Virginia, Pennsylvania, Thomas Jefferson, map of Virginia, Jefferson, Peter Jefferson, America, Lewis Evans, North America, Engraving, William Scull, John Mitchell, Latitude, Joshua Fry, London, Prince William, outline color, Maps, Fry, Board of Trade and Plantations, American Atlas, Richard W. Stephenson, John Lederer, Sir William, Paris, Thomas Jefferys, Surveyors, Verner, Map Collection, Coolie Verner, Margaret Beck Pritchard, Henry G. Taliaferro, Marianne M. McKee, Sarah Shaver Hughes, Lewis Burwell, Thomas Fairfax, county boundaries, British territory, Fairfax, Special Collections Sayer, Fairfax Harrison, Yale University Press, Virginia Association of Surveyors, Virginia State Library, American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, Imago Mundi, Mapping Colonial America, James Madison, Benjamin Franklin, Charles Fran�is Delmarche Paris, Cartes Jacques-Nicolas Bellin, Henry Popple, John Stockdale, Charles Fran�is Delamarche, Governor Robert Hunter Morris, Georges-Louis Le Rouge, Pierre Jefferson, Didier Robert de Vaugondy, Gilles Robert de Vaugondy, Robert de Vaugondy, John Henry, Dr. John Mitchell, Jacques-Nicolas Bellin, Charles Jacques Groux, Matthew Carey, American Revolution, Dumas Malone, Fry-Jefferson, Bishop Madison, Mark C. Carnes, John Bennett, William Prentis, Thomas Jefferys London, Nicholas Scull, Samuel Lewis, Bishop James Madison, William Davis, Research notes
From Williamsburg To Wills's Creek: The Fry-Jefferson Map of Virginia, Its Predecessors and Derivatives As Virginians, native-born and immigrant, pushed into the interior and beyond, new opportunities arose for Virginia's surveyors, who responded by turning public lands into private holdings. Surveyors platted family farms, county boundaries, and towns, and were even called on to determine the colony's boundaries. As Virginia's chief cartographers, surveyors filled the constant need for accurate maps. Most of their efforts remained in manuscript form, however, until 1751, when Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson, among the most knowledgeable surveyors in colonial Virginia, combined their skills and experiences in surveying to produce the definitive map of the colony of Virginia in the eighteenth century
.1 Prior to the Seven Years' War (17561763), surveyors were equal participants with large land companies, such as the Ohio Company and the Loyal Land Company, which acquired and owned huge tracts of land in areas west of the Allegheny Mountains. Many of those holdings encroached on territory claimed by the French. The Treaty of Utrecht that ended Queen Anne's War (17131714) had determined the boundaries of French and British claims to lands in North America
. The territorial delimitations, however, were not specific and, as a result, the British and French held different interpretations of their mutual boundary. By 1750 the British were convinced that the treaty had failed and that the French were encroaching on British territory
. Possessing few detailed maps of North America, the Board of Trade and Plantations in London determined that a more accurate map of the colony was needed.2 When George Montagu Dunk, earl of Halifax and president of the Board of Trade and Plantations, asked the British colonies
in 1750 for more information about activities on the frontier, Lewis Burwell, acting governor of Virginia, responded by commissioning Colonel Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson to prepare a map of the colony. Fry and Jefferson were experienced surveyors who had worked together in determining the Fairfax Line in 1746. In 1736 and 1737 surveys had been undertaken to establish the western boundary of the land belonging to Thomas Fairfax, sixth baron Fairfax. Known as the Northern Neck Proprietary, the Fairfax tract consisted of 5,282,000 acres of land situated between the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers up to the headwaters of each stream. Concerned about the attacks by the Virginia General Assembly on his rights to the vast expanse, Fairfax sought the assistance of the Crown, which ordered that commissioners and surveyors be appointed by both parties to determine the source of the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers. In 1745 the Privy Council accepted Fairfax's boundary for the Northern Neck as a straight line from the headspring of the Rappahannock River to the headspring of the Potomac but demanded that Fairfax recognize land titles issued by the Virginia government. Fry and Jefferson also served as joint commissioners to extend the western portion of the boundary line between Virginia and North Carolina
in 1749. They had also served as surveyors for Albemarle County, a recently created Archives Research Services | 800 East Broad Street | Richmond, Virginia
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From Williamsburg To Wills's Creek county in Virginia's Piedmont region. The pressure to produce the map compelled Fry and Jefferson to rely on their own surveys and experiences to supplement existing published maps, manuscript maps, and field notes. In 1751 Fry and Jefferson delivered a draft to Burwell, who then sent the manuscript map to the Board of Trade and Plantations in August 1751. It was presented officially to the commissioners in March 1752. The map was given to Thomas Jefferys, an engraver, who hired artist Francis Hayman (17081779) and engraver Charles Grignion (d. 1787) to design and execute the cartouche. The design for the cartouche emphasized Virginia's dependence on a tobacco economy based on chattel slavery
. The result was the most important map of Virginia drawn in the eighteenth century.3 Continuing the tradition of Virginia cartography that began in 1612 with John Smith's map, Fry and Jefferson's map dominated cartographical representations of Virginia until the publication of Bishop James Madison's map in 1807. Fry and Jefferson's published map included their completed border survey for the western bounds of the Northern Neck and of part of the dividing line between Virginia and North Carolina. For the first time the entire Virginia river system was properly delineated, and the northeast-southwest orientation of the Appalachian Mountains was fully displayed, although John Lederer had suggested that alignment, even without the benefit of surveys.4 Several editions of A MAP of the most INHABITED part of VIRGINIA were published. The map was widely copied, and several French language editions and derivatives were printed. It was an important resource for Lewis Evans as he drew A general Map of the Middle British Colonies, in America, and for John Mitchell who created one of the most important political maps of colonial North America, A MAP of the British and French Dominions in North America. It was used to determine the boundaries of the new United States in the 1783 Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolution. Fellow Virginian John Henry relied heavily on Fry and Jefferson's map as he plotted out Virginia's county boundaries in his New and Accurate MAP of VIRGINIA, published in 1770. Thomas Jefferson
, Peter Jefferson's son, also used his father's map extensively while compiling A Map of the country between Albemarle Sounds, and Lake Erie to accompany his Notes on the State of Virginia.5 The Library of Virginia's Map Collection includes several fine examples of these cartographic works. Listed below is a selection of late-seventeenth-, eighteenth-, and early-nineteenth-century maps, including the Library's collection of Fry-Jefferson maps of Virginia and derivatives, and maps influenced by Fry and Jefferson's work. They are available for patron research in the Map Reading Room, except when noted. Researchers are required to complete a REGISTRATION FORM
and present identification and proof of current address in order to use the collection. A stack service slip must be completed in order for researchers to request a map. Early Maps and Town Surveys A MAP OF THE WHOLE TERRITORY TRAVERSED BY JOHN LEDERER IN HIS THREE MARCHES John Lederer Published in The Discoveries of John Lederer
3 London: Printed by J. C. for S. Heyrick, 1672 Bound volume Special Collections, F229 L46 In 1669 John Lederer, a German immigrant, crossed into the Piedmont and in 1672 published a description of his travels. Until the mid-1600s, mapmakers relied on information obtained from Indians about Virginia's interior. The lack of surveys and reliance on visual impressions gave maps like Lederer's a conjectural quality. Finding a pass through the Appalachian Mountains to the Pacific Ocean occupied explorers and colonists who hoped to tap the riches of the Far East.6 VIRGINIA Johannes Fredericus Gronovius (16111671) In Flora Virginica Lugduni Batavorum [Leiden], 1762 Bound volume Special Collections, QK191 .G87 Flora Virginica, first published by Johannes Gronovius in 17391743, represented a catalog of botanical specimens collected in Virginia by John Clayton, son of a Virginia lawyer. The map appeared in the second edition, published by Laurens Gronovius (17301777), who provided a key to the waterways and locations of Clayton's discoveries. While still impressionistic, the map's concern with details of the interior is reflected in the inclusion of the names of numerous counties. It is one of the earliest botanical maps of any region in the world.7 A NEW MAP of VIRGINIA MARY=LAND And the Improved Parts of PENN=SYLVANIA & NEW JERSEY John Senex (ca. 16781740) Published in A New General Atlas London, 1685, 1719 Engraving with outline color G3790 1719 .S4 First published in 1685 by Christopher Browne (fl. 16841712), the 1673 map of Virginia by Augustine Herrman continued to be a source for English publishers long after the map became outdated. John Senex obtained a copy of Browne's publication, revised it slightly in 1719, and then published his version in A New General Atlas. Senex added longitude lines as well as a distinctive cartouche that depicts tobacco and shellfish as the staple products of the region. Unlike the Herrman model, later derivatives oriented north at the top of the sheet rather than to the right.8
Research notes number 31 VIRGINIA and MARYLAND Herman Moll (ca. 16541732) Published in Atlas Minor London, 1736 Engraving G3842 .C5 1736 .M75 A simplified derivative of Augustine Herrman's 1673 map, Herman Moll's map was the most familiar depiction of these colonies available during the first half of the eighteenth century. It was the last important map to restrict Virginia to the Tidewater region. Moll showed English and Indian plantations and houses as well as the names of counties. First published in 1708 in John Oldmixon's volume The British Empire in America, the map subsequently was included in editions of Moll's popular Atlas Minor from 1729 to 1763. The son of an Amsterdam bookseller, Moll settled in London about 1678. By the time of his death in September 1732, Moll had developed a significant reputation for his distinctive style of engraving and lettering, for his many map publications, and for being an outspoken champion of British territorial claims in North America at the expense of the French.9 A NEW and ACCURATE MAP of VIRGINIA and MARYLAND Laid Down from Surveys and Regulated by Astronl Observatns Emmanuel Bowen (ca. 1693/16941767) London, 1752 State 1 Engraving with hand-coloring G3842 .C5 1752 .B6 Maps, like families, have lineages. Emanuel Bowen first published A New and Accurate Map of Virginia and Maryland in 1747 in A Complete Atlas; or, Distinct View of the Known World, using sources such as Herman Moll's popular 1736 map of the colony, and, possibly, Henry Popple's 1733 map of North America, in which the colony of Virginia was based on Augustine Herrman's 1673 map of Virginia and Maryland.10 A New Map of Virginia humbly Dedicated to ye Right Honble Thomas Lord Fairfax Sir William Keith (16801749) In The History of the British Plantations in America London: S. Richardson, 1738 Bound volume Special Collections, K229 .K28 1738 Arriving in Virginia in 1714, William Keith served as chief customs officer for the southern colonies and later as lieutenant governor of Pennsylvania (17171726). Returning to London where he struggled to
5 regain his fortune and spent time in debtors' prison, Keith decided to publish a multivolume history of the British plantations in America. Only one volume was ever published. Based on sheets 6 and 10 from Henry Popple's work A MAP of the BRITISH EMPIRE in AMERICA with the FRENCH and SPANISH SETTLEMENTS, Keith's map covers the area from Newark, New Jersey, to Sampe Bay, South Carolina, and includes both the Delaware and Chesapeake Bay
s. The names and spellings are almost identical to those found on Popple's maps. The map's engraver is unknown.11 A General Map of the Known and Inhabited Part of Virginia William Mayo (1860) Copied from original manuscript in State Paper Office, London. Book 12, No. 16. Charles Booth Pen and ink with watercolor on linen G3881 .F1 1731 .M3 Three years after William Mayo helped prepare the 1728 map of the VirginiaNorth Carolina boundary line, he drew a map of Virginia at Lieutenant Governor Sir William Gooch's request. This map is most accurate in depicting the VirginiaNorth Carolina boundary and the new Piedmont counties, such as Goochland, and it shows the drainage system
of the Shenandoah Valley.12 Plan of the Town of Fredericksbg. as first laid off in 50 Acres of Land by Royston and Buckner 1721 1721 Pen and ink and watercolor 755.36/1721 In 1721 John Royston and Robert Buckner laid out an ambitious town plan for Fredericksburg with fifty-acre allotments for sale to trustees and other interested parties. An act of the General Assembly in February 1728 established Fredericksburg, and the surveyor of Spotsylvania County, George Hume (or Home), reportedly laid out the town again on 13 August 1728. Because his plat did not survive, it is unknown whether Hume made any noticeable changes to the 1721 plat.13 A Plan of Richmond William Mayo (16841744) and James Wood (17071759) 1737 Pen and ink and watercolor 755.44/1736 In 1733 William Byrd II of Westover (16741744), one of the colony's leading planters and landowners, asked his friend William Mayo to lay out on Byrd's property a new town to be called Richmond. Mayo asked James Wood, surveyor of Orange County, to assist him in the undertaking. Byrd used their plat
Research notes number 31 during the first sale of lots in the spring of 1737, listing names of the owners and the lots purchased. The General Assembly established Richmond in 1742 and incorporated it as a town, although "stiled the city of Richmond," in 1782.14 Marlborough Town as Surveyed by Theodorick Bland [William Buckner] and The Town of Marlborough surveyed by John Savage Copied by John Savage, Surveyor, Stafford County, 26 April 1734 Pen and ink Tipped in entry for John Mercer, Land Record Book Bound manuscript Personal Papers Collection, Accession 20487 In April 1691 the General Assembly ordered each county to purchase fifty acres of land for laying out a new town that would operate as a center for the tobacco trade. Before the repeal of the act in 1693, at least three towns were surveyed: Marlborough in Stafford County, Queenstown in Lancaster County, and Yorktown in York County. Marlborough served as the county seat until 1718 and was abandoned by 1723. Three years later, John Mercer began purchasing town lots and soon acquired almost the entire site. Mercer attempted to revive the town by building a house, a mill, a brewery, and a glass factory. His fleet of ships loaded and unloaded at his wharf, and he owned several warehouses, a tavern, and a racetrack. The town served as an important shipping point during the Revolutionary War but ceased to exist by 1800.15 Maps and Virginia's Boundary A SURVEY of the NORTHERN NECK Of VIRGINIA John Warner London, ca. 1747 or later Fourth edition Engraved map printed on vellum In "Scrapbook Relating to Thomas, 6th Lord Fairfax, His Estate and Family," comp. Orlando Fairfax, Richmond, 18. Bound volume Special Collections, CS71 .F167 18 In 1737 William Mayo drafted A Map of the Northern Neck in Virginia (published in 1745) based on the surveys completed by the Crown's party. Fairfax rejected Mayo's draft and hired John Warner, surveyor for King George County, to prepare another map to summarize the findings of the Fairfax surveyors. Warner
7 used field notes provided by the Fairfax party to produce a map that favored Fairfax's claims. It was the first published map to show accurately the courses of the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers, their headwaters, and the location of the Blue Ridge and the Allegheny Mountains. The broken line between the two rivers represents the western limits of the Northern Neck Proprietary as ordered by the Crown on 11 April 1745. In this fourth state the title has been augmented with additional material, a new cartouche encloses the title, the Fairfax coat of arms has been added, and the Fairfax Line is included with four lines of descriptive text. The county boundaries are not delineated.16 A MAP OF THE NORTHERN NECK IN VIRGINIA Peter Jefferson and Robert Brooke II, , 1860 Copied from original manuscript in State Paper Office, London. Book 12, No. 16. Charles Booth Pen and ink with watercolor on linen G3882 .N5 1746 .J44 1860 Once the Privy Council ordered another survey be conducted to determine the Fairfax Line, Virginia's lieutenant governor Sir William Gooch appointed Joshua Fry as one of the commissioners on behalf of the Crown, while Lord Fairfax reappointed William Fairfax and William Beverly. The Crown's commissioners chose Peter Jefferson and Robert Brooke II to survey the line, and Benjamin Winslow and Thomas Lewis worked on behalf of Lord Fairfax. In January 1747, the four surveyors met at Tuckahoe, where Peter Jefferson lived, and produced a map based on Mayo's 1737 map of the region. The map solidified the Virginia colony's claims to the Valley of Virginia. This particular copy was traced on linen in 1860 from the original manuscript copy in the State Paper Office, London, and sent to Virginia. On 4 April 1865, Fred Lindal wrote to a Mr. Bughee of Chautauqua County, New York, asking him to look over the relics he was sending, including this tracing. In 1941 Mrs. Lewis F. Lindal, of Buffalo, New York, sold this copy to the Virginia State Library for five dollars.17 Survey of the VirginiaNorth Carolina boundary Line West of the Allegheny Mountains Thomas Walker (17151794) and Daniel Smith (17481818) 17791780 Pencil and pen and ink G3881 .F1 1779 .W35 In 1779 Virginians Dr. Thomas Walker and General Daniel Smith and North Carolinians Colonel Richard Henderson and William B. Smith surveyed the dividing line between the two colonies to extend the line beyond Fry and Jefferson's stopping point. The North Carolina surveyors traveled as far as the Cumberland Mountains, but Walker and Smith pushed westward to the Cumberland River and continued until they finally reached the Tennessee River in March 1780. This south-oriented manuscript map shows the boundary
Research notes number 31 line that they determined, the rivers and mountains crossing it, and their route from Clear Fork to the Cumberland River.18 Fry-Jefferson Maps of Virginia A MAP of the most INHABITED part of VIRGINIA containing the whole PROVINCE of MARYLAND with Part of PENSILVANIA, NEW JERSEY AND NORTH CAROLINA Joshua Fry (17181754) and Peter Jefferson (17081757) Thomas Jefferys (ca. 17191771), engraver London, 1755 State 3 Engraving with outline color G3880 1755 .F71 This state of Fry and Jefferson's map reflects several geographical changes made to State 2 based on the explorations of Christopher Gist (ca. 17061759). Employed by the Ohio Company, Gist explored the Ohio River and traveled with George Washington to visit French forts near Lake Erie. Fry and Jefferson received maps prepared by Washington and Gist, and Fry may have had access to Gist's journals. The two western plates were reworked to reflect Gists's findings and the map displays the corrected courses of the Ohio, Kanawha, and New Rivers, and identifies the location of French settlements on Pennsylvania's border. The engraver received additional information from John Dalrymple (d. 1766), a Scots officer who provided a scale of distances that appeared in the upper left quadrant and who may have given the location of wagon roads and information concerning western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and Kentucky. This and succeeding states can be identified by the inclusion of the word "most" in the title. The third state is distinguished by incorrect longitude degree marks inside the upper and lower borders.19 A MAP of the most INHABITED part of VIRGINIA containing the whole PROVINCE of MARYLAND with Part of PENSILVANIA, NEW JERSEY AND NORTH CAROLINA Joshua Fry (17181754) and Peter Jefferson (17081757) Thomas Jefferys (ca. 17191771), engraver London, 1755 State 4 Engraving with outline color and watercolor G3880 1755 .F72 Soon after State 3 was published, Fry and Jefferson's map was reworked yet again to correct the longitude degree marks from 65°72ґ to 75°82ґ longitude west of London. State 4 is the last one in which any geographical changes were made. The 1755 and later printings proved extremely popular, and the map was sold individually until Jefferys incorporated it into his General Topography of North America and the West
9 Indies. Among its other merits, the map was the best contemporary map of Maryland, often cited as the least mapped of all the British colonies.20 A MAP of the most INHABITED part of VIRGINIA containing the whole PROVINCE of MARYLAND with Part of PENSILVANIA, NEW JERSEY AND NORTH CAROLINA Joshua Fry (17181754) and Peter Jefferson (17081757) Thomas Jefferys (ca. 17191771), engraver London, 1775 State 6 Engraving with outline color G3880 1775 .F72 The date in the cartouche has been changed to 1775, but the imprint is the same as that published in State 5. The firm of Robert Sayer (17251794) and John Bennett (d. 1787) published Thomas Jefferys's American Atlas in 1775 and 1776 with this state of the Fry and Jefferson map of Virginia. This plate was also used by William Faden (17491836) in his North American
Atlas (17771778).21 Derivatives CARTE DE LA VIRGINIE ET DU MARYLAND Dressйe sur la grande carte Angloise de Mrs. Josuй Fry et Pierre Jefferson, Par le Sr. Robert de Vaugondy Geographe ordinaire due Roi Avec Privilege 1755 Robert de Vaugondy (17231786) E. Haussard, engraver Paris, 17551757 French derivative, State 1 Engraving G3880 1755 .R6 From Paris the well-known and prolific family firm of Robert de Vaugondy (fl. 17311778) published one of two editions of Fry and Jefferson's map of Virginia in five states. Most copies were published in Atlas Universel. By reducing content and word size the firm was able to limit the map to one sheet. In this state, material is missing from the western sections, there is an absence of roads, and the lack of some eastern Virginia place-names leads some scholars to speculate that this Vaugondy derivative is based on the first state of Fry and Jefferson's map. Country west of the Allegheny Mountains is labeled "Louisiane." Elizabeth Haussard (fl. 17491760?) engraved the cartouche, becoming the first female to engrave a map of Virginia. Between them, Haussard and her sister Marie Catherine Haussard (fl. 17521758?) engraved at least thirty-seven sheets for Gilles and Didier Robert de Vaugondy's Atlas. One of this map's distinguishing features is Haussard's signature under the cartouche.
Research notes number 31 Didier Robert de Vaugondy (17231786) was appointed Gйographe du Roi in 1752, and he and his father (Gilles Robert de Vaugondy, 16881766) worked together to publish Atlas Universel (1757). After his father's death, Didier Robert de Vaugondy ran the family firm. In 1778 Jean Baptiste Fortin took over the business and sold the Vaugondy stock to Charles Franзois Delamarche (17401807).22 CARTE DE LA VIRGNIE ET DU MARYLAND Dressйe sur la grande carte Angloise de Mrs. Josй Fry et Pierre Jefferson, Par le Sr. Robert de Vaugondy Gйographe Robert de Vaugondy (17231786) and Charles Franзois Delmarche Paris, 1793 French derivative, State 5 Engraving with outline color G3880 1793 .R63 The guillotine death of Louis XVI in 1793 caused the publisher to delete the phrase "du Roi" from the imprint. In this state the last three lines of the cartouche have been removed, making Robert de Vaugondy simply "Gйographe. The map's engraver most likely was Charles Jacques Groux (fl. 1778), whose signature replaces Elizabeth Haussard's. After about 1780, the Fairfax boundary and the western boundary of Pennsylvania were removed and Pennsylvania's southern boundary was extended on the Vaugondy derivatives.23 Carte de la virginie, de la baye chesapeack, et Pays Voisins Pour servir а l'Histoire Gйnйrale des Voyages Tirйe des meilleures Cartes Jacques-Nicolas Bellin (17031772) Paris, 1757 State 2 Engraving with outline color G3880 1757 .B4 Voorhees Collection Derived from the Fry-Jefferson map of Virginia, this map appeared in the Histoire Gйnйrale des Voyages by Abbй Prevost (Paris, 17381775). It shows the area from Philadelphia south to Cape Henry. It also notes locations of towns and the Great Wagon Road that ran from Philadelphia, through the Valley of Virginia, into the Carolinas. Jacques-Nicolas Bellin was "hydrographer to the king," and the first hydrographic engineer of the "Dйpфt des cartes, plans et journaux du Ministиre de la Marine."24 VIRGINIE, MARYLAND en 2 feuilles par Fry et Jefferson Traduit, Corrigй, augmentй A PARIS Chez LE ROUGE Jng. D Geographe du Roi rue des Grands Augustines 1777. Avec Privilege du Roi. Georges-Louis Le Rouge (17121790) Pairs, 1777
11 Engraving with outline color G3880 1777 .L4 Paris publisher Georges-Louis Le Rouge issued two atlases in 1778 originally published by the London firm of Jefferys and Faden (fl. 1773). His Atlas Amйriquain included the second edition of the Fry and Jefferson map published in Paris as plate number 18. By including an inset panel with the western parts of the colony, Le Rouge reduced the four-sheet map to two. Only one state of this map is known to have been published.25 Maps and Mapmakers Influenced by Fry and Jefferson's Map of Virginia A general Map of the Middle British Colonies, in America; viz VIRGINIA, MARILAND, DELAWARE, PENSILVANIA, NEW-JERSEY, NEW-YORK, CONNECTICUT, AND RHODE ISLAND Lewis Evans (d. 1756) James Turner
, engraver Philadelphia, 1755 Engraving G3710 1755 .E8 Voorhees Collection An excellent geographer and gifted scientist, Lewis Evans had completed several maps of Pennsylvania before embarking on the task of mapping the middle British colonies. Gaining a more accurate understanding of the Ohio Valley area became imperative with the increasing French interest in an area the British also hoped to settle. Evans was one of the first mapmakers to visit the area, securing permission to travel with Indian agent Conrad Weiser and botanist John Bartram. For the Virginia portion of the map, Evans used the recently published Fry-Jefferson map and William Mayo's Map of the Northern Neck of Virginia. Benjamin Franklin and David Hall published the Analysis, a separate document that cites Evans's sources. Evans's map went through eighteen editions (most pirated) between 1755 and 1814. The earliest documentation for Welsh-born Lewis Evans is a 1736 entry in Benjamin Franklin's account book noting that Evans had purchased an arithmetic book. Evans maintained a friendship with Franklin and his common-law wife, Deborah Rogers, who were godparents to his daughter. Evans held strong political opinions on British activities in the colonies and made accusations against Governor Robert Hunter Morris, of Pennsylvania. Morris, in turn, accused Evans of slander, which resulted in Evans's eventual imprisonment. Lewis Evans died in prison in 1756.26 A MAP of the British and French Dominions in North America WITH THE Roads, Distances, Limits and Extent of the SETTLEMENTS, Humbly Inscribed to the Right Honourable The Earl of Halifax, And the other Right Honourable The Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations John Mitchell (17111768)
Research notes number 31 Thomas Kitchin (17181784), engraver London, 1755 2d Edition, 17551757 Engraving with outline color G3300 1755 .M52 Voorhees Collection This large-scale map by Dr. John Mitchell depicts British and French land claims in North America prior to the outcome of the French and Indian War (17541763). Continuing French encroachment led to British interest in producing a map of English holdings in North America that would update the Henry Popple map and more accurately counter French claims. Five years in the making, Mitchell's map used information from the new map of Virginia created by Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson and from Lewis Evans's manuscript map of Pennsylvania and its adjoining backcountry. Mitchell also used resources provided by the Board of Trade and Plantations that included geographical reports, maps, charts, and journals. On the map, the western boundary of Virginia and other southern colonies extends to the Pacific Ocean and includes territory claimed by the French. Printed on eight sheets, the map measures more than four by five feet when assembled. Mitchell's map was an immediate success when Andrew Millar published it in 1755. The Board of Trade issued copies to each colonial governor in America. Rich in detail, Mitchell's creation had its greatest impact as a political map. The most important political treaty map in American history, it was used to determine the boundaries of the new United States in the 1783 Treaty of Paris. It also served as evidence in the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842, the Quebec boundary definition of 1871, the Canada Labrador boundary case of 1926, the Wisconsin-Michigan boundary case of 1926, and the DelawareNew Jersey dispute of 1932.27 A New and Accurate Map of Virginia Wherein most of the Counties are laid down from Actual Surveys John Henry (ca. 17041773) Thomas Jefferys (ca. 17191771), engraver London, 1770 Engraving with outline color G3880 1770 H4 Voorhees The map of Virginia by John Henry was the first to outline Virginia's county boundary lines. Henry intended to include features not found on the 1754 Fry-Jefferson map, such as soundings and distances between places, to encourage settlement in the area as well as to turn a profit. Despite proposals to the House of Burgesses in 1766, 1768, and 1769, Henry had difficulty obtaining financial support. He finally gathered sufficient funds through subscriptions and in 1770 had the map engraved in London by Thomas Jefferys, who had also engraved and marketed the Fry-Jefferson map and John Mitchell's map of North America.
13 Henry's map never became as popular as the well-regarded Fry-Jefferson map, however, and the lack of financial backing kept him from including several ideas to make his map more useful. Thomas Pownall, who preferred Lewis Evans's competing map of the middle British colonies, complained that Henry's map was "a very inaccurate Compilation; defective in Topography: and not very attentive even to Geography." As a result, few copies were printed, although the map did outline the county boundaries, list plantations and owners along the rivers, and provide a useful text on Virginia's economic and social status in 1770.28 A Map of the country between Albemarle Sound, and Lake Erie, comprehending the whole of Virginia, Maryland, Delaware and Pensylvania Published in Notes on the State of Virginia, by Thomas Jefferson London: Printed for John Stockdale, 1787 Engraving Bound volume Special Collections, F230 .J45 1786 When Franзois Barbй-Marbois circulated a series of questions about the new states in 1780, Thomas Jefferson, son of Peter Jefferson, answered for Virginia. His reply became the basis for Notes on the State of Virginia, first published in Paris in 1784. When Jefferson arranged for Abbй Morellet to produce a French translation, Morellet encouraged him to prepare a detailed map of Virginia and neighboring states to accompany the text. Thomas Jefferson's was the first general map of Virginia to be published since Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson's in 1754, and it was the first to provide general cartographic improvements to the earlier map. It captured eastern Virginia's growing population and the development of western counties as more people moved farther west. Using a variety of published sources, including his father's map and Lewis Evans's highly regarded map of the middle British colonies, Jefferson included the location of courthouses, forts, private dwellings, and numerous place-names. It was the first map to delineate state boundaries. Samuel Neele (17581824) engraved the map in London, and Guillaume Delahaye (17271802) made extensive corrections to the plate in Paris. By 24 March 1787, several impressions had been pulled. John Stockdale (ca. 17491814) produced an English edition of Notes on the State of Virginia and printed more impressions from the plate, adding his imprint to the bottom. The plate was then returned to France. Thomas Jefferson completed his father's work, in a sense, by extending his father's map of "the most inhabited parts of Virginia" to "the whole of Virginia." The map's caption credits the Fry-Jefferson map and the William Scull map for geography east of the Allegheny Mountains, and for the west, "Hutchins who went over the principal water courses, with a compass and log line, correcting his work by observations of latitude: additions have been made where they could be made on sure ground."29
Research notes number 31 A MAP OF PENNSYLVANIA EXHIBITING NOT ONLY THE IMPROVED PARTS OF THAT PROVINCE, BUT ALSO ITS EXTENSIVE FRONTIERS: LAID FROM ACTUAL SURVEYS, AND CHIEFLY FROM THE LATE MAP OF W. SCULL, PUBLISHED IN 1770 William Scull (fl. 17701778) Published in American Atlas, compiled by Thomas Jefferys London: Robert Sayer and John Bennett, 1775 Engraving G1100 .J44 1776 Special Collections Sayer and Bennett's derivative of William Scull's rare and noteworthy map of Pennsylvania is a revised and improved edition. There are clearer topographical delineations, and longitude and latitude markers are included. Scull's map is considered to be one of the most accurate and most comprehensive maps of Pennsylvania published before the American Revolution. For the first time Pennsylvania's western frontier beyond the Appalachian Mountains is shown, and the map includes not only western roads, paths, and forts, but also the newly executed Mason-Dixon Line. When drawing his map, Scull relied on his grandfather Nicholas Scull's 1759 map of the colony and new surveys. Thomas Jefferson relied on William Scull's map of Pennsylvania when drawing that portion of his map. The grandson of Nicholas Scull (16871762), a well-known Pennsylvania surveyor, William Scull also worked as a surveyor. He joined the 11th Pennsylvania Regiment during the American Revolution, and in 1778 General George Washington asked him to survey parts of Berks, Chester, and Lancaster Counties. Scull soon resigned from the regiment to join Washington's geographer's department. He returned to Reading and served as town burgess (or mayor). Scull died in 1783, ending the Scull family's involvement in cartography.30 Later Maps of Virginia The State of Virginia from the best authorities Samuel Lewis (ca. 17541822) In "Scrapbook Relating to Thomas, 6th Lord Fairfax, His Estate and Family," comp. Orlando Fairfax, Richmond, 18. Philadelphia, 1795 G3880 1794 .L4 Drawn by Samuel Lewis for Matthew Carey's American Atlas, the earliest atlas of the United States, The State of Virginia from the best authorities indicates the location of towns and courthouses and names the counties, although their boundaries are not included.
15 Lewis was a well-known cartographer who worked occasionally in association with map publishers like Matthew Carey (17601839). Lewis immigrated to the United States from London, where he had worked for Aaron Arrowsmith (17501823), one of the best mapmakers in Europe in the 1790s.31 A MAP of Virginia Formed from Actual Surveys, and the latest as well as the most accurate observations James Madison (17491812) Frederick Bossler, engraver Richmond, 1807 Engraving with outline color 755/1807 Not until 1807, more than half a century after the publication of the great Fry-Jefferson map of Virginia, did a new map supersede it. Bishop James Madison was the first bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Virginia and the president of the College of William and Mary, which from colonial times had jurisdiction over surveyors in Virginia. While not a cartographer himself, Bishop Madison was able to assemble the surveys and data underlying his map. He was a first cousin of President James Madison, to whom he wrote, "If our valuable friend Mr. Jefferson has collected any observations of important positions since the publication of his map, I would thank him for them." Accordingly, one can trace a Virginia map genealogy from Fry-Jefferson through Thomas Jefferson to Bishop Madison. In 1807 Virginia took the lead among the southern states by completing the first state map for that part of the country. Bishop Madison directed production of the map, gathering information from completed state boundary surveys, county surveys, and recent observations for longitude and latitude. He enlisted the aid of several associates to draft the map. William Prentis supervised the compilation of the map; William Davis supervised the final draft; and Frederick Bossler, of Richmond, engraved the copperplates. Madison, Prentis, and Davis published the map privately in Richmond, making it the first map of Virginia to be compiled, engraved, and published in the commonwealth. The map's format and content are similar to earlier state maps. Engraved on six sheets, it displays a moderate amount of detail, including county boundaries, stage and public roads, towns and villages, and selected structures (mills, ironworks, dwellings, and houses of entertainment). The mapmakers delineated an extensive drainage pattern of rivers and streams and indicated the topography of the more mountainous regions with elongated molehills. An inset of Ohio is included. Bishop Madison's map remained the primary cartographic representation of the state of Virginia until 1827 when the Herman Boяe map of Virginia was published. An extensively corrected second edition was published in 1818, which included new county boundaries for the western part of the state, as well as the county names and boundaries on the inset map of Ohio.32
Research notes number 31 From Williamsburg to Wills's Creek: The Fry-Jefferson Map of Virginia Bibliography Advertisement for map. Virginia Gazette, April 11, 1755, p. 3, col. 1. Babinski, Mark. "Henry Popple's Map of the British Empire in North America (London, 1733): Derivatives and Copies of the Popple Map." http://usm.maine.edu/maps/popple/index.html; http://www.usm.maine.edu/maps/popple/derivatives.html. Bailey, Kenneth. "Christopher Gist and the Trans-Allegheny Frontier: A Phase of the Westward Movement." Pacific Historical Review 14, no. 1 (March 1945): 4556. Bowman, Forrest J. "The Troublesome and Difficult Affair Surveying the Fairfax Line." West Virginia History 33, no. 3 (1972): 248261. Brown, Lloyd Arnold. Early Maps of the Ohio Valley: A Selection of Maps, Plans, and Views Made by Indians and Colonials from 1673 to 1783. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1959. "Joshua Fry." In American National Biography. Edited by Mark C. Carnes and John A. Garraty, 8:526527. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Cummings, William P. The Southeast in Early Maps. 3d edition. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina
Press, 1998. Docktor, John W. "Nicholas and William Scull of Pennsylvania." Portolan 33 (Summer 1995): 1117. Edney, Matthew. "John Mitchell's Map: An Irony of Empire." www.usm.maine.edu/~maps/mitchell. Elliot, Clark A. "Joshua Fry." In Biographical Dictionary of American Science: The seventeenth century
Through the Nineteenth Centuries, 9697. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1979. French, Josephine, et al., eds. Tooley's Dictionary of Mapmakers. Revised Edition
, KP. Riverside, Conn.: Early World Press, 2003. Gipson, Lawrence Henry. Lewis Evans. Philadelphia: The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1939. Hallisey, Jane. "Thomas Jefferson, Cartographer: A Father's Legacy to His Renaissance Son." Mercator's World 1, no. 3 (1996): 2227.
17 Harrison, Fairfax. Landmarks of Old Prince William: A Study of Origins in Northern Virginia. 2d reprint edition
. Baltimore: Gateway Press, 1987. ----------. "The Northern Neck Maps of 17371747." William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine, 2d ser., 4 (January 1924): 115. ----------. "The Virginians on the Ohio and the Mississippi in 1742." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 30 (April 1922): 203222. Hughes, Sarah Shaver. Surveyors and Statesmen: Land Measuring in Colonial Virginia. Richmond: Virginia's Surveyors Foundation and the Virginia Association of Surveyors, 1979. Huntingfield Map Collection. http://www.msa.md.gov/msa/speccol/1399/html/link.html. "Joshua Fry." In Dictionary of American Biography. Edited by Allen Johnson and Dumas Malone, 7:4849. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1931. Keith, Charles P. "Sir William Keith." Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 12, no. 1 (1888): 133. Lemon, James T. "Urbanization and the Development of Eighteenth-Century Southeastern Pennsylvania and Adjacent Delaware." William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser., 24 (October 1967): 502542. Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the Virginian. Vol. 1 of Jefferson and His Time. Boston: Little, Brown and Company
, 1948. "William Mayo." In Dictionary of American Biography. Edited by Dumas Malone, 12:464. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1943. Morrison, Russell. On the Map. Chestertown, Md.: Washington College, 1983. Mulkearn, Louis. "Why the Treaty of Logstown, 1752?" Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 59 (January 1951): 320. Norona, Delf, ed. "Joshua Fry's Report on the Back Settlements of Virginia." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 56 (January 1948): 2241. Papenfuse, Edward C., and Joseph M. Coale III. The Maryland State Archives of Historical Maps of Maryland, 16081908. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.
Research notes number 31 Pedley, Mary Sponberg. Bel et Utile: The Work of Robert de Vaugondy Family of Mapmakers. Tring, Herts, Eng.: Map Collectors Publication, 1992. __________. The Commerce of Cartography: Making and Marketing Maps in Eighteenth Century France and England. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005. __________. "Maps, War and Commerce: Business Correspondence with the London Map Firm of Thomas Jefferys and William Faden." Imago Mundi 48 (1996): 161173. Pritchard, Margaret Beck, and Henry G. Taliaferro. Degrees in Latitude: Mapping Colonial America. Williamsburg, Va.: COLONIAL WILLIAMSBURG FOUNDATION
in Association with Harry N. Abrams
, Inc., 2002. Reitan, E. A. "Expanding Horizons: `Maps in the Gentleman's Magazine,' 17311754." Imago Mundi 37 (1985): 5462. Reinhartz, Dennis. "The World of Herman Moll." Portolan 43 (Winter 19981999): 3137. Ristow, Walter. "John Mitchell's Map of the British and French Dominions in North America." In A La Carte: Selected Papers on Maps and Atlases. Edited by Walter Ristow, 103108. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress
, 1972. David Rumsey Map Collection. http://www.davidrumsey.com/. Sanchez-Saavedra, E. M. A Description of the Country: Virginia's Cartographers and Their Maps, 16071881. Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1975. Schwartz, Seymour I., and Ralph E. Ehrenberg. The Mapping of America. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1980. Smith, Ben A., and James W. Vining. American Geographers, 17841812: A Bio-Bibliographical Guide. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2003. Stephenson, Richard W. "Table Identifying Variant Editions and Impressions of John Mitchell's Map of the British and French Dominions in North America." In A La Carte: Selected Papers on Maps and Atlases. Edited by Walter Ristow, 109113. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1972. Stephenson, Richard W., and Marianne M. McKee, eds. Virginia in Maps: Four Centuries of Settlement, Growth, and Development. 2000; 2d printing, Richmond: Library of Virginia, 2007.
19 Verner, Coolie. Carto-Bibliographical Description of Printed Maps of Virginia. Falls Church, Va.: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, 1974. Microfilm copy. __________. "Mr. Jefferson Makes a Map." Imago Mundi 14 (1959): 96108. __________. "The Fry and Jefferson Map." Imago Mundi 21 (1967): 7094. __________. "The Maps and Plates Appearing with the Several Editions of Mr. Jefferson's Notes on the State of Virginia." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 59 (January 1951): 2133. Wheat, James Clements, and Christian F. Brun. Maps and Charts Published in America Before 1800: A Bibliography. New Haven: Yale University
Press, 1969. Endnotes 1 Sarah Shaver Hughes, Surveyors and Statesmen: Land Measuring in Colonial Virginia (Richmond: Virginia's Surveyors Foundation and the Virginia Association of Surveyors, 1979), 72, 154; Margaret Beck Pritchard and Henry G. Taliaferro, Degrees in Latitude: Mapping Colonial America (Williamsburg, Va.: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation in Association with Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 2002), 154. 2 Seymour I. Schwartz and Ralph E. Ehrenberg, The Mapping of America (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1980), 155. 3 Pritchard and Taliaferro, Degrees in Latitude, 156; Hughes, Surveyors and Statesmen, 5152; Fairfax Harrison, Landmarks of Old Prince William: A Study of Origins in Northern Virginia, 2d reprint edition (Baltimore: Gateway Press, 1987), 618629. 4 Hughes, Surveyors and Statesmen, 154; Pritchard and Taliaferro, Degrees in Latitude, 154157; Coolie Verner, "The Fry and Jefferson Map," Imago Mundi 21 (1967): 7094. 5 Hughes, Surveyors and Statesmen, 154155; Verner, "The Fry and Jefferson Map," 8394; Verner, "Mr. Jefferson Makes a Map," Imago Mundi 14 (1959): 98. 6 Richard W. Stephenson and Marianne M. McKee, eds., Virginia in Maps: Four Centuries of Settlement, Growth, and Development, (2000; 2d printing, Richmond, Virginia: Library of Virginia, 2007), 20, 42. 7 Ibid., 59, 106. 8 Ibid., 52, 78; E. M. Sanchez-Saavedra, A Description of the Country: Virginia's Cartographers and Their Maps, 16071881 (Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1975), 1524. 9 Stephenson and McKee, Virginia in Maps, 52, 77; Edward C. Papenfuse and Joseph M. Coale III, The Maryland State Archives of Historical Maps of Maryland, 16081908 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003), 2830; David Rumsey Map Collection, http://www. davidrumsey.com/. 10 Russell Morrison, On the Map (Chestertown, Md.: Washington College, 1983), 42; David Rumsey Map Collection, www.davidrumsey.com/. 11 Mark Babinski, "Henry Popple's Map of the British Empire in North America (London, 1733): Derivatives and Copies of the Popple Map," http://usm.maine.edu/maps/popple/index.html, http://www.usm.maine.edu/maps/popple/derivatives.html; Charles P. Keith, "Sir William Keith," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 12, no. 1 (1888): 133; Coolie Verner, Carto-Bibliographical Description of Printed Maps of Virginia (Falls Church, Va.: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, 1974) (microfilm copy). 12 Hughes, Surveyors and Statesmen, 86. 13 Stephenson and McKee, Virginia in Maps, 4950, 69. 14 Ibid., 50, 7071. 15 Ibid., 49, 68. 16 Harrison, Landmarks of Old Prince William, 618629: Harrison, "The Northern Neck Maps of 17371747," William and Mary College Quarterly
Historical Magazine, 2d ser. 4 (January 1924): 115; Stephenson and McKee, Virginia in Maps, 5152, 7677; Verner, Cartobibliographical Description of Printed Maps of Virginia. 17 Hughes, Surveyors and Statesmen, 146149; "Frederick A. Lindal Letter," 1865, Accession 21947, Personal Papers Collection, Library of Virginia. 18 Stephenson and McKee, Virginia in Maps, 5657, 9495. 19 Ibid., 5455, 83; Pritchard and Taliaferro, Degrees in Latitude, 154159; Verner, "The Fry and Jefferson Map," 7094. 20 Ibid. 21 Ibid. 22 Mary Sponberg Pedley, Bel Et Utile: The Work of Robert De Vaugondy Family of Mapmakers (Tring, Herts, Eng.: Map Collectors Publication, 1992), 214; Verner, "The Fry and Jefferson Map," 7094. 23 Ibid. 24 Huntingfield Map Collection, Maryland State Archives, http://www.msa.md.gov/msa/speccol/1339/html/link.html. 25 Morrison, On the Map, 68; Verner, "The Fry and Jefferson Map," 7094. 26 Lawrence Henry Gipson, Lewis Evans (Philadelphia: The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1939); Pritchard and Taliaferro, Degrees in Latitude, 168171. 27 Matthew Edney, "John Mitchell's Map: An Irony of Empire," www.usm.maine.edu/~maps/mitchell; Pritchard and Taliaferro, Degrees in Latitude, 168171; Richard W. Stephenson, "Table Identifying Variant Editions and Impressions of John Mitchell's Map of the British and French Dominions in North America," in A La Carte: Selected Papers on Maps and Atlases, ed. Walter Ristow (Washington D.C.
: Library of Congress, 1972), 109113; Stephenson and McKee, Virginia in Maps, 253, 81; Walter Ristow, "John Mitchell's Map of the British and French Dominions in North America," in A La Carte, 103108. 28 Pritchard and Taliaferro, Degrees in Latitude, 200203; Stephenson and McKee, Virginia in Maps, 5253, 81; Louis B. Wright, The John Henry County Map of Virginia 1770 (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1977). 29 Pritchard and Taliaferro, Degrees in Latitude, 304307; Stephenson and McKee, Virginia in Maps, 55, 92; Verner, "Mr. Jefferson Makes a Map," 96108; Verner, "The Maps and Plates Appearing with the Several Editions of Mr. Jefferson's Notes on the State of Virginia," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 59 (January 1951): 2133. 30 John W. Docktor, "Nicholas and William Scull of Pennsylvania," Portolan 33 (Summer 1995): 1117. 31 Ben A. Smith and James W. Vining, American Geographers, 17841812: A Bio-Bibliographical Guide (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2003), 122124; James Clements Wheat and Christian F. Brun, Maps and Charts Published in America Before 1800: A Bibliography (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1969), 122; Josephine French et al., eds., Tooley's Dictionary of Mapmakers: Revised Edition, KP (Riverside, Conn.: Early World Press, 2003), 129. 32 Pritchard and Taliaferro, Degrees in Latitude, 309311; Stephenson and McKee, Virginia in Maps, 120121, 139. Cassandra Britt Farrell 2009