Family fictions in Roman art, N Kampen

Tags: Cambridge University Press, Family Fictions, Roman Art Natalie Boymel Kampen Frontmatter, Natalie Boymel Kampen, 1st century ce, Metropolitan Museum of Art, ce, Julia Domna, Leptis Magna, Barnard College, 2nd century, Natalie Kampen, Roman Art, Columbia University, Epigraphique American Journal of Archaeology American Journal of Philology H. Temporini, Walter de Gruyter, ABBREVIATIONS, Cambridge University, Roman Empire, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Fulbright Commission, Rome, Archaeological Museum, Aphrodisias, Museum, Kunsthistorisches Museum, 4th century, Vatican City, 4th century ce, Thessaloniki Archaeological Museum, arch of Galerius, Column of Trajan, American Numismatic Society, National Archaeological Museum, Musei Vaticani, Cairo Museum, Arch of Trajan
Content: Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-58447-0 - Family Fictions in Roman Art Natalie Boymel Kampen Frontmatter More information FAMILY FICTIONS IN ROMAN ART In Family Fictions in Roman Art, Natalie Kampen reveals the extraordinary ways in which family could be represented in the interests of political power during the Roman Empire. Her study examines a group of splendid objects made over the course of 600 years, from carved gems to triumphal arches to ivory plaques, and asks how and why artists and their elite patrons chose to depict family to speak of everything from gender to the nature of rulership and from social rank to relationship itself. In the process, artists found new and often strikingly odd ways to give form to families from conquered lands and provinces as well as from the Italian countryside and the court. The book's contribution is in its combination of close attention to the creativity of Roman art and interest in the visual language of social and political relationships in a great empire. Natalie Boymel Kampen is Professor of Women's Studies and Barbara Novak '50 Professor of Art History at Barnard College, Columbia University. Recipient of fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Fulbright Commission, she has been a visiting Fellow at St. Hilda's College, University of Oxford, and at the Cornell Society of Fellows in the Humanities. She is the author, most recently, of What Is a Man? Changing Images of Manliness in Late Antique Art.
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-58447-0 - Family Fictions in Roman Art Natalie Boymel Kampen Frontmatter More information FAMILY FICTIONS IN ROMAN ART NATALIE BOYMEL KAMPEN Barnard College
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-58447-0 - Family Fictions in Roman Art Natalie Boymel Kampen Frontmatter More information
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First published 2009
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Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Kampen, Natalie.
Family fictions in Roman art
Natalie Boymel Kampen.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
isbn 978-0-521-58447-0 (hardback)
1. Portraits, Roman. 2. Family in art. 3. Power (social sciences) in art.
n7588.k35 2009
704.9 420937­dc22
2008019296
I. Title.
isbn 978-0-521-58447-0 hardback
Published with the assistance of the Getty Foundation.
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-58447-0 - Family Fictions in Roman Art Natalie Boymel Kampen Frontmatter More information Happy families aren't necessarily all alike after all. For Susan and David Udin and to the memory of Pauline Friedman Boymel 1913­2007 and Jules Boymel 1912­1999
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-58447-0 - Family Fictions in Roman Art Natalie Boymel Kampen Frontmatter More information
CONTENTS
Figures and Plates Acknowledgments Preface Abbreviations INTRODUCTION 1 LIVIA AS WIDOW: COMPLICATED KINSHIP 2 TRAJAN AS FATHER: DEPICTING THE PATER PATRIAE 3 POLYDEUKION AS TROPHIMUS: DOMUS AND EMOTION AMONG THE RICH AND FAMOUS 4 SEVERAN BROTHERS: DOUBLED VALUE 5 TETRARCHS AND FICTIVE KINSHIP 6 STILICHO'S TROUBLED KINSHIP CONCLUSION Notes Bibliography Indices Subject Index Museums Index Index of Literary and Legal Texts Epigraphic Index
page ix xiii xv xvii 1 23 38 64 82 104 123 139 143 179 199 205 207 208
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-58447-0 - Family Fictions in Roman Art Natalie Boymel Kampen Frontmatter More information
FIGURES AND PLATES
figures 1. Rome, Museo Capitolino. Base of the Statue of Cornelia. ca. 100 bce or ca. 30 bce. 2. New York, American Numismatic Society. Coin with reverse of Marcius Rex. 1st century bce. 3. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art. Marble grave stele with a family group, Greek, Attic, ca. 300 bce. 4. Boston, Museum of Fine Arts. Tomb Relief of the Publius Gessius family. 30­20 bce. 5. Eisenstadt, Landesmuseum Burgenland. Stele of Cenumarus and Gnatila, early 2nd century ce? 6. Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Biographical sarcophagus, front. Second half 2nd century ce. 7. Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Biographical sarcophagus, side. Second half 2nd century ce. 8. Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum. Statue of a woman in the guise of Cybele. 1st century ce. 9. Rome, Museo della Civilta` Romana. The Great Trajanic Frieze, Arch of Constantine, plaster cast. ca. 115 ce. 10. Rome, Column of Trajan. ca. 110­113 ce. 11. Rome, Column of Trajan scene #82. 12. Rome, Column of Trajan scene #91. 13. Rome, Column of Trajan scene #76. 14. Rome, Column of Trajan scene #30. 15. Rome, Column of Trajan scene #39. 16. Rome, Column of Trajan scene #45. 17. Rome, Column of Trajan scene #90. 18. Benevento, Arch of Trajan. 114­117 ce. 19. Benevento, Arch of Trajan, attic panel of imperial largesse. 20. Benevento, Arch of Trajan, imperial donation panel. 21. Paris, Louvre. Boscoreale Cup (Augustus cup) in its early and undamaged form. First quarter 1st century ce. 22. Rome, Column of Marcus Aurelius scene #104. Third quarter 2nd century ce. 23. Athens National Archaeological Museum. Portrait of Herodes Atticus, from Kephisia. Mid-2nd century ce. © Cambridge University Press
page 8 9 10 11 13 18 19 31 39 41 46 47 48 49 50 51 54 55 56 57 59 61 65 ix www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-58447-0 - Family Fictions in Roman Art Natalie Boymel Kampen Frontmatter More information
x
FIGURES AND PLATES
24. Athens National Archaeological Museum. Portrait of
Polydeukion, from Kephisia. Mid-2nd century ce.
66
25. Tripoli (Libya) National Archaeological Museum. Statue of
Antinoos from Baths at Leptis Magna. ca. 130 ce.
67
26. London, Sir John Soane's Museum. Bust of Polydeukion.
Mid-2nd century ce.
73
27. Leptis Magna Museum. Arch of the Severan Family, Leptis
Magna, detail of relief panel with divinities.
85
28. Tripoli, National Archaeological Museum. Arch of the
Severan Family, Leptis Magna, detail of SE triumph frieze
showing a victory.
87
29. Tripoli, National Archaeological Museum. Arch of the
Severan Family, Leptis Magna, detail of Concordia frieze.
90
30. Tripoli, National Archaeological Museum. Arch of the
Severan Family, Leptis Magna, casts of restored panels with
sacrifice above (a) and NW triumphal frieze below (b).
91
31. Tripoli, National Archaeological Museum. Arch of the
Severan Family, Leptis Magna, composite of Triumph friezes:
above: NW frieze; below: SE frieze fragments reassembled by
V. M. Strocka.
93
32. Warsaw, National Museum. Relief of Caracalla and Julia
Domna, 212­217.
95
33. Aphrodisias, Museum. Panel from Sebasteion, Imperator with
Victory. Mid-1st century ce.
97
34. Tripoli (Libya), Arch of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. 163 ce.
99
35. Cairo Museum. Tetrarchic portrait from Athribis. ca. 300 ce.
107
36. Thessaloniki Archaeological Museum. Small arch of Galerius,
detail. Early-4th century ce.
109
37. Vatican City, Vatican Museums. Cancelleria Relief A. Last
third 1st century ce.
112
38. Vatican City, Vatican Museums. Cancelleria Relief B.
112
39. New York, American Numismatic Society. Plautilla coin,
reverse showing Plautilla clasping right hands with Caracalla.
202 ce.
113
40. Rome, Column of Trajan, scene #44.
115
41. Syracuse, Museo Nazionale Archeologico. Adelfia Sarcophagus.
4th century ce.
117
42. Monza, Cathedral Treasury. Stilicho Diptych. Late-4th century ce.
124
43. Istanbul, Silivri Kapi Hypogeum. Limestone sarcophagus
front, plaster cast. Late 4th­early 5th century ce.
125
44. Munich, ArchaЁologische Staatssammlung. Stele of Claudia
Ursa and Gesatia Lucia with their parents. 3rd century ce.
127
45. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art. Gold glass with
name of Bulculus. Late 3rd­early 4th century, ce.
131
46. Vatican City, Museo Pio Cristiano. "Dogmatic" sarcophagus.
4th century ce.
131
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FIGURES AND PLATES
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plates I. Bonn, Rheinisches Landesmuseum. Stele of M. Caelius. 9 ce. II. New York, American Numismatic Society. Coin with reverse of two Antonine couples. Mid-2nd century ce. III. Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum. Cameo of Livia with the Bust of Divus Augustus. ca. 14 ce. IV. Paris, Bibliothe`que Nationale Cabinet des Meґdailles. Grand Cameґe de France. After 14 ce. V. Madrid, Archaeological Museum. Statue of Livia from Paestum. Late-1st century bce. VI. Boston, Museum of Fine Arts. Turquoise Cameo, 14­37 ce. VII. Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum. Gemma Augustea. Early- 1st century ce. VIII. Ann Arbor, Kelsey Museum. Polydeukion head. Mid-2nd century ce. IX. Leptis Magna, Restored Arch of the Severan Family, early-3rd century ce. X. Aphrodisias, Museum. Panel from Sebasteion, Nero crowned by Agrippina. Mid-1st century ce. XI. Vatican City, Musei Vaticani. Column Base of Antoninus Pius and Faustina I, Apotheosis. 161 ce. XII. Vatican City, Musei Vaticani. Column Base of Antoninus Pius and Faustina I, left side with decursio. 161 ce. XIII. New York, American Numismatic Society. Coin reverse of Julia Domna with Caracalla and Geta, ca. 200 ce. XIV. Venice, Four Tetrarchs, ca. 300 ce. XV. Vatican City, Vatican Library. Four Tetrarchs, detail. ca. 300 ce. XVI. New York, American Numismatic Society. Aureus of Maximianus from Antioch, 293 ce. XVII. Zajecar, Narodni Musej. Tetrarchic portrait from Felix Romuliana. ca. 300 ce. XVIII. Palmyra, View of colonnades. 1st­2nd century ce. XIX. Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Antikensammlung. Ephesus: Parthian Monument, Adoptio. 176 ce. XX. Enns, Museum Lauriacum. Stele of Aelius Quartinus. Late-2nd century ce. XXI. Washington, D. C., Dumbarton Oaks Byzantine Collection. Seasons Sarcophagus. Mid-3rd century ce. XXII. Paris, Museґe du Louvre. Mars-Venus portrait. Second half 2nd century ce. XXIII. Rome, Catacomb of Sts. Peter and Marcellinus. Painting of banquet with Agape waiting on the participants. Late 3rd­early 4th century ce. XXIV. Brescia, Museo Civico. Gold glass with the name of Bounneros. Late 3rd­early 4th century ce. XXV. Naples, Catacomb of San Gennaro. Painting of Nonnosa with her parents Theotecnus and Hilaritas. 6th century ce. XXVI. Thessaloniki, Museum of Byzantine Culture. Fresco from barrel-vaulted tomb, known as the tomb of Eustorgios or Eustorgia, early-4th century ce.
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
many people have been enormously generous with their time and suggestions; this book would be much the worse without their help. Elizabeth Bartman, Bettina Bergmann, Penelope Davies, Harriet Flower, Elizabeth Marlowe, Sharon Strom, Jennifer Tobin, Jeannine Uzzi, Herica Valladares, and Tara Welch read parts or all of the manuscript. Many friends and students talked about the issues with me and helped me to understand what I was up to; I am sorry not to be able to thank them all in print, but they know how much I owe them. Kate Meng Brassel was my ideal research assistant. Taco Terpstra checked footnotes and helped with indexing, and Kirsten Andersen and Patrick Crowley hunted photos. The students in my 2007 seminar on the Roman family representations offered invaluable intellectual stimulation. Over the years parts of the book have been presented as lectures, and the audiences who commented and questioned added immeasurably to the ideas. I can no longer remember where I've given which talks, but I do know that the first presentation was part of the Townsend Lectures at Cornell University in the last year of the life of the late Judith Ginsburg, to whom I and many others owe so much and whom we miss so badly. The book was supported by time and research assistants paid for by Barnard College and by thE Department of Art History and Archaeology of Columbia University. The Sacher Visiting Fellowship at St. Hilda's College, University of Oxford, provided time and access to the Ashmolean library; the American Academy in Rome made me welcome. Museum people and archaeologists who provided access and assistance were legion, but special thanks go to Claudia Lega of the Vatican Museums. Thanks to Volker Michael Strocka, James Frakes, and Holger Klein for photos. Thanks to Nikolas Bakirtsis and Serdar Yalcёin for help with photos and language problems. Thanks as well to Phoebe Segal, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, for last-minute help. Support from the Getty Foundation was essential to the production of the photographs. Loving friends and family deserve thanks for their constant support and kindness: Susan and David Udin first and always, Michael and Mady Edelstein,
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Alexandra Broches and Darrell Matsumoto, Sharon Hartman Strom and Fred Weaver, Candace Oviatt and Sandra Poirier, Pendleton Hall and Guy LaTour, Cathleen Williams and Mark Merin, Afsaneh Najmabadi, and Muriel Dimen. They have been more than patient.
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-58447-0 - Family Fictions in Roman Art Natalie Boymel Kampen Frontmatter More information PREFACE as one reads this book, it will be clear that i have some theoretical assumptions that emerge along the way. One is that the family is a social construction rather than the sort of natural phenomenon that, in its universality and biological stability, can be taken for granted. The second is that social constructions are always historically contingent and profoundly related to ranking systems and the modes of production that support those systems. Social status, gender, geographic location, age ­ all of them matter. Third, visual representation is a form of discourse that not only brings social constructions into material form; it is itself socially constructed and therefore shapes those constructions as it renders them visible. These basic principles animate the choices about which objects to look at and the questions to ask about them. That I have chosen a group of monuments of which most seem to be related by their stubbornly refusing a straight-forward notion of family is hardly accidental. Because I want to show that family is socially constructed, I have picked monuments that make that constructedness obvious. The manipulation of ideas about family, the reconfigurations of what a family is or might be, and the uneasy relations within even the most apparently "natural" of families characterize all the images. Although most of the focus is on elite families, of whom we know more from art and texts, my goal has been to provide some art historical models for thinking about other kinds of family representations, not just those of Roman rulers, within this larger theoretical frame of social construction.
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ABBREVIATIONS
AA AAA AE AJA AJPh ANRW ArchEph AthMitt BAR BCH BJbb BullCom CAH CIL CSIR Diehl DOP EAA FD IG ILLRP IstMitt JbAC Jdl JRA JRS LIMC
ArchaЁologischer Anzeiger Athens Annals of Archaeology L'Anneґe Epigraphique American Journal of Archaeology American Journal of Philology H. Temporini, ed., Aufstieg und Niedergang der roЁmischen Welt (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1972­1994) Archaiologike Ephemeris Mitteilungen des deutschen archaЁologischen Instituts, Athenische Abteilung British Archaeological Reports Bulletin de correspondance helleґnique Bonner JahrbuЁcher Bullettino della commissione archeologica comunale di Roma Cambridge Ancient History Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum Corpus Signorum Imperii Romani E. Diehl, Inscriptiones Latinae Christianae Veterae (Berlin: Weidmann, 1925) Dumbarton Oaks Papers Enciclopedia dell'Arte Antica, Classica e Orientale, ed. R. BianchiBandinelli et al. (Roma: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, 1958­85) Fouilles de Delphes Inscriptiones Graecae Inscriptiones Latinae Liberae Rei Publicae Istanbuler Mitteilungen Jahrbuch fuЁr Antike und Christentum Jahrbuch des deutschen archaЁologischen Instituts Journal of Roman archaeology Journal of Roman Studies Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae (Munich: Artemis, 1981­99)
xvii
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xviii
ABBREVIATIONS
LTUR REG Repertorium RhM RoЁmMitt
E. M. Steinby, ed., Lexicon Topographicum Urbis Romae (Rome: Quasar, 1993­2000) Reґvue des Eґtudes Grecques F. Deichmann, with G. Bovini and H. Brandenburg, eds., Repertorium der christlich-antiken Sarkophage I-III (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1967­2003) Rheinische Museum fuЁr Philologie Mitteilungen des deutschen archaЁologischen Instituts. RoЁmische Abteilung
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