El-Harra, iron ore, iron ore deposit, steel industry, Western Desert, Geographical Information Systems, study area, GIS technology, ore deposit, borehole data, Raster data, UTILIZING GIS TECHNOLOGY, layout, conventional maps, surface area, contour map, thickness, volume calculations, GIS types, spatial data, Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority, Cartography, Mining industry, Geodesy Department, GIS software packages, geographic information systems, Baku State University, GIS database, higher technology, Egypt, paint industries, contour lines
: 528.622 M.H. Gojamanov, A.A. Arafat CREATING DATA BASE FOR IRON ORE RESERVES EVALUATION IN EGYPT BY UTILIZING GIS TECHNOLOGY (), , . - . , -, - . , ArcGIS, ArcView. , (Fe), , . . 1. INTRODUCTION Geographical information system
s provide a set of tools for capturing, storing, checking, integrating, manipulating, analyzing and displaying data related to positions on the Earth's surface. Typically, GIS are used for handling maps of one kind or another. These might be represented as several different layers where each layer holds data about a particular kind of feature (e.g. rivers, roads, geology, Archaeological Site
s and mining data). Each feature is linked to a position on the graphical image of a map. As well as being spatially referenced, layers can also hold any number of other attributes . GIS play an important role in many different fields in our modern life especially surveying and mining industry. Not only does a GIS help to locate a mineral deposit, it also saves time, money, and is more reliable than traditional methods
of resource exploration . Although many other computer program
s can use spatial data
(e.g. AutoCAD and statistics packages), GIS include the additional ability to perform spatial operations. GIS can be described as a set of processes executed on raw data to produce information which will be useful in decision-making . 1.1 data model
s of GIS Spatial data are presented in various models that represent the main GIS types, raster, vector, and Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN), sometimes called a Digital terrain model (DTM). Vector data models are suitable for producing various types of high quality and conventional maps. Raster data models are suitable for representing data that varies continuously over geographic area and surface analysis, or overlay functions . TINs are superior at portraying visible surfaces as many TIN supports break lines with sharp boundaries . 1.2 ArcGIS Arc View Software Package ArcGIS is a powerful, easy-to-use tool that brings geographic information
to desktop. ArcGIS gives the users the power to visualize, explore, query and analyze data. In the present study ArcGIS Arc View software package was utilized with its extensions. 2. THE study area
Iron ore of El-Harra area is located in El-Bahariya Oasis Depression, Western Desert, which is one of the seven major depressions of the Western Desert of Egypt. It lies between latitudes 27 є 28 and 28 є 30 North, and longitudes 28 є 30 and 29 є 10 East (Fig. 1), it is about 160 km west Nile valley and 320 km South West
of Cairo. The depression is oval-shaped, extending in a North East South West trend. It has a maximum length of 100 km along its North East South West axis, and maximum width
of 45 km. The depression is surrounded by plateaus which rise 250-300 m above sea level .
Fig. 1. Location of El-Bahariya depression, Western Desert, Egypt 2.1. Data Source The data used in this study area are obtained from the report on the discovery of El-Harra iron ore deposit in El-Bahariya Oasis. Sampling information is derived from (200x200m) drill-hole grid system. The borehole data comprise about 95 drill holes and pits. The maps, tables of samples and chemical analyses together with a preliminary estimation of reserves are given in the afore-mentioned report . The data include the following: Spatial data § Reserves calculation plan (geological blocks) in scale 1:5000. Attribute tables data § Tables containing coordinates, elevations, upper level, and lower level of the iron ore bed. § Tables of chemical analysis
of samples. GIS database is tabular data representing the description of El-Harra iron ore deposit, (coordinates, elevations, thickness, chemical analysis). All available data are entered in the GIS database under strict Quality Control
procedure. 3. GIS ANALYSIS OPERATIONS The GIS spatial analyst extension provides a broad range of powerful spatial modeling and analysis functionality. Generating layouts is done according the following procedure: 1. The data file is imported into ArcView to separate various units, database are built in ArcView as database file in table. 2. Surface point layer in a view is generated and converted to shape file related to the table. 3. TIN is developed using features tool from the surface menu and then contour lines are created from the TIN theme or from point features for all the variable parameters. 4. The area of the project and the volume of both overburden and iron ore are calculated using area and volume statistical tool from surface menu. For accurating area and volume calculation of overburden and ore body from the borehole data, all evidence maps are reclassified into quantified and discrete classes. Surface maps are created by interpolated grid or TIN from point data. The following layouts are made using ArcView: 1. A layout of the project showing the borehole locations, codes (ID) and the coordinate grid of the study area Fig. 2.
Fig. 2 Borehole locations and their codes, El-Harra area 2. A layout of the study area that contains the surface interpolated TIN map with contour lines. It is shown from Fig. 3 that the topography of the area is flat, the difference between the top and bottom is approximately 47 m and the high elevations are in the south and the north-west areas. 3. A layout of the project that contains the iso-thickness map of overburden and interpolated TIN map which indicates the differences in the thickness of the overburden with contour lines to show that the exploitation operation can be open pit, Fig. 4. 4. A layout of the project that contains the interpolated TIN map of iso-thickness map of the iron ore deposit with contour lines to show the values of the thickness in different locations as indicated in Fig. 5. 5. A layout of the project that contains interpolated TIN map (iso-pach map) for the percentage of Fe and its distribution in different locations with contour lines, Fig. 6.
Fig. 3 TIN and contour topographic map El-Harra area Fig. 4 TIN, iso-thickness map of overburden El-Harra area
Fig. 5 TIN and contour map for iron ore (iso-thickness map) El-Harra area Fig. 6 TIN and contour map for Fe percentage (iso-pach map) El-Harra area 4. START MINING (MINE PLANNING) From the surface, overburden, thickness, and Fe percentage layouts, it is found that the highest thickness and the middle overburden are in the same locations. It is also the most flat and lowest part in the project area and which lies in nearly the middle of the ore deposit area, and contains the average of Fe
content (nearly 47% Wt.). Therefore, it recommended starting the exploitation of the ore in this location. After exploitation, this area can be used as dumping area for the waste and overburden rocks. This could reduce the cost of the production and the time of transportation. Then, the mining operation will be environmentally good. 5. AREA AND VOLUME CALCULATIONS Area and volume calculations function under surface menu in Arc view package enables us to calculate the area of the project and volume of the overburden from a base height of 0.20 m, (the minimum value of overburden thickness) as shown in Fig. 7.On addition this function can be used to calculate the area of the project and volume of iron ore deposit from a reference plan of 0.50 m, (the minimum value of iron ore thickness), as illustrated in Fig. 8. From the area and volume calculations for overburden and thickness, it was found that, the planimetric areas of the overburden and thickness, the surface area of the overburden and the surface area of thickness were approximately 3710450, 3714469, 3714463 m2 respectively. While the volumes of the overburden and the ore deposit of the study area were approximately 19570914 and 26913533 m3. The mean density of the iron ore in El-Harra is 2.1 ton / m3. The reserve can be calculated from the following equation: Tonnage of iron ore (reserve) = density * volume = 2.1 * 26913533 = 56518419 tons The total calculated reserve from the six blocks in the reserve calculation map of El-Harra iron ore gives the value of 56588600 tons . Comparing the value of the reserve from GIS method and blocks (ordinary) method was found that the difference was 70181 tons and it was a small difference comparing to the total tonnage. This result performs that GIS is a powerful tool for reserve calculations. Fig.7 Area and volume calculations of the overburden Fig. 8 Area and volume calculations of iron ore deposit. The previous analysis and discussions indicate that, using the iron ore deposit of El-Harra area for blast furnace is very difficult because of the following reasons: § Fe percentage is less than the required percentage of blast furnace (52.5 - 53.5 %) in almost 90 % of the area as shown in Fig. 6. § There is no location which gives the required specification of iron ore required for blast furnace of Egyptian Iron and Steel Company, Helwan.
To use this ore in steel industry
, it should be mixed with higher grade iron ore. Or it may need a higher technology than available. On the other hand, the ore can be used in other industries such as ceramics, ferromanganese, ferro-silicon, and paint industries.
6. CONCLUSION 1. GIS software packages like ArcView, assists in different calculations and hence is help very full for the decision makers. 2. Using GIS as a tool in the mining industry is important because of the ability of GIS for retrieving, storing, and analyzing data with vast amount of information. To satisfy the need for database acquisition and access, GIS is beneficial to mining activities. 3. Application of GIS on El-Harra iron area proved that the ore can not be used for the blast furnace as it is.
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on Mining, Petroleum and metallurgical Engineering (MPM11), Sharm El sheikh, Egypt, March16-19, (2009). (http:www.MPM-CONFSUEZ.ORG)  Ordnance Survey, "The GIS File", Crown Copyright, V2.0 Mar. (2003).  G. H. McColloch, K. J. Timberlake and A. V. Oldham, "GIS Data Models for Coal Geology", 5th Conference on the Use of Computer in the Coal Industry, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA, (1996).  A.F. Ismael, "Effect of Geologic Setting on Geostatistical Evaluation of Ore Reserves", Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
, Al-Azhar University, (2003).  Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority, ARE, "Report on the Discovery of El-Harra Iron Ore Deposit in El Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert, With Preliminary Estimation of Reserves", (1975).
People use geographic information systems (GIS) software because they understand that better information lead to better decisions. The aim of this paper is to illustrate a case study
for creating information system for evaluating iron ore in Egypt by utilizing GIS technology. Iron ore were found in many locations in Egypt such as (Western Desert, Eastern Desert and Sinai). A study was done to utilize GIS technology for iron ore of El-Harra area which located in El-Bahariya Oasis Western Desert Depression Egypt as example. ArcGIS, ArcView software package was used for studying the borehole data and generating many kinds of maps, e.g.; interpolation Triangulated Irregular Network (IN) for ore thickness and overburden, iso-pach map for Fe percentage distribution, performing ore and overburden area and volume calculations. Hence, a decision making can be taken if the ore can be used in steel industry and its marketing.
: GIS technology; Analysis; Mining industry; Iron ore deposit;
Cartography and Geodesy Department, Baku State University