Earth's Catastrophic Past: Geology, Creation, & the Flood

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Content: Earth's Catastrophic Past: Geology, Creation & the Flood by Andrew A. Snelling, Ph.D.
Table of contents
Volume 1. The Genesis Record of Creation and the Flood Defended
Foreword
ix
Preface
xiii
Introduction
Why Take Genesis Seriously?
1
Genesis as Reliable History
2
Jesus Regarded Genesis as Real History
6
The apostle Peter's Prophecy
7
The Reliability of the Whole Bible Depends on Genesis as
9
History
The Pivotal Importance of the Flood
10
Section I. The Biblical Record Of The Global Genesis Flood
Chapter 1
Moses Compiled Genesis
15
Chapter 2
The Duration of the Flood
19
Forty Days of Rain
19
150 Days of "Prevailing"
20
221 Days of "Assuaging" and "Abating"
21
Chapter 3
The Depth of the Flood
27
Chapter 4
Geological Details of the Flood
31
Chapter 5
The Size of the Ark
35
Chapter 6
The Need for the Ark
39
Chapter 7
The Testimony of the Apostle Peter
47
Chapter 8
The Testimony of the Lord Jesus Christ
53
Chapter 9
The Total Destruction of a Widely-Distributed Human Race--All
57
Mankind Perished
All Mankind Perished
57
Chapter 10 The Total Destruction of a Widely-Distributed Human Race--The
63
Human Race Had Spread Around the Earth
Longevity and population growth
63
The Prevalence of Violence
67
Human Fossil Evidence
70
Chapter 11 Summary and Conclusion
73
Earth's Catastrophic Past, Andrew A. Snelling
Table of Contents, Page 2
Section II. Non-Geological Arguments Used Against the Global Genesis Flood
Chapter 12 Introduction
77
Chapter 13 The Genesis Flood Story Derived from the Babylonian Flood Myth
81
Chapter 14 No Global Flood in Recent Geological and human history
89
Chapter 15 All Mankind Not Descended from Noah's Family
91
The Sons of Noah
92
The Table of Nations
93
The Bible and Racial Distribution
95
Chapter 16 Anthropology and Racial Dispersion
97
Recent Migration from Asia
97
Universal Flood Traditions
99
Chapter 17 Universal Terms: Used in a Limited Sense?
107
Most Universal Terms Are to Be Interpreted Literally
107
The Context Determines the Meaning
108
Chapter 18 Universal Terms Are Literal in Genesis 6-9 Because of the Physical
115
Phenomena
Chapter 19 Summary and Conclusions
121
Section III. Noah, the Ark, And the Animals
Chapter 20 Gathering the Animals to the Ark
125
Chapter 21 The Capacity of the Ark
131
Chapter 22 Caring for the Animals in the Ark
145
Chapter 23 The "Natural-Supernatural" Philosophy of Miracles
155
Chapter 24 Post-Flood Animal Distribution--The Australian Marsupials
163
Three Major Views
163
Australian Marsupials
165
Chapter 25 Post-Flood Animal Distribution--Rapid Animal Dispersion
171
Rapid Breeding and Diversification
175
Chapter 26 Summary and Conclusions
181
Section IV. The Framework for a Biblical Geology
Chapter 27 Introduction
185
Chapter 28 The Scriptural Divisions of geologic history
193
The First Creative Act
193
The Work of the Six Days of Creation
193
The Pre-Flood Period
194
The Flood
195
The Post-Flood Period
195
General Comments
195
Chapter 29 The Beginning of Creation
199
Chapter 30 The First Day
205
Chapter 31 The Second Day
211
Chapter 32 The Third Day
213
Earth's Catastrophic Past, Andrew A. Snelling
Table of Contents, Page 3
Chapter 33 The Fourth Day
219
Chapter 34 The Fifth Day
225
Chapter 35 The Sixth Day--Land Animals and Man
229
Chapter 36 The Sixth Day--Adam and Eve
235
Chapter 37 The Seventh Day
241
Chapter 38 The Fall
245
Chapter 39 The Curse
253
Chapter 40 The Pre-Flood World
261
Chapter 41 The Flood
271
Chapter 42 The Post-Flood World
281
Chapter 43 Concluding Comments
291
Section V. The Modern Geological Synthesis
Chapter 44 Introduction
295
Chapter 45 The Geologic Column
299
Historical Development
300
Terminology Used
305
Chapter 46 A Classic Example of a Local Geologic Column
309
Chapter 47 Correlation of Strata Between Local Geologic Columns
313
Chapter 48 The Precambrian of the Geologic Column
321
Chapter 49 Implications of the Geologic Column
329
Chapter 50 Patterns and Trends in the Geologic Column--Involving Different
335
Rock Types
Patterns Involving Sedimentary Rocks
336
Patterns Involving Igneous Rocks
338
A Pattern Involving Metamorphic Rocks
342
Chapter 51
Patterns and Trends in the Geologic Column--Involving Relative Sea- 343 Level Changes
Chapter 52 Patterns and Trends in the Geologic Column--Involving the Fossil
347
Record
Chapter 53 Patterns and Trends in the Geologic Column--Involving Metal Ore
361
Deposits
Chapter 54 A Brief History of Plate Tectonics
365
Chapter 55 The Development of the Plate Tectonics Theory
373
Chapter 56 Global Plate Tectonics: The Unifying Model
379
Chapter 57 Plate Tectonics: Controlling the Formation of the Rock Record--
389
Divergent Plate Margins and the Ocean Floor
Chapter 58 Plate Tectonics: Controlling the Formation of the Rock Record--
397
Plates That Collide: Convergent Margins
Chapter 59 Plate Tectonics: Controlling the Formation of the Rock Record--
409
Transform Plate Margins and Plate Interiors
Transform Plate Margins
409
Plate Interiors
410
Chapter 60 Concluding Comments
417
Earth's Catastrophic Past, Andrew A. Snelling
Table of Contents, Page 4
Selected Bibliography
421
Color Figures
441
Volume 2. GeoLogical Implications of the Biblical Record for a Biblical Geologic Model for Earth History
Section VI. Geological Implications of the Biblical Geologic Model for Earth History
Chapter 61 Geological Implications of the Biblical Record
467
The Uniqueness of the Creation Week
468
Enormous Geological Work Accomplished During the Creation
469
Week
A Stable Pre-Flood World
470
Tremendous Erosion from the Rainfall During the Early Stage of 470
the Flood
Clouds Not the Major Source of the Flood Rainfall and Waters
471
Enlarged Ocean Basins as a Result of the Flood?
473
Volcanic and Seismic Upheavals During the Flood
474
Unprecedented Sedimentary Activity Again During the Flood
474
Ideal Conditions for the Formation of Fossils During the Flood
475
Uniformitarianism Also Undermined by the Flood
476
Chapter 62 The Renewed Recognition of Catastrophism
477
Chapter 63 Evidences of Catastrophism in the Geologic Column--Rate of
487
Sediment Accumulation and Widespread Rapidly-Deposited Strata
Rate of Sediment Accumulation
487
Widespread, Rapidly Water-Deposited Strata
490
Chapter 64 The Widespread, Rapidly Water-Deposited, Paleozoic Strata of the
493
Grand Canyon, Arizona--Limestones
Chapter 65 The Widespread, Rapidly Water-Deposited, Paleozoic Strata of the
501
Grand Canyon, Arizona--Sandstones
Chapter 66 The Widespread, Rapidly Water-Deposited, Paleozoic Strata of the
511
Grand Canyon, Arizona--Shales
Chapter 67 Other Examples of Widespread, Rapidly Water-Deposited Strata
519
The Shinarump Conglomerate, Utah
519
The Uluru Arkose and Mt. Currie Conglomerate, Central
520
Australia
Kingston Peak Formation, Southeastern California
522
Hawkesbury Sandstone, Sydney Basin, Australia
524
Megasequences of North America
528
Chapter 68 Fossilization
531
Preservation of Unaltered Remains
532
Preservation by Permineralization
533
Preservation by Recrystallization
534
Earth's Catastrophic Past, Andrew A. Snelling
Table of Contents, Page 5
Chapter 69 Chapter 70 Chapter 71 Chapter 72 Chapter 73 Chapter 74 Chapter 75 Chapter 76
Preservation by Replacement
534
Preservation of Only the Original Forms in Casts and Molds
534
Preservation of Carbon Only (Carbonization)
535
Preservation of the Tracks and Trails
535
Fossil Graveyards
537
The Cambrian Burgess Shale, British Columbia, Canada
537
The Ordovician Soom Shale, South Africa
538
The Devonian Thunder Bay Limestone, Michigan
539
The Carboniferous Montceau Shale, Central France
539
The Carboniferous Francis Creek Shale, Mazon Creek Area,
540
Illinois
The Triassic Mont San Giorgio Basin, Italy-Switzerland
541
The Triassic Cow Branch Formation, Cascade, Virginia
543
The Cretaceous Santana Formation, Brazil
544
The Cretaceous Tepexi Limestone, Mexico
546
The Cretaceous Djadokhta Formation, Nemget Basin, Ukhaa
547
Tolgod Area, Mongolia
Coal Beds--Fossil Graveyards of Plants Transported and Deposited
549
by Water
Theories of Origin
550
Coal Beds--Fossil Graveyards of Plants That Grew Floating on Water 557
Underclays--Fossil Soils?
562
Upright Fossilized Trees
565
Further Examples of Fossil Graveyards
569
Mass Extinctions
574
The Rate of Fossilization
577
Petrification by Silicification
577
Fossilization by Phosphatization
579
Fossilization by Biofilms
582
Fossilization by Pyritization
583
Coalification
584
Are There Long Ages Between the Strata?
587
Soft-Sediment Deformation Features
597
Summary
607
Section VII. A Biblical Geologic Model of Earth History
Chapter 77 The Creation Week
613
The Creation Week Processes Unique
614
The Laws of Thermodynamics
615
Chapter 78 The First Two Days
623
The First Day
623
The Second Day
627
Chapter 79 The Third Day
631
Chapter 80 The Fourth Day to the End of the Creation Week
639
Chapter 81 Creation of "Appearance of Age"
647
Chapter 82 Cosmological Evolution and the "Big Bang"
653
Chapter 83 The Pre-Flood Era--The "Waters Above the Firmament"
661
Earth's Catastrophic Past, Andrew A. Snelling
Table of Contents, Page 6
The Fall and the Beginning of the Pre-Flood Era
661
The "Waters Above the Firmament"
662
Chapter 84 The Pre-Flood Era--climate conditions Before the Flood
669
Chapter 85 The Pre-Flood Era--The Biology and Geology
675
Some Unique Pre-Flood Biological Communities
675
Geologic Activity in the Pre-Flood World
678
Chapter 86 The Flood--A Global Tectonic Catastrophe
683
A Global Tectonic Catastrophe
684
Chapter 87 Catastrophic Plate Tectonics--The Driving Force of the Flood
691
Chapter 88 Where is the Pre-Flood/Flood Boundary in the Geologic Record?
707
A Mechanical-Erosional Discontinuity
707
A Time or Age Discontinuity
707
A Tectonic Discontinuity
708
A Sedimentary Discontinuity
708
A Paleontological Discontinuity
709
Chapter 89 The Destructive Power of Floods and Ocean Waves
713
Chapter 90 Sedimentation and Fossilization During the Flood
723
Chapter 91 The Order of the Strata Deposited by the Flood
727
Pre-Flood Biogeography
730
Early Burial of Marine Creatures
731
Hydrodynamic Selectivity of Moving Water
733
Behavior and Higher Mobility of the Vertebrates
734
Chapter 92 The Order of the Flood Strata--Other Considerations in the Strata
739
Sequence
Bioturbation and Mass Extinctions
739
Formation of Coal Beds
741
Chapter 93 Animal Tracks and Fossils in Mesozoic Strata
745
Chapter 94 The Flood/Post-Flood Boundary in the Geologic Record
751
Biblical Considerations
752
Geological Considerations
752
Chapter 95 The Post-Flood World
763
Post-Flood Geology
763
Post-Flood Climate
765
Chapter 96 The Post-Flood Ice Age--A Consequence of the
769
Flood
The Ice Age as a Consequence of the Flood
773
Chapter 97 The Post-Flood Ice Age--Geomorphic Features and Ice-Age Animals 779
Chapter 98 From the Ice Age to the Present World
787
Section VIII. Problems in Biblical Geology Solved --Radioactive Dating and Geochronology
Chapter 99 The Radioactive Methods for Dating Rocks
797
The Radioactive Methods for Dating Rocks
798
The Assumptions of Radioactive Dating
800
Chapter 100 The Pitfalls in the Radioactive Dating Methods--The Potassium-
803
Argon and Argon-Argon Methods
Earth's Catastrophic Past, Andrew A. Snelling
Table of Contents, Page 7
"Excess" or Inherited Argon
803
Argon Loss
808
Chapter 101 The Pitfalls in the Radioactive Dating Methods--The Rubidium-
811
Strontium Dating Method
Anomalous Rb-Sr Isochrons
811
Open-System Behavior, Mixing and Resetting
814
Chapter 102 The Pitfalls in the Radioactive Dating Methods--The Samarium-
819
Neodymium Dating Method
Sm-Nd Model Ages
822
Chapter 103 The Pitfalls in the Radioactive Dating Methods--The Uranium-
825
Thorium-Lead Dating Method
Open-System Behavior
825
Inheritance
828
Pb-Pb Isotope "Dating," Inheritance and Mixing
830
Chapter 104 The Pitfalls in the Radioactive Dating Methods--Sundry Methods
835
and Revealing Considerations
The Lutetium-Hafnium and Rhenium-Osmium
835
Radioisotope Dating Methods
How Much Radioactive Decay Has Actually
836
Occurred?
Do Radioisotope "Ages" Match the Claimed
837
Stratigraphic "Ages"?
Do "Ages" Determined by the Different
838
Radioisotope "Dating" Methods Agree?
Chapter 105 The Pitfalls in the Radioactive Dating Methods--Variations in
845
Radioactive Decay Rates and "Apparent Age"
A "Grown" Creation with an "Apparent Age"
850
Chapter 106 The Pitfalls in the Radioactive Dating Methods--The
855
radiocarbon dating Method
Section IX. Contradictions in Geochronology--Support for Biblical Geology
Chapter 107 Supernovas and Comets
867
Supernova Remnants
867
Disintegration of Comets
869
Chapter 108 The Earth's magnetic field
873
Chapter 109 Sea Salt, Erosion, and Sediments
879
Salt in the Sea
879
Erosion of Continents
881
Sea Floor Sediments
883
Chapter 110 Volcanic Activity and Helium
885
Crustal Growth through Volcanic Activity
885
Helium in Rocks and in the Atmosphere
887
Chapter 111 Radiohalos, Radiocarbon and Tree Rings
891
Radiohalos
891
Radiocarbon and Tree Rings
894
Chapter 112 human population Statistics and Lifespans
899
Earth's Catastrophic Past, Andrew A. Snelling
Table of Contents, Page 8
Section X. Problems For Biblical Geology Solved --Formations Implying Slow Deposition
Chapter 113 Deposition and Lithification
909
Deposition and Lithification
909
Chapter 114 Bioturbation, Hardgrounds, and Trace Fossils
917
Chapter 115 Chalk and Diatomite Beds, and Deep-Sea Sediments
925
Chapter 116 coral reefs and Limestone
931
Chapter 117 Evaporites
937
Chapter 118 Varves and Rhythmites
945
Chapter 119 Buried Forests
953
Chapter 120 Coal Beds
959
Chapter 121 Oil Deposits
965
Chapter 122 Limestone Caves and Cave Deposits
977
Chapter 123 Granite Formation, Intrusion, and Cooling
983
Magma Generation by Partial Melting
984
Melt Segregation
985
Magma Ascent
987
Magma Emplacement
989
Emplacement Rates
991
Crystallization and Cooling Rates
992
Convective Cooling: The Role of Hydrothermal Fluids
993
Crystallization and Cooling Rates: The Evidence of
995
Polonium Radiohalos
Chapter 124 Regional Metamorphism
999
Chapter 125 Ore and Mineral Deposits
1013
Chapter 126 Earlier Ice Ages
1023
Concluding Challenges The Adequacy of the Biblical Framework of Earth History An Unfinished Task Postscript
1033 1034 1037
Selected Bibliography
1045
Index
1061
Color Figures
1079
Snelling, A. A. 2009. Earth's Catastrophic Past. Dallas, TX: Institute for Creation Research.

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