E-Cultural Heritage and Natural History Framework: An Integrated Approach to Digital Preservation

Tags: cultural heritage, UNESCO, institutions, Zachman Architecture Framework, preservation, Motivation, technology, natural history, information systems, economic practices, eCulture, cultural diversity, enterprise architecture framework, information technology, Seamless Integration, technical components, perspective, architecture, culture heritage, data integration, ICT application, digital information, DIGITAL PRESERVATION, information sharing, Zachman Framework, Cultural Heritage and Natural History, natural history information, natural landscapes, ICT integration, communication technology, Architecture Framework
Content: 2011 InterNational Conference on Telecommunication Technology and Applications Proc .of CSIT vol.5 (2011) © (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore E-CULTURAL HERITAGE AND Natural history FRAMEWORK: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO DIGITAL PRESERVATION Heri Kurniawan 1, Agus Salim 2, Heru Suhartanto 3, and Zainal A. Hasibuan 4 1,2,3,4 Faculty of Computer Science, University of Indonesia Abstract. Culture and natural history are life aspects that represent characteristic of one nation. Many problems and challenges in managing cultural heritage data are emminent, such as: unintegrated database, incomprehensive inventory, limited access to public, and so forth. Various data, applications, and technologies of cultural heritage and natural history are scattered and built with different formats and platforms. In order to overcome such problems and challenges, we proposed a framework, called eCultural Heritage and Natural History (eCHNH). This framework is developed based on Zachman Architecture Framework. We use it as a basis and guidance for digital preservation, accessibility and information sharing of cultural heritage and natural history, in the public and non-public domain. Zachman Architecture Framework assured seamless integration of eCHNH. Each component of Zachman Framework is integrated step-wisely in the eCHNH.. The first step is to integrate the various data. The second and the following steps integrate function, network, people, time and motivation, subsequently. The preliminary result shows that after all components being integrated into eCHNH portal, the preservation, accessibility, and information sharing among stakeholders are more visible. Keywords: cultural heritage, national history, ICT framework, Zachman Architecture Framework 1. Introduction Preserving national Cultural Heritage and Natural History (CHNH) has been done by many institutions. But, it was done separately and has no coordination among museum, library, community and other institutions. Whilst, information related to preserved CHNH, which contain cultural power of one nation, has been stored and disseminated over many institutions, organizations, and public. Many institutions, organizations, and public owned and preserved various cultural heritage and natural history collections. However, it is very difficult for public to find and identify CHNH information at a given specific location. Cultural heritage and natural history preservation contributes also to other aspects of life, such as: tourism, economy, content industry, security and defence, and business. Each cultural heritage has its tradition, strategic directive, and local wisdom, which can be inherited for next generations. Existing CHNH information has not been fully used to support those aspects. Beside that, CHNH information also can be used as a content for national character building and national unity strength. Furthermore, CHNH information also is needed as the sources of Indigenous knowledge and world civilization. In order to integrate the storing, disseminating, and preserving of CHNH digital information, there is a need to develop an electronic CHNH (eCHNH) framework and implement it into a portal that can be shared and accessed from public and non-public domain. This framework ensure digital preservation of CHNH complies to all international standards and format. The eCHNH portal based on this framework ensures an integrated repository, and widely accessible by stakeholders. The next sections we will discuss related works, our proposed eCHNH framework based on Zachman Architecture Framework, eCHNH web portal, and conclusion. 177
2. Related Works · Culture And Natural History Culture is a human pattern or model which is learned and spread in our daily life. This pattern has been assimilated into all human social interaction aspects. Culture is also an important human adaptation mechanism. The meaning of "culture" can be described as the results of activities and human mind creations, such as : beliefs, arts, and customs, and human knowledge as social creature, that are used for understanding ecology and his / her experiences, and become his / her behaviour directives. UNESCO [8] divided cultural heritage into two categories: tangible and intangible cultural heritage (see Fig. 1). Tangible cultural heritage is divided into immovable heritage and movable heritage. Immovable heritage includes historical building, monument, archeological sites. Movable heritage includes paintings, sculptures, furnitures, wall paintings. Intangible cultural heritage consists of oral traditions and expressions, including language; performing arts, social habits, rituals, and festivals; science and habits related to nature and world; and traditional skills. Fig. 1: Cultural Heritage Classification From UNESCO Indonesia is one of the countries that has many ethnic groups living in various areas. Each area has its own characteristics in culture. These various cultural heritages have been created since prehistoric period and that must be preserved for the next generations. One of organizations that collect Indonesian cultural heritage is IACI (Indonesian Archipelago Culture Initiatives). IACI works together with TIKAR Foundation in creating "NATIONAL CULTURAL ENCYCLOPEDIA". IACI has classified the existing culture into: traditional dances, ornaments, motive fabric, traditional musical instruments, traditional folklores, traditional musics and songs, traditional foods and beverages, rituals, performing arts, architecture products, traditional dresses, traditional weapons and battle equipments, ancient scripts and historical inscriptions. All these information has to be preserved. Preservation is an action that preserves cultural heritage objects and historical objects. According to UNESCO [5], the original condition from these objects must be maintained unchanged. Physical preservation can be conducted by using conservation, restoration, etc. As we need to preserve these objects phisically, we also need to preserve their information digitally. Digital preservation has been internationally developed by many institutions and has been assigned by UNESCO. Some guidelines has been proposed by UNESCO , such as [5], and [9]. In adition, there are many international standards and best practices that have been used for digital preservation in many institutions, like : UNESCO, ICOM, ICOMOS, ICCROM, IFLA, WWF, IUCN, et al. Beside culture heritage, we also need to preserve our natural history. Some dictionaries and experts have defined "natural history" as a study and description about organisms and natural objects, especially about their origins, evolutions, and their relations, including science about botany, zoology, mineralogy, geology, and paleontology. Botany is a branch of biology that concerns about plant's life; science about plants. Zoology is science about animal's life and classification of various animal morphologies around the world. Mineralogy is science about mineral. Geology is science about composition, structure, and history of the earth. Paleontology is science about fossils (animals and plants). From those definitions above, it can be 178
concluded that natural history consists of local plants and animals, minerals, natural landscapes, and prehistorical objects and sites. Both cultural heritage and natural history information is scattered, uncoordinated, unformatted, and difficult to stored and to access. Hence we need to use ICT. · The Use of ICT for CHNH In order to integrate the digital preservation of CHNH and make them accessible to users, it needs information and communication technology (ICT). Preserving a culture using ICT is called eCulture. According to Sanjin Dragojevi, et al [2], eCulture is formed as an impact of many serious challenges and changes that is experienced by modern society, such as: spread of knowledge, social interaction forms, education, economic practices, culture, and media. There are also many changes, like: information sources increased many times, and there are internet users that spend their times on reading and gathering on-line information. The challenges are: extinction on few traditional customs, and cultural diversity. ECulture is existed as one solutions for those challenges and changes. So eCulture can become a new cultural media and stores existing knowledge through culture heritage. Meanwhile, Alfredo M. Ronchi [8] defined eCulture as an eContent component that used for preserving and representing cultural heritage inline with future challenges, displaying important cultural assets clearly and informatively by using technology arts. Operationally, eCulture uses various media, including web based media and multimedia. Netherlands Council for Culture [6] explained that eCulture can be seen as ICT integration into important processes: production, distribution, presentation, preservation, and reusable cultural expression. Those processes form three aspects of eCulture : there is ICT application inside existing framework (digitisation of information); there is cultural innovation, that digital technology gives new form and combination from its contents and presentations; and there are facts that digitalization can build organizations and roles in organization's culture, adopt the new functions and working methods. Those three aspects are translated into : digitisation of information, cultural innovation, and role change in organization's culture. In cultural innovation, there are activities, such as: information sharing and multimedia content production. For supporting activities in cultural innovation, eCulture needs technical components in order to be developed and accessed by public. These technical components are included : dataset and format, standard and good practices, semantic web, interoperability, copyrights protection, and maintenance of large scale database. Dataset and format consist of data types, image compression, and colour. Many institutions have adopted various international standards and good practices, so they can decrease complexity, resources usage, risk, and expense. Semantic web compliments the common framework that enables the data, in order to be shared and reused through different applications, enterprise, and community. Interoperability can be defined as a current process for assuring organization's system, procedure, and culture that has been managed in such way to increase the opportunity for information exchange and reuse. In order to protect the information and Intellectual property rights (IPR) from digital piracy, copyrights protection will be strongly needed. After we store had stored the information into some large scale database, we must maintain them periodically [8]. In order to keep in touch with all these ICT based activities, they have to be framed in a framework. · Enterprise Architecture Framework. Nowadays, there are many enterprise architectures have been adopted for many developments of information systems, such as : Zachman Architecture Framework, The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF), Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), etc. Zachman Architecture Framework has similar methodology with TOGAF. Zachman Architecture Framework has contextual, conceptual, logical, physical layer while TOGAF has business, information systems, and technology layer. Both of them cover similar domains, such as : business drivers, business process, data, information, locations, applications, technology implementation, networks, etc [4]. eCultural Heritage and Natural History (eCHNH) will be developed using Zachman Architecture Framework because the Framework has more detail layers and components that eCHNH needs. Zachman architecture framework (see Fig. 2) is a two dimensions classification schema that represented into 6 x 6 matrixes. Zachman matrix's coloumns refer to components, such as: "Data" (what), "Function" 179
(how), "Network" (where), "People" (who), "Time" (when), and "Motivation" (why). Rows in Zachman's matrix represent a different and unique perspective. Each perspective defines solution, that refers to the others perspective and prevents those perspective from being overloaded. Those rows describe different player's point of views, like: Scope (Ballpark view), Business model (Owner's view), System model (Architect's view), Technology model (Designer's view), Detailed representation (Builder's view), and Functioning enterprise. Zachman architecture framework is also affected by classical architecture principals to explain a complex enterprise system into technical language that is easily understood. By designing a system based on Zachman architecture framework, architects can create a clean design that easily understood, balance, and complete. The design is used as a blueprint, or architecture for an organization information infrastructure [3]. Fig. 2: Zachman Architecture Framework All related works related to this reserach, will be combined and use for giving solutions for the research problems. ICT can be used for digital CHNH preservation. By using Zachman Architecture Framework as an enterprise architecture framework of CHNH, we can develop an ICT framework for CHNH. This framework is supported by technical components, such as : dataset and format, standard and good practices, semantic web, interoperability, copyrights protection, and maintenance of large scale database. 3. eCHNH Framework Development. There are many many institutions (stakeholders) that concern and involve at cultural heritage and natural history preservation, such as : government, museums, libraries, National Archives, communities, etc. As the initial of eCHNH, they have components, such as : "Data", "Function", "Network", "People", "Time", and "Motivation". Each institution has its own CHNH data. The data is very difficult to access due to different standard and format within stakeholders. Each institution has common issues and problems related to information technology and its infrastructures. They solve their issues and problems seperately.The first step of integration into eCHNH repository is data integration. Data integration is done by building a metadata. All data come from different format and different standard are standarized into this metadata (see Fig. 3). Any issues and problems related to data will be solved with data integration. With the same procedure, we integrate other Zachman Framework components: process, network, people, time, and motivation subsequently. 180
Fig. 3: First Step of Seamless Integration After all components have been integrated into eCHNH repository, all institutions which need information about "Data", "Process", "Network", "People", "Time", and "Motivation" component, can acces them through eCHNH repository (see at Fig. 4). So, any issues and problems related to information technology and its infrastructures will be solved with step-wisely seamless integration of e-CHNH. Public can access any information on CHNH without worrying about incompatible data, technology, and policy. Beside that, all related institutions can share and exchange any information they have, so they will be well integrated and coordinated. This eCHNH framework is implemented into e-Indonesiana portal. Fig. 4: Post-condition of eCHNH 4. eCHNH Web Portal: E-Indonesiana After defining eCHNH framework, the next step is to build an interface for users. We develop a web portal called e-Indonesiana (see Fig. 5). This portal is a one stop place to find any CHNH information from any location in Indonesia. This portal interacts directly with the user and acts as front-end application. In the backend, this portal is supported by eCHNH service engine constructed based on eCHNH framework. Users can access e-Indonesiana through computer terminals or mobile devices. For mobile devices equipped with GPS, users can request information of interesting CHNH locations that stand near their current location. EIndonesiana contains several important menus such as cultural heritage, national history, and cultural game, called "Indonesian Cultural Village". In cultural heritage menus, there are many information related to cultural heritage of each province. Users can select information from certain province or go deeper into 181
certain region of the province. E-indonesia also provides information in text, image, audio or video format. People may use it as a tourism reference or guidance before coming to Indonesia. This site is not only used for providing rich CHNH information, but also promotes Indonesia CHNH tourism to the world as well. Fig. 5: eCHNH web portal 5. Conclusion Data, applications, technologies, etc, on eCHNH are varies. This variety caused limited access, unintegrated database, incomprehensive inventory, etc. From our study, it shows that Zachman Architecture Framework can be used to integrate those various data, applications, technologies, etc. in eCHNH. The integration can be developed using step-wise approach. By using seamless integration of e-CHNH step-wise development, accessibility and information sharing among stakeholders are more visible. ECHNH framework is implemented into eCHNH web portal called e-Indonesiana. This web portal is a front-end application of eCHNH service engine. Further research is to develop mechanism to pull and to push CHNH information from various sources automatically. Beside that, we need to develop mechanism to represent effectively these multimedia-rich CHNH information. 6. Acknowledgement This paper was fully supported by DRPM UI Research Grant under contract number : 1198/SK/R/UI/2010 (research project on Indonesian e-Cultural Heritage and Natural History Framework). 7. References [1] Accademia nazionale dei Lincei. Trusted Repositories for Preserving Cultural Heritage. Italy. 2003. [2] Dragojevi, Sanjin, Diane Dodd, and Biserka Cvjetticanin. eCulture: The European Perpective - Cultural Policy, creative industries, Information Lag. Proc. from the Round Table Meeting, Zagreb 24-27April 2003. Zagreb: Institute for international relations. 2005, pp. 3. [3] Ertaul, Levent, and Raadika Sudarsanam. Security Planning Using Zachman Framework for Enterprise. Proc. of EURO mGOV 2005. UK : University of Sussex, Brighton. 2005. [4] Graves, Tom. Integrating Zachman and TOGAF-ADM. Tetradian Consulting. 2007. [5] Information Society Division. GUIDELINES FOR THE PRESERVATION OF DIGITAL HERITAGE. UNESCO. 2003. [6] Netherlands Council for Culture. From ICT to E-Culture. The Hague. 2004. [7] Onto Web Consortium. State of the art in Content Standards. November 2001. [8] Ronchi, Alfredo M.. eCulture ­ Cultural Content in the Digital Age. Germany: Springer. 2009. [9] UNESCO Bangkok. HOI AN PROTOCOLS FOR BEST conservation practice IN ASIA. UNESCO. 2009. 182

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