, 1, 13,23,26,41, 113, 307, 311
Aircraft top-down decomposition,295, 317 Allocation of specifications,438 Amoeba chart (or polygon graph), 327 Analogy of CE, 94 Analytical model, 320-321,325,364 Applications of QFD, 88 Appraisals, 36 Approaches to system complexity,287,289,291, 293,295,297,299 Areas of concurrency, 292,294-296 Artifact's intent definitions, 377,380,384, 401-403,407,411,430 As-designed configuration, 78 As-is model, 134, 136, 138, 142, 162 As-is process, 125, 133-134, 136, 138, 140, 146, 157,159 As-planned configuration,78 ASQCIASI, 82,86,98 Assembly cost, 67 engineering, 16 oriented plants, 49 sequences and development, 438 Attributes of RCs, 398 Automobilemanufacturing,4, 278-279,293 Automobile manufacturing process, 278-279 Automotive top-down decomposition, 294 Auxiliary model, 361
Avoid variable processes, 193 Axiom-based approach, 445 Backward traversal, 427 Baseline system, 392-393, 406,420,427,434, 445 Basic premise of manufacturing, 18-19, 42 Bell curves, 70,72-73 Benchmarking, 11,103,108, 146, 162,271 Bill-of-materials, 189, 328, 370, 414, 439 Bond Graph, 324,362,410,417,465 Bottom-up approach, 138, 142, 163,287,451 half-loop, 4 4 9 4 51 synthesis, 451 Boundary representation (B-rep) solid, 336 Branch and bound, 402 Breakdown structures, 275,291, 303, 397,401, 425 Broad system model, 377, 379-380, 382,384, 394, 401,411412 C-t-e-q, 35, 37 C-t-c-q, 35,37 CAD/CAM, 14-17,20,3 1,40,81,95, 192,203, 217,278,302,338,352-353,364 Capturing life-cycle value, xiii Cardboard models, 4,322 CE enterprise system taxonomy, 375,411 implementation, 232 .measures of merit, 417,427 metrics and measures, 374 organization, 43, 174,223,231-232, 257, 274, 302,318 staffing, 243 teams, 88, 119, 131, 159, 175, 181, 186-187, 194,205,218,221,226-228,232,235,267, 269,273-275,287,299,303,309-310,320, 348-349,357,360,366,381,397,402,420, 426,434,444,467 transformation system, 375-376,411 wheel, xiv-xvi, xviii, xxi, xxii Central nervous system, 355 Central processing, 44 Cerebral hemisphere function (CHF), 355 Change control, 151, 153, 163 management methodology, 150-15 1,153, 155, 163 CIM CIM + Automation + CE, xx-xxi
Index Cognitive framework, 358 Collaboration, 20, 111, 178, 205,208, 220, 236, 262,267 276,300-303,306,317,358-359, 365,369 Combining CPI with restructuring, 114 Combining restructuring with organizational traits, 114 Commitment, 6,54, 157,217-218,220,224-225, 255-257,262,303,314,369,426,429 Common framework, 357,464 method, 464 process templates, 332,365 representation forms, 33 1-332, 339 understanding, commitment, or action, 21 8 understanding, 170, 194, 218, 224,251, 262-263,266-267,271,312,357 Communications and networks, 30 communication network, 82,251, 315, 344 mechanism, 415416 power, 14 Company cost, 67, 101 compar&on to goals & objectives, 377, 379, 382, 402 Competitive performance rating, 39 Competitive pressure push, 11-12 Complexity of tasks, 414,416 Component centered, 277 modeling, 348 of CE, 170-171, 173, 175, 177, 179 planning, 86 Compromise, 220,254,262-263,357,369 Computer and network complexity, 44 Integrated Manufacturing (CIM), 31, 81, 167, 171,212 manufacturers or vendors perspectives, 15 modeling and simulation, 354, 363 power, 14, 335, 338 technology usage, 14 Computer-aided acquisition and logistics support, 1,46, 165 design (CAD), 8 1 engineering (CAE), 81 process planning (CAPP), 81,353 testing (CAT), 81 Concept descriptions development, 41, 159,212,223,421,423,434, 436437 development loop, 436-437
Index
Conceptual aspect, xxii-xxiii design, 2,91,188-189,208,320,322,/349,417, 436,454456,468 model, 126,320-322,389 Concurrency and simultaneity, 18&181, 183,185, 187, 189, 191, 193,195 Concurrent engineering, 1, 13,26,29,40-42,65,81,91-93, 95-99, 1 19, 159-160,164-170,172, 176176,178,180,182,184-186,188,190, 192,194,196,198,200,202,204-214,236, 243-244,271-273,280,300,315-316,319, 341,343,346,361-363,383-384,410,418, 443,465466 engineering wheels, xiv function deployment, xiii interface definitions, 426 processing, 181-182,185-187,198 product & process design, 212 resource scheduling, 180,184,215 teams, 96,171, 187,226227,229,231,233, 237,254,275,301,311-312,360,389,402 tracks, 171,418 transformation system model, 376 Concurrent-relay race, 96 Configuration design, 454457 management system, 16,77,153 or layout design, 454455 Consensus, 42,111,142,144,154,163,165,194, 197,220,254255,262,281,286,339,369 Constraints, 16,34,121,124,138,167,169-170, 186-188,289,291,317,319,324,335,337, 341,344,347-348,356-357,361,366, 372-374,376-377,379-382,387-397,401, 403404,406,408,410412,416417, 419420,423,425428,430,433434,436, 441442,44+445,447-448,451454,456, 459,464 Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG), 335-336 Context diagram, 324 Continuous acquisition and life-cycle support, 1 improvement, 28,30,41,88,104,109,111, 127, 154,159,162,168,218,221,255,257,262, 311,369 improvement tool :, 88 process improvement, 104,108,111, 125,136, 151, 154,360,377
Control and scheduling, 366,382 charts and behavior over time diagram, 327 shift management: no matrix, no restructuring, but agreeing to collaborate, 310 Controversy versus cooperation, 219 Conventional design and development process, 317,370-371,411 Convergence and collaborative thinking by iterations, 426 Cooperating matrix of teams, 253 . Cooperative concurrent teams decision making, 426 work-g-roup- s, 280 Coordinating with subcontractors and suppliers, 177 Coordination, 30,88,116,168,221,262,273,280, 302-303,369 Corporate learning, 20,78,195 . Corporate technical memory, 79 Cost Cost-effective robust design, 165 C-t-c-q, 35,37 C-t-e-q, 35,37 estimation, 16 of quality, 35 to correct quality, 35 to ensure quality, 35 Coupled and difficult tasks, 426 CPI tactics, 108 Craft manufacturing, 4,13,26,98 Cumulative aggregation, 452 Cumulative weight analysis, 146 Data and knowledge, 396 Data, process and knowledge, 393,414,416, 453,459 Decentralization, 30 Decision making style, 217,314 Decision support systems, xiii, xx Deep common understanding, 224,251,263, 266267,271,357 Degree of control, 51,59,415 of incompleteness and ambiguity, 415416 of overlap, 26,298-300,420 Delivery and service track, 433 Description of 2-Tloops, 433,437,439,441 of 3-Tloops, 443,445,447,449,451,453,455, 457,459,463
Description (continued) of parallel tracks, 429,431 Design activity models, 414 aggregation process, 45 1 alternatives, 25, 89-90,223, 237, 394, 397,401, 407,420,428 build automation, 16 development, 67, 80,95, 156, 168, 181,398, 410 engineering, 6, 16, 89, 165,205,243,454 for X-ability, 29, 60, 166-167, 190, 237,239, 333,343,384,423 loop, 423,436,442,448,450-452,454,468 process, 16,49, 86, 102, 111, 120, 157, 167, 169, 190, 192,211, 213, 241,272, 276, 287-288,293,316,321,325,327-329,332, 344,371-372,386-387,399,410,414415, 418,421,426,436,439,442,445,454,456, 466 technology, 15-16, 165,234 track, 430 Detail design, 16, 278,415,434,454,457 Development methodology, 82, 84, 166,416417 DFADFX, 234 DFX methodologies, 370 Difference between a collection and a system, 283 Directive management style, 217,26&261,314 Distributed computing Distributed numerical control, 441 Distribution cost, 67 Early decision making, 5 1, 169-170 introduction, 65,67,69,76 problem-discovery, 169-170 supplier involvement, 173 ECARs, 127 Economic analyses, 420,448 Economics of skills, 4-5 Economy of ease or flexibility, 26 of labor, 8 , 311 of machine power, 5 , 311 of scale, 5, 177 Education and background, 267,358 Education and training, 172, 231-232,269, 27 1 Effectiveness of collaboration, 302 Efficient experimentation, 196 Electronic data interchange
Index EDI, 30, 166, 177, 193, 195 Elements of a functional system, 282 Embodiment design, 447,454 Emerging technology push, 11, 13, 19 Employee excellence development, 269,27 1 Employee rotation program, 269,275 Empowerment, 1, 3, 11, 18, 30, 76, 111, 142, 174-175,217,263,265-266,271,276, 304-305,315,358 Engineering design, 86, 160, 182, 209,212-213,232,316, 348,394,410,414,454,465466 functions, 277, 29 1 modeling and computation, 16 Workstations (EWS), 40 Enterprise data access and communications, 40 models, 133-135, 137, 139, 141, 162, 341, 365 Environment, 1-2, 11,26,28,40-41,434,78, 80,82,98, 107-108, 114, 156-157, 159, 162, 165, 170-171,173, 175, 177-178, 192-193, 201,203-205,211-212,218,220,225, 231-232,245,251,255,258,263,269,271, 275,283,300,303,312,314-315,318,322, 330,341,343-344,347,356,358,363,366, 380,383,386,396,410,419,441,444445, 464466 Era of departmentalization, 5 of global manufacturing, 8 of mechanization, 5 of quick fixes, 6 of realization, 7 Essentials for enterprise modeling, 346 Expanded house of quality, 86,98, 101 Experimental baseline state, 453 Exponential cost function, 52-53 Fast delivery, 25 innovators, 209-21 1 producers, 209-2 11 to-market, 1,25, 104 Feasibility definition loop, 406,420,423,436,448449 Feedback loops, 428 Finite element analysis, 16-1 7, 157, 188 Fire-fighting, 49 Fishbone diagram, 144, 324 Flexibility era, 11 Flexible architecture, 40
Index Flexible manufacturing, 29,40, 113, 194,282,431, 462,464 Flow and data connectivity, 125, 129 Flow-chart or block diagram:, 324 Form features, 288,295,319,331-332,341,348, 366,380,382,394,438,444,450 Forms of RCs, 398 of representations, 79, 126, 322 of sharing and collaboration, 301 Forward engineering, 81, 99, 161 Forward traversal, 427 Foundation of information modeling, 330-331, 333,335,337,339 Fourth Generation Languages (4GL), 40 Frame descriptions, 393,417 Function plot, run chart or graph, 325 Function power, 14 Function-based Decomposition (FuD), 29 1,297 Functional activity breakdown structure, 448 intent design, 454 setup, 258 Functions and features, 23,74,234, 300,334, 380 Generic or regenerative modeling, 16 Geometrical requirements, 382 Global access, 194 manufacturing, 2, 8,44, 131, 141, 152, 173 participation, 141, 175 Goal realignment with life-cycle focused restructuring, 308-309 Goal realignment with product focused restructuring, 308 GOALIQPC, 82,98-99,160 Great product, 6,438 Group technology, 13-14, 350-352, 365,462 GT benefits for manufacturers. 351 Hard prototypes, 439 Helicopter top-down decomposition, 296 Hierarchical activity sets, 402 High quality, 23, 60, 102,263,338 Histogram and pareto analyses, 327 HOQ, 86 Horizontal integration, 277,304-305, 316 House of quality, 86,98-99, 101 Human teams, 98, 136 ICOMs, 127 IDEF, 126-127, 129, 160
IDEFO functional model, 127 Imaging systems, 40 Implicit form, 380,399 Improvement process, 64, 117, 120, 144, 151, 159 Inclusion of outside trade partners, 175 Individual contributions, 116,221, 229,258 Information and systems, 40 based mass production, 11 flow diagram, 435,446,468 flow-charting, 123, 125, 127,129,131 modeling, 126, 128-129, 160, 163, 187, 234, 319-328,330-342,344,346,348,350,352, 354,356,358,360,362-365 modeling methodology, 128 technology, 9, 13-14,42, 172,197,346,364 Inputs, 21, 34,43,78, 84, 91, 102-103, 120-121,, 123, 126-127,129,138,144-145, 173-174, 188, 194, 196,223,265,297,302,324325, 344,347-348,356,372,376375,377,379, 383,387-388,390-391,393-397,403,406, 411,416-417,420,423,426428,434, 444445,453,459460,464 Inspection, 4, 27,41, 43,46, 67, 156, 177, 194, 265,331,333,344,347,350,362,366,370, 382,430,447,466 Integration, 1, 9, 11, 14, 17, 81-82, 95, 111, 116, 120,175,185, 188, 192-193, 195,209,213, 227,241,273,277-278,304307,316,319, 329, 332, 336, 339, 343,347, 353, 360, 369, 402,414,426,433,444,450 Integral system-wide specifications, 20 Integrate analysislsimulation tools with digital product models, 187 Integrated product and process development development, 98, 157, 164, 167, 171,215, 225, 231-232,271,319,390,401,466 system planning and scheduling, 377, 379, 429430 Integration hierarchy, 369 Intelligent information system, 236 Interface requirements, 190,277,317,382, 389 Interface-compatibility, 280, 3 14 Introducing a change, 51, 161 Investment tooling cost, 67 P D , 167,171-172,232,319,333,401 IPPD goals and objectives, 120 Just-in-time (JIT) delivery of defect-free material, 193
Keiretsu, 30 Key dimensions of a CE specificationset, 395-397,399,412 Knowledge capture leveraging, 170 based tool. 460 Lead product team:, 240 Lead time, 26-27,46,48,93,95,11&118,156, 166, 171, 182, 209,211,213,216,243,258, 315,375,377,406,429 Lean manufacturingor synchronousorganizations production, 43, 104-105 Lease and integrate, 14 Legislative and regulatory environment,41 Lessons learned, 78-79, 175 Library of parts, 16 Life-cy cle concern, 29,370 cost drivers, 79-80, 101 engineering, 2 management, 44,46,48,50-52,54,56,58, 60-64, 66, 68,70,72,74,76-78, 80-90,92, 94,96,98-101,242,267,280 management methodology, 51 management tools, 81, 83, 85, 87, 89 team, 241 time, 46, 52,72, 93, 100, 116, 162, 165,315, 377,426 Linked form system, 200 Logarithmic cost function, 53-54 Logical form, 401 Logical team composition, 234 Logistics integration, 304-305, 316 Looping process Loops of product-orientedcycle, 406 Low cost, 13,25,39 Machines and equipment facilities, 40 Management and reporting structure by fact, 262 commitment or action, 217 commitments, 109,255 focus, 18,30 perspectives, 15 structure, 308 styles or philosophies, 259, 261, 263, 265 tool, 88 Managing change continuity, 6 4 , 7 7
Index interactions, 204 revision change, 64 Manufacturing automation protocol, 3 1 competitiveness, 1-2,4,6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18-24,26,28, 30, 32, 34,36,38,40,4243, 316 data collection and control, 40 definitions, 445 design, 192,444,454,457 functions, 291, 380 loop, 423,462463 or assembly track, 432433 planning, 58, 379,429 strategies, 18, 29,31,41,43 strategy and standards, 29 MAP, 31,121-125, 138, 154155,163,324,420 Mapping process, 121,388-389 Market entry and the market decline, 72 Market trends analysis, 16 Marketing planning cost, 67 Mass manufacturing production, 5,9, 11, 13,22,26,98,311 Material handling, 29,312, 344, 347,351-352, 366, 382, 441,462 planning, 86 features modeling, 348 Mathematical foundation, 331, 333 Matrix of teams, 251-253,274 Measure of competitiveness,21 Mechanism:, 88,116, 125-126,129, 153-154, 181, 197,232,245,268,368,415416 Minimize interfaces computer interfaces, 194 process interfaces, 191-192 product interfaces, 188-190 Mission requirements loop, 434 Modeling collaborativebehavior, 358 conventions, 129 methodology, 128, 329 Models, methods, metrics and measures, xiv Modes of concurrency, 197, 199 Modes of cooperation, 20 1-203 Modification strategies, 105 Modified or updated baseline, 420 Moving target, 45 Multi-disciplinary setup team approach, 2 Multimedia access, 15
Index New paradigm, 11-13,4243 New product identification,89 New product introduction,44, 49,64-65, 67,69, 71, 101,214,245,389 New United Motor ManufacturingInc. (NUMMI), 370 No restructuring but matrix (or dotted line reporting), 3 10 No Restructuring but Temporary Duty Assignment (TDA), 309 Numerical control, 16,31,236,331, 441 Occupational culture, 267, 358 On-line technical reviews, 196 Open system, 14,314 Operation analysis/simulation,16 Operational values, 434, 436 Operations and control control loop, 441 Order of decision making, 415-416 Organization factors, 312,314,317 goals, 6, 113, 317 traits, 108, 111, 114 Outputs, 34,43,60, 102-103, 114, 116, 120-121, 124, 127, 129, 137-138, 145, 183, 191, 194, 223,228,297,324-325,344,351,362, 373-374,379-380,384,387-388,391-392, 394-398,403,406,408,411,420,426427, 433,444,453,459 Over-the-wall, 7 Overall productivity, 34 Overlapped pull system, 197, 199, 215 Ownership, 80, 165, 170 Pair-wise coupling, 452 Parabolic cost functions, 56 Parallel engineering of responsibility, 303 product decomposition, 180 work-group, 180 Part features, 366 Parts modeling planning, 86, 443 PDTs, 18, 120, 134, 171, 173, 180,200,238,255, 257,266-267,269,273,305 People leadership skills, 247 Performance goals, 434,436,448 Performance indicators, 32-33, 35, 37,39,42,45, 134, 136,349 Period of profitability, 46 Personnel team
composition, 236 PERT, 6, 156, 187,214-215,223,258-259,389 Petri nets, 126-127, 129 Physical model Physical-based Decomposition (PhD), 291, 297 Piloting or prototype fabrication, 439 Planning track, 184,429,436 Plant, machine, and office layout, 267 Policies, practices, procedures, 217, 320 Preliminary design, 16, 241,309, 434 Price versus performance, 14 Problem solving skills, 249 Process and methodologies breakdown structure (PsBS), 191-192 complexity, 44, 181-182, 290, 297, 320 concurrence, 196, 201 effectiveness, 119 efficiency, 114, 116-117 execution, 408,443444 Process improvement improvement methodology, 111, 142-143, 145, 147, 149 Process management of filtering, 445 map, 121-125, 154-155, 163 planning,14, 16,31,81,85, 120, 186, 191,236, 238,331-332,344,347,349,351-353,362, 365,406,417,430,439,443444,447,459 Process re-engineering Process renovation, 11, 105, 125 Process requirements,4, 363,381-382, 388,412 Process restructuring, 11, 104, 125 Process loop synthesis loop (execution phase), 459 synthesis loop (planning phase), 457 Process taxonomy, 376,386-390, 397,412, 416417,426427 Process track, 4 3 0 4 31, 468 Process-oriented cycle, 408 Process-variation, 4 4 1 4 4 2 Product and part geometry creation, 16 Product and process costing structure, 16 Product and process data exchange, 40 Product and process management cycles, 402, 404 Product and services breakdown structure (PtBS), 192,215,287-288, 293-294,296,426 breakdown structure (PtBS), 192, 215, 287-288, 293-294,296,426 complexity, 9,44, 182, 349,407
Product and services (continued) decomposition, 180, 182, 184,215,238,241, 291,356 design and development, 7,31,49, 81,91, 120, 161, 166, 187, 196,320, 329, 332, 339,364, 369-370,418,427,466-467 design and development process, 91, 166,329, 418 Product design definition developmentefforts, 44,46,49,99 development team, 9,93,126,171-172,203, 215,232,238,240,293,417,429 engineering loop, 436-437,468 Product improvement,84,89,102, 108,154,239 Product life-cycle,64,72,77, 85, 154, 161-162, 164-165,237,291,309,314,348,423,446 Product management cycle half-cycle, 423,443-444 Product or process development, 413 Product planning requirements, 429 Product Process Organization (PPO), 361 Product proliferation,4 Product realization process, 65,98, 111, 136, 156, 180-181, 192, 249,280, 320, 330, 344, 358,360,387,397, 403,411412,423,425,428429 taxonomy, 391,402,412414,416-418, 420422,424,426,428,430,432,434,436, 438,442,444,448,450,452,454,456,458, 460,462,464,466-468 Product requirements Product support, 5,208,234,236,241,293, 305-306,309,319,344,346,389,421,423, 442 and service, 442 loop, 442 Product-orientedcycle, 406-408 Product-variation, 441-442 Product/ProcessCosting Structure (PCS), 453 Production cost, 67, 349, 380,429,444 Production definition Production loop, 423 Production management cycle half-cycle, 423 Production planning., 82, 85, 120, 191, 332, 466 Production track, 431432,468 Productivity improvement pull, 12, 17, 19 Profit-per-unit, 39 Program approval
Index organization, 238-239,241,243,245,247,249, 251,253,255 Project evaluation and review technique, 6,223, 258 Project management skills, 249 Promoting the spirit of innovation, 173 PRs, 143,445 Pugh concept selection matrix methodology, 89-90 Pull system of product realization, 428 Pyramid of cooperating teams, 266 QCIinspection cost, 67 Qm technique, 82, 85 quality assurance techniques, 7 characteristics, 150, 161,317,374,401 function deployment, 13, 18,41, 82, 87,98-99, 149, 156,159-160 leadership process, 64, 150, 152 Quality Leadership Process (Pql) programs, 27-28,3 1 Queue management, 185,245,274,353 Quick processing, 182, 195,215 Range of pay-off, 206 Ranking of the activities, 147 Rapid prototyping, 29, 81, 322,328,439,465466 Raw stock or materials, 28 Reconfigurability, 3 12,314 Relative affinities, 19,43 Relevancy, 366 Rendering and scientific visualization, 335, 338 Renovation tactics, 108 Reporting structure, 239,249,308-310 Requirements adviser, 88 and constraints (RCs), 317, 381, 397, 412,417, 420,445 Responsiveness,25,65, 125,227,315,338 Restructuring tactics, 108 Revenue loss and profits, 69-70 risk management, 37,63 Role of a teammate, 254 Root cause, 7, 138-139, 141,163,324 S-curve, 70,72-75, 100 Sales and market share advantages, 66 Scatter diagram, 325 Schematic diagrams, 126
Index Second level taxonomy, 459460 Sequential developmentprocess engineering, 9 1 , 9 3 , 9 7 , 2 0 3 , 2 1 1 , 2 1 4 Serial engineering,26,63,93,95, 101, 111, 164, 190, 214,243,274, 376,380, 389,411,416, 418,426 Serial-relay race, 97 Seven influencing agents, 167 Seven types of waste, 108 Sharing and collaboration in CE, 300-301,303 Shrinking life-cycle, 4647,49,51,53,55, 57, 59, 101 Simultaneousengineering, 1,42, 159, 168, 212-214,466 Skill management matrix, 249,257 Skill-based manufacturing, 11 Society costs, 79-80 Soft prototyping, 166 Some common pitfalls, 211 Specifications levels from VOC, 438 for physical realization, 329 Spiral approach, 417 Spreadsheet, 138,325,330,380 Stand-alone compute islands, 17 Stereolithography,234, 322,439,441 Strategic business unit, 134,238-239,263 sourcing, 30, 193,269 technology insertions, 73,75-76 Structure descriptions, 391-393 Subsystemsmodeling, 347438 Subsystems planning, 86 Suggestion plan, 269 Supplier rationalization, 257 Supply system, 184 Supportive management style, 261-263,275 Surrogate data as a basis for enterprise mddeling, 347 SWOT analysis, 106, 161 Synchronized wheels, xiv Synergy and teamwork, 174 Synthesis loop, 395,404,406,408,420,441, 443445,448449,453,455,457,459462, 468 System construction, 377 development,208,212, 377 engineering,, 99, 161,227,277-278,280-282, 284,286-288,290,292,294,296,298,300, 302,304,306,308,310,312,314,316-318, 356,439,466
integration, 81, 82 modeling, 347-348,363 optimization, 260, 329, 379, 383-384,402, 410412 planning, 86 requirements, 381, 388, 396,401, 412 SpecificationLanguage (SSL), 129 specifications,347,357,375, 379-380,402,412 thinking, 281,283,285, 316,329,411 Talents, tasks, teams, techniques, technology, time and tools, 166, 384, 396 Tally chart, 326 Taxonomy for product realization dimension, 414 of objects, 425 world, 425 Team contributions, 97,221 cooperation,44, 111,220,224,228,281 , 312, 3 15 cooperation and communication complexity, 44 design, 20 managerAeader characteristics, 247 Teamwork affinity, 170 Technical memory, 18,79,175,195-196,328,347,363, 408 publications, 40, 237 requirements, 91,381-382 Technology programs, 29 team, 226-227,234,275,300 Technology team composition Ten commandments, xix-xxi Tenets of process improvement, 114, 117, 119 The whole system, 34, 282-283, 316, 366, 368, 370, 372, 374, 376, 378, 380,382,384,386, 388, 390, 392, 394, 396, 398,400,402,404, 406,408,[email protected],444 Three Ps, 22 Throughput, 21,23,26,34,43, 138, 140,221, 283-285,316,383,404,413 Time overlap, 180 Timing of decision making, 415416 To-be model, 136, 138-142,162-163 To-be process, 133-134, 136, 142, 145, 163 Tolerance, 92,288,329, 354, 389,394,451,453, 457 Tools and technology, 22,65, 81, 171, 201, 231-232
Top-down approach, 138, 163,287, 347 half-loop, 449-45 1 synthesis, 450 Total profit margins, 6 8 4 9 Total quality management, 1, 13,27, 152, 154155,160,227 Total value management, xix TQM, 27,43,65, 138, 152, 154156, 163,234, 27 1-272 Track and loop methodology, 417,420,428,467 Traditional hierarchical systems, 216 Transformation model for a manufacturing system, 372-373 process-a process taxonomy, 390 system for product realization, 384385,387, 389,391,393 Translation tool, 88 Transparent communication, 182, 194,274 tree structure hierarchy, 402 Types of CE organization, 257 Types of information and sources, 414,416 Types of knowledge, 300 Understanding and managing change, 105, 107, 109, 11l Uniform modeling schemes, 331, 333 Universal product code, 195 Unscheduled changes, 35 Use process simulation, 193 Use proven processes, 193 User costs, 79-80 V-assembly, 452 Value characteristics (VCs) engineering, 27, 108, 142,239,377 system, 6,22, 120,267,358-359,396-397
Index Variable-driven modeling, 15-16, 186 VCM metrics, 404 v c s , 374 Vendorlsupplier partners, 30 Vertical integration, 11,277, 304 Virtual analytical models, 328 Virtual aspect intelligence, 359-360 manufacturing, 213, 316-317,411 team, 226-228,231-232,234,236,255,276, 300,427 Virtual team composition, 236 Visible to the customer, 23,29 Vision skills, 249 Visual control, 267-268,275 Warranty service cost, 67 Waste of information movement, 108 Way of producing, 20 Well-orchestrated process, 21 Whole system, 6, 34,282-283, 316, 366, 368,370, 372, 374,376, 378, 380, 382, 384,386,388, 390, 392,394, 396, 398,400,402,404,406, 408,410-412,444 Work breakdown structure (WBS), 184,246, 397, 428 Work flow mapping, 121 Work-group teams, 223,231,241,243,246-247,263 Work-structuring, 169-170 Workplace organization and visual control, 267 World-class quality class quality product, 5,43

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