Design of cities

Tags: Sacred Places, Robben Island, International Journal of Heritage Studies, Stonehenge, Garden City, Urban America, David Gordon, Chartres Cathedral, Stonehenge Complete, Architecture, cultures, Alhambra Gardens, sacred space, SEMESTER AT SEA COURSE SYLLABUS Fall, History of Architecture, English Garden Cities, Digital Camera, Corcovado Mountains, F Global Studies Exam Arrive Roseau, town planning, Uruguay, ACADEMIC FIELD LABORATORY Buenos Aires, Colonia del Sacremento, Buenos Aires, Field Journal, Cape Town, American examples, Twentieth Century Capital Cities, Nelson Mandela, Sacred Mountains of the World, Spanish Colonial Towns, Myra Potential Futures
Content: SEMESTER AT SEA COURSE SYLLABUS
Fall 2012 Discipline: ARCH 2500-102 Division: Faculty Name:
Architecture / Planning Sacred Places and Idealized Cities Lower Warren Boeschenstein
Prerequisites: None
Course Description This class will consider the sacred sites and idealized communities of various cultures, emphasizing those along the voyage. It will investigate how places of ritual or sanctity (Stonehenge, Chartres Cathedral, Alhambra Gardens, etc.) have risen above the profane and ordinary and how idealized communities (English Garden Cities, pilgrimage cities, government ceremonial centers, etc.) have become profoundly meaningful places for many people. Relating to the semester's itinerary, the course will address sacred sites in terms of three themes: the sacred (places consecrated to or belonging to a god or heavenly order), the hallowed (places set apart for, and dedicated to, some person, purpose, sentiment, etc. rather than to a god), and the venerable (places entitled to the highest respect or reverence). Students will select two sites to describe and compare as their course project.
Course Objectives To introduce students to a variety of cultural expressions To consider how cultures manifest cherished beliefs through site selection and spatial development To assess the universality of beliefs and expressions across cultures and time
TOPICAL OUTLINE OF COURSE There will be 75-minute class meetings totaling 23 sessions and excluding the final exam. * indicates a UNESCO World Heritage Site in schedule below. Aug. 23 / W Depart Halifax Aug. 24 / Th Orientation Class 1, Aug. 25/ S Introduction: Approach to the subject, course expectations and materials, and overview of class discussions. (drop/add) Class 2, Aug. 27 / M Sacred and Profane: theoretical constructs. Drawing from personal experiences, students should submit a one-paragraph description of a sacred space, one with which they are familiar and need not be "monumental." Eliade, Mircea. The Sacred and the Profane, "Sacred Space & Making the World Sacred," 20-65. Sacred Places / 1
Class 3, Aug. 29 / W Celtic and British Stone Circles: Ancient monuments that mark sanctified places -- Stonehenge, England* and others. Kostof, S. A History of Architecture, "Stonehenge," 36-41. Chippindale, Christopher. Stonehenge Complete, "Preface," 6-19. Arrive Galway / Dublin Class 4, Sept. 4 / T English Garden City: Twentieth century community development model with world-wide influence -- Letchworth and Welwyn Garden City, UK, and Forest Hills, NYC, Greenbelt, MD Ward, Stephen, The Garden City. "The Garden City Introduced," 1-27. Arrive Southampton / London / Antwerp Class 5, Sept. 16 / Su Places of Worship: Great religious architecture -- Chartres Cathedral,* Suleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul,* Cathedral/Mosque, Cordoba,* and the Duomo, Florence.* Kostoff, S. A History of Architecture, 333-41, 287-92, 456-64 Arrive Lisbon / Cadiz Class 6, Sept. 18 / T Gardens: Paradises on earth; selected examples including the Alhambra, Granada,* and NYC High Line. Moore, C. The Poetics of Gardens, 190-97. Clark, Emma. The Art of the Islamic Garden, "History, Symbolism and the Quran," 22-35. Arrive Casablanca Class 8, Sept. 27 / Th Battles and Burials: Dedicated memorials for great sacrifices -- Normandy, France, Gettysburg, PA, Arlington, VA. Linenthal, Edward. Sacred Ground: Americans and their Battlefields, "Introduction," 1-7. Chouin, Gйrard. IDS Bulletin, "Sacred Groves in History: Pathways to the Social Shaping of Forest Landscapes in Coastal Ghana," 39-46. Class 7, Oct. 3 / W Mid-Term Exam and discussion of visited cities Arrive Tema, Ghana Class 9, Oct. 6 / S Holy Cities: Places of pilgrimages and, at times, conflicts including Jerusalem,* epicenter for the world's three largest monotheistic faiths, and Mecca, SA Tung, Anthony. Preserving the World's Great Cities, " The City as a Living Museum (Jerusalem section)," 420-431. Submit Field Study & Report 1 Sacred Places / 2
Class 10, Oct. 13 / S Mountains: Revered, awe-inspiring features of the natural landscape with selected examples including Cape Town's Table and Rio's Corcovado Mountains. Bernbaum, Edwin. Sacred Mountains of the World, "Introduction," xiii-xxiii. Class 11, Oct. 15 /M Islands: Places apart that acquire special meaning -- Robben Island, Cape Town* (Apartheid prison for Nelson Mandela) and Ellis Island, NYC. Shackley, Myra. International Journal of Heritage Studies, "Potential Futures for Robben Island: Shrine, Museum, or Theme Park," V.7, Issue 4, 355-363. Arrive Cape Town Class 12, Oct. 17 / W Spanish Colonial Towns: Settlements based on the Laws of the Indies, ideal regulations adapted to specific new world sites -- San Juan, Puerto Rico,* St. Augustine, Florida, and Colonia del Sacramento, Uruguay.* Reps, John. The Making of Urban America, "The Spanish Towns of Colonial America," 26-55. Class 13, Oct 24 / W Civic Plazas: Symbolically and socially important communal gathering places; Spanish, Italian and American examples. Bacon, Edmund. Design of Cities, "Medieval Design," 93-119. Class 14, Oct. 26 / F Museums: Honorific places of ritualized behavior -- voyage-visited museums and the Smithsonian, Washington, D.C. Duncan, Carol. Civilizing Rituals: Inside Public Art Museums, "Art Museum as Ritual," 7-20. Class 15, Oct. 29 / M Resort Towns: Fashionable pleasure retreats -- Bath, England, Beaufort, South Carolina, and Aspen, Colorado. Morris, AE.J. History of Urban Form, "Bath," 272-75. Boeschenstein, W. Historic Towns along the Atlantic Coast, "Beaufort, SC," 236-256. Class 16, Oct. 31 / W New Capital Cities: Significant political/cultural expressions -- Brasilia Federal City* and Canberra, Australia. Batista, Geraldo et al. Planning Twentieth Century Capital Cities, "Brasilia: A Capital in the Hinterland," 164-181. Arrive Buenos Aires / Montevideo Class 17, Nov. 9 / F Public Beaches and Shores: Gathering places where land and water meet, North American coastal examples and Rio de Janeiro's Copacabana, Ipanema Beaches. Lencek, Lena and Gideon Bosker. Beach: The History of Paradise on Earth, Ch.1, "No Man and the Sea," 1-24. Arrive Rio Class 18, Nov.14 / W Colleges/Universities and Towns: Formative environments through time -Cambridge University, England, and the University of Virginia.* Boeschenstein, W. "College Towns" (personal copy). Submit Field Study & Report 2 Sacred Places / 3
Class 19, Nov. 16 / F The House as Home: Environments for family life ­ sacred aspects of Mediterranean, Islamic, and Anglo-American dwellings. Rapoport, Amos. House Form and Culture, "Socio-Cultural Factors and House Form," 46-69.
Class 20, Nov. 19 / M National Memorials: Representations of civic values -- the Washington D.C. Mall (Lincoln, Vietnam and other memorials). Jeffrey F. Meyer, Myths in Stone: Religious Dimensions of Washington D. C., "The Axis of Power." 13-50.
Arrive Manaus, Brazil
Submit Term Paper
Class 21, Nov. 21 / W Class Presentations of Student Course Projects
Class 22, Nov. 22 / M Class Presentations of Student Course Projects
Class 23, Nov. 23 / Overview of Sacred Sites of the Voyage: range, similarities, influences, permanence, and mutability.
Nov.30/F Dec. 1 /S Dec. 2 / Su Dec. 3 / M Dec. 5 / W Dec. 6 / Th Dec. 7 / F
Global Studies Exam Arrive Roseau, Dominica Depart Roseau A Finals Reflection Day Packing, Commencement Arrive Ft. Lauderdale, 0800
COURSE ACADEMIC Field LabORATORY Buenos Aires / Colonia del Sacremento, Uruguay -- F, 2 November Colonia del Sacremento -- A Model for the Americas As the Spanish and Portuguese established footholds in their new colonies, they imposed on their settlements their town-planning guidelines, known as the "Laws of the Indies." Based on European precedents, these guidelines defined street patterns, size and location of civic plazas, and placement of major buildings. Colonia del Sacremento, Uruguay, dating from 1680, still exemplifies this tradition of town planning. A UNESCO World Heritage Site, it rests on a peninsula of land across the Rio de la Plata from Buenos Aires. After taking the ferry (passports required), students will walk the town's cobblestone streets lined with palms, visit the Plaza Mayor with trees draped in Spanish moss, and study the Plaza de Armas accented by the oldest church in Uruguay. Tours of local museums will provide insights into the town's tumultuous history and an awareness of everyday life in this colonial outpost. Overall, students should gain an appreciation of the guidelines, arguably the most influential in history for the role they played in colonizing the Americas.
Sacred Places / 4
FIELD ASSIGNMENTS Field Component Consider the three themes that organized our discussions of sacred sites and idealized communities -- (1.) the sacred, (2.) the hallowed, and (3.) the venerable. Your research should begin on ship before you reach a port as you read and inquire about potential sacred sites but keep an open mind for sites you might discover once on land. Undoubtedly, you will consider many sites but eventually will focus on two, one from the first part of the voyage and the other from the second part, that manifest at least one of the three characteristics. The sites should not be those covered in the course. In fact, smaller, more modest examples (a local church, burial ground, monument, garden) may be more manageable. First describe the physical site ­ its location, size, immediate context, and then how people relate to it ­ individually, collectively, when. What makes it sacred, for whom, why, and how; what distinguishes it from the ordinary, what rituals relate to it, and has its nature changed over time or always been "sacred" (to the extent you can determine this)? Field Journal & Report 1 Submissions / due Class 9 As you explore, take notes and photographs and make explanatory diagrams of sites that interest you. These will comprise your rough, "working" FIELD NOTES. Back on ship, focus on your preferred sacred site and reorganize your notes. Submit a more "formal" three-page report with neat notes (if hand written), photographs, diagrams, etc., in an 8-1/2"x11" format. At this stage, submit both your "working" field notes and "formal" report, the latter to be graded. Field Journal & Report 2 Submissions / due Class 18 Similar to Field Journal & Report 1, analyzing a different sacred site. Final Paper / due Class 20 Compare the two sites of your "formal" journal reports 1 and 2. Compare and contrast how they reflect their respective cultures; how does one succeed more than the other; do they relate to other sacred sites we have studied in the course, what lessons might we learn to improve other sacred sites, including those in the U.S.? The paper should be a maximum five pages (12-pt., doublespace typed, standard margins) and include relevant illustrations, which will be evaluated for content, not graphic technique. Student Class Presentations of Course Projects Each student will make a presentation to the class of his/her course projects during one of the last class sessions. This will be a concise, well-organized, and rehearsed presentation of the main points and conclusions of each report. Images should be arranged in a Power Point file for classroom projection. Participation Policy Students are expected to attend all classes. Students should take a minimum of two City Tours offered by SAS Sacred Places / 5
METHODS OF EVALUATION
Participation
10% (attendance, curiosity, perceptivity)
Field Study 1
10%
Field Study 2
10%
Final Paper
20%
Mid-term
20%
Final Exam
30%
RESERVE LIBRARY LIST
AUTHOR:
Bacon, Edmund N.
TITLE:
Design of Cities
PUBLISHER: Penquin
ISBN #:
0-14 00.4236 9
DATE/EDITION: 1974
COST:
in SAS Library
AUTHOR:
Kostoff, S.A.
TITLE:
A History of Architecture
PUBLISHER: Oxford U. Press
ISBN #:
0-19-508378-4
DATE/EDITION: 1995 / 2nd
COST:
in SAS Library
AUTHOR:
Morris, A. E. J.
TITLE:
History of Urban Form
PUBLISHER: Longman Scientific Technical (Co-published in US with John Wiley)
ISBN #:0-582-30154-8
DATE/EDITION: 1994
COST:
in SAS Library (on reserve for "World Cities")
AUTHOR:
Boeschenstein, Warren
TITLE:
Historic American Towns along the Atlantic Coast
PUBLISHER: Johns Hopkins University Press
ISBN #:
0-8018-6144-6
DATE/EDITION: 1999
COST:
in SAS Library (on reserve for "Looking at Cities")
Sacred Places / 6
ELECTRONIC COURSE MATERIALS
AUTHOR: CHAPTER TITLE: BOOK TITLE: VOLUME: DATE: PAGES:
Eliade, Mircea Sacred Space and Making the World Sacred The Sacred and the Profane, 1961 20-65
AUTHOR: CHAPTER TITLE: BOOK TITLE: VOLUME: DATE: PAGES:
Ward, Stephen The Garden City Introduced The Garden City: Past, Present ... (Ward, Stephen, ed.) 1992 1-27
AUTHOR: CHAPTER TITLE: BOOK TITLE: VOLUME: DATE: PAGES:
Moore, Charles W., William J. Mitchell, William Turnbull The Poetics of Gardens 1988 190-97
AUTHOR: CHAPTER TITLE: BOOK TITLE: VOLUME: DATE: PAGES:
Clark, Emma History, Symbolism and the Quran The Art of the Islamic Garden 2004 22-35
AUTHOR: ARTICLE/CHAPTER TITLE: JOURNAL/BOOK TITLE: VOLUME: DATE: PAGES:
Linenthal, Edward Introduction Sacred Ground: Americans and their Battlefields 1991 1-7
AUTHOR: ARTICLE/CHAPTER TITLE: JOURNAL/BOOK TITLE: VOLUME: DATE: PAGES:
Lencek, Lena and Gideon Bosker Beach: The History of Paradise on Earth Ch.1, No Man and the Sea 1998 1-24
Sacred Places / 7
AUTHOR: ARTICLE/CHAPTER TITLE: JOURNAL/BOOK TITLE: VOLUME: DATE: PAGES: AUTHOR: ARTICLE/CHAPTER TITLE: JOURNAL/BOOK TITLE: VOLUME: DATE: PAGES: AUTHOR: ARTICLE/CHAPTER TITLE: JOURNAL/BOOK TITLE: VOLUME: DATE: PAGES: AUTHOR: ARTICLE/CHAPTER TITLE: JOURNAL/BOOK TITLE: VOLUME: DATE: PAGES: AUTHOR: ARTICLE/CHAPTER TITLE: JOURNAL/BOOK TITLE: VOLUME: DATE: PAGES: AUTHOR: ARTICLE/CHAPTER TITLE: ... JOURNAL/BOOK TITLE: VOLUME: DATE: PAGES:
Meyer, Jeffrey F., (Berkeley: The Axis of Power Myths in Stone: Religious Dimensions of Washington D. C., 2001 13-50 Bernbaum, Edwin (see prof's copy) Introduction Sacred Mountains of the World 1977 xiii-xxiii Rapoport, Amos Socio-Cultural Factors and House /form House Form and Culture 1969 46-69 Duncan, Carol The Art Museum as Ritual Civilizing Rituals: Inside Public Art Museums 1995 7-20 Chippindale, Christopher Preface Stonehenge Complete 1983 6-19 Chouin, Gйrard Sacred Groves in History: Pathways to the Social Shaping IDS Bulletin V. 33, No. 1 2002 39-46
Sacred Places / 8
AUTHOR: ARTICLE/CHAPTER TITLE: JOURNAL/BOOK TITLE: VOLUME: DATE: PAGES: AUTHOR: ARTICLE/CHAPTER TITLE: JOURNAL/BOOK TITLE: VOLUME: DATE: PAGES: AUTHOR: ARTICLE/CHAPTER TITLE: JOURNAL/BOOK TITLE: VOLUME: DATE: PAGES: AUTHOR: ARTICLE/CHAPTER TITLE: JOURNAL/BOOK TITLE: VOLUME: DATE: PAGES:
Shackley, Myra Potential Futures for Robben Island: Shrine, ... International Journal of Heritage Studies Vol. 7, Issue 4 2001 355-363 Reps. John W. The Spanish Towns of Urban America The Making of Urban America 1965 26-55 Batista, Geraldo et al Brasilia: A Capital in the Hinterland Planning Twentieth Century Capital Cities (David Gordon, ed.) 2010 164-181. Tung, Anthony The City as a Living Museum Preserving the world's Great Cities 420-431
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 1. Digital Camera, for documenting and downloading images into class assignments. 2. Moleskine Folio A4 Plain Notebook (12" x 8.5") ­ recommended if not available, one of similar size, plain paper (without lines or grid) and flat-lying 3. Mechanical Pencil --7mm lead size, HB weight 4. Rubber Eraser, one that is white, smooth such as Staedtler
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