Earth science

Tags: UNDERSTANDING EARTH, Earth Science, Plate Tectonics, Atmosphere, Florida Edition, Evidence, Twelfth Edition, text, Student Lecture, Mountain Building, Mass Wasting, the Earth system, Igneous Activity, Igneous Rocks, Ocean Floor, Instructor's Manual, Stanley Hatfield, Southwestern Illinois College, Earthquakes, Building Blocks, Earth's Interior, BOX, Relative Humidity, Air Pollution, special interest, Precipitation, Earth, Continental Convergence, San Andreas Fault, Convergent Plate Boundaries, Divergent Boundaries, Continental, Plate Motion, Divergent Plate Boundaries, Glacial Erosion, Wind Erosion, Role of Water, Ocean Circulation Patterns, teacher resources, Animations, online instructor, illustrations, Marli Miller, Prentice Hall Geoscience Animations Library, Groundwater, PowerPoint slides, the Atmosphere, Global Climate Change, Running Water, Composition of the Atmosphere, Precipitation Measurement, The Gulf Stream, Weathering, Mechanical Weathering, Metamorphic Rocks, Sedimentary Rocks, Earth System, Chapter, multidimensional system, Pearson Learning Solutions, Frederick K. Lutgens, Edward J. Tarbuck, Groundwater Movement, Solid Earth, Geologic Time Scale, Groundwater Contamination, Groundwater Withdrawal, Solar System, Deserts, Earth Materials, Forms of Precipitation, Surface Circulation, Dennis Tasa Learning Solutions New York Boston San Francisco London Toronto Sydney Tokyo, Temperature
Content: TWELFTH EDITION EARTH SCIENCE Florida Edition Edward J. Tarbuck Frederick K. Lutgens Illustrated by Dennis Tasa Taken from: Earth Science, Twelfth Edition by Edward J. Tarbuck and Frederick K. Lutgens, and illustrated by Dennis Tasa Learning Solutions New York Boston San Francisco London Toronto Sydney Tokyo Singapore Madrid Mexico City Munich Paris Cape Town Hong Kong Montreal
Cover Image: Climber rappelling from a winter camp below Basin Mountain, Eastern Sierra, California (Galen Rowell/Mountain Light) Taken from: Earth Science, Twelfth Edition by Edward J. Tarbuck and Frederick K. Lutgens, illustrated by Dennis Tasa Copyright © 2009, 2006, 2003, 2000, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. Published by Pearson Prentice-Hall Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Earlier editions © 1994, 1991 by Macmillan Publishing Company, and © 1988, 1985, 1982, 1979, and 1976 by Merrill Publishing Company. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Learning Solutions All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. This special edition published in cooperation with Pearson Learning Solutions. The information, illustrations, and/or software contained in this book, and regarding the above-mentioned programs, are provided "As Is," without warranty of any kind, express or implied, including without limitation any warranty concerning the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of such information. Neither the publisher, the authors, nor the copyright holders shall be responsible for any claims attributable to errors, omissions, or other inaccuracies contained in this book. Nor shall they be liable for direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages arising out of the use of such information or material. All trademarks, service marks, registered trademarks, and registered service marks are the property of their respective owners and are used herein for identification purposes only. Pearson Learning Solutions, 501 Boylston Street, Suite 900, Boston, MA 02116 A Pearson Education Company www.pearsoned.com Printed in the United States of America 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 XXXX 16 15 14 13 12 11 000200010270575680 CF/CB ISBN 10: 0-558-64927-0 (Florida Edition) ISBN 13: 978-0-558-64927-2 (Florida Edition)
To our wives, Joanne and Nancy, For their support and patience
Brief Contents
1 Introduction to Earth Science
1
UNIT ONE
Earth Materials
28
2 Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks 29 3 Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth 51
UNIT TWO Sculpturing Earth's Surface 82
4 Weathering, Soil, and Mass Wasting 83
5 Running Water and Groundwater 115
6 Glaciers, Deserts, and Wind
153
UNIT THREE
Forces Within
186
7 Plate Tectonics: A Scientific
Theory Unfolds
187
8 Earthquakes and Earth's Interior 219
9 Volcanoes and other Igneous Activity 247
10 Mountain Building
283
UNIT FOUR Deciphering Earth's History 308
11 Geologic Time
309
12 Earth's Evolution through
Geologic Time
335
UNIT FIVE
The Global Ocean
364
13 The Ocean Floor
367
14 Ocean Water and Ocean Life
391
15 The Dynamic Ocean
411
UNIT SIX Earth's Dynamic Atmosphere 442
16 The Atmosphere: Composition,
Structure, and Temperature
445
17 Moisture, Clouds,
and Precipitation
477
18 Air Pressure and Wind
513
19 Weather Patterns and Severe
Storms
539
20 World Climates and Global
climate change
569
UNIT SEVEN Earth's Place in the Universe 596
21 Origins of Modern Astronomy
599
22 Touring Our Solar System
625
23 Light, Astronomical Observations,
And The Sun
653
24 Beyond Our Solar System
675
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GEODe: Earth Science v.3 A copy of GEODe: Earth Science, v.3 is packaged with each copy of Earth Science, Florida Edition. This dynamic learning aid reinforces key concepts by using tutorials, animations, and interactive exercises.
Unit 1: Earth Materials A. Minerals 1. Introduction to Minerals 2. Mineral Groups 3. Physical Properties of Minerals 4. Quiz: Minerals B. Rock Cycle C. Igneous Rocks 1. Introduction to Igneous rocks 2. Igneous Textures 3. Igneous Compositions 4. Naming Igneous Rocks 5. Quiz: Igneous Rocks D. Sedimentary Rocks 1. Introduction to Sedimentary Rocks 2. Types of Sedimentary Rocks 3. Sedimentary Environments 4. Quiz: Sedimentary Rocks E. Metamorphic Rocks 1. Introduction to Metamorphic Rocks 2. Agents of Metamorphism 3. Textural and Mineralogical Changes 4. Common Metamorphic Rocks 5. Quiz: Metamorphic Rocks Unit 2: Sculpturing Earth's Surface A. Weathering and Soil ALL NEW 1. Earth's External Processes 2. Types of Weathering 3. Mechanical Weathering 4. Chemical Weathering 5. Rates of Weathering 6. Quiz: Weathering and Soil B. Mass Wasting: The Work of Gravity ALL NEW 1. Controls and Triggers of Mass Wasting 2. Mass-Wasting Processes 3. Quiz: Mass Wasting C. Running Water 1. Hydrologic Cycle 2. Stream Characteristics
3. ReviewingValleys and Stream-Related Features NEW SECTION 4. Quiz: Running Water D. Groundwater 1. Importance and Distribution 2. Springs and Wells 3. Quiz: Groundwater E. Glaciers and Glaciation 1. Introduction 2. Budget of a Glacier 3. Reviewing Glacial Features NEW SECTION 4. Quiz: Glaciers and Glaciation F. Deserts and Winds 1. Distribution and Causes of Dry Lands 2. Common Misconceptions About Deserts 3. Reviewing Landforms and landscapes NEW SECTION 4. Quiz: Deserts and Winds Unit 3: Forces Within A. Plate Tectonics EXPANDED AND REVISED 1. Introduction to Plate Tectonics 2. Divergent Boundaries 3. Convergent Boundaries 4. Transform fault boundaries 5. Formation and Breakup of Pangaea 6. Plate Tectonics Quiz B. Earthquakes 1. What is an Earthquake? 2. Seismology 3. Locating the Source of an Earthquake 4. Earthquakes at Plate Boundaries 5. Earthquake Quiz C. Earth's Interior ALL NEW a. Earth's Layered Structure b. Earth's Interior Quiz D. Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity a. The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions b. Materials extruded During an Eruption c. Volcanic Structures and Eruptive Styles d. Volcanoes Quiz E. Mountain Building ALL NEW a. Deformation b. Folds vii
viii
G E O D E : E A R T H S C I E N C E V. 3
c. Faults and Fractures d. Continental Collisions e. Crustal Fragments and Mountain Building f. Mountain Building Quiz Unit 4: Deciphering Earth's History A. Geologic Time Scale B. Relative Dating--Key Principles C. Dating With Radioactivity D. Quiz: Geologic Time Unit 5: The Global Ocean A. Floor of the Ocean 1. Mapping the ocean Floor 2. Features of the Ocean Floor 3. Quiz: Ocean Floor B. Coastal Processes 1. Waves and Beaches 2. Wave Erosion 3. Quiz: Coastal Processes Unit 6: Earth's Dynamic Atmosphere A. Introduction to the Atmosphere ALL NEW 1. The Importance of Weather 2. Weather and Climate 3. Composition of the Atmosphere 4. Extent of the Atmosphere 5. Temperature Structure of the Atmosphere 6. Quiz: Introduction to the Atmosphere 7. In The Lab: Reading Weather maps B. Heating Earth's Surface and Atmosphere 1. Understanding Seasons, Part 1 NEW SECTION 2. Understanding Seasons, Part 2 NEW SECTION 3. solar radiation 4. What happens to Incoming Solar Radiation 5. The Greenhouse Effect 6. Quiz: Heating Earth's Surface and Atmosphere 7. In The lab: The Influence of Color on Albedo NEW SECTION
C. Temperature Data and the Controls of Temperature 1. Basic Temperature Data 2. Controls of Temperature 3. Quiz: Temperature Data and Controls D. Moisture and Cloud Formation 1. Water's Changes of State 2. Humidity: Water Vapor in the Air 3. The Basics of Cloud Formation: Adiabatic Cooling 4. Processes That Lift Air NEW SECTION 5. The Critical Weathermaker: Atmospheric Stability NEW SECTION 6. Quiz: Moisture and Cloud Formation 7. In The Lab: Atmospheric Stability E. Forms of Condensation and Precipitation ALL NEW 1. Classifying Clouds 2. Types of Fog 3. How Precipitation Forms 4. Forms of Precipitation 5. Quiz: Forms of Condensation and Precipitation F. Air Pressure and Wind 1. Measuring Air Pressure 2. Factors Affecting Wind 3. Highs and Lows 4. Quiz: Air Pressure and Wind G. Basic Weather Patterns 1. Air Masses 2. Fronts 3. Introducing Middle-Latitude Cyclones 4. In The Lab: Examining a Middle-Latitude Cyclone 5. Quiz: Basic Weather Patterns Unit 7: Earth's Place in the Universe A. The Planets: An Overview B. CalculatingYour Age and Weight on Other Planets C. Earth's Moon D. A Brief Tour of the Planets E. Quiz: Solar System
Contents
Chapters open with a correlation of the content to the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards.
1 Introduction to Earth Science
1
What Is Earth Science? 2 Earth Science, People, and the Environment 3 Resources 3 population growth 5 Environmental Problems 6 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry 6 Hypothesis 7 Theory 7 scientific methods 8 Scales of Space and Time in Earth Science 9 Early Evolution of Earth 11 Earth's Spheres 12 Hydrosphere 12 Atmosphere 13 Biosphere 14 Geosphere 15 A Closer Look at the Geosphere 15 Earth's Internal Structure 15 The Mobile Geosphere 17 The Face of Earth 18 Major Features of the Continents 19 Major Features of the Ocean Basins 19 Earth as a System 22 Earth System Science 22 The Earth System 23 BOX 1.1 EARTH AS A SYSTEM Earth's Place in the Cosmos 4
BOX 1.2 UNDERSTANDING EARTH Studying Earth from Space 9
UNIT ONE
Earth Materials
28
2 Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks
29
Minerals: The Building Blocks of Rocks 30 Elements: Building Blocks of Minerals 32 Atoms 32 Why Atoms Bond 33 Ionic Bonds: Electrons Transferred 33 Covalent Bonds: Electrons Shared 34 Isotopes and Radioactive Decay 34 Properties of Minerals 35 Optical Properties 35 Crystal Shape or Habit 36 Mineral Strength 36
Density and Specific Gravity 38 Other Properties of Minerals 40 Mineral Groups 40 Silicate Minerals 41 Important Nonsilicate Minerals 43 Mineral Resources 44 BOX 2.1 PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Making Glass from Minerals 39 BOX 2.2 UNDERSTANDING EARTH Gemstones 45
3 Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth
51
Earth as a System: The Rock Cycle 52 The Basic Cycle 54 Alternative Paths 54 Igneous Rocks: "Formed by Fire" 54 Magma Crystallizes to Form Igneous Rocks 55 Igneous Textures 55 Igneous Compositions 57 Classifying Igneous Rocks 57 How Different Igneous Rocks Form 59 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment 62 Classifying Sedimentary Rocks 63 Lithification of Sediment 67 Features of Sedimentary Rocks 69 Metamorphic Rocks: New Rock from Old 70 What Drives Metamorphism? 72 Metamorphic Textures 73 Common Metamorphic Rocks 74 Resources from Rocks and Minerals 76 Metallic Mineral Resources 76 Nonmetallic Mineral Resources 78
BOX 3.1 EARTH AS A SYSTEM The Carbon Cycle and Sedimentary Rocks 68
BOX 3.2 PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT United States Per Capita Use of Mineral and Energy Resources 76
x
CONTENTS
UNIT TWO Sculpturing Earth's Surface 82
4 Weathering, Soil, and Mass Wasting Earth's External Processes 84 Weathering 85 Mechanical Weathering 85 Frost Wedging 86 Salt Crystal Growth 86 Unloading 86 Biological Activity 87 Chemical Weathering 88 Water and Carbonic Acid 88 How Granite Weathers 89 Weathering of Silicate Minerals 89 Spheroidal Weathering 90 Rates of Weathering 90 Rock Characteristics 90 Climate 91 Differential Weathering 91 Soil 92 An Interface in the Earth System 92 What Is Soil? 93 Soil Texture and Structure 93 Controls of Soil Formation 94 Parent Material 94 Time 94 Climate 94 plants and animals 95 Topography 96 The Soil Profile 96 Classifying Soils 97 Soil Erosion 98 How Soil Is Eroded 98 Rates of Erosion 100 Sedimentation and Chemical Pollution 101 Weathering Creates Ore Deposits 101 Bauxite 102 Other Deposits 102 Mass Wasting: The Work of Gravity 102 Mass Wasting and Landform Development The Role of Mass Wasting 103
83 103
Slopes Change Through Time 103 Controls and Triggers of Mass Wasting 103 The Role of Water 104 Oversteepened Slopes 104 Removal of Vegetation 104 Earthquakes as Triggers 106 Classifying Mass-Wasting Processes 106 Type of Motion 107 Rate of Movement 107 Slump 107 Rockslide 108 Debris Flow 109 Debris Flows in Semiarid Regions 109 Lahars 109 Earthflow 109 Slow Movements 110 Creep 110 Solifluction 110 BOX 4.1 UNDERSTANDING EARTH The Old Man of the Mountain 88 BOX 4.2 PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Landslide Hazards at La Conchita, California 105
5 Running Water and Groundwater
115
Earth as a System: The Hydrologic Cycle 117 Running Water 118 Drainage Basins 118 River Systems 118 Streamflow 119 Gradient and Channel Characteristics 120 Discharge 120 Changes from Upstream to Downstream 121 The Work of Running Water 121 Erosion 122 Transportation 122 Deposition 124 Stream Channels 124 Bedrock Channels 124 Alluvial Channels 124 Base Level and Stream Erosion 126 Shaping Stream Valleys 127 Valley Deepening 127 Valley Widening 128 Changing Base Level and Incised Meanders 128
CONTENTS
xi
Depositional Landforms 129 Deltas 129 Natural Levees 129 Alluvial Fans 132 Drainage Patterns 132 Floods and Flood Control 132 Causes of Floods 132 Flood Control 133 Groundwater: Water Beneath the Surface 134 The Importance of Groundwater 135 Groundwater's Geological Roles 135 Distribution and Movement of Groundwater 136 Distribution 136 Factors Influencing the Storage and Movement of Groundwater 137 GroundWater Movement 137 Springs 138 Hot Springs 138 Geysers 138 Wells 139 Artesian Wells 141 Environmental Problems Associated with Groundwater 141 Treating Groundwater as a Nonrenewable Resource 142 Land Subsidence Caused by Groundwater Withdrawal 142 Groundwater Contamination 143 The Geologic Work of Groundwater 144 Caverns 144 Karst Topography 145 BOX 5.1 PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Coastal Wetlands Are Vanishing on the Mississippi Delta 131 BOX 5.2 UNDERSTANDING EARTH Measuring Groundwater Movement 138 6 Glaciers, Deserts, and Wind 153 Glaciers: A Part of Two Basic Cycles in the Earth System 154 Valley (Alpine) Glaciers 155 Ice Sheets 155 Other Types of Glaciers 156 How Glaciers Move 157 Observing and Measuring Movement 157 Budget of a Glacier 157
Glacial Erosion 159 How Glaciers Erode 159 Landforms Created by Glacial Erosion 160 Glacial Deposits 162 Types of Glacial Drift 163 Moraines, Outwash Plains, and Kettles 164 Drumlins, Eskers, and Kames 165 Other Effects of Ice Age Glaciers 166 Glaciers of the Ice Age 169 Causes of Glaciation 170 Plate Tectonics 170 Variations in Earth's Orbit 170 Other Factors 171 Deserts 172 Geologic Processes in Arid Climates 173 Weathering 173 The Role of Water 174 Basin and Range: The Evolution of a Mountainous Desert Landscape 174 Wind Erosion 177 Deflation, Blowouts, and Desert Pavement 177 Wind Abrasion 178 Wind Deposits 179 Loess 179 Sand Dunes 180 Types of Sand Dunes 181 BOX 6.1 EARTH AS A SYSTEM Glacial Lake Missoula, Megafloods, and the Channeled Scablands 168 BOX 6.2 PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT The Disappearing Aral Sea 175
UNIT THREE
Forces Within
186
7 Plate Tectonics: A Scientific Theory Unfolds 187 Continental Drift: An Idea Before Its Time 189 Evidence: The Continental Jigsaw Puzzle 189 Evidence: Fossils Match Across the Seas 191 Evidence: Rock Types and Structures Match 191 Evidence: Ancient Climates 192 The Great Debate 193 Plate Tectonics: The New Paradigm 194 Earth's Major Plates 194 Plate Boundaries 195 Divergent Boundaries 195 Oceanic Ridges and Seafloor Spreading 195 Continental Rifting 199 Convergent Boundaries 199 Oceanic­Continental Convergence 200 Oceanic­Oceanic Convergence 201 Continental­Continental Convergence 202 Transform Fault Boundaries 202 Testing the Plate Tectonics Model 205 Evidence: Ocean Drilling 205
xii
CONTENTS
Evidence: Hot Spots 206 Evidence: Paleomagnetism 208 Measuring Plate Motion 210 What Drives Plate Motion? 211 Forces That Drive Plate Motion 212 Models of Mantle­Plate Convection 212 Plate Tectonics into the Future 213 BOX 7.1 UNDERSTANDING EARTH The Breakup of Pangaea 190 BOX 7.2 UNDERSTANDING EARTH Susan DeBari-- A Career in Geology 203
8 Earthquakes and Earth's Interior
219
What Is an Earthquake? 220 Earthquakes and Faults 221 Discovering the Cause of Earthquakes 222 Foreshocks and Aftershocks 223 San Andreas Fault: An Active Earthquake Zone 224 Seismology: The Study of Earthquake Waves 225 Locating an Earthquake 226 Measuring the Size of Earthquakes 228 Intensity Scales 228 Magnitude Scales 229 Destruction from Earthquakes 231 Damage from Seismic Vibrations 231 What Is a Tsunami? 232 Landslides and Ground Subsidence 235 Fire 236 Can Earthquakes be Predicted? 236 Short-Range Predictions 236 Long-Range Forecasts 237 Earth's Interior 238 Formation of Earth's Layered Structure 238 Earth's Internal Structure 238 Probing Earth's Interior: "Seeing" Seismic Waves 240 Discovering Boundaries: The Moho 241 Discovering Boundaries: The Core­Mantle Boundary 242 Discovering Boundaries: The Inner Core­Outer Core Boundary 242
BOX 8.1 PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Damaging Earthquakes East of the Rockies 224
BOX 8.2 UNDERSTANDING EARTH Recreating the Deep Earth 241
9 Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity Mount St. Helens Versus Kilauea 248 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions 250 Factors Affecting Viscosity 250 Why Do Volcanoes Erupt? 251 What is Extruded During Eruptions? 252
247
Lava Flows 252 Gases 253 Pyroclastic Materials 253 Volcanic Structures and Eruptive Styles 254 Anatomy of a Volcano 254 Shield Volcanoes 256 Cinder Cones 257 Composite Cones 258 Living in the Shadow of a Composite Cone 260 Nuйe Ardente: A Deadly Pyroclastic Flow 260 Lahars: Mudflows on Active and Inactive Cones 262 Other Volcanic Landforms 262 Calderas 262 Fissure Eruptions and Lava Plateaus 264 Volcanic Pipes and Necks 265 Intrusive Igneous Activity 266 Dikes 266 Sills and Laccoliths 266 Batholiths 268 Origin of Magma 269 Generating Magma from Solid Rock 269 Partial Melting and Magma Compositions 271 Plate Tectonics and Igneous Activity 271 Igneous Activity at Convergent Plate Boundaries 272 Igneous Activity at Divergent Plate Boundaries 276 Intraplate Igneous Activity 276 Living with Volcanoes 277 Volcanic Hazards 277 Monitoring Volcanic Activity 277 BOX 9.1 PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Eruption of Vesuvius A.D. 79 264 BOX 9.2 EARTH AS A SYSTEM Can Volcanoes Change Earth's Climate? 272
10 Mountain Building Rock Deformation 284 Temperature and Confining Pressure 285 Rock Type 285 Time 285 Folds 286 Types of Folds 286 Domes and Basins 287 Faults 288 Dip-Slip Faults 289 Strike-Slip Faults 291
283
CONTENTS
xiii
Dating with Carbon-14 326 Importance of Radiometric Dating 326 The Geologic Time Scale 326 Structure of the Time Scale 328 Precambrian Time 329 Difficulties in Dating the Geologic Time Scale 329 BOX 11.1 UNDERSTANDING EARTH Deciphering the Past by Understanding the Present 311 BOX 11.2 UNDERSTANDING EARTH Using Tree Rings to Date and Study the Recent Past 327
Joints 291 Mountain Building 292 Mountain Building at Subduction Zones 294 Island Arcs 295 Mountain Building Along Andean-Type Margins 295 Collisional Mountain Ranges 297 Terranes and Mountain Building 297 Continental Collisions 299 Fault-Block Mountains 300 Vertical Movements of the Crust 301 Isostasy 301 How High Is Too High? 303 BOX 10.1 PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT The San Andreas Fault System 292
UNIT FOUR
Deciphering Earth's History 308
11 Geologic Time Geology Needs a Time Scale 310 A Brief History of Geology 310 Birth of Modern Geology 311 Geology Today 311 Relative Dating--Key Principles 312 Law of Superposition 313 Principle of Original Horizontality 313 Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships 313 Inclusions 313 Unconformities 314 Using Relative Dating Principles 317 Correlation of Rock Layers 317 Fossils: Evidence of Past Life 318 Types of Fossils 318 Conditions Favoring Preservation 322 Fossils and Correlation 322 Dating with Radioactivity 323 Reviewing Basic Atomic Structure 323 Radioactivity 323 Half-Life 324 Radiometric Dating 324
309
12 Earth's Evolution through
Geologic Time
335
Is Earth Unique? 336 The Right Planet 337 The Right Location 337 The Right Time 338 Birth of a Planet 339 From Planetesimals to Protoplanets 341 Earth's Early Evolution 341 Origin of the Atmosphere and Oceans 341 Earth's Primitive Atmosphere 342 Oxygen in the Atmosphere 342 Evolution of the Oceans 343 Precambrian History: The Formation of Earth's Continents 344 Earth's First Continents 344 The Making of North America 345 Supercontinents of the Precambrian 346 Phanerozoic History: The Formation of Earth's Modern Continents 348 Paleozoic History 349 Mesozoic History 350 Cenozoic History 350 Earth's First Life 352 Paleozoic Era: Life Explodes 354 Early Paleozoic Life-Forms 354 Vertebrates Move to Land 356 Mesozoic Era: Age of the Dinosaurs 356 Reptiles: The First True Terrestrial Vertebrates 357
xiv
CONTENTS
Cenozoic Era: Age of Mammals 359 From Reptiles to Mammals 360 Large Mammals and Extinction 362 BOX 12.1 EARTH AS A SYSTEM The Great Permian Extinction 358 BOX 12.2 UNDERSTANDING EARTH Demise of the Dinosaurs 360
UNIT FIVE
The Global Ocean
364
13 The Ocean Floor
367
The Vast World Ocean 368 Geography of the Oceans 368 Comparing the Oceans to the Continents 369 An Emerging Picture of the Ocean Floor 369 Mapping the Seafloor 369 Seismic Reflection Profiles 372 Provinces of the Ocean Floor 372 Continental Margins 372 Passive Continental Margins 372 Active Continental Margins 375 The Deep-Ocean Basin 376 Deep-Ocean Trenches 376 Abyssal Plains 377 Seamounts, Guyots, and Oceanic Plateaus 378 The Oceanic Ridge 379 Seafloor Sediments 381 Types of Seafloor Sediments 381 Distribution of Seafloor Sediments 383 Seafloor Sediments and Climate Change 383 Resources from the Seafloor 385 Energy Resources 385 Other Resources 386
BOX 13.1 UNDERSTANDING EARTH A Grand Break-- Evidence for Turbidity Currents 376
BOX 13.2 UNDERSTANDING EARTH Explaining Coral Atolls--Darwin's Hypothesis 378
BOX 13.3 UNDERSTANDING EARTH Collecting Geologic History from the Deep-Ocean Floor 384
14 Ocean Water and Ocean
Life
391
Composition of Seawater 392 Salinity 392 Sources of Sea Salts 392 Processes Affecting Seawater Salinity 393 Ocean Temperature Variation 394 Temperature Variation with Depth 394 Ocean Temperature Change over Time 394 Ocean Density Variation 395 Factors Affecting Seawater Density 395 Density Variation with Depth 396 Ocean Layering 397 Recent Increase in Ocean Acidity 398 The Diversity of Ocean Life 398 Classification of Marine Organisms 398 Marine Life Zones 401 Oceanic Productivity 402 Productivity in Polar Oceans 404 Productivity in Tropical Oceans 404 Productivity in Temperate Oceans 404 Oceanic Feeding Relationships 406 Trophic Levels 406 Transfer Efficiency 406 Food Chains and Food Webs 406
BOX 14.1 PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Desalination of Seawater--Fresh Water from the Sea 396
BOX 14.2 EARTH AS A SYSTEM Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Biocommunities--Earth's First Life? 403
15 The Dynamic Ocean Surface Circulation 412 Ocean Circulation Patterns 413 The Gulf Stream 414 Ocean Currents and Climate 417 Upwelling 417 Deep-Ocean Circulation 418 The Shoreline: A Dynamic Interface 418 Coastal Zone Features and Terminology 419 Beach Composition 421 Waves 421 Wave Characteristics 421
411
Circular Orbital Motion 422 Waves in the Surf Zone 423 Wave Erosion 424 Sand Movement on the Beach 424 Movement Perpendicular to the Shoreline 424 Wave Refraction 426 Longshore Transport 427 Rip Currents 427 Shoreline Features 428 Erosional Features 428 Depositional Features 429 The Evolving Shore 430 Stabilizing the Shore 430 Hard Stabilization 432 Alternatives to Hard Stabilization 433 Erosion Problems Along U.S. Coasts 435 Atlantic and Gulf Coasts 435 Pacific Coast 435 Coastal Classification 436 Emergent Coasts 436 Submergent Coasts 436 Tides 437 Causes of Tides 437 Monthly Tidal Cycle 438 Tidal Patterns 438 Tidal Currents 439 BOX 15.1 UNDERSTANDING EARTH Running Shoes as Drift Meters--Just Do It 415 BOX 15.2 PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Rogue Waves-- Ships Beware! 423
CONTENTS
xv
Earth­Sun Relationships 455 Earth's Motions 455 Seasons 456 Earth's Orientation 456 Solstices and Equinoxes 457 Energy, Heat, and Temperature 460 Mechanisms of heat transfer 460 Conduction 460 Convection 461 Radiation 461 The Fate of Incoming Solar Radiation 462 Reflection and Scattering 463 Absorption 463 Heating the Atmosphere: The Greenhouse Effect 464 For the Record: Air Temperature Data 464 Why Temperatures Vary: The Controls of Temperature 467 Land and Water 468 Altitude 469 Geographic Position 469 Cloud Cover and Albedo 470 World Distribution of Temperature 471 BOX 16.1 PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Altering the Atmosphere's Composition--Sources and Types of air pollution 449 BOX 16.2 PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Ozone Depletion--A Global Issue 452 BOX 16.3 UNDERSTANDING EARTH Blue Skies and Red Sunsets 465
17 Moisture, Clouds, and Precipitation
477
Water's Changes of State 478 Ice, Liquid Water, and Water Vapor 478 Latent Heat 479 Humidity: Water Vapor in the Atmosphere 480 Saturation 480 Mixing Ratio 481 Relative Humidity 481 Dew-Point Temperature 483 Measuring Humidity 483
UNIT SIX Earth's Dynamic Atmosphere 442 16 The Atmosphere: Composition, Structure, and Temperature 445 Weather and Climate 446 Composition of the Atmosphere 448 Major Components 448 Variable Components 450 Height and Structure of the Atmosphere 453 Pressure Changes 453 Temperature Changes 453
xvi
CONTENTS
The Basis of Cloud Formation: Adiabatic Cooling 485 Fog and Dew versus Cloud Formation 485 Adiabatic Temperature Changes 485 Adiabatic Cooling and Condensation 486 Processes that Lift Air 486 Orographic Lifting 487 Frontal Wedging 487 Convergence 488 Localized Convective Lifting 488 The Weathermaker: Atmospheric Stability 489 Types of Stability 489 Stability and Daily Weather 492 Condensation and Cloud Formation 492 Types of Clouds 493 Fog 498 Fogs Caused by Cooling 499 Evaporation Fogs 500 How Precipitation Forms 501 Precipitation from Cold Clouds: The Bergeron Process 501 Precipitation from Warm Clouds: The Collision­Coalescence Process 503 Forms of Precipitation 504 Rain 505 Snow 505 Sleet and Glaze 505 Hail 506 Rime 506 Measuring Precipitation 506 Measurement Errors 507 Measuring Snowfall 507 Precipitation Measurement by Weather Radar 508 BOX 17.1 PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Atmospheric Stability and Air Pollution 492 BOX 17.2 UNDERSTANDING EARTH Science and Serendipity 502
18 Air Pressure and Wind Understanding Air Pressure 514 Measuring Air Pressure 515 Factors Affecting Wind 516
513
Pressure-Gradient Force 516 Coriolis Effect 517 Friction with Earth's Surface 518 Highs and Lows 520 Cyclonic and Anticyclonic Winds 520 Weather Generalizations About Highs and Lows 520 General Circulation of the Atmosphere 523 Circulation on a Nonrotating Earth 523 Idealized Global Circulation 523 Influence of Continents 523 The Westerlies 524 Local Winds 526 Land and Sea Breezes 526 Mountain and Valley Breezes 528 Chinook and Santa Ana Winds 528 Country Breeze 529 How Wind Is Measured 529 El Niсo and La Niсa 530 Global Distribution of Precipitation 533 BOX 18.1 PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Wind Energy-- An Alternative with Potential 526 BOX 18.2 UNDERSTANDING EARTH Monitoring Ocean Winds from Space 531
19 Weather Patterns and Severe Storms Air Masses 540 What Is an Air Mass? 541 Source Regions 541 Weather Associated with Air Masses 541 Fronts 543 Warm Fronts 544 Cold Fronts 544 Stationary Fronts and Occluded Fronts 545 The Middle-Latitude Cyclone 546 Life Cycle 546 Idealized Weather 550 The Role of Airflow Aloft 550 What's in a Name? 551 Thunderstorms 552 Thunderstorm Occurrence 552 Stages of Thunderstorm Development 552
539
CONTENTS
xvii
How Aerosols Influence Climate 589 Some Possible Consequences of global warming 590 Sea-Level Rise 590 The Changing Arctic 593 The Potential for "Surprises" 594 BOX 20.1 UNDERSTANDING EARTH Computer Models of Climate: Important Yet Imperfect Tools 591
Tornadoes 554 Tornado Occurrence and Development 554 Tornado Destruction 557 Tornado Forecasting 558 Hurricanes 560 Profile of a Hurricane 561 Hurricane Formation and Decay 562 Hurricane Destruction 563 BOX 19.1 UNDERSTANDING EARTH A Brief Overview of the Weather Business 547 BOX 19.2 PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Surviving a Violent Tornado 559
20 World Climates and Global
Climate Change
569
The Climate System 571 World Climates 571 Climate Classification 572 Humid Tropical (A) Climates 573 The Wet Tropics 573 Tropical Wet and Dry 577 Dry (B) Climates 577 Low-Latitude Deserts and Steppes 578 Middle-Latitude Deserts and Steppes 579 Humid Middle-Latitude Climates with Mild Winters (C Climates) 579 Humid Subtropics 580 Marine West Coast 580 Dry-Summer Subtropics 580 Humid Middle-Latitude Climates with Severe Winters (D Climates) 581 Humid Continental 581 Subarctic 582 Polar (E) Climates 583 Highland Climates 584 Human Impact on Global Climate 584 Carbon Dioxide, Trace Gases, and Global Climate Change 586 CO2 Levels Are Rising 586 The Atmosphere's Response 587 The Role of Trace Gases 588 Climate-Feedback Mechanisms 588
UNIT SEVEN Earth's Place in the Universe 21 Origins of Modern Astronomy Ancient Astronomy 600 The Golden Age of Astronomy 602 Ptolemy's Model 603 The Birth of Modern Astronomy 605 Nicolaus Copernicus 605 Tycho Brahe 606 Johannes Kepler 607 Galileo Galilei 608 Sir Isaac Newton 610 Positions in the Sky 611 Constellations 611 The Equatorial System 614 The Motions of Earth 615 Rotation 615 Revolution 616 Precession 616 Motions of the Earth­Moon System 617 Lunar Motions 617 Phases of the Moon 618 Eclipses of the Sun and Moon 619 BOX 21.1 UNDERSTANDING EARTH Foucault's Experiment 602 BOX 21.2 UNDERSTANDING EARTH Astrology-- the Forerunner of Astronomy 612
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22 Touring Our Solar System 625 The Planets: An Overview 626 How Did the Planets Form? 626 Terrestrial and Jovian Planets 627 The Compositions of the Planets 628 The Atmospheres of the Planets 628 Earth's Moon 629 The Lunar Surface 629 Lunar History 632 The Planets: A Brief Tour 632 Mercury: The Innermost Planet 632 Venus: The Veiled Planet 634 Mars: The Red Planet 635 Jupiter: Lord of the Heavens 638 Saturn: The Elegant Planet 640 Uranus and Neptune: The Twins 642 Minor Members of the Solar System: Asteroids, Comets, Meteoroids, and Dwarf Planets 643 Asteroids: Planetesimals 643 Comets: Dirty Snowballs 644 Meteoroids: Visitors to Earth 647 Dwarf Planets 649 BOX 22.1 UNDERSTANDING EARTH Pathfinder-- The First Geologist on Mars 635 BOX 22.2 EARTH AS A SYSTEM Is Earth on a Collision Course? 645 23 Light, Astronomical Observations, And The Sun 653 Signals From Space 654 Nature of Light 654 The Doppler Effect 656 Light and Processes 658 Light Collection and Detection 658 Historical Development 658 Optical Telescopes 658 Light Detection 662 Radio Telescopes 663 Orbiting Observatories 663 The Sun 665 Structure of the Sun 665 The Active Sun 669 The Solar Interior 671 BOX 23.1 UNDERSTANDING EARTH The Largest Optical Telescopes 661 BOX 23.2 EARTH AS A SYSTEM Variable Sun and Climate Change 666 24 Beyond Our Solar System 675 Stars Like The Sun 676 Measuring Distances to the Closest Stars 676 Stellar Brightness 678 Stellar Color and Temperature 678 Binary Stars and Stellar Mass 679 variable stars 680
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram 681 Interstellar Matter 683 Stellar Evolution 684 Stellar Birth 685 Protostar Stage 685 Main-Sequence Stage 686 Red Giant Stage 686 Burnout and Death 686 H-R Diagrams and Stellar Evolution 687 Stellar Remnants 688 White Dwarfs 689 Neutron Stars 689 Black Holes 692 The Milky Way Galaxy 692 Normal Galaxies 693 Types of Galaxies 694 Galactic Clusters 695 The Big Bang and the Fate Of The Universe 695 The Expanding Universe 696 The Origin of the Universe 697 The End of the Universe 697 BOX 24.1 UNDERSTANDING EARTH Determining Distance from Magnitude 680 BOX 24.2 UNDERSTANDING EARTH Supernova 1987A 689 BOX 24.3 EARTH AS A SYSTEM From Stardust to You 690 Appendix A: Metric and English Units Compared 703 Appendix B: Earth's Grid System 704 Appendix C: Relative Humidity and Dew Point Tables 706 Appendix D: Landforms of the Conterminous United States 708 Glossary 711 Index 729
Preface
Earth Science, Twelfth Edition, Florida Edition, consists of seven units that emphasize broad and up-to-date coverage of basic topics and principles in geology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy. The book is intended to be a meaningful, nontechnical survey for students with little background in science. In addition to being informative and up-to-date, a major goal of Earth Science is to meet the need of beginning students for a readable and user-friendly text, a book that is a highly usable "tool" for learning basic Earth science principles and concepts. Distinguishing Features Readability The language of this book is straightforward and written to be understood. Clear, readable discussions with a minimum of technical language are the rule. Frequent headings and subheadings help students follow discussions and identify the important ideas presented in each chapter. In the twelfth edition, improved readability was achieved by examining chapter organization and flow, and writing in a more personal style. Large portions of the text were substantially rewritten in an effort to make the material more understandable. Focus on Learning When a chapter has been completed, several useful devices help students review. First, the Chapter Summary recaps all of the major points. Next is a checklist of Key Terms with page references. Learning the language of Earth science helps students learn the material. This is followed by Review Questions that help students examine their knowledge of significant facts and ideas. Next is a reminder to visit the Website for Earth Science, Twelfth Edition, Florida Edition. It contains many excellent opportunities for review and exploration. See page xxiii for more details. Finally, each chapter closes with two frames from the GEODe: Earth Science DVD to remind students about this unique and effective learning aid. New GEODe: Earth Science, Version 3 The new version of the text's student-friendly GEODe: Earth Science included with each book is an even better and more complete learning tool than before. It reinforces key concepts using interactive exercises, animations, and practice quizzes. This dynamic, easy-to-use aid is now a DVD that has significantly broader coverage than previous versions. The GEODe: Earth Science table of contents (see pp. vii­viii)
highlights these additions and changes. We continue to use a special icon that appears throughout the book whenever a text discussion has a corresponding GEODe: Earth Science activity. Illustrations and Photographs The Earth sciences are highly visual. Therefore, photographs and artwork are a very important part of an introductory book. Earth Science, Twelfth Edition, Florida Edition, contains dozens of new high-quality photographs that were carefully selected to aid understanding, add realism, and heighten the interest of the reader. There has been substantial revision and improvement of the art program. Clearer, easier-to-understand line drawings show greater color and shading contrasts. We also added more figures that combine the use of diagrams and photos. Moreover, many new art pieces have additional labels that "narrate" the process being illustrated and/or "guide" readers as they examine the image. The result is an art program that illustrates ideas and concepts more clearly than ever before. As in previous editions, we are grateful to Dennis Tasa, a gifted artist and respected Earth science illustrator, for his outstanding work. Focus on Basic Principles and Instructor Flexibility Although many topical issues are treated in Earth Science, Twelfth Edition, Florida Edition, it should be emphasized that the main focus of this new edition remains the same as its predecessors--to foster student understanding of basic Earth science principles. Whereas student use of the text is a primary concern, the book's adaptability to the needs and desires of the teacher is equally important. Realizing the broad diversity of Earth science courses in both content and approach, we have continued to use a relatively nonintegrated format to allow maximum flexibility for the teacher. Each of the major units stands alone; hence, they can be taught in any order. A unit can be omitted entirely without appreciable loss of continuity, and portions of some chapters may be interchanged or excluded at the teacher's discretion. Three Important Themes Chapter 1, "Introduction to Earth Science," presents students with three important themes that recur throughout the book: Earth as a System, People and the Environment, and Understanding Earth. xix
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Earth as a System An important occurrence in modern science has been the realization that Earth is a giant multidimensional system. Our planet consists of many separate but interacting parts. A change in any one part can produce changes in any or all of the other parts--often in ways that are neither obvious nor immediately apparent. Although it is not possible to study the entire system at once, it is possible to develop an awareness and appreciation for the concept and for many of the system's important interrelationships. Therefore, starting with the revised discussion of "Earth System Science" in Chapter 1, the theme of "Earth as a System" keeps recurring through all major units of the book. It is a thread that "weaves" through the chapters and helps tie them together. Several new and revised special interest boxes relate to Earth as a system. In addition, each chapter concludes with a section on Examining the Earth System. The questions and problems found here are intended to develop an awareness and appreciation for some of the Earth system's many interrelationships. People and the Environment Because knowledge about our planet and how it works is necessary to our survival and well-being, the treatment of environmental issues has always been an important part of Earth Science. Such discussions serve to illustrate the relevance and application of Earth science knowledge. With each new edition this focus has been given greater emphasis. This is certainly the case with the twelfth edition. The text integrates a great deal of information about the relationship between people and the natural environment and explores the application of the Earth sciences to understanding and solving problems that arise from these interactions. In addition to many basic text discussions, many of the text's special interest boxes involve the "People and the Environment" theme. Understanding Earth As members of a modern society, we are constantly reminded of the benefits derived from science. But what exactly is the nature of scientific inquiry? Developing an understanding of how science is done and how scientists work is a third important theme that appears throughout this book, beginning with the section on "The Nature of Scientific Inquiry" in Chapter 1. Students will examine some of the difficulties encountered by scientists as they attempt to acquire reliable data about our planet and some of the ingenious methods that have been developed to overcome these difficulties. Students will also explore many examples of how hypotheses are formulated and tested as well as learn about the evolution and development of some major Scientific theories. Many basic text discussions as well as a number of the special interest boxes on "Understanding Earth" provide the reader with a sense of the observational techniques and reasoning processes involved in developing scientific knowledge. The emphasis is not just on what scientists know, but how they figured it out.
Highlights of the Twelfth Edition The twelfth edition of Earth Science represents a thorough revision. Every part of the book was examined carefully with the dual goals of keeping topics current and improving the clarity of text discussions. People familiar with preceding editions will see much that is new in the twelfth edition. The list of specifics is long. Examples include the following: Chapters open with a correlation of the content to the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards. · Much of Chapter 2, "Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks," is new, including a revamped introductory overview and a revised and expanded discussion of mineral properties. · There is much that is new in the chapters that focus on external processes. Chapter 4 has a new case study (Box 4.2) on the landslide hazards at La Conchita, California. Chapter 5 includes new material on infiltration capacity and sediment transport as well as a new case study (Box 5.1), "Costal Wetlands are Vanishing on the Mississippi Delta." Chapter 6 contains new material on proglacial lakes and a new case study (Box 6.1) that focuses on glacial Lake Missoula and Washington's Channeled Scablands. · Chapter 8, "Earthquakes and Earth's Interior," includes an all-new examination of tsunami. There is also a revised discussion of Earth's interior that more clearly explains how geologists probe the crust, mantle, and core. · The section on the nature of volcanic eruptions in Chapter 10 more clearly explains why volcanoes erupt and behave the way they do. The chapter also includes revised discussions of cinder cones and calderas. · Chapter 12, "Earth's Evolution through Geologic Time" (formerly "Earth History: A Brief Summary"), is completely revised and rewritten. The chapter presents a clear, concise summary of Earth history that begins with an engaging introduction titled, "Is Earth Unique?" The chapter includes easy-to-follow discussions on the birth and early evolution of the planet and on the origin of continents, the atmosphere, and oceans. To allow maximum teacher flexibility, there are separate discussions of Earth's physical history and the evolution of life through geologic time. · Unit 5, "The Global Ocean," has been thoroughly updated with the assistance of Professor Al Trujillo of Palomar College. Changes include revised discussions and line art dealing with ocean circulation, the behavior of waves, and rip currents. There is also a new special interest box on rogue waves. · Chapter 19, "Weather Patterns and Severe Storms," has a revised discussion of tornadoes that includes updated statistics, the newly revised intensity scale, and a new box that focuses on "Surviving a Violent Tornado." The chapter also has expanded treatment of hurricanes that includes examples and images from the devastating and record-breaking 2004 and 2005 hurricane seasons.
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· Chapter 20 (formerly "Climate") has a new title, "World Climates and Global Climate Change." The chapter begins with a new introduction that is followed by a strengthened presentation on climate classification and the distribution and characteristics of Earth's major climate groups. The second half of the chapter examines one of the most serious environmental issues facing humankind--global climate change. This discussion provides an excellent opportunity to explore human impact on the climate system and many interrelationships in the Earth system. It includes up-to-date information and analysis from the 2007 reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. · All four chapters comprising Unit 7, Earth's Place in the Universe, have been revised, updated, and substantially rewritten with the assistance of Mark Watry and Teresa Tarbuck of Spring Hill College. This is the most complete revision of this unit ever. The subject matter is better organized and more up-to-date. Discussions progress in a manner that is easier to follow for the beginning student. Readers get an engaging perspective on the historical development of astronomy (Chapter 21) and a factual, upto-date tour of the solar system (Chapter 22). They also learn about telescopes and are introduced to modern methods of observing the universe such as orbiting observatories (Chapter 23). The unit concludes with a clear presentation on stellar evolution and the origin of the universe (Chapter 24). Additional Highlights · "Students Sometimes Ask . . ." This popular feature has been retained and improved in the twelfth edition. teachers and students continue to react favorably and indicated that the questions and answers that are sprinkled throughout each chapter add interest and relevance to discussions. · Although there is not a significant change in the number of special interest boxes, several are totally new or substantially revised. As in the previous edition, most are intended to illustrate and reinforce the three themes of "Earth as a System," "People and the Environment," and "Understanding Earth." The teaching and learning Package The challenge is fundamental and too often overlooked in what seems to have become a weapons race of resources supplemental to the text: instructors need more time, students need more preparation. With this as a credo, Pearson/Prentice Hall has produced for this edition perhaps the best set of teacher and student resources ever assembled to support an introductory Earth science textbook. Not only are they of the highest quality, they are the most useful. Please see pages xxii-xxiii of this Preface for detailed descriptions.
Acknowledgments Writing a textbook requires the talents and cooperation of many individuals. We value the excellent work of Mark Watry and Teresa Tarbuck of Spring Hill College. They helped to make Unit 7, "Earth's Place in the Universe," a more readable, engaging, and up-to-date introduction to astronomy. We also appreciate the aid of Alan Trujillo of Palomar College. His contributions to the oceanography unit and to the "Students Sometimes Ask . . ." feature remain an important part of Earth Science. Working with Dennis Tasa, who is responsible for all of the outstanding illustrations and much of the developmental work on GEODe: Earth Science, is always special for us. We not only value his outstanding artistic talents and imagination but his friendship. We are also grateful to Ken Pinzke at Southwestern Illinois College for his important work on the text's laboratory manual, Applications and Investigations in Earth Science. Ken is an important part of our team and a valued friend as well. Special thanks goes to those colleagues who prepared in-depth reviews. Their critical comments and thoughtful input helped guide our work and clearly strengthened the text. We wish to thank: Erin Argyilan, Indiana University Northwest Jake Armour, University of North Carolina- Charlotte Michael Bradley, Eastern Michigan University Natalie Bursztyn, Bakersfield College Marianne Caldwell, Hillsborough Community College Dan Deocampo, California State University- Sacramento Holly Dodson, Sierra College Chris Hooker, Waubonsee Community College Zoran Kilibarda, Indiana University Northwest Michael Lewis, University of North Carolina- Greensboro TinaGayle Osborne, Palm Beach Community College James Sacchinelli, Atlantic Cape Community College Tom Sills, Wright State University David Vorhees, Waubonsee Community College Jim Wysong, Hillsborough Community College We also acknowledge the outstanding professionals at Pearson. We sincerely appreciate the company's continuing strong support for excellence and innovation. Special thanks to the hard-working geosciences team--Dan Kaveney, Dru Peters, Crissy Dudonis, John DeSantis, Sean Hale, and Amy Porubsky. In addition to being great people to work with, all are committed to producing the best textbooks possible. The production team, led by Patty Donovan at Pine Tree Composition, Inc., has once again done an outstanding job. All are true professionals with whom we are very fortunate to be associated. Edward J. Tarbuck Frederick K. Lutgens
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PREFACE
The Teaching and Learning Package
Pearson continues to improve the teacher resources in this edition with the goal of saving you time in preparing for your classes. The following supplements are available to qualified adopters.
collaboration among five of the Pearson leading geoscience authors, these animations represent a significant leap forward in class presentation aids. They are provided both as Flash files and, for your convenience, pre-loaded into PowerPoint slides.
Instructor's Resource Center (IRC) on DVD The IRC puts all your class resources in one easy-to-reach place: Three PowerPoint® presentations for each chapter 101 animations of Earth processes All of the line art, tables, and photos from the text in .jpg files (Are illustrations central to your lecture? Check out the Student Lecture Notebook.) Images of Earth photo gallery Instructor's Manual in Microsoft Word Test Item File in Microsoft Word TestGen test generation and management software Most of the teacher supplements and resources for this book are also available electronically for adoption preview and download online. Please go to www.pearsonschool.com/ access_request and select "access to online instructor resources". You will be required to complete a one time registration subject to verification before being emailed access information for download materials. PowerPoints® Found on the IRC are two PowerPoint files for each chapter. Cut down on your preparation time, no matter what your lecture needs. 1. Art and Animations--All of the line art, tables, and photos from the text, along with the animation library, pre-loaded into PowerPoint slides for easy integration into your presentation. 2. Lecture Outline--Authored by Stanley Hatfield of Southwestern Illinois College, this set averages 35 slides per chapter and includes customizable class outlines with supporting art. Animations The Prentice Hall Geoscience Animations Library includes over 100 animations illustrating the most difficult-to-visualize topics of Earth science. Created through a unique
"Images of Earth" Photo Gallery Supplement your personal and text-specific slides with this amazing collection of over 300 geologic photos contributed by Marli Miller (University of Oregon) and other professionals in the field. The photos are available on the IRC on DVD. Transparencies Simply put: Every Dennis Tasa illustration in Earth Science, Twelfth Edition is available as a full-color, projection enhanced transparency--175 in all. (Are illustrations central to your class? Check out the Student Lecture Notebook.) Instructor's Manual with Tests, Florida Edition (0-55-866727-9) Authored by Stanley Hatfield (Southwestern Illinois College), the Instructor's Manual contains: learning objectives, chapter outlines, answers to end-of-chapter questions and suggested, short demonstrations to spice up your class. The Test Item File incorporates art and averages 75 multiplechoice, true/false, short answer and Critical thinking questions per chapter. TestGen Use this electronic version of the Test Item File to customize and manage your tests. Create multiple versions, add or edit questions, add illustrations--your customization needs are easily addressed by this powerful software. For the Laboratory Applications and Investigations in Earth Science, Sixth Edition. Written by Ed Tarbuck, Fred Lutgens, and Ken Pinzke, this full-color laboratory manual contains 23 exercises that provide students with hands-on experience in geology, oceanography, meteorology, astronomy, and Earth science skills. Available for purchase.
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Student Resources
The student resources to accompany Earth Science, Twelfth Edition, Florida Edition have been further refined with the goal of focusing the students' efforts and improving their understanding of Earth science concepts. GEODe: Earth Science Somewhere between a text and a tutor GEODe: Earth Science version 3 DVD, included with your book, employs the unique capabilities of the computer to illuminate key concepts in Earth science. Animations, videos, photographs, text, narration, and interactive exercises are presented in a tutorial format. Do you learn better by doing? Exercises throughout the DVD get you interacting instead of just memorizing. Does your lab not always parallel your class? A quick review of the relevant module will help you prepare you for the lab, whether or not you have covered the topic in class. Look for the GEODe: Earth Science icon throughout the text. The DVD is plug-and-play--no special software or installation is necessary--so it's perfect for use in your school's computer lab (though you should probably use headphones). Study Guide Written by experienced educators Stanley Hatfield and Ken Pinzke (Southwestern Illinois College), the Study Guide helps students identify the important points from the text, and then provides them with review exercises, study questions, selfcheck exercises, and vocabulary review. Available for purchase. Companion Website Authored by Molly Bell, the Companion Website contains numerous chapter review exercises (from which students get
immediate feedback). Links to other resources are also included for further study. Teachers can utilize the GradeTracker to asses student progress. High school teachers can obtain teacher and student preview or adoption access in one of two ways: · By registering online at www.pearsonschool.com/access_ request. · Through the use of a physical pincode card. High school adopters will receive an adopter access pincode card (ISBN 0130343919) with their textbook order. Preview access pincode cards may be requested using ISBN 0131115989. Both adopter and preview pincode cards include follow-on directions and provide teacher and student access. For questions concerning access, please contact your local Pearson sales representative or email [email protected] Student Lecture Notebook Illustrations are tools--use them Illustrations are critical to understanding Earth science. They are a centerpiece of your textbook and, most likely, your teacher's class. In the Student Lecture Notebook you'll find all the art from the text, reproduced with space for you to take notes. In fact, you may find that these illustrations are exactly the ones you will see in class. Using the Student Lecture Notebook means: more focused and more rapid notetaking, less writing in your textbook, and less to carry to class. Available for purchase.
Next Generation Sunshine State Standards for Earth/Space Science The Next Generation Sunshine State Standards describe the knowledge and process skills that you are expected to learn before graduating from high school.

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