Energy consumption analysis of Spanish food and drink, textile, chemical, AA Usón, G Ferreira, MD Mainar

Tags: Instituto Nacional de Eficiencia Energ, energy consumption, Ignacio Bossano, consumption, CNAE, energy efficiency, industrial sector, Edificio Torre Bossano, energy saving, electricity consumption, industrial sectors, Energy Conversion and Management, GHG emissions, National Statistics Institute, processes, electrical energy, cooling equipment, energy audit, energy demand, oil consumption, non-metallic mineral products, textile sector, diesel oil, chemical sector, efficiency measures, industry sectors, Manufacture, thermal energy, energy savings, raw material, renewable energy sources, CNAE disaggregation CNAE
Content: Energy consumption analysis of Spanish food and drink, textile, chemical and non-metallic mineral products sectors Alfonso Aranda Usуn1,*, Germбn Ferreira, M. Dolores Mainar-Toledo, Sabina Scarpellini, Eva Llera Sastresa 1 CIRCE - Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption, Zaragoza, Spain * Corresponding email: [email protected]
ABSTRACT This paper provides quantitative information for energy consumption from four different industry sectors based on an energy analysis obtained by means of in-situ energy audits and complementary information. The latter information was taken from Saving Strategy and energy efficiency in Spain (Estrategia de Ahorro y Eficiencia Energйtica en Espaсa 20042010, E4) documents and the 2009 Industrial Survey of Spain from the national statistics Institute (Instituto Nacional de Estadнstica, INE). The results show an estimate of energy consumption for each sector, namely Spanish food, drink and tobacco (9.6%), textile (4.5%), chemical (14.7%), and non-metallic mineral products (24.3%), as well as the degree of inefficiency for each, obtained by means of a stochastic frontier production function model. These results are combined with the energy consumption analysis to identify potential energy saving opportunities around 20.0% of the total energy consumption for all studied sectors. These energy saving opportunities are classified according to thermal or electrical energy consumption and percentage savings of the total energy consumption.
KEYWORDS Industrial sectors, energy consumption, production frontiers, energy savings, efficiency measures.
NOMENCLATURE BREF: Reference Documents on Best Available Techniques CNAE: National Classification of economic activities CO2: Carbon dioxide CO2 eq: Carbon dioxide equivalent E4: Saving Strategy and Energy Efficiency in Spain GHG: Greenhouse gas HVAC: Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning IDAE: Institute for Diversification and Saving of Energy INE: National Statistics Institute SMEs: Small and medium size enterprises
INTRODUCTION
A continuous increase in Energy Demand has raised awareness of the negative impact of
current energy consumption and technologies on the environment by greenhouse gas (GHG)
emissions and other impacts which could be avoided through energy efficiency
improvements. Considering that the industrial sector is responsible for a high degree of energy
consumption, it is expected that it is also responsible for a large amount of the associated
emissions. Energy savings by industrial sector offer the best means of reducing energy
demand and overall GHG emissions. Because several countries are currently interested in
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energy use analysis to improve energy efficiency and reduce carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (CO2 eq), various studies have focused on this topic, analysing both the entire industrial sector (Akash and Mohsen, 2003; Feijoу et al. 2002; Ghaddar and Mezher, 1999; Kannan and Boie, 2003; Ogulata, 2002; Цnьt and Soner, 2007; Saidur et al., 2009; Jobert and Karanfil, 2007; Fan and Xia, 2011;) and specific industrial sectors (Agrafiotis and Tsoutsos, 2001; Gordic et al., 2010; Hong et al., 2010; Ozturk, 2005; Pardo Martнnez, 2010; Saidur and Mekhilef, 2010; Saidur et al., 2009; Sonnino, 1982; PYME SGDAAL, 2009; Ciccozzi et al., 2003; Aranda et al., 2003; Economнa Md, 2003).
In fact, the long-term projection of energy use and associated carbon dioxide emissions (CO2) are key determinants of the need for and cost of Climate Change mitigation policies and facts. With respect to the latter, Ghaddar and Mezher (1999) report that implementing a few low- or no-cost measures in the industrial sector could reduce 10.0­30.0% of GHG emissions.
It is well known that industrial energy consumption is influenced by several factors, but the technologies used for a given process particularly affect the energy efficiency that can be achieved (Bannister and Alexander, 2009; Schwob et al., 2009). As explained, one of the primary environmental solutions to global warming is improving energy efficiency, one of the quickest and most cost-effective responses to the threat of global warming.
The analysis of energy consumption is highly important for setting trends and future directions in any country (Crompton P, Wu Y, 2005). As a consequence, many researchers have dedicated their efforts to studying the energy consumption and Economic Growth of different countries (Akash BA, Mohsen MS, 2003; Jobert T, Karanfil F, 2007; Sonnino T, 1982; Crompton P, Wu Y, 2005; Kaya A, Yalcintas M, 2010; Apergis N, Payne JE, 2009; Kim Y, Worrell E, 2002). One analysis tool that enables a more efficient use of consumed energy is based on the realisation of an energetic balance between equipment and processes, with the purpose of determining the energy performance and inefficiencies associated with the system under study. For this reason, it is necessary to be familiar with the thermodynamics variables that can be identified and quantified through an energy audit (Thollander P et al. 2005; Chan DY-L et al. 2007).
According to the Institute for Diversification and Saving of Energy (Instituto para la Diversificaciуn y Ahorro de la Energнa, or IDAE), the Spanish industrial sector is currently responsible for 31.0% (1,067,115,514.0 GJ) of Spain's energy consumption. Thus, the authors have focused their attention on studying those industrial sectors that represent, in aggregate, a minimum of 53.1% of the Spanish industrial sector final energy consumption.
The aim of this work is to present an energy consumption analysis to identify energy saving measures to improve the energy efficiency of the four energy-consuming industrial sectors in Spain, namely, the chemical industry, food, drink and tobacco industry, textile industry and manufacture of non-metallic mineral products. In Spain, these industrial sectors are four of the eight highest energy consumers, the eight sectors together represent 86.5% of the final energy consumption in the industrial sector (Economнa Md, 2003). The four selected sectors account for 33.0% of the total industrial small and medium enterprises (SMEs) compared with the remaining four highest energy consumers (paper, iron and steel, non-ferrous metal, and metal transformation industries), which account for just 2.2%. In addition, all of these four selected sectors offer the replicability desired of the energy efficiency measures proposed by the study, unlike the other industrial sectors, which are more singular and require more specific studies (SMEs represent 99.9% of the total enterprises in Spain (PYME SGDAAL, 2009)).
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To this end, an energy evaluation of SMEs, in these four sectors through walkthrough audits. After analysing the process conditions, energy saving measures are proposed and applied to the processes studied during the audit. To determine the degree of energy efficiency of the analysed sectors, a stochastic frontier production function model has been modelled. The results are obtained based on the energy audits and from data gathered from the 2009 Industrial Survey to obtain relevant details and updated information for the studied sectors; the information collected from the audits is complemented by previously published scientific and technological documents. Additionally, this study will be useful for benchmarking and for the application of other policy measures in Europe and other countries with industrial energy use (Ciccozzi et al. 2003). It also provides important guidelines and insights for future research, development allocations and energy projects. METHODOLOGY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND EFFICIENCY IN INDUSTRIAL SECTORS For the purpose of improving the efficiency of the industrial sectors analysed four study phases have been followed. industrial processes analysis for each sector which may be split into subprocesses to obtain representative results for common processes and equipment within these subsectors; energy consumption assessment of the subsectors with the purpose of obtaining the highest energy consuming or the highest energy inefficient processes and equipment; assessment of the production boundary to obtain the maximum potential of energy saving for each subsector analysed and as result of the previous phases an analysis is carried out to propose energy saving measures to improve energy efficiency of the analysed subsectors within the four industrial sectors analysed. As is well known, industrial energy consumption in each country is a function of the energy intensity of the industrial sector and total industrial output. The analysis of energy use requires selecting a representative sample of sectors from the industry population, such that the conclusions obtained are willing to be applied and spread to the entire industrial sector. Furthermore, industrial sectors show heterogeneous characteristics due to the wide diversity of materials used to produce a wide range of products. Because of this variety, each sector studied in this investigation is divided into aggregate subsectors to make the analysis more comprehensible. In Spain, each sector and subsector are coded according to the National Classification of Economic Activities 1993 (Clasificaciуn Nacional de Actividades Econуmicas, CNAE-93), and this classification is applied to the current study. In particular, criteria for aggregating enterprises from different subCNAEs are based on similarities in subsector processes that coincide with the energy saving measures to be proposed. These subCNAES are grouped as shown in Table 1.
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Table 1. CNAE disaggregation CNAE 15 Food, drink and tobacco Group 1 15.3. Processing and preserving of fruits and vegetables 15.4. Manufacture of oils and fats 15.7. Manufacture of prepared animal feed Group 2 15.1. Meat industry 15.81. Manufacture of bread; manufacture of fresh pastry goods and cakes 15.82. Manufacture of rusks and biscuits; manufacture of preserved pastry goods and cakes 15.9. Manufacture of beverages CNAE 17 Textile industry 17.1. Preparation and spinning of textile fibres 17.2. Weaving of textiles 17.3. Finishing of textiles 17.4. Manufacture of made-up textile articles, except apparel 17.5. Other textile industries 17.6. Manufacture of knitted and crocheted fabrics 17.7. Manufacture of other wearing apparel and accessories CNAE 24 Chemical Industry 24.1. Manufacture of basic chemicals 24.2. Manufacture of pesticides and other agrochemical products 24.3. Manufacture of paints, varnishes and similar coatings, printing ink and mastics 24.4. Manufacture of pharmaceutical products 24.6. Manufacture of other chemical products CNAE 26 Manufacture of non-metallic mineral products 26.1. Manufacture of glass and glass products 26.3. Manufacture of ceramic tiles and flags 26.4. Manufacture of bricks, tiles and construction products, in baked clay Source: National Economic Activities Classification, National Statistics Institute (Clasificaciуn Nacional de Actividades Econуmicas 1993, CNAE-93. Rev.1., INE) Targeted industries and data As explained above, SMEs from the food and drink, textile, chemical and non-metallic mineral products industries of Spain have been selected to yield homogeneity within each analysed industrial sector. For their analysis, a walkthrough audit was carried out during 2009 and 2010 in several factories from each analysed industrial sector, according to the following steps: a) selection of factories, b) preliminary evaluation by questionnaire, sent via email to the selected factories, and c) realisation of the on-site audit with data gathering and measurement (Figure 1).
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Figure 1. Phases of the walkthrough audit
From this audit, company facility characteristics and critical processes were obtained in terms of energy consumption where energy savings measures could be implemented. It is important to highlight that the selection criteria correspond to the availability of energy data for the time period under study and willingness of the company to allow the walkthrough audit. After selection (a), a preliminary evaluation (b) was carried out by sending questionnaires to a random population of 500 enterprises representative of the Spanish industrial sector. The questionnaire consisted of questions about contracted power, annual energy consumption, number and energy consumption type of machinery and equipment, power, loading factor, age, number of running hours per year, and type of process for which the equipment is used; maintenance and revisions were included, as well as specific questions intended to help estimate energy savings for each type of machinery, e.g., operation conditions or working hours. The number of walkthrough audits performed in selected enterprises was determined by the responses collected from them (Table 2).
Table 2. Number of walkthrough audits conducted in selected CNAEs
CNAE Code
Number of Walkthrough audits
No. SMEs in considered CNAEs
15
52
31,561
17
30
9,959
24
25
4,435
26
42
12,653
Source: Industrial Enterprise Survey 2009, National Statistics Institute (Encuesta Industrial de
Empresas (EIE) 2009, INE)
To complete the analysis, other sources were used. Data for the analysis of processes and
equipment were obtained from walkthrough audits and sectoral documents from industrial
associations. SocioEconomic data and energy consumption information (in thousands of
euros) were obtained from the INE and, more concretely, from the Enterprise Industrial
Survey 2009 and questionnaires sent to selected enterprises. Detailed net sectoral energy
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consumption and sectoral energy saving measures were collected from walkthrough audits, Saving Strategy and Energy Efficiency in Spain (E4) documents and sector-specific Reference Documents on Best Available Techniques (BREFs) (European Commission's Joint Research Centre, 2010; Giacone E, Mancт S, 2011).
Analysis of the processes involved in each sector Processes have been divided into sub-processes to present the results in a comprehensible way. These sub-processes are homogeneous for different aspects; for example, production processes can be divided into line processes, and cross-sectional equipment and installations can be classified into heating, cooling and electrical machinery. At this stage, the description of the production processes for main products and cross-sectional processes were collected by inspection of operating manuals and machinery specifications from the audited industries, and relevant operational data were obtained using appropriate measurement instruments, including thermometers, an IR thermographic camera, gas analyser, grid analyser, hygrometer, luxmeter and air flowmeter.
Analysis of energy consumption in each sector Once industrial processes were divided into sub-processes, the energy data needed to calculate the energy consumption distribution for each sector were extracted from the audits and other aforementioned sources. Afterwards, an analysis was done to obtain a breakdown of energy consumed by end-use equipment. To assess energy consumption, the first law of thermodynamics was applied to every type of equipment using EES (Equation Engineering Solver) software to determine the energy consumption. Sankey diagrams are used as a tool to show the distribution of consumption for each sub-process. The main output of this analysis is a percentage range of energy consumption for every category of equipment, divided according to the aforementioned subdivisions. From this information, critical processes are identified, along with energy saving potential where measures can be implemented for the relevant subsector.
Estimation of the production boundary The energy efficiency of each sector was analysed by means of two methods: the industrial energy analysis applied to pilot companies and the application of production theory with respect to their production boundaries. The latter allows identification of inefficiencies incurred by the use of energy resources, considering direct multi-inputs obtained from industrial energy analysis, such as labour, capital, and raw materials, related to the maximum output attainable as defined by the state of technology. To estimate the production boundary is necessary to know the physical quantities of both inputs and outputs, which are very difficult to obtain from different industrial sectors consisting of a large number of industries.
To calculate the energy efficiency reference against which the industrial sector will be compared, production theory was applied. Relative inefficiency was measured as the deviation from the best results obtained by enterprises in a given sector in terms of obsolete technology used by each industry. Efficient behaviour in a produced unit is shown in the production frontier and relates the use of direct energy inputs to the maximum output possible, given the state of the technology. This methodology is described in depth by previous studies (Feijoу ML, et al. 2002; Aranda A et al. 2003). Total energy cost is divided into three inputs (electricity, gas and other combustibles) and separated from the rest of raw materials cost, and the resulting inefficiencies are seen as potential savings measures to implement in each sector. The Enterprise Industrial Survey 2009 was the data source for this part of the study. Enterprises with more than 250 employees (no SMEs) were excluded from the analysis for
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consistency across the study, and a minimum sample of 20 observations for each sector was considered acceptable to achieve useful results.
Stochastic Cobb-Douglas frontiers were used to estimate production frontiers based on the methodology developed by Feijoo et al. (2002) and Aranda et al. (2003) according to the Eq. (1):
е е е е C(Q*) / C=йлк
m i=1
n j =1
xj
(Q*
)
/
m i=1
n j =1
xij
щ ыъ
(1)
where Q* is the considered output, C(Q*)/C represents a global index for economical efficiency for each industrial sector, xj(Q*)/xij values for input j minimise the production cost in the enterprise i, xj(Q*) is the optimum cost for input j and xij is the real cost for input j and enterprise i.
As mentioned above, physical information for inputs and outputs is required to obtain these frontiers. Added value is therefore used as a measure of production. Statistics software LIMDEP version 7.0 was used to estimate the stochastic production frontiers for the analysis.
Energy saving measures in each sector Based on the sub-processes subdivision, energy saving measures can be determined from walkthrough audits in different factories and from different information sources, such as sector-specific analysis documents, E4 sectoral studies and BREF sectoral documents, peerreviewed journals, papers and websites. The energy saving measures were grouped into combustible fuel saving measures and electricity saving measures (Цnьt S, Soner S, 2007). It is important to highlight that these measures are mainly applied to cross-sectional processes that are usually common for all subsectors in each sector, with the exception of systems that are great energy consumers; obviously, these systems must be taken into account for the energy saving measures suggested later. Energy savings are assessed through manufacturers tools available to calculate energy savings with new equipment installed based on the initial energy consumption of the equipment analysed. Finally, a percentage range of energy savings for each type of energy consumption is given as an estimate for each specific measure in the subsector with respect to the total combustible consumption for every type of combustible fuel. These percentages may include several individual measures, or they may be general measures. The application of these measures will be different depending on the unique features of each factory or facility and on the relative importance of the equipment to the total energy consumption.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Food and drink sector analysis (CNAE 15) Figure 2 shows a breakdown of the distribution of energy consumption by CNAE and type of cross-sectional equipment (classified into heating, cooling and electrical machinery, mainly), where the annual energy consumption reached by this sector is 102,391,516.8 GJ. For all enterprises analysed during the walkthrough audits, the cycle that characterises this sector can be described as follows: The first process phase is the reception and conditioning of raw materials (separating, washing, peeling and chopping). In the second phase, raw material is transformed into an elaborated product. In this phase, transformation techniques may involve heating or cooling processes or fermentation. Once the raw material is transformed into an elaborated product, it is packed or canned or bottled, depending on the final product. Transport of the product to a storage place was taken into account as a production phase.
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Afterwards, the product is kept in cold stores or climate-controlled spaces until it is shipped. Therefore, consumed energy was found to correspond to thermal and electrical energy. In particular, thermal energy in the form of water steam or superheated water generation was consumed by combustible boilers. Maximal consumption was associated with processes requiring product heating (scalding, sterilising, peeling) or cleaning, as hot water or steam was used for that purpose. Electrical energy was consumed in freezing, refrigeration and cooling of materials and in activation of other equipment (e.g., pumps, engines, belt conveyors). As can be observed in Figure 2, electricity consumption (61.0%) greatly outweighed thermal consumption (divided into furnaces, 12.0%, and other heating processes, 25.0%). It is important to highlight that Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) made a low contribution to the total, but it was a mixture of thermal and electricity consumption (2.0%). From a cross-sectional equipment analysis point of view, cooling equipment represents 30.0% of the total final energy share of the sector, and yet 80.0% of enterprises have cooling equipment at their disposal. This percentage is high as a result of their low power requirements compared with furnaces in heating processes. Cooling processes are used frequently in the manipulation of vegetable products and in wine production for refrigeration during fermentation and stabilisation phases, such as in cold stores and processing equipment (e.g., cooling tunnels and refrigeration sleeves).
CNAE 26 (24,3 %) PM (5,0 %) AS (1,5 %) HVAC (0,5 %) PH (93,0 %)
CNAE 24 (14,7 %)
CNAE 15 (9,6 %) CNAE 17 (4,6 %)
HVAC (1,0 %) AS (2,5 %) PC (1,5 %) PM (23,5 %)
HVAC (2,0 %) AS (7,0 %)
PH (71,5 %)
PM (24,0 %)
PC (30,0 %)
AS (36,0 %) PH (37,0 %) PM (18,0 %)
HVAC (6,0 %) PH (40,0 %)
REST of CNAES (46,8 %)
Figure 2. Sankey diagram of the energy consumption distribution (PM: Process Machinery; AS: Auxiliary Services; PH: Process Heating; PC: Process Cooling) The type of combustible energy used at visited enterprises was strongly related to the location of the plant. Usually, they are situated near the raw material suppliers, and those materials come directly from the farm sector. Some enterprises therefore lack access to natural gas. Because of this, the most common combustibles were gasoil and fuel. Cleaner combustible fuels (natural gas and propane) were less used, and renewable energy sources represented a small part of the total. This result is illustrated in Table 3, where natural gas represents a smaller amount of the total energy cost in comparison with other sectors and a bigger amount in the consumption of oil, fuel and other oil products.
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Table 3. Total energetic cost per CNAE
CNAE 15. Food, drink and tobacco
TOTAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION
Nє enterprises
Nє employees
Coal and derivatives m/year
Oil m/year
Fuel m/year
Other oil products m/year
Gas m/year
Electricity m/year
Other energetic consumption m/year
Total energy consumption m/year
21,531 381,699
3,136 209,474 95,513 29,691 235,276 536,829
25,447
1,135,365
17. Textile industry
6,316 154,224
26 24,931
7,555
3,840 60,665 153,641
12,542
263,200
24. Chemical industry
3,403 238,646
16,840 71,816 52,914 29,507 393,913 472,222
179,323
1,216,534
26. Manufacture of non-metallic mineral products
9,573 348,194 140,997 304,300 74,645 26,080 605,689 468,706
Source: Energetic Consumption Survey 2009, National Statistics Institute (Encuesta de Consumos Energйticos 2009, INE).
17,865
1,638,282
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One important piece of information obtained from the audits was that some of the activities required a huge range of electrical engines, some of them with high power (between 40.0 and 175.0 kW), which have to work with variable loads over a high number of hours. These engines activate mills and elements of filters and transport. These engines represent nearly 24.0% of consumption (Figure 2), considering that most of the equipment for specific processes corresponds to electrical machinery. This kind of equipment is more important in the biscuits, cake and bakery production sector over the long term, while in the mineral water and non-alcoholic beverage sector, it is more significant during the bottling and packing phase. The rest of the energy share consists of HVAC and auxiliary services (compressed air accounting for 2.5% and ventilation and lighting accounting for 4.5%).
Table 4 shows the efficiency indexes of consumption for each energy input related to the optimum output, with resources combined appropriately. The food and drink sector would achieve its production optimum with a 70.9% increase in electricity consumption, a 89.2% decrease in gas consumption and a 50.3% decrease in diesel oil. It seems that investments and equipment replacement should be applied toward heating equipment using combustible fuel to produce steam or hot water, and updates to technology and electrical equipment are needed to decrease employee costs.
Table 4. Efficiency indexes by energy input and CNAE
CNAE
E(Q*)/E
G(Q*)/G
F(Q*)/F
15.1
1.995
0.324
1.494
15.81-15.82
0.389
0.417
0.287
15.9
3.133
0
0
1.709
0.108
0.497
17.1
0.571
0.012
0.078
17.2
0.015
0.165
0.071
17.3
1.436
0.040
0.232
17.5
0.491
0.058
0.261
0.625
0.059
0.141
24.3
1.034
0.154
0.256
1.034
0.154
0.256
26.3 ­ 26.4 26.6 26.7
1.746 0.082 1.042 0.957
0.060 0.959 0 0.340
0.002 0.958 0.270 0.410
Based on this analysis and the efficiency indexes, savings measures for thermal and electrical energy are given for the equipment or processes consuming the most energy, where the saving potentials are considerable. These are represented with respect to the total thermal consumption in Figure 3, indicating that an energy saving potential in the range of 10.0 to 40.0% can be achieved following the strategies shown in Table 5.
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Figure 3. Percentage of thermal energy consumption initially and after applying savings measures for CNAE 15
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Table 5. Thermal consumption savings measures by CNAE in terms of energy savings (%) with respect to total thermal energy consumption (Economнa Md, 2003)
Thermal Consumption Savings Measures
Combustible replacement
CNAE
Description
Savings rate (%)
Heat recovery Description
15 Into Natural Gas
3.0
Combustion gases and hot air from boilers and furnaces
Management of steam and condensates network
Operation or equipment optimisation or replacement
Savings rate (%)
Description
Savings rate (%)
Description
Savings rate (%)
Global savings rate (%)
3.0-13.0
Fluids from process can
Improvement in boilers and
be recirculated to the
furnaces: Optimised combustion
alimentation tank of the boiler. Correct insulation
1.0-11.0
conditions, cleaning of heat exchangers, combustion air
3.0-16.0
is necessary to avoid
regulation, boiler adjustment
energy losses.
and correct boiler insulation
10.0-40.0
17
From combustion gases for dryers, input or combustion air preheating. From condensates, steam for drying and colouring processes
5.0-17.0
Insulation of steam and hot water distribution network
1.0-5.0
Improvement and combustion rs and furnaces
2.0-18.0
8.0-40.0
24
Combustible
replacement of
26
petroleum
products into
natural gas
Residual heat is a free source of energy for drying, air preheating, etc.
4.0-6.0
Insulation improvement in heat distribution network
Sensible and residual heat recovery
6.0
for preheating and predrying of material, direct utilisation in dryers
2.0-6.0
and combustion air preheating
Combustion regulation through
gas and temperature analysis 0.5-3.0
0.5- and heat exchanger cleaning
3.0
Generation equipment
replacement (together with 3.0-7.0
combustible replacement)
8.0-19.0
Combustible regulation controlling excess air, unburned products and superficial temperature of the boiler
1.0-10.0
15.0-26.0
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Measures proposed, in terms of percentage of total electrical consumption, can be seen in Figure 4, and the two main recommended strategies are detailed in Table 6. Hypothetically, by applying all of the proposed measures, the achieved savings could reach 3.0 to 40.0% of all electrical consumption. It is necessary to highlight that total energy savings will depend on the importance of each energy consumption type in a particular plant.
Figure 4. Percentage of electricity energy consumption initially and after applying savings measures for CNAE 15
Table 6. Electrical consumption savings measures by CNAE in terms of energy savings (%) with
respect to total electricity consumption (Commission IE, 2008)
Electrical Consumption Savings Measures
Operation optimisation
Equipment optimisation or replacement
Variable-speed drivers installation
CNAE
Description
Savings rate (%)
Description
Savings rate (%)
Description
Savings rate (%)
Global savings rate (%)
Optimisation and
automation of
In engines and
15
central cooling system through
1.0-15.0
compressors working with
2.0-25.0 3.0-40.0
high-efficiency
variable loads
equipment
Cooling system
24
and compressed air operation
2.0
optimisation
Engines changed to more efficient ones
5.0-25.0
In electrical engines working with variable loads
2.0-13.0
9.0-38.0
Textile clothing, leather and leather products sector (CNAE 17) Of the total energy consumption in this sector (48,600,388.8 GJ), the energy breakdown (Figure 2) indicates that heating processes represent up to 40.0% of that total. Audits of this sector showed that it is characterised by preparation or production of fibres, thread production, fabric production, finishing of textiles and final product fabrication. Of all these processes, finishing processes in particular consume mostly thermal energy. Thermal energy is used in steam production processes, thermal oil heating, drying and coating heating. It is also
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consumed in washing phases, which vary depending on the product and material, and in fibre harvesting processes or in following ones for textiles or after colouring and stamping. Much electricity is consumed during thread and fabric production by specific machinery, specifically in spinning and fabric production processes using electrical devices, accounting for 18.0% of the final energy (Figure 2). Additionally, this figure shows a remarkable level of consumption in auxiliary services (36.0%) due to compressed air, which represents more than the machinery, lighting and extraction processes combined. The rest of the energy is consumed by HVAC. As shown in Table 4, the enterprises representing CNAE 17 could achieve their production optimum by decreasing their current electricity consumption 47.0% with changes to the auxiliary equipment that consumes most of the electricity, and by decreasing natural gas consumption 94.0% and diesel oil consumption 85.0% in heat production processes. It is shown that updating technology in this subCNAE would increase electricity consumption. In terms of natural gas and diesel oil consumption, the possibility of energy savings exists in all analysed sectors, which is why inefficiency rates are very high with respect to these energy inputs. Figure 5 shows proposed measures for energy savings related solely to thermal energy because it was not possible to break down the electrical savings according to proposed measures due to the absence of information for consumption by equipment type. The possibility of updating electrical engines in specific machinery is very low; this study focuses on cross-sectional equipment, where it is easy to apply the resulting savings measures across the entire sector (Table 5). Achieved savings could reach 8.0 to 40.0% of the total thermal consumption given the hypothetical case explained in CNAE 15.
Figure 5. Percentage of thermal energy consumption initially and after applying savings measures for CNAE 17.
Chemical sector (CNAE 24)
The energy share for CNAE 24 (157,229,164.8 GJ) is shown in Figure 2. According to
sectoral and E4 documents, the activities of this sector are divided as follows: basic chemistry,
which produces industrial gases, basic products for organic and inOrganic Chemistry, plastic
raw materials, synthetic timber, and chemical fibres; agrochemistry, which produces fertilisers
and phytosanitaries; pharmaceutical chemistry, which manufactures base products, specialty
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drugs and other products addressed to final customers; and chemical transforming, which produces paints, inks, adhesives, oils, explosives, detergents, soaps, perfumes, and cosmetics. Audits revealed that basic chemistry could be divided into the supply and preparation of raw materials, synthesis, separation and refining of product and manipulation and storage of product. The rest of the sectors were supplied with products from basic chemistry, but fabrication varied from one to the next depending on the final product. Specifically, in agrochemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry, production processes were similar to those in basic chemistry. By contrast, in transformation chemistry, simple processes without synthesis or reactions or more complex processes could be found. Thermal equipment found at the visited enterprises included steam boilers, mainly used to raise the temperature of chemical reactants in basic chemistry. Hot water boilers and thermal oil were found for low-temperature and high-temperature thermal demands, respectively, in all subCNAEs of this sector. Hot air generators for product drying or heating were also found. Due to these generators, heat processes represented a high percentage of the total consumption, reaching 71.5% (Figure 2). Data from the audits in Table 3 show that the combustible fuel used for thermal energy in this sector was mainly natural gas, but there was diversification into sources such as coke, fuel, gasoil and propane. In addition, electrical engines were used to activate mills, pumps, fans, compressors, dispersers (scatterers), centrifuges, mixers, reactors, and agitators. Most of their applications required them to work under variable resistance loads. Their consumption was 23.5% of the total (Figure 2). Apart from machinery equipment and heat generation, HVAC, auxiliary services and cooling processes represented 1.0%, 2.5% and 1.5% of the total, respectively (Figure 2). In deciding which techniques to implement to achieve the production optimum, it is necessary to know that the current electricity consumption would have to be kept the same, while natural gas and diesel oil consumption would have to decrease by 85.0% and 75.0%, respectively. This new equilibrium would require new technical allocations with respect to energy efficiency. The result of these new allocations would be focused on increases in new equipment and consequent decreases in the workforce. Based on information gathered from both thermal and electrical equipment, energy saving measures are proposed in Tables 5 and 6 and can be seen in Figures 6 and 7. The savings potential could reach 8.0 to 19.0% for thermal and 9.0 to 38.0% for electrical consumption in the hypothetical case explained previously.
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Figure 6. Percentage of thermal energy consumption initially and after applying savings measures for CNAE 24
Figure 7. Percentage of electricity energy consumption initially and after applying savings measures for CNAE 24.
Non-metallic mineral products sector (CNAE 26) This sector has the most significant thermal energy consumption across the entire industry sector (Figure 2). Combustible consumption of natural gas predominates (Table 3), with a total annual energy consumption of 259,160,212.8 GJ.
The subCNAEs studied showed considerable differences, which make it necessary to explain the conclusions from the audits separately according to subsector. In subCNAE 26.1 (`Glass production and glass products'), five basic phases of elaboration were found: materials manipulation, smelting, molding, final processes and packing. In subCNAEs 26.2 (`Nonrefractory products production, excepting building sector, refractory ceramic products fabrication'), 26.3 and 26.4, operations such as drying and firing were common.
Higher consumption of thermal energy was seen in equipment such as furnaces and dryers, depending on their relative importance to the specific activity. In subCNAE 26.1, more common items of thermal equipment were regenerative furnaces (powered by combustibles and electricity), unit melter regenerator furnaces (powered by combustibles and electricity, the
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former being less efficient), melting furnaces (combustible), electrical furnaces and sintering furnaces (combustible). As with subCNAE 26.1, furnaces were the highest consumers in subCNAE 26.4, including tunnel (continuous) or discontinuous kilns, tunnel or discontinuous dryers and steam or water boilers. Consequently, thermal consumption made up 93.0% of the total share of energy (Figure 2). Electrical consumption was less important in this activity sector, but it was used by almost every piece of equipment, the most significant being milling machines, extruders, presses, belt conveyors, extractors in furnaces and dryers and blowers (accounting for 5.0% of total energy consumption in the sector; Figure 2). Compressed air was not a significant component in this sector; it was used for pneumatic drivers and cleaning (representing 1.5% of the total; Figure 2). Before energy saving measures can be proposed, it is necessary to mention that, in subCNAE 26.1, the `Glass production and glass products' industry, there is little possibility of increasing energy efficiency in electrical devices because cross-section technologies are near optimal and process improvements are limited. The production optimum could be achieved by maintaining the current electricity consumption, decreasing natural gas consumption by 66.0% and diesel oil consumption by 59.0%. Although the energy saving measures given here are related to thermal energy, it should be noted that electrical consumption made up almost 7.0% of the energy share in this sector. Figure 8 shows that potential energy savings could reach 15.0 to 26.0% for thermal consumption if all the proposed measures in Table 5 were applied together.
Figure 8. Percentage of thermal energy consumption initially and after applying savings measures for CNAE 26
CONCLUSIONS SMEs from the food and drink, textile, chemical and non-metallic mineral products industries of Spain have been characterised with respect to their energy consumption. Realistic data have
been obtained from extensive walkthrough audits, carried out during 2009 and 2010 in several factories from each analysed industry, to determine both energy consumption characteristics
and the degree of energy inefficiency. This energy analysis reveals that the non-metallic
mineral products sector had the highest consumption (24.7%) compared with those observed in the other three sectors analysed (food, drink and tobacco, 9.6%; textile, 4.6%; chemical,
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14.7%). Additionally, it was found that the food, drink and tobacco and chemical sectors showed high thermal energy consumption (93.0% and 71.5%, respectively).
The optimum production for each of the four sectors was identified, taking into account electricity, natural gas and diesel oil consumption. The food, drink and tobacco sector could achieve its production optimum by increasing electricity consumption to 70.9%, decreasing gas consumption to 89.2% and diesel oil to 50.3%. Chemical and non-metallic mineral products sectors, however, should maintain current levels of electricity consumption while decreasing natural gas and diesel oil consumption. Specifically, the chemical sector needs to decrease natural gas consumption to 94.0% and diesel oil consumption to 85.0% in heat production processes, and the non-metallic mineral products sector needs to decrease natural gas consumption to 66.0% and diesel oil consumption to 59.0%. Finally, the textile sector could achieve its production optimum with a 47.0% decrease in current electricity consumption by updating electricity-consuming auxiliary equipment. Finally, various energy saving measures are proposed for the different sectors. These measures are based on the energy consumption analysis and frontier estimations developed here. All sectors can improve their energy consumption performance by following the measures suggested.
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AA Usón, G Ferreira, MD Mainar

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