Critical thinking skills, S Cottrell

Tags: Critical reading, statistical significance, line of reasoning, critical writing, Practice activities, Accurate interpretation, Critical thinking, Triangulation, analytical writing, selection, Representative samples, Writing conclusions, tentative conclusions, Logical consistency, logical conclusions, Internal consistency, Acknowledgements, thinking skills, Independent reasons, Activity, disagreement, Implicit assumptions, non-argument, Logical order, Critical Thinking Skills
Content: critical thinking Skills Developing Effective Analysis and Argument Stella Cottrell macmillan
Contents
Introduction
viii
Glossary
xii
Acknowledgements
xiv
1 What is critical thinking?
1
Introduction
1
What is critical thinking?
2
Reasoning
3
Why develop Critical Thinking Skills?
4
Underlying skills and attitudes
5
Self-awareness for accurate judgement
6
Personal strategies for critical thinking
7
Critical thinking in academic contexts
8
Barriers to critical thinking
10
Critical thinking: knowledge, skills and
attitudes
13
Priorities: developing critical thinking
abilities
14
Summary
16
2 How well do you think? Develop
your thinking skills
17
Introduction
17
Assess your thinking skills
18
Scoring Sheet
22
Focusing attention
23
Focusing attention: Identifying difference 24
Focusing attention: Recognising sequence 25
Categorising
27
Activity: Categorising text
28
Close reading
29
Information about the sources
31
Answers to activities in Chapter 2
32
3 What's their point? Identifying
arguments
37
Introduction
37
The author's position
38
Activity: Capturing the author's position 39
Argument: Persuasion through reasons 40
Identifying the argument
41
Activity: Identifying simple arguments
44
Activity: Reasons and conclusions
45
Hunting out the conclusion
46
Summary of features
47
Summary
48
Information about the sources
48
Answers to activities in Chapter 3
49
4 Is it an argument? Argument and
non-argument
51
Introduction
51
Argument and disagreement
52
Activity: Argument and disagreement
53
Non-arguments: Description
54
Non-arguments: Explanations and
summaries
55
Activity: What type of message?
56
Distinguishing argument from other
material
58
Activity: Selecting out the argument
59
Summary
61
Information about the sources
61
Answers to activities in Chapter 4
62
5 How well do they say it? Clarity,
consistency and structure
63
Introduction
63
How clear is the author's position?
64
Internal consistency
65
Activity: Internal consistency
66
Logical consistency
67
Activity: Logical consistency
68
Independent reasons and joint reasons 69
Activity: Independent and joint reasons 70
Intermediate conclusions
71
Intermediate conclusions used as reasons 72
Activity: Intermediate conclusions
73
Summative and logical conclusions
74
Activity: Summative and logical
conclusions
75
Logical order
76
Activity: Logical order
77
Summary
78
Information about the sources
78
Answers to activities in Chapter 5
79
6 Reading between the lines:
Recognising underlying assumptions
and implicit arguments
85
Introduction
85
Assumptions
86
Activity: Identify the underlying
assumptions
87
Identifying hidden assumptions
88
Implicit assumptions used as reasons
89
Activity: Implicit assumptions used as
reasons
90
False premises
91
Activity: False premises
92
Implicit arguments
93
Activity: Implicit arguments
94
Denoted and connoted meanings
95
Activities: Associations and stereotypes 97
Activity: Denoted and connoted meanings 98
Summary
99
Information about the sources
99
Answers to activities in Chapter 6
100
7 Does it add up? Identifying flaws
in the argument
105
Introduction
105
Assuming a causal link
106
Correlations and false correlations
107
Activity: Identify the nature of the link 108
Not meeting the necessary conditions 109
Not meeting sufficient conditions
110
Activity: Necessary and sufficient
conditions
111
False analogies
112
Activity: False analogies
113
Deflection, complicity and exclusion
114
Other types of flawed argument
115
Unwarranted leaps and 'castle of cards' 116
Emotive language; Attacking the person 117
More flaws
118
Misrepresentation and trivialisation
119
Tautology; Two wrongs don't make a right 120
VI
Summary
121
Information about the sources
121
Answers to activities in Chapter 7
122
8 Where's the proof? Finding and
evaluating sources of evidence
125
Introduction
125
Primary and secondary source materials 126
Searching for evidence
127
Literature searches
128
Reputable sources
129
Authenticity and validity
130
Currency and reliability
131
Selecting the best evidence
132
Relevant and irrelevant evidence
133
Activity: Relevant and irrelevant evidence 134
representative samples
135
Activity: Representative samples
136
Certainty and probability
137
sample sizes and statistical significance 138
Over-generalisation
139
Controlling for variables
140
Facts and opinions
141
Eye-witness testimony
142
Triangulation
143
Evaluating a body of evidence
144
Summary
145
Information about the sources
145
Answers to activities in Chapter 8
146
9 Critical reading and note-making:
Critical selection, interpretation and
noting of source material
147
Introduction
147
Preparing for critical reading
148
Identifying the theoretical perspective 149
The relation of theory to argument
150
Categorising and selecting
151
Accurate interpretation when reading
152
Making notes to support critical reading 153
Reading and noting for a purpose
154
Concise critical notes: Analysing argument 155
Concise critical notes: Books
156
Concise critical notes: Articles and papers 157
Critical selection when note-making
158
Activity: Critical selection
159
Commentary on critical selection
161
Note your source of information
162
Summary
164
Information about the sources
164
Answers to activities in Chapter 9
165
10 Critical, analytical writing: Critical thinking when writing 167
Introduction
167
Characteristics of critical, analytical
writing
168
Setting the scene for the reader
170
Activity: Setting the scene for the reader 171
Writing up the literature search
172
Words used to introduce the line of
reasoning
173
Words used to reinforce the line of
reasoning (2)
174
Signposting alternative points of view 175
Words used to signpost conclusions
177
Words and phrases used to structure
the line of reasoning
178
Drawing tentative conclusions
179
Activity: Writing conclusions
180
Summary
181
Information about the sources
181
Answers to activities in Chapter 10
182
11 Where's the analysis? Evaluating
critical writing
183
Introduction
183
Checklist for Essay 1
184
Evaluate Essay 1
185
Evaluation of Essay 1
187
Commentary for Essay 1
188
Checklist for evaluating Essay 2
190
Evaluate Essay 2
191
Evaluation of Essay 2
192
Commentary on Essay 2
194
Evaluating your writing for critical
thinking
196
Summary
198
Texts for activities in Chapters 8, 9
and 11
199
Practice activities on longer texts
207
Practice 1: Features of an argument
208
Answers to Practice 1: Features of an
argument
212
Practice 2: Finding flaws in the
argument
215
Answers to Practice 2: Finding flaws in
the argument
219
Practice 3: Features of an argument
223
Answers to Practice 3: Features of an
argument
229
Practice 4: Finding flaws in the
argument
234
Answers to Practice 4: Finding flaws in
the argument
239
Appendix: Selected search engines
and databases for on-line literature
searches
245
Bibliography
246
Index
248
VII

S Cottrell

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