Handbook of acoustical measurements and noise control

Tags: Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, technical information, DyTec Engineering, Inc., Wright State University, Ph.D., Biodynamics and Engineering Division, Columbia University, Alan H. Marsh, Professor Emeritus, American Airlines, International Electrotechnical Commission, Environmental Planning, Noise Control, Aircraft Noise Regulation, Acoustical Society of America, American Society of Heating, Federal Aviation Administration, McGraw-Hill, Richard N. Tedrick, technical books, Institute of Noise Control Engineering, Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., government of the United States, technical societies, publications, Professional Publishing Group, Richard J Linn, Measurement Instruments Daniel L. Johnson, William W. Lang, Columbia University, New York, NY, Electrical Engineering, Measurement Techniques, University of New South Wales, Australia Chapter, Vibration Analysis Robert B. Randall, New York, Symbols Cyril M. Harris, Introduction Cyril M. Harris, Dallas/Fort Worth Airport, Ken Eldred Engineering, Hearing Loss, Henning E. von Gierke, Kenneth M. Eldred, Environmental Impact, Cyril M. Harris, Charles Batchelor Professor Emeritus, economic importance, Cabot Safety Corp., Bolt Beranek, University Professor, University Reader, School of Psychology, Airborne Acoustics Branch, Noise Exposure William Melnick, University of Wales College at Cardiff, Aerospace Engineering, Bolt Beranek and Newman, Elliott H. Berger, Department of Otolaryngology, Legal Liability Allen L. Cudworth, Center for Communications Disorders, Maurice H. Miller, New York University, Ohio State University, North Carolina State University, Northwestern University, Naval Ocean Systems Center, Environmental Noise Consultants, Inc., Conservation Programs Larry E. Royster, Laura Ann Wilber, Hearing Protection Devices Charles W. Nixon, Vibration Isolators Romulus H. Racca, Sound-Absorptive Materials Ron Moulder, Lenox Hill Hospital New York, Otolaryngology and Environmental Health, Robert S. Gales, Principal Research Scientist, Harry L. Hain, Douglas H. Sturz, John J. Heintzel, Barry Wright Corporation, Principles Cyril M. Harris, Dylan M. Jones, Julia Doswell Royster, Medical Research Council, Department of Experimental Psychology University of Oxford, Liberty Mutual Insurance Co., Charles J. Leingang, University of Florida, United Kingdom Donald E. Broadbent, David M. Green, University of Minnesota
Content: Handbook of Acoustical Measurements and Noise Control, Third Edition Cyril M. Harris, Editor Originally published in 1991; Reprinted in 1997 TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1. Introduction Cyril M. Harris, Ph.D., Charles Batchelor Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering and Professor Emeritus of Architecture, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 Chapter 2. Definitions, Abbreviations, and Symbols Cyril M. Harris, Ph.D., Charles Batchelor Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering and Professor Emeritus of Architecture, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 Chapter 3. Sound Propagation in the Open Air Joseph E. Piercy, Ph.D. Gilles A. Daigle, Ph.D. Acoustics and Signal Processing, Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council, Ottawa, ON K1A OR6, Canada Chapter 4. Sound in Enclosed Spaces Cyril M. Harris, Ph.D., Charles Batchelor Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering and Professor Emeritus of Architecture, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 Chapter 5. Acoustical Measurement Instruments Daniel L. Johnson, Ph.D., Director, Biophysics Operations, EG&G Special Projects, Albuquerque, NM 87119 Alan H. Marsh, DyTec Engineering, Inc., Huntington Beach, CA 92649 Cyril M. Harris, Ph.D., Charles Batchelor Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering and Professor Emeritus of Architecture, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 Chapter 6. Vibration Measuring Instruments Robert B. Randall, B. Tech., B.A., Senior Lecturer, University of New South Wales, Kensington, N.S.W. 2033, Australia Chapter 7. Vibration Transducers Eldon E. Eller, Senior Project Engineer Robert M. Whittier, Director, Research and Development Endevco Corp. (a subsidiary of Allied Signal Aerospace Corp.), San Juan Capistrano, CA 92675 Chapter 8. Acoustical and Vibration Analysis Robert B. Randall, B. Tech., B.A., Senior Lecturer, University of New South Wales, Kensington, N.S.W. 2033, Australia Chapter 9. Noise Measurement Techniques John R, Hassall M. Sc., Br el and Kjaer, Naerum DK-2850, Denmark Chapter 10. Vibration Measurement Techniques Cyril M. Harris, Ph.D., Charles Batchelor Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering and Professor Emeritus of Architecture, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 Chapter 11. Sound Levels and Their Measurement David M. Yeager, Ph.D., P.E., Advisory Engineer, IBM Acoustics Lab, Boca Raton, FL 33432 Alan H. Marsh, DyTec Engineering, Inc., Huntington Beach, CA 92649 Chapter 12. Measurement of Sound Exposure and Noise Dose Alan H. Marsh, DyTec Engineering, Inc., Huntington Beach, CA 92649 William V. Richings, Consultant, Chalfont, St. Peter, Buckinghamshire SL9 0JJ, United Kingdom Chapter 13. Measurement of Sound Power William W. Lang, Ph.D., P.E , Program Manager, IBM Corporation, Poughkeepsie, NY 12602 Chapter 14. Measurement of Sound Intensity Malcolm J. Crocker, Ph.D., University Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 Chapter 15. Measurement Standards and Test Codes William W. Lang, Ph.D., P.E. Program Manager Matthew A. Nobile, Ph.D., Acoustical Engineer IBM Corporation, Poughkeepsie, NY 12603 Chapter 16. Effects of Noise and Reverberation on Speech Harry Levitt, Ph. D., Distinguished Professor of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Center for Research in Speech and Hearing Sciences, City University of New York, New York, NY 10036 John C. Webster, Ph.D., Consultant, Spencerport, NY 14559 Chapter 17. Hearing Characteristics Arnold M. Small, Jr., Ph.D., Professor, Departments of Speech Pathology and Audiology and of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242
Robert S. Gales, Consultant, formerly Head, Airborne Acoustics Branch, Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, CA 92109 Chapter 18. hearing loss from Noise Exposure William Melnick, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Otolaryngology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 Chapter 19. Hearing Evaluation Maurice H. Miller, Ph.D., Professor of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, New York University; Chief, Center for Communications Disorders, Lenox Hill Hospital New York, NY 10021 Laura Ann Wilber, Ph.,D., Professor of Audiology and Hearing Impairment, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 Chapter 20. Hearing Loss; Legal Liability Allen L. Cudworth, Sc.D., Vice President, Liberty Mutual Insurance Co., Boston, MA 02117 Chapter 21. Hearing Protection Devices Charles W. Nixon, Ph.D., Chief, Bioacoustics and Biocommunications, Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, OH 45433 Elliott H. Berger, M.S. Manager, Acoustical Engineering, Cabot Safety Corp., Indianapolis, IN 46268 Chapter 22. Hearing conservation programs Larry E. Royster, Ph.D., Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 Julia Doswell Royster, Ph.D., President, Environmental Noise Consultants, Inc., Raleigh, NC 27622 Chapter 23. Noise-Induced Annoyance of Individuals and Communities Sanford Fidell, Lead Scientist, BBN Systems & Technologies (a division of Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc.), Canoga Park, CA 91304 David M. Green, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 Chapter 24. Human Performance and Noise Dylan M. Jones, Ph.D., University Reader, School of Psychology, University of Wales College at Cardiff, Cardiff, CF1 3YG, United Kingdom Donald E. Broadbent, C.B.E., Sc.D., F.R.S., External Staff, Medical Research Council, Department of Experimental Psychology University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3UD, England Chapter 25. Physiological Effects of Noise Gerd Jansen, Dr. Med., Dr. Phil., University Professor of Occupational Medicine, Istitut fьr Arbeitmedizin der Universitдt Dьsseldorf, Dьsseldorf D-4000, Germany Chapter 26. Criteria for Noise and Vibration Exposure Henning E. von Gierke, D. Eng., Director Emeritus, Biodynamics and Engineering Division, Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, OH 45433; Clinical Professor, School of Medicine, Wright State University, Dayton, OH 45401 W Dixon Ward, Ph.D., D. Sc., Professor, Departments of communication disorders, Otolaryngology and Environmental health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414 Chapter 27. Vibration Control Principles Cyril M. Harris, Ph.D.,Charles Batchelor Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering and Professor Emeritus of Architecture, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 Chapter 28. Vibration control techniques Eric E. Ungar, Eng., Sc.D., Chief Consulting Engineer, Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc., Cambridge, MA 02138 Douglas H. Sturz, Senior Consultant, Acentech Incorporated (a Bolt Beranek and Newman Company), Cambridge, MA 02140 Chapter 29. Part 1: Types and Characteristics of Vibration Isolators Romulus H. Racca, Principal Engineer, Barry Wright Corporation, Watertown, MA 02172 Chapter 29. Part 2: Selection and Applications of Vibration Isolators Harry L. Hain, Staff Engineer John J. Heintzel, Staff Engineer Charles J. Leingang, Staff Engineer Lord Corp., Eric, PA 16506 Chapter 30. Sound-Absorptive Materials Ron Moulder, Principal Research Scientist, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH 43201 Chapter 31. Airborne Sound Insulation A.C.C. Warnock, Ph.D., Senior Research Officer J.D. Quirt, Head Acoustics Section, Institute for Research in Construction, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON KIA OR6, Canada Chapter 32. Structureborne Sound Isolation Isivan L. Ver, Ph.D., Principal Consultant, Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc., Cambridge, MA 02138 Douglas H. Sturz, Senior Consultant, Acentech Incorporated (a Bolt Beranek and Newman Company), Cambridge, MA 02140 Chapter 33. Noise Control in Buildings A.C.C. Warnock, Ph.D., Senior Research Officer
J.D. Quirt, Head Acoustics Section, Institute for Research in Construction, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A OR6, Canada Chapter 34. Electric Motor Noise James B. Moreland, M.B.A., Director, Totl Quality, Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15235 Douglas H. Cashmore, B. Sc. (Hons.), M. Sc., Principal Engineer, Centrilift (a Baker Hughes Company), Claremore, OK 74017 Chapter 35. Transformer Noise James B. Moreland, M.B.A., Director, Total Quality, Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15235 Ramses S. Girgis, Ph.D., ABB T&D Company, Power Transformer Division, Muncie, IN 47307 Chapter 36. Gear Noise William D. Mark, Ph.D., Principal Scientist, Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc., Cambridge, MA 02138 (now at Pennsylvania State University, Applied Research Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802) Chapter 37. Bearing Noise F.P. Wardle, Ph.D., C. Eng., M.I. Mech, E, RHP Ltd., Bodegraven 2411 PK, The Netherlands Chapter 38. Measurement and Analysis of Machinery Noise Richard H. Lyon, Ph.D., President Richard G. Cann, P.E., Corporate Consultant David L. Bowen, Senior Consultant RH Lyon Corp, Cambridge, MA 02138 Chapter 39. Condition Monitoring of Machinery Joлlle Courrech, D. Eng., Senior Applications Engineer, Bruel and Kjaer, Naerum, DK-2850, Denmark Chapter 40. Control of Machinery Noise Colin G. Gordon, President, Colin Gordon and Associates, San Mateo, CA 94402 Robert S. Jones, M.E., Acoustical Consultant, Acentech Incorporated, Rio Rancho, NM 87124 Chapter 4I. Fan Noise J. Barrie Graham, P.E., Consultant, Graham Consultants, Santa Fe, NM 87501 Robert M. Hoover, Acoustical Consultant, Hoover & Keith, Inc., Houston, TX 77082 Chapter 42. Noise Control in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems Robert M. Hoover, Acoustical Consultant, Hoover & Keith, Inc., Houston, TX 77082 Warren E. Blazier, Jr., Principal Consultant, Warren Blazier Associates, Inc., San Francisco, CA 94109 Chapter 43. Noise Control Criteria for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems Warren E. Blazier, Jr., Principal Consultant, Warren Blazier Associates, Inc., San Francisco, CA 94109 Chapter 44. Ventilating Systems for Small Equipment George C. Maling, Jr., Ph.D., P.E., Senior Physicist, IBM Corporation, Poughkeepsie, NY 12602 Andrew K, Boggess., Jr., M. Sc., Principal Engineer, EG&G Rotron, Woodstock, NY 12498 Chapter 45. Control of Plumbing Noise in Buildings John J. Van Houten, P.E., Principal Consultant, J.J. Van Houten & Associates, Inc., Anaheim, CA 92805 Chapter 46. Rail Transportation Noise and Vibration Carl E. Hanson, Ph.D., Vice President Hugh J. Saurenman, Ph.D., P.E., Senior Consultant David A. Towers, P.E., Senior Consultant Harris Miller Miller & Hansen, Lexington, MA 02173 Chapter 47. Aircraft Noise John Philip Raaney, Ph.D., P.E., former Head of Aircraft Noise Prediction Office Jimmy M. Cawthorn, former Aerospace Technologist NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23665 Chapter 48. Highway Noise Prediction and Control William Bowlby, Ph.D., P.E., Associate Professor of Civil Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 Chapter 49. Noise Assessment of Building Sites George E. Winzer, Principal, Winzer Associates, Acoustical & Environmental Consultants, Rockville, MD 20855 Chapter 50. Community Noise Measurements Dwight E. Bishop, President, Acoustical Analysis Associates, Inc., Canoga Park, CA 9l303 Paul D. Schomer, Ph.D., P.E., Chief-Acoustics/Environmental Noise Research, U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, Champaign, IL 61824 Chapter 51. Noise and the Law Albert J. Rosenthal, Maurice T. Moore Professor Emeritus of Law and Dean Emeritus of Law, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 Chapter 52. Aircraft Noise Litigation: Case Law Review Ricarda L. Bennett, J.D., Attorney-at-Law; Principal, Heliport Consultants, Westlake Village, CA 91361 Gary Hoover, J.D., Gatzke, Mispagel & Dillon, Carlbad, CA 92009 (now Assistant District Attorney, County of San Diego, San Diego, CA 92101)
Chapter 53. Aircraft Noise Regulation Richard J Linn, Senior Coordinator, Environmental Planning, American Airlines, Dallas/Fort Worth Airport, TX 75261 Richard N. Tedrick, Ph.D., Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC 20591 Chapter 54. Environmental Impact Statements Henning E. von Gierke, D. Eng., Director Emeritus, Biodynamics and Engineering Division, Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, OH 45433; Clinical Professor, School of Medicine, Wright State University, Dayton, OH 45401 Kenneth M. Eldred, Director, Ken Eldred Engineering, Concord, MA 01742 Robert K. Break, J.D., Partner, Latham & Watkins, Attorneys, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 Preface At the time the first edition of the Handbook of Noise Control was published in 1957, various aspects of noise control were treated in specialized scientific journals and in reports of government agencies and Industrial Organizations. This information was not always easily accessible. Furthermore, there was a need for an authoritative work covering the entire field. The Handbook met this need and was also the first book on noise control published in the U.S.A. It included considerable technical information not previously available and defined the term noise control for the first time: Noise control is the technology of obtaining an acceptable noise environment, at a receiver, consistent with economic and operational considerations; the receiver may be a person, a group of people, an entire community, or a piece of equipment whose operation is affected by noise. In the years that followed, many countries enacted noise control legislation, and noise became a matter of increasing social and economic importance, leading to new engineering methods of control. Accordingly, the Handbook of Noise Control was updated in 1979 to reflect these important changes. More recently, technical innovations such as microminiaturization and the practical application of digital techniques have made possible innovative measurement techniques and the application of engineering methods that were not economically feasible a generation earlier. These changes have given rise to the need for a completely revised and enlarged handbook. Because there is now much greater emphasis on acoustical measurements throughout the text, the book has been retitled Handbook of Acoustical Measurements and Noise Control. The Handbook employs uniform terminology, symbols, and abbreviations that probably represent as close to an international consensus as is possible to obtain at this time. Both the International System of units and the U.S. Customary System of units are used throughout. Each of the chapters in the Handbook is written by an expert in his or her special area. Technical information has been made accessible by the use of simple charts and written explanations in place of highly technical formulas without lowering the substantive level of the Handbook's contents. This has required much effort on the part of the authors of the various chapters, and I am deeply grateful to them for their skill and patience. The chapters of the Handbook are grouped as follows: properties and propagation of sound waves in the open air and in enclosures; measurement instrumentation, measurement techniques, the analysis of sound and vibration, and standards; hearing characteristics, hearing loss from noise exposure, hearing evaluation, hearing protection devices, hearing conservation programs, and liability for hearing loss; effects of noise on speech communication, annoyance, human performance, and physiology; criteria for noise and vibration exposure; methods of measuring, evaluating, and controlling noise and vibration in buildings; machinery and equipment noise (its characteristics, measurement, analysis, monitoring, and methods of control); the measurement and control of noise in heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems--including noise control criteria for use in designing HVAC systems and in assessing the noise produced by such systems; transportation noise; community noise; and noise legislation and regulations (including litigation and environmental impact statements).
The wealth of technical information contained in this book has been collected from many sources. Material has been reproduced, by permission, from books as well as copyrighted publications of a number of technical societies, primarily the Acoustical Society of America, the Institute of Noise Control Engineering, and the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Some of the contributors are employed by the government of the United States. Material included in their chapters has been released for publication, but because these are personal contributions, the contents do not necessarily reflect the official view of the relevant department or agency. Other valuable sources include publications of the standards organizations of various countries and publications of international organizations--particularly the International Organization for Standardization and the International Electrotechnical Commission. Copies of these publications may be obtained by writing the appropriate organizations at the addresses listed in Chapter 15. The standards cited in the text have resulted from the selfless efforts of members of various national and international committees, to whom we owe a debt of gratitude. Special thanks are due Harold B. Crawford, editor in chief of engineering and technical books at McGraw-Hill, Inc.; Margaret Lamb, editing manager in McGraw-Hill's Professional Publishing Group; and especially Laura Givner, editing supervisor in the Professional Publishing Group. Cyril M. Harris © Acoustical Society of America

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