HOW TO FIND YOUR FAMILY HISTORY & CULTURAL ROOTS, A Anderson

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Content: K-12 School and College Projects ~ Community Events ~ Family Reunions ~ Gift to Your Family ~ Your Legacy ~ Just for Fun An Internet Guide HOW TO FIND YOUR FAMILY HISTORY & CULTURAL ROOTS (April 2004 edition) by Dr. Andy Anderson Wells Fargo Chief Historian [email protected] For generations, members of your family have sent you the historical equivalent of a message in a bottle. They launched them from every prairie schooner, riverboat and stagecoach ride across America, from every farm, ranch, small town, and big city in America, and from every corner of the world with every immigrant's voyage to America. Every day now, these messages, in the form of historical documents and records, are coming ashore from the vast ocean of information we call the Internet. Ask your family members ­ parents, grandparents, children, grandchildren, aunts, uncles, cousins, in-laws, outlaws ­ and family friends to join you in finding them. It's a great family project that spans time and distance, and often brings relatives closer together with a sense of reunion. In the blink of an eye, the Internet makes it possible to do much of the searching from your own home. It's also an adventure with many surprises that'll be part of your legacy ­ your own message in a bottle ­ to future generations of your family. STEP 1 ­ Start with just one name ­ yours, an ancestor's, or a family surname Go online to Google, www.google.com, or Yahoo!, www.yahoo.com, and type a single name, or a family name, in the SEARCH box (like this: "Patrick O'Reagan" or "O'Reagan family" ­ using quotation marks helps narrow the results). You may get a direct hit (that's how I found my great grandfather, Patrick O'Reagan, whose 19thcentury story was put on the Internet by a middle school class in Cherokee County, Kansas). At very least, you should get some links that'll send you around the world on a voyage of discovery. You can also keep going back to Google and Yahoo! to narrow your searches by associating names with subjects. Just add an "and" between them (as in: O'Reagan and Kansas, or O'Reagan and Ireland; no need to use quotation marks for this type of broad search). To build a larger list of ancestors to search for, ask all living family members to recall nicknames, original spellings of names, forgotten first names, maiden names, and so on. Don't be surprised to discover wildly inconsistent spellings. In census and immigration records, for instance, you can easily find your family name spelled three or four different ways. (For a long time, I couldn't find my great-great-grandfather, Archibald Anderson, in the census records ­ until I tried "Archie Anderson," the nickname he used in reporting his household information to the local census takers. That unlocked a wealth of records.)
Most importantly, don't be discouraged if you don't find an ancestor right away. Sometimes, you just have to keep telling yourself: if you're here, they're there ­ somewhere in the historical records. (Tip: if you need language-translation help with Internet web sites, try the "Language Tools" on Google's homepage. It provides quick, automatic translations of whole web pages into English, French, German, Spanish and Portuguese.) STEP 2 ­ Search the large genealogy databases You can now search over two billion names ­ and often view original documents such as U.S. Census records ­ at the major family history sites. These include: www.rootsweb.com, the oldest free genealogy site; it's now affiliated with Ancestry.com and also hosts the AOL Golden Gate Genealogy Forum; www.ancestry.com, part of the www.myfamily.com group of web sites; they maintain the largest databases and are emerging as one of the "must see and use" groups; try the SEARCH and MESSAGE BOARDS; or, see their all-USA site at www.familyhistory.com, especially the 124 million name index to the recently-opened 1930 U.S. Census; www.genealogy.com, now affiliated with Ancestry.com, this site has the most complete indexes to the 1910 and 1900 U.S. Census; it also has a great "Family & Local Histories" collection called Heritage Quest, which reproduces old county histories and rare books online; www.familysearch.org, the LDS site, physically based in Salt Lake City, Utah, gives extensive help on a free, non-denominational basis; start with the "Search Records" section; www.genealogyregister.com, pc/mac friendly; try the SURNAME SEARCH, which will give you numerous possible leads to other sites; www.everton.com, simplicity and pc/mac friendly from the publishers of the classic Handybook for Genealogists and Family History magazine; www.genhomepage.com, another large subject compilation, like Cyndi's List, which can also redirect you to name-search services; www.accessgenealogy.com, an easy-to-navigate gateway to many records and databases; it has a strong specialty in Native American history. Give them all a try until you find the ones you like. They're all user-friendly. They all have "how to" guides, family message boards (a distant cousin may already be working on your family history), and they all provide pointers to other large databases, such as census, immigration, and military service records. (Please Note: full access to original documents on some of these web sites requires a monthly or annual fee; however, most offer a 14-day free trial before you have to make a commitment. Alternatively, free access is available at many public libraries and some schools. Ask the librarians, for instance, about using Ancestry Plus.) 2
STEP 3 ­ Check these gateways to family history & cultural roots (eight possible approaches ­ it's a matter of personal preference) · Cyndi's List. If you do nothing else, go online to www.cyndislist.com, and find your cultural roots by state, country, or region of the world, or by topic, ranging from Adoption to Lands and Deeds, Recipes and Cookbooks, Prisons and Outlaws, Religion and Churches, Wills and Probates, and everything in between. This is genealogist Cyndi Howells' amazing site of over 200,000 links. The U.S. is listed in detail at www.cyndislist.com/usa.htm. Cyndi's List is one the most important family history sites on the Internet and one of the safest. · The LDS (Mormon) Library. Go to www.familysearch.org, or on foot to the many LDS (Mormon) Family History Centers around the country. They have the largest private collection of genealogical resources in the world, which they willingly share on a non-denominational basis. (This is how my self-described "senior-seventies-something" mother started our family history ­ before she bought a computer and went online!) For locations in the United States and Canada, call toll-free 800-346-6044. Or, see: www.genhomepage.com/fhc, or, www.familysearch.org (click Family History Library System, then, "nearest family history center" at the bottom). · The GenWeb Projects. Go to www.usgenweb.org/, the all-volunteer USGenWeb Project, and www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/, the USGenWeb Archives Project. Both sites are rapidly building substantial guides to "original" family history sources, state-by-state, and county-by-county. They'll take you into every corner of every state ­ and into just about every census record and cemetery in existence. On a global basis, look at www.worldgenweb.org/, the World GenWeb Project. Here, again, pick a continent, or region of the world, and start exploring. · The Tinney Family Gateway. Or, go to www.academic-genealogy.com, a large, user-friendly, gateway to genealogy resources built by the Chris & Tom Tinney family. It's organized by worldwide geographic regions; and, its list of libraries, archives, and museums, www.academic-genealogy.com/media.htm, is especially helpful. It also includes archival and knowledge management resources for the "genealogy" of business at www.academic-genealogy.com/archives.htm#business. · The National Genealogical Society. Go to www.ngsgenealogy.org/edu.htm for professional step-by-step training from the National Genealogical Society. It has both introductory and advanced "home study" courses, and excellent books, periodicals, and CDs in its bookstore at www.ngsgenealogy.org/bookstore. · History Gateways. If you want to understand the reasons why ­ political, economic, social, religious, cultural ­ your family moved half way around the world to America, and what they found when they got here, try these great sites: www.lib.washington.edu/subject/history/web.html, History on the Web sites at the University of Washington Libraries; www.cyndislist.com/historic.htm, Historical Events & People Worldwide section of Cyndi's List; 3
www.fordham.edu/halsall, world history sites (by era, culture, and gender) on Paul Halsall's Internet History Sourcebooks Project, currently hosted by Fordham University; www.ukans.edu/history/VL/, WWW-Virtual Library (History), currently hosted by the University of Kansas. · Local and Regional Libraries and Archives. Or, go online ­ or on foot ­ to your local public library, Historical Society, genealogical society, state archives or state library (they often have special History and Genealogy Rooms), or even a U.S. National Archives Regional Center (NARA), or Presidential Library. Some public libraries, such as Denver Public Library (one of my favorites), have great online or "E-branch" web sites, www.denver.lib.co.us/ebranch/index.html. You'll find over 18,000 libraries listed at: Libdex, the Library Index, www.libdex.com/country/USA.html, which includes university, K-12, public, county, state, regional, business, law, and medical libraries. Alternatively, try www.publiclibraries.com, or, Cyndi's List, www.cyndislist.com/lib-state.htm; or, the U.S. National Archives, www.archives.gov/facilities, for the locations of its forty regional archives facilities and affiliated libraries. Ask the librarians and archivists for help. They know the records and books better than anyone and are always very helpful when it comes to family history. They've also got numerous "how to" books on genealogy and family history. Many public libraries now have computers available for online research, or to look at large databases on CDs (such as: census records and passenger lists). (Tip: Be sure to bring your reading glasses, or a magnifying glass. A lot of our original public records, such as the recently opened 1930 U.S. Census, were handwritten by folks who came from a lot of different backgrounds and educational systems. Add to that the vagaries and scratches of microfilm and microfiche and you've sometimes got the makings of a forensic mystery.) · U.S. National Archives, Library of Congress, and Smithsonian Institution. Last, but definitely not least, be sure to go online, or on foot, to these national treasures: U.S. National Archives, www.archives.gov (click Research Room), for the largest collections of immigration, military service, and census records in the world. The main National Archives facilities are in the Washington D.C. area, but it also has over 40 regional centers and presidential libraries, as well. They're listed at www.archives.gov/facilities. Library of Congress, www.loc.gov (click Research Centers ­ Local History & Genealogy), for the resources of the largest library in the world. Look, especially, at the American Memory site, memory.loc.gov/ (over 7 million digital items), and, international.loc.gov/intldl/intldlhome.html, the marvelous Global Gateway to World Cultures. Smithsonian Institution Archives, www.si.edu/archives/start.htm, and the Archives of American Art at the Smithsonian, artarchives.si.edu/start.htm. 4
STEP 4 ­ Go to your specific cultural roots · NATIVE AMERICAN TRIBAL AND FAMILY HISTORY ­ An extensive stateby-state, tribe-by-tribe, topical guide is located on the Native American Genealogy site at www.accessgenealogy.com/native. More web sites, mailing lists, and publications are compiled at www.cyndislist.com/native.htm#people. Specific tribal culture, history, genealogy and electronic texts sites are located at www.hanksville.org/NAresources/, WWW-Virtual Library (American Indians). For the voluminous original resources available in the National Archives, see: www.archives.gov/research_room/genealogy/ (click on Research Topics ­ Native American Records). This collection contains everything from Indian Census records, 1885-1940, to the Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. For historical context, see the University of Washington Libraries' Native American History site at www.lib.washington.edu/subject/History/tm/native.html. It has an excellent series of links to all the regions and tribes in U.S. history. · AFRICAN-AMERICAN FAMILY HISTORY ­ a great web site inspired by Alex Haley's groundbreaking effort to discover his Roots is located at www.afrigeneas.com. See also: the Smithsonian's African-American History & Culture at www.si.edu/resource/faq/nmah/afroam.htm; the Canada-based members.shaw.ca/justgen/afa.htm; the extensive African-American section of Cyndi's List, www.cyndislist.com/african.htm; and, the U.S. National Archives' online guide to using federal records and photograph collections at: www.archives.gov/research_room/genealogy/ (Genealogy ­ Research Topics ­ African-American Research). For extensive documentary and photographic resources on African history, see: Paul Halsall's Internet African History Sourcebook at Fordham University, www.fordham.edu/halsall/africa/africasbook.html; and, WWW-Virtual Library (African-American History), www.ku.edu/history/VL/USA/african-american.html. Another great "must see" collection of resource material is the University of California, Berkeley Libraries' African and African-American Collection at www.lib.berkeley.edu/Collections/Africana/. Many local libraries are also developing substantial African-American heritage collections. See, for instance, the Africana Center within the City of San Jose/San Jose State University's Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Library at www.sjpl.lib.ca.us/research/special/chc/africana_index.htm; the Oakland (CA) Public Library's African American Museum and Library at Oakland, www.oaklandlibrary.org/AAMLO/collection.html; the comprehensive Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture at the New York Public Library at www.nypl.org/research/sc/sc.html; Genealogy Pathfinder for African-American History at the Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System ("The People's University"), www.af.public.lib.ga.us/bibresources/genealogy/pathfinder_aa.html; the St. Louis Public Library at www.slpl.lib.mo.us/libsrc/afrindex.htm; the Vivian G. Harsh Research Collection of Afro-American History and Literature at the Chicago Public Library at www.chipublib.org/002branches/woodson/wnharsh.html; or, Blair-Caldwell African-American Research Library at the Denver Public Library, www.aarl.denverlibrary.org/. 5
· AFRICAN FAMILY HISTORY ­ relies heavily on oral traditions in the absence of written records. A good starting point is Columbia University Libraries' Guide to Research on Africa at www.columbia.edu/cu/lweb/indiv/africa/joebib.html. The official WWW-Virtual Library (Africa) site is also housed at Columbia, www.columbia.edu/cu/lweb/indiv/africa/cuvl/. Given the broad movement of African population groups and borders over the years, a regional "search" on this site (Southern Africa, Eastern Africa, West Africa, North Africa, Central Africa, Indian Ocean) is a sensible way to begin. See also: the African and African American Collections at University of California, Berkeley Libraries, www.lib.berkeley.edu/Collections/Africana/. Some African ancestral groups with immigrant populations in the U.S., include: Moroccan family history: www.ambafrance-ma.org/mediatheque/repertoire.cfm, French language resources; www.jewishgen.org/SefardSIG/morocco.htm, Jewish genealogy in Morocco; and, www.morocco-today.info/, English language news. Egyptian family history: www.libdex.com/country/Egypt.html, the Libdex guide to libraries and archives in Egypt; nile.enal.sci.eg/, the Egyptian National Agricultural Library; www.darelkotob.org/, the National Library and Archives of Egypt; and, www.jewishgen.org/sefardsig/egypt.HTM, the Sephardic web sites. Ethiopian family history: www.ies-ethiopia.org/indexn.htm, the Institute of Ethiopian Studies at Addis Ababa University. Somali family history: www.indiana.edu/~libarchm/somalia.html, a BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) Collection, now at Indiana University. Sudanese family history: Columbia University's African Studies site for Sudan, www.columbia.edu/cu/lweb/indiv/africa/cuvl/Sudan.html. Ghanan family history: www.geocities.com/ghanagenweb/, the Ghana GenWeb. Nigerian family history: www2.hu-berlin.de/orient/nae/, National Archives of Nigeria, hosted by the Centre for Modern Oriental Studies, Berlin. South African family history: www.national.archives.gov.za/, genealogical research at the National Archives of South Africa. · CANADIAN FAMILY HISTORY ­ start at Toronto Public Library's genealogy site, "Bob's Your Uncle, eh!" indexes.tpl.toronto.on.ca/genealogy/index.asp. Try the bilingual Canada GenWeb, www.rootsweb.com/~canwgw/html/e-index.html. Also, try Mary's Genealogy Treasures (formerly Lethbridge's Family History Center) at www.telusplanet.net/public/mtoll/. The National Archives of Canada, www.archives.ca/08/08_e.html, is the primary repository of original records. See also: the excellent site of the National Library of Canada at www.nlc-bnc.ca/index-e.html. For the French-Canadian resources and perspective, see the Quebec Family History Society, www.cam.org/~qfhs/; and, the Marionopolis College in Montreal site at www2.marianopolis.edu/quebechistory/. 6
· HISPANIC/LATINO FAMILY HISTORY ­ www.cyndislist.com/hispanic.htm is a very large listing of sites for Mexico and all of the countries of Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. Other good starting points are: lanic.utexas.edu/las.html, WWW-Virtual Library (Latin America Studies) site, in English/Spanish/Portuguese, hosted by the University of Texas; www.cyndislist.com/hispanic.htm#GenWeb, for every country that's part of the World GenWeb Project; www.hispanicgen.org (click Links), the National Hispanic Genealogical Society, which focuses on family histories of the American Southwest; www.lasculturas.com (click on Genealogy), which is broadly inclusive of modern Latino/Hispanic culture; www.cagenweb.com/~re/losangeles/langeeth.htm, part of the USGenWeb Project, in this instance, "Los Angeles Ethnic Research"; www.elanillo.com, the comprehensive Anillo de Genealogica Hispana (Hispanic Genealogy Ring), a Spanish-language site with extensive links to archives and libraries in Spain and the Hispanic Americas; www.library.ci.corpus-christi.tx.us/localhistory.htm, the Local History & Genealogy Section of the Corpus Christi Public Library is a good example of how many public libraries are working to develop their Hispanic family history resources in the context of local history. Mexican family history: www.rootsweb.com/~mexwgw, the Mexico GenWeb; www.rootsweb.com/~mexcoahu/links.html, the Coahuila, Mexico GenWeb site, which offers advice about vital records; www.cyndislist.com/hispanic.htm, the rich collection of links at Cyndi's List. For Spanish-language archives and library resources and a broad historical perspective, see: biblional.bibliog.unam.mx/bib/biblioteca.html, Biblioteca Nacional de Mйxico (National Library of Mexico); www.cnca.gob.mx/cnca/buena/biblioteca/, Biblioteca de Mйxico; www.agn.gob.mx/indice.html, Archivo General de la Naciуn (National Archives of Mexico); biblio.colmex.mx/, Biblioteca Daniel Cosнo Villegas de El Colegio de Mйxico; www.lib.panam.edu/info/speccoll/finding.html, University of Texas ­ Pan American University, Lower Rio Grande Valley Historical Collection; www.rz.uni-frankfurt.de/~borge/MEXICO-VL/mexico.html, WWW-Virtual Library (History of Mexico), a boundless list of resources; www.tulane.edu/~latinlib/lalhome.html, Latin American Library at Tulane University (New Orleans), one of the largest collections of material outside of Mexico; learning.berkeley.edu/Courses/AS102Sum97/resources.html, a comprehensive University of California, Berkeley, course site and resource list on the complex history of the U.S.-Mexico Border. 7
Salvadoran family history: www.ku.edu/history/VL/americas/salvador.html, El Salvador WWW-Virtual Library; and, www.rootsweb.com/~slvwgw/, El Salvador GenWeb. Nicaraguan family history: www.ku.edu/history/VL/americas/nicaragua.html, the Nicaragua WWW-Virtual Library. Brazilian family history: www.ku.edu/history/VL/americas/brazil.html, the Brazil WWW-Virtual Library; www.arquivonacional.gov.br/, the Brazilian National Archives; and, www.rootsweb.com/~brawgw/, the Brazil GenWeb. Chilean family history: www.ku.edu/history/VL/americas/chile.html, the Chile WWW-Virtual Library; www.rootsweb.com/~chlwgw/, the Chile GenWeb. Peruvian family history: www.rootsweb.com/~perwgw/, the Peruvian GenWeb. Cuban family history: www.cubagenweb.org, a U.S.­based overview with an index to the 9-volume Historia de la Familias Cubanas. Puerto Rican family history: www.rootsweb.com/~prhgs, the Puerto Rican Hispanic Genealogical Society; and, www.rootsweb.com/~prwgw/, the Puerto Rico GenWeb (in Spanish). · ASIAN & PACIFIC FAMILY HISTORY ­ descending from some of the largest population groups in the world. A sizable challenge made easier by a strong sense of ancestry. There's a very rich compilation of genealogical and cultural resources at www.cyndislist.com/asia.htm. For historical and cultural perspective, see: www.fordham.edu/halsall/eastasia/eastasiasbook.html, Paul Halsall's voluminous Internet East Asian History Sourcebook, currently housed at Fordham University; http://coombs.anu.edu.au/WWWVL-AsianStudies.html, the enormous Asian studies WWW-Virtual Library at the Australian National University; it covers the Middle East to the Pacific Islands; www.iias.nl/wwwvl/southeast.html, the WWW-Virtual Library (Southeast Asia) for Cambodia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and THE Philippines; www.slavweb.com/eng/Russia/feast-e.html, Far Eastern Russia; coombs.anu.edu.au/WWWVLPacific/VLPacific1.html, on the tiny islands in the vast Pacific and Indian Oceans. Chinese family history: see the multi-lingual www.chineseroots.com, for this population group that currently tops 1.2 billion. On the Chinese immigration experience, see: www.ins.usdoj.gov/graphics/aboutins/history/chinese.htm, the extensive U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service history site; and, groups.haas.berkeley.edu/iber/casefiles, the new cooperative effort of IBER (Institute of Business and Economic Research) at the University of California, Berkeley, and the U.S. National Archives Regional Center (San Bruno). See also: 8
www.archives.gov/facilities/finding_aids/chinese_immigration.html, Chinese Immigration and Chinese in the U.S. records in the U.S. National Archives; www.nlc.gov.cn/english.htm, the Center of Local Chronicles and Genealogy at the National Library of China (Beijing); sun.sino.uni-heidelberg.de/igcs/, the WWW-Virtual Library (Internet Guide for China Studies), hosted by Heidelberg University; sun.sino.uni-heidelberg.de/igcs/igguides.htm, the WWW-Virtual Library (East Asia), covering Hong Kong, Tibet, Taiwan, Malaysia and Singapore; www.rootsweb.com/~chnwgw/, the China GenWeb Project; www.ukans.edu/history/VL/east_asia/china.html, the extensive WWWVirtual Library (History of China); www.chsa.org/resources/resource_links.htm, the Chinese Historical Society of America (San Francisco), Resource and Reference Lists. Japanese family history: see Carolyn Brady's Japanese American Family History Resources at www.carolynbrady.com/jagenealogy.html; the Japan GenWeb site at www.rootsweb.com/~jpnwgw/; and, the "remember we're all cousins" Distant Cousin site at www.distantcousin.com/links/ethnic/japan.html. For historical perspective, see: the WWW-Virtual Library (History of Japan), www.ukans.edu/history/VL/east_asia/japan.html, at the University of Kansas. See also: the WWW-Virtual Library (Japan), jguide.stanford.edu/, hosted by Stanford University; and, the Japanese American History Archives at www.amacord.com/fillmore/museum/jt/jaha/jaha.html. Vietnamese family history: www.genealogytoolbox.com/vietnam.html; and, coombs.anu.edu.au/WWWVLPages/VietPages/WWWVL-Vietnam.html, the WWW-Virtual Library (Vietnam), hosted by the Australian National University. Korean family history: www.genealogytoolbox.com/korearepublic.html; and, the sites for the two Koreas: www.duke.edu/~myhan/s-sk.html (South Korea), and www.duke.edu/~myhan/s-nk.html (North Korea). Hmong/Laotian family history: www.hmongnet.org, Asian Studies WWWVirtual Library; www.hmongcenter.org/, the Hmong Cultural Center (St. Paul, Minnesota); and, www.hmongnet.org/hmong-au/ozintro.htm, a comprehensive Australia-based site about the dispersion of the Hmong people around the world. See also: www.rootsweb.com/~laowgw/, the Laos GenWeb project. Cambodian family history: www.iias.nl/wwwvl/southeas/cambodia.html, the Cambodian WWW-VL, and, www.rootsweb.com/~khmwgw/, the Cambodia GenWeb. Thai family history: www.rootsweb.com/~thawgw/, the Thai GenWeb; and, www.nectec.or.th/WWW-VL-Thailand.html, the Thailand WWW-Virtual Library. Filipino family history: www.filipinolinks.com/home/genealogy.html; and, www.geocities.com/Heartland/Ranch/9121/, the Philippines GenWeb guide. 9
For historical and cultural perspective, see: the WWW-Virtual Library (Philippines), www.iias.nl/wwwvl/southeas/philippi.html. On immigration to the U.S., see: opmanong.ssc.hawaii.edu/filipino/labor.html, at the University of Hawaii; and, www.seattleu.edu/lemlib/web_archives/Filipino/history.html, Filipino American Resources compiled at Seattle University. Indian family history: www.india.com.ar/ is the extensive WWW-Virtual Library (India) link to one of the world's largest population groups. For Indian History, see: www.ukans.edu/kansas/india/india.html, hosted by the University of Kansas. See also: Paul Halsall's comprehensive Internet Indian History Sourcebook, www.fordham.edu/halsall/india/indiasbook.html. Pakistani family history: www.clas.ufl.edu/users/gthursby/pak, the WWW-Virtual Library link; the graphic www.harappa.com/; and, the relatively new National Library of Pakistan at www.nlp.gov.pk/html/resources.htm. Australian and New Zealander family history: a wide-ranging Australasian site at home.vicnet.net.au/~AGWeb/agweb.htm; the New Zealand GenWeb at www.rootsweb.com/~nzlwgw/; Australia GenWeb at www.australiagenweb.org/. · EUROPEAN FAMILY HISTORY ­ over 75% of the U.S. population has roots in these ancestral groups. Some of the following sites are multi-lingual: For Western Europe, start with www.cyndislist.com/westeuro.htm. It covers every country from Austria to Iceland, with Liechtenstein, Andorra, the Vatican, and San Marino in between; For Eastern Europe, start with www.cyndislist.com/easteuro.htm. It covers every country from Russia to Austria (again), including the Baltic States, the Balkan States, Greece, Turkey, and Armenia. For historical context, see: Paul Halsall's documentary and photographic Internet History Sourcebooks (Ancient, Medieval, Modern), currently housed at Fordham University, www.fordham.edu/halsall/. For a great collection of European documents (originally begun in Herbert Hoover's post-WWI war relief effort), see: www-hoover.stanford.edu/hila/. This is the site of the Library and Archives of the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace at Stanford University. See also: The European University Institute's WWW-Virtual Library (EUI European History Project) at http://vlib.iue.it/. It's currently building the largest online "European" library, country-by-country and topic-by-topic. Irish/English/Scottish/Welsh family history: Many of our ancestors immigrated through Ellis Island, www.ellisislandrecords.org/, and other East Coast ports. See the immigration records held by the National Archives at www.archives.gov (Research Room ­ Genealogy ­ Research Topics ­ Immigration Records). Comprehensive sites touching the family histories of all these cultures are: 10
www.genuki.org.uk/big, the UK-based site that includes England, Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, Wales, Scotland, the Channel Islands, and Isle of Man. It has extensive information on topics such as Heraldry, Land and Property, Handwriting, Medical Records, Social Life and Customs; www.genealogylinks.net/uk (All-UK and Ireland, England, Scotland and Wales) has extensive links to the Ancestry.com library of databases; www.cyndislist.com/uksites.htm (United Kingdom & Ireland), the vast compilation of sites at Cyndi's List. Irish family history: for historical perspective on the second largest ancestral group in America (39 million according to the U.S. Census Bureau, Detailed Ancestry Groups), see: www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/irish/genealogy.html, the Irish in America PBS series. See also: www.nationalarchives.ie/index.html, the National Archives of Ireland (An Chartlann Nбisiъnta) in Dublin has a genealogy service available; www.irelandgenweb.com/, Ireland GenWeb for the Republic of Ireland; www.rootsweb.com/~nirwgw/, Northern Ireland GenWeb; www.nd.edu/~colldev/subjects/irish/, the University of Notre Dame Libraries' Irish Studies; www.genuki.org.uk/big/irl/, the GenUK site for Ireland; wwwvms.utexas.edu/~jdana/irehist.html, Irish History on the Web at the University of Texas; www.ukans.edu/kansas/eire/index.html, the large WWW-Virtual Library (history of Ireland). English family history: for this third largest ancestral group in America (33 million according to the U.S. Census Bureau), the England GenWeb Project offers county-by-county resources at www.rootsweb.com/~engwgw/. See also: Olive Tree's English to America at olivetreegenealogy.com/ships/englishtousa.shtml. Look at the Family Records Centre, managed jointly by the General Register Office (GRO) and the Public Record Office (PRO), the principal government record keepers, at http://www.familyrecords.gov.uk/frc/default.htm. For historical context, see: the WWW-Virtual Library (History of the United Kingdom) at www.ku.edu/history/VL/europe/uk.html. See also: the Historical Manuscript Commission's (HMC) National Register of Archives at www.hmc.gov.uk/nra/nra2.htm; and, the Bodleian Library at Oxford University at www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/. Oxford is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. Scottish family history: see the National Archives of Scotland at www.nas.gov.uk. See also: www.ancestralscotland.com; www.scotsorigins.com; and, the Scotland GenWeb at www.scotlandgenweb.org/. For the history of Scotland, see the WWW-Virtual Library at www.ukans.edu/history/VL/europe/scotland.html. Welsh family history: www.home.clara.net/wfha/wales. For historical context, see: the WWW-VL (Wales); www.ukans.edu/history/VL/europe/wales.html, the BBC's excellent History of Wales site at www.bbc.co.uk/wales/history/davies/; 11
Powys Heritage, history.powys.org.uk/; and, Cardiff (University) Centre for Welsh American Studies, www.cf.ac.uk/cymraeg/cymryamerica/CUCAPC.html. Dutch family history: www.godutch.com/genealogy/roots.htm; and the Netherlands/Dutch GenWeb at www.rootsweb.com/~nldwgw/. See also: home.planet.nl/~nijs0104/www-vl-neth/index.html, the WWW-Virtual Library (Dutch History); Holland Ring, www.thehollandring.com/holland.shtml; and, Lambrechtsen Online (archives list), utopia.ision.nl/users/evim/archives.html. German family history: This is the largest single ancestral group in the United States (approximately 58 million according to the U.S. Census Bureau ­ Detailed Ancestry Groups). For a good overview, see: the Germans in America site at the Library of Congress, www.loc.gov/rr/european/imde/germany.html; and, the German Studies Web, www.dartmouth.edu/~wess/, at Dartmouth College. For German family and cultural history links, see: www.cyndislist.com/germany.htm, a very large listing of online sites and resources, as well as printed materials; www.rootsweb.com/~wggerman/, the Germany GenWeb with direct links to all the neighboring countries; www.mtn.org/mgs/german, the Minnesota Genealogical Society guide to thousands of links to German genealogy and history on the Internet; wilson.lib.umn.edu/reference/ger-gene.html, German and GermanAmerican sites recommended by the University of Minnesota Libraries; www.genealogienetz.de/genealogy.html, bilingual, Germany-based site; www.genealogywisconsin.com/ (German Genealogy), many helpful links. For the many ways to explore the complexity of German history, see: www.phil.uni-erlangen.de/~p1ges/heidelberg/gh/gh.html, the WWW-Virtual Library; www.loc.gov/rr/european/coll/germ.html, the German Collections at the Library of Congress (use with the catalog SEARCH function); www.germanheritage.com/, the German-American History & Heritage site; and, library.byu.edu/~rdh/eurodocs/germany.html, the History of Germany Primary Documents Project housed at Brigham Young University. French family history: see the extensive section in Cyndi's List for France at www.cyndislist.com/france.htm. For original records, see: www.francogene.com and www.afgs.org, for Franco-American and French-Canadian family history; www.francegenweb.org/fgwstart.htm, France GenWeb; www.bnf.fr/, the Bibliothиque Nationale (National Library); www.archivesnationales.culture.gouv.fr/chan/, Centre historiques des Archives Nationales (National Archives); For the broad sweep of French history, see: the WWW-Virtual Library site at www.library.pitt.edu/subject_guides/westeuropean/wwwes/france.nhp.html; and, the WWW-Virtual Library: History of France site at www.revues.org/vlib/; also, 12
the History of France primary document project hosted by Brigham Young University, library.byu.edu/~rdh/eurodocs/france.html. Belgian family history: the RootsWeb Project at belgium.rootsweb.com/; and, www.genealogylinks.net/europe/belg.htm. Luxembourger family history: try www.eskimo.com/~lisanne/amlux.htm; www.eskimo.com/~lisanne/genres.htm; and, www.rootsweb.com/~luxwgw/. Swiss family history: see www.everton.com/reference/world/switz.php, Everton's guide; and, www.bar.admin.ch/bar/engine/Home, the Swiss Federal Archives. Spanish family history: www.cyndislist.com/spain.htm is the largest listing for the Iberian Peninsula. See also: the WWW-Virtual Library (Spanish History), www.iue.it/LIB/SISSCO/VL/hist-spain/Index.html; and, the Spanish-language Spain GenWeb, www.genealogia-es.com/. Portuguese family history: www.cyndislist.com/portugal.htm, Cyndi's List for Portugal; genealogia.sapo.pt/home/, a multi-lingual, Portugal-based site. For the Azores, see: www.lusaweb.com/azores/, a "Portuguese-American Neighborhood;" and, home.pacifier.com/~kcardoz/azoresindex.html, the Azores GenWeb project. Basque family history: on Basques in the United States, especially Nevada and Idaho, see: www.library.unr.edu/depts/basqlib/genealogy.html, the Basque Studies Library at the University of Nevada, Reno. Italian and Sicilian family history: www.italiangen.org, (you've got to love the music on this site). See also: the Italy GenWeb at www.rootsweb.com/~itawgw/; the Sicily GenWeb at www.rootsweb.com/~itawgw/prov/15/sicily.htm; the extensive WWW-Virtual Library (History) at vlib.iue.it/hist-italy/Index.html; and, for more historical context, the History of Italy ­ Primary Documents Project at Brigham Young University Library, www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/eurodocs/italy.html. Austrian and Hungarian family history: for centuries, the history of these two countries and cultures was intertwined. See: the WWW-Virtual Library: Austria at www.ukans.edu/history/VL/europe/austria.html; and, WWW-Virtual Library: Hungary at www.ukans.edu/history/VL/europe/hungary.html. For Austrian family history records, see: the Austrian State Archives at www.oesta.gv.at/engdiv/geneal.htm; and, the Austria GenWeb project at www.rootsweb.com/~autwgw/. For Hungarian family history records, see: the Hungary GenWeb Project at www.rootsweb.com/~wghungar/; and, Alex Glendinning's Hungarian Pages at user.itl.net/~glen/Hungarianintro.html. Croatian family history: www.rootsweb.com/~hrvwgw/, the Croatia GenWeb; and, www.croatia-in-english.com/gen. See also: WWW-Virtual Library (History of Croatia) at www.ukans.edu/history/VL/europe/croatia.html; the CroLinks history list, www.crolinks.com/; and, www.feefhs.org/cro/cghs-gcg.html, Adam Eterovich's Croatian Heritage site. 13
Slovenian family history: www.rootsweb.com/~svnwgw/, the Slovenian GenWeb; and, www.sloveniangenealogy.org/, the Slovenian Genealogy Society. Serbian-Montenegrin family history: www.genealogylinks.net/europe/sm.htm; and, www.rootsweb.com/~serwgw/, the Serbia GenWeb. See also: the WWWVirtual Library at www.ukans.edu/history/VL/europe/yugoslavia.html. Greek family history: www.rootsweb.com/~grcwgw/, Greece GenWeb guide; and, Cyndi's List for Greece at www.cyndislist.com/greece.htm. For historical context, see: www.ukans.edu/history/VL/europe/greece.html, WWW-Virtual Library Greece/History. Turkish family history: freepages.history.rootsweb.com/~byzantium/Links.html, the Istanbul GenWeb is a good starting point. See also: Paul Stirling's Turkish Village site at lucy.ukc.ac.uk/TVillage/StirlingContents.html; and the WWWVirtual Library for Turkey at www.ku.edu/history/VL/near_east/turkey.html. Polish family history: www.polishroots.com and www.pgsa.org, the Polish Genealogical Society of America; and, www.pgsctne.org/. See also: the Polish GenWeb site at: www.rootsweb.com/~polwgw/polandgen.html; the WWW-Virtual Library for Poland at www.ukans.edu/history/VL/europe/poland.html; and the Polish State Archives network at www.archiwa.gov.pl/mapa/index.eng.html. Lithuanian family history: a good starting point is the WWW-VL: Lithuania www.ku.edu/history/VL/europe/lithuania.html. See also: the Lithuanian Global Genealogy Society at www.lithuaniangenealogy.org/. Latvian family history: www.rootsweb.com/~lvawgw/index.html, the Latvian GenWeb project. Estonian family history: start at the Estonian GenWeb page at www.fortunecity.com/meltingpot/estonia/200/genweb.html. Russian/Ukrainian/Belarusian/Siberian family history: two good starting points on this complex group of cultures are: the WWW-Virtual Library (Russian History Index) at vlib.iue.it/hist-russia/Index.html; and, Everton's Russia site at www.everton.com/reference/world/russia.php. See also: the Russia GenWeb, www.rootsweb.com/~ruswgw/ (especially, "Useful Links") for European Russia; and, the Russia-based www.mtu-net.ru/rrr. See also: the Russia-based www.mtu-net.ru/rrr/ukraine.htm for the Ukraine and Belarus; www.rootsweb.com/~ukrwgw/ for the Ukraine GenWeb guide; and, www.cyndislist.com/germruss.htm for Germans from Russia. For Siberia and Asian Russia, see: the Siberia WWW-Virtual Library at www.slavweb.com/eng/Russia/siberia-e.html. Armenian family history: www.rootsweb.com/~armwgw/, the Armenia GenWeb. Czech & Slovakian family history: www.iarelative.com/czech, with its wonderful musical interlude; Everton's, www.everton.com/reference/world/slovak.php; and, the National Czech & Slovak Museum (Cedar Rapids, Iowa), www.ncsml.org/. 14
Scandinavian family history: so many descendants in the heartland of America. See: www.cyndislist.com/scan.htm, for an extensive list of links for Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Iceland and Greenland. See also: www.rootsweb.com/~wipolk/ancestors.htm, part of the Wisconsin GenWeb. Danish family history: www.genealogylinks.net/europe/den.htm, part of Ancestry.com; My Danish Roots at www.mydanishroots.com; and, the Canadabased, www.telusplanet.net/public/mtoll/denmark.htm. Swedish family history: the Swedish Immigration Research Center at Augustana College, www.augustana.edu/administration/swenson; Everton's guide to Sweden, www.everton.com/reference/world/sweden.php; and, the American Swedish Institute at www.americanswedishinst.org/genealgy.htm. Norwegian family history: see Cyndi's List at www.cyndislist.com/norway.htm; Ancestors from Norway at homepages.rootsweb.com/~norway/index.html; and, World GenWeb's www.rootsweb.com/~wgnorway. For historical perspective, see: Norway.org at www.norway.org/culture/page.cfm?id=64. Finnish family history: www.everton.com/reference/world/finland.php, Everton's guide; and, www.rootsweb.com/~finwgw/, Finland GenWeb. Romani/Romany (Gypsy, Irish Traveller) family history: some of the "Unique Peoples & Cultures" in Cyndi's List, www.cyndislist.com/peoples.htm#Gypsies; and, http://educate.si.edu/migrations/gyp/gypstart.html, part of the Smithsonian Institution's Immigrations in History site. · MIDDLE EASTERN FAMILY HISTORY ­ www.cyndislist.com/mideast.htm covers over twenty different countries and cultures of the region in great detail. See also: www.library.cornell.edu/colldev/mideast/, Cornell University collections; www.rootsweb.com/~mdeastgw/index.html, the Middle East GenWeb; www.fordham.edu/halsall/islam/islamsbook.html, Paul Halsall's Internet Islamic History Sourcebook, at Fordham University; www.columbia.edu/cu/lweb/indiv/mideast/cuvlm/, the WWW-Virtual Library (Middle East Studies), hosted at Columbia University. Lebanese family history: www.rootsweb.com/~lbnwgw/ the Lebanese GenWeb. Palestinian family history: www.rootsweb.com/~mdeastgw/palestine.html, the Palestinian GenWeb; and, www.ku.edu/history/VL/near_east/palestine.html, the WWW-Virtual Library (History of Palestine). Jordanian family history: www.ku.edu/history/VL/near_east/jordan.html, the WWW-Virtual Library (History of Jordan). Iraqi family history: www.ukans.edu/history/VL/near_east/iraq.html, the WWWVirtual Library (History of Iraq); and, Columbia University's Middle East Studies (Iraq) at www.columbia.edu/cu/lweb/indiv/mideast/cuvlm/Iraq.html. 15
Iranian family history: www.rootsweb.com/~mdeastgw/iran.html, the Iran GenWeb; www.columbia.edu/cu/lweb/indiv/mideast/cuvlm/Iran.html at Columbia University; www.libdex.com/country/Iran.html, including the National Library of Iran; and, the WWW-Virtual Library (Iran) at www.irvl.net/. Afghan family history: www.icarp.org/afghan.html, the WWW-Virtual Library (Afghanistan); and, www.ku.edu/history/VL/middle_east/afghanistan.html, WWW-Virtual Library (History of Afghanistan). Kurdish family history: elements of Kurdish history and culture are found in the family history sites for Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Syria. See also: the InfoPlease site at www.infoplease.com/ce6/world/A0828382.html. · JEWISH FAMILY HISTORY ­ for some of the oldest recorded genealogy in the world, see: www.cjh.org/family, the Jewish History Genealogy Institute, New York; www.rootsweb.com/~isrwgw/, the extensive resources of the Israel GenWeb; and, www.jewishgen.org/databases/, the Jewish GenWeb. See also: www.cyndislist.com/jewish.htm, the extensive guide in Cyndi's List; www.fordham.edu/halsall/jewish/jewishsbook.html, Paul Halsall's Internet Jewish History Sourcebook at Fordham University; www.orthohelp.com/geneal/sefardim.htm, on Sephardic Genealogy; www.temple.edu/feinsteinctr/fcrelated.html, the Feinstein Center American Jewish History at Temple University. Step 5 ­ Find original family history records (state-by-state & special area*) The largest collections of original documents and vital records related to family history are usually found in government records depositories in state capitals and county seats. Sometimes, you'll find them in the "archives" and "special collections" of private institutions. For current statistics, important addresses, phone numbers, and curious facts about each state, see www.50states.com/. For an overview of genealogical resources and history, state-by-state, see: www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/usa.html, the Roots-L Project. For anything you want to know about U.S. History, see: www.ukans.edu/history/VL/USA/index.html, the WWW-VL (History of United States), hosted by the University of Kansas, and, memory.loc.gov/, the American Memory Project of the Library of Congress. · Alabama ­ Montgomery ­ Camellia State, Cotton State www.archives.state.al.us/ge.html, Alabama Department of History & Archives ph.state.al.us/chs/VitalRecords/VRECORDS.HTMl, Vital Records www.rootsweb.com/~algenweb/societies.html, Alabama GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/al/alfiles.htm, Alabama USGenWeb Archives www.alabamagenealogy.org/archives.htm, Alabama genealogy.org www.lib.ua.edu/libraries/hoole/digital/genealogy.shtml, Univ. of Alabama www.bplonline.org/sou/, Birmingham Public Library, Genealogy www.everton.com/reference/usa/al.php, Everton's Genealogy: Alabama www.publiclibraries.com/alabama.htm, Alabama public libraries 16
· Alaska ­ Juneau ­ The Last Frontier, Land of the Midnight Sun www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/ak.html, Alaska Roots-L guide www.hss.state.ak.us/dph/bvs/, Vital Statistics www.library.state.ak.us/hist/, Alaska State Library, Historical Collections www.lib.uaa.alaska.edu/archives/, University of Alaska, Anchorage www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/ak/akfiles.htm, Alaska USGenWeb Archives www.akgenweb.org/, Alaska GenWeb lexicon.ci.anchorage.ak.us/, Anchorage Municipal Libraries www.mnh.si.edu/arctic/html/research.html, Artic Studies Centre, Smithsonian www.alaskanative.net/, Alaska Native Heritage Center www.ldb.org/vl/cp/index.htm, WWW-Virtual Library ­ Circumpolar peoples www.wengereskimodb.uaf.edu/welcome.html, Hubert Wenger Eskimo Database www.publiclibraries.com/alaska.htm, Alaska public libraries · American Samoa* ­ Pago Pago, Island of Tutuila www.ashpo.org/samoalinks.htm , Historic Preservation Office www.asg-gov.com/, official government site of American Samoa www.rootsweb.com/~samoawgw/, American Samoa GenWeb www.cyndislist.com/territor.htm#Samoa, Cyndi's List ­ American Samoa · Arizona ­ Phoenix ­ Grand Canyon State www.lib.az.us/archives/famhistory.htm, Arizona State Library & Archives www.everton.com/reference/usa/az.php, Everton's Genealogy: Arizona www.hs.state.az.us/vitalrcd/index.htm, Vital Records www.rootsweb.com/~azgenweb/, Arizona GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/az/azfiles.html, Arizona USGenWeb Archives www.asu.edu/lib/archives/arizona.htm, Arizona State University, Arizona Collection www.nau.edu/library/speccoll/index.html, Northern Arizona University, Special Coll. www.library.arizona.edu/swetc/projects.html, University of Arizona Library, E-texts ahs.dreamteamtech.com/, Arizona Historical Society, Library & Archives pac.lib.ci.phoenix.az.us/web/, Phoenix Public Library www.lib.ci.tucson.az.us/, Tuscon-Pima Public Library www.yumalibrary.org/, Yuma County Library www.publiclibraries.com/arizona.htm, Arizona public libraries · Arkansas ­ Little Rock ­ The Natural State, Razorback State www.ark-ives.com/, Arkansas History Commission, Archives www.healthyarkansas.com/certificates/certificates.html, Vital Records www.argenweb.net/, Arkansas GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/ar/arfiles.htm, Arkansas USGenWeb Archives www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/ar.html, Arkansas Roots-L www.laman.net/genealogy.html, Laman Public Library, Genealogy Resources www.cals.lib.ar.us/, Central Arkansas Library System arkstar.asl.lib.ar.us/, Arkansas Libraries online www.publiclibraries.com/arkansas.htm, Arkansas public libraries 17
· California ­ Sacramento ­ Golden State www.learncalifornia.org/doc.asp?id=84, California State Archives www.library.ca.gov/html/genealogy.cfm, California State Library www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/ca/index.html, California Roots-L www.dhs.cahwnet.gov/hisp/chs/OVR/Ordercert.htm, Vital Records www.dcn.davis.ca.us/~vctinney/california.htm, Tinney family guide www.cyndislist.com/ca.htm, Cyndi's List for California www.cagenweb.com/, California GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/ca/cafiles.htm, California USGenWeb Archives www.californiahistoricalsociety.org/, California Historical Society www.calgensoc.org/, California Genealogical Society and Library www.lapl.org/, Los Angeles Public Library sfpl4.sfpl.org/gencoll/roots3.htm, San Francisco Public Library, Genealogy www.fresnolibrary.org/calif/index.html, Fresno County Public Library, CA History www.sandiego.gov/public-library/, San Diego Public Library, History and Gen. www.saclibrary.org/, Sacramento Public Library www.sjlibrary.org/, San Jose Public Library / San Jose State University www-hoover.stanford.edu/hila/, Hoover Institution Library & Archives www.oac.cdlib.org/, Online Archive of California www.cdlib.org/, California Digital Library, University of California www.publiclibraries.com/california.htm, California public libraries · Colorado ­ Denver ­ Centennial State www.archives.state.co.us/geneal.html, Colorado State Archives www.coloradohistory.org/, Colorado Historical Society ­ Library www.denver.lib.co.us/ebranch/, Denver Public Library ­ Resources ­ Genealogy www.cdphe.state.co.us/hs/certs.asp, Vital Records ­ Genealogy www.rootsweb.com/~cogenweb/comain.htm, Colorado GenWeb (bi-lingual) www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/co/cofiles.htm, Colorado USGenWeb Archives www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/co.html, Colorado Roots-L www.cyndislist.com/co.htm, Cyndi's List, Colorado www.aclin.org/, Colorado Virtual Library www.archives.gov/facilities/co/denver.html, National Archives ­ Denver www-libraries.colorado.edu/ps/gov/gd/cub.htm, Univ. of Colorado Libraries ­ Gen. lib.colostate.edu/research/history/, Colorado State Univ. Lib. ­ History Resources www.publiclibraries.com/colorado.htm, Colorado public libraries · Connecticut ­ Hartford ­ Constitution State, Nutmeg State www.chs.org/library/geneal.htm, Connecticut Historical Society www.dph.state.ct.us/OPPE/hpvital.htm, Vital Records www.cslib.org/handg.htm, Connecticut State Library and Archives www.rootsweb.com/~ctgenweb/, Connecticut GenWeb www.accessgenealogy.com/connecticut/index.htm, Access Genealogy site www.crlc.org/tools/history.html#cthist, Capitol Region Lib.Council,Gen.Resources wilson.ctstateu.edu/lib/archives/polish/, Connecticut Polish American Archives www.publiclibraries.com/connecticut.htm, Connecticut public libraries 18
· Delaware ­ Dover ­ First State, Diamond State www.state.de.us/sos/dpa/collections/index.htm, Delaware State Archives www.deph.org/vs.htm, Vital Statistics www.hsd.org/gengd.htm, Delaware Historical Society www.degenweb.org/, Delaware GenWeb www.lib.de.us/, Delaware Digital Library www.hagley.lib.de.us/catalog.html, Hagley Museum and Library www.publiclibraries.com/delaware.htm, Delaware public libraries · District of Columbia ­ The Nation's Capital dclibrary.org/washingtoniana/collection.html, Martin Luther King, Jr., Library dchealth.dc.gov/services/vital_records/index.shtm, Vital Records www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/dc.html, District of Columbia RootsWeb guide www.rootsweb.com/~dcgenweb/, District of Columbia GenWeb www.publiclibraries.com/dc.htm, District of Columbia public libraries · Florida ­ Tallahassee ­ Sunshine State dlis.dos.state.fl.us/barm/fsa.html, Florida State Archives www.doh.state.fl.us/planning_eval/vital_statistics/, Vital Records dlis.dos.state.fl.us/stlib/flcoll.html, Florida State Library, Florida Collection www.rootsweb.com/~flgenweb/, Florida GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/fl/flfiles.htm, Florida USGenWeb Archives web.uflib.ufl.edu/spec/pkyonge/, University of Florida, Library of Florida History www.fsu.edu/~library/, Florida State University Libraries www.everton.com/reference/usa/fl.php, Everton's Genealogy: Florida www.publiclibraries.com/florida.htm, Florida public libraries · Georgia ­ Atlanta ­ Empire State of the South, Peach State www.sos.state.ga.us/archives/ci/geneal.htm, Georgia State Archives www.health.state.ga.us/programs/vitalrecords/index.shtml, Vital Records www.gagensociety.org/links.htm, Georgia Genealogical Society www.rootsweb.com/~gagenweb/, Georgia GenWeb www.publiclibraries.com/georgia.htm, Georgia public libraries · Guam* ­ Hagеtсa or Agana ­ `Where America's New Millennium Begins' ns.gov.gu/genealogy/, Guam government, genealogy www.gov.gu/index.html, Guam government home page, People, Culture www.micronesiagenweb.org/~guam/, Guam GenWeb · Hawaii ­ Honolulu ­ Aloha State www.everton.com/reference/usa/hi.php, Everton's Genealogy: Hawaii www.ehawaiigov.org/doh/vitrec/exe/vitrec.cgi, Vital Records www.rootsweb.com/~higenweb/links.htm, Hawaii GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/hi/hifiles.htm, Hawaii USGenWeb Archives www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/hi.html, Hawaii Roots-L www.publiclibraries.com/hawaii.htm, Hawaii public libraries 19
· Idaho ­ Boise ­ Gem State www2.state.id.us/dhw/vital_stats/appmenu.html, Vital Records idahohistory.net/research.html, Idaho Historical Society www.rootsweb.com/~idgenweb/, Idaho GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/id/idfiles.htm, Idaho USGenWeb Archives www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/id.html, Idaho Roots-L www.everton.com/reference/usa/id.php, Everton's Genealogy:Idaho www.lili.org/isl/resources.htm, Idaho State Library www.boisepubliclibrary.org/Ref/resources_idaho.shtml, Boise Public, Idaho Room www.lib.uidaho.edu/special-collections/, Univ. of Idaho, Special Coll. & Archives www.publiclibraries.com/idaho.htm, Idaho public libraries · Illinois ­ Springfield ­ Prairie State www.sos.state.il.us/departments/archives/services.html, Illinois State Archives www.rootsweb.com/~ilsgs/index.html, Illinois Genealogical Society www.idph.state.il.us/vital/vitalhome.htm, Vital Records www.ilgenweb.com/, Illinois GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/il.html, Illinois Roots-L www.chipublib.org/001hwlc/sshgenealogy.html, Chicago Public Library www.newberry.org/nl/newberryhome.html, The Newberry Library ­ Genealogy www.publiclibraries.com/illinois.htm, Illinois public libraries · Indiana ­ Indianapolis ­ Hoosier State www.in.gov/icpr/archives/family/, Indiana State Archives www.state.in.us/isdh/bdcertifs/bdcert.html, Vital Records home.att.net/~Local_History/IN_History.htm, Indiana Local History www.statelib.lib.in.us/www/indiana/genealogy/genmenu.html, IN State Library www.ingenweb.org/, Indiana GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/in/infiles.htm, Indiana USGenWeb Archives www.indiana.edu/~libsalc/history/, Indiana University Libraries ­ History Resources www.statelib.lib.in.us/www/isl/whoweare/genealogy.html, Indiana State Library www.publiclibraries.com/indiana.htm, Indiana public libraries · Iowa ­ Des Moines ­ Hawkeye State www.idph.state.ia.us/pa/vr.htm, Vital Records www.iowahistory.org/archives/index.html, Iowa State Historical Society www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/ia.html, Iowa Roots-L www.iagenweb.org/, Iowa GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/ia/iafiles.htm, Iowa USGenWeb Archives www.everton.com/reference/usa/ia.php, Everton's Genealogy: Iowa www.lib.iastate.edu/collections/eresourc/history.html, Iowa State Univ., e-library www.pldminfo.org/research/genealogy.htm, Public Library of Des Moines www.cyndislist.com/ia.htm, Cyndi's List ­ Iowa www.lib.uiowa.edu/iwa/collections.html, Iowa Women's Archives, Univ. of Iowa Lib. www.publiclibraries.com/iowa.htm, Iowa public libraries 20
· Kansas ­ Topeka ­ Sunflower State www.kdhe.state.ks.us/vital/index.html, Vital Statistics skyways.lib.ks.us/genweb/, Kansas GenWeb Project skyways.lib.ks.us/kansas/, Blue Skyways, Kansas State Library www.kshs.org/genealogists/index.htm, Kansas State Historical Society www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/ks/ksfiles.htm, Kansas USGenWeb Archives www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/ks.html, Kansas Roots-L www.everton.com/reference/usa/ks.php, Everton's Genealogy: Kansas www.kckpl.lib.ks.us/kscoll/Kscoll2.htm, Kansas City Public Library, Kansas Coll. www.publiclibraries.com/kansas.htm, Kansas public libraries · Kentucky ­ Frankfort ­ Bluegrass State www.kdla.net/arch/corpolic.htm, Kentucky Department of Libraries and Archives publichealth.state.ky.us/vital.htm, Vital Statistics www.kygs.org/archives/archives.htm, Kentucky Genealogical Society www.kyhistory.org/Research/FAQs_Family_History.htm, Kentucky Hist. Society www.kygenweb.net/index.html, Kentucky GenWeb (where the concept began in 1996) www.everton.com/reference/usa/ky.php, Everton's Genealogy: Kentucky www.publiclibraries.com/kentucky.htm, Kentucky public libraries · Louisiana ­ Baton Rouge ­ Pelican State oph.dhh.state.la.us/recordsstatistics/vitalrecords/, Vital Records www.sec.state.la.us/archives/archives/archives-index.htm, Louisiana State Arch. nutrias.org/~nopl/lama/louarch.htm, Archives and Manuscripts Association www.everton.com/reference/usa/la.php, Everton's Genealogy: Louisiana www.notarialarchives.org/, New Orleans Notarial Archives nutrias.org/~nopl/spec/speclist.htm, New Orleans Public Library, City Archives www.publiclibraries.com/louisiana.htm, Louisiana public libraries · Maine ­ Augusta ­ Pine Tree State www.state.me.us/sos/arc/geneology/, Maine State Archives www.state.me.us/dhs/faq.htm#certificates, Vital Records www.rootsweb.com/~megenweb/, Maine GenWeb www.everton.com/reference/usa/me.php, Everton's Genealogy: Maine www.publiclibraries.com/maine.htm, Maine public libraries · Maryland ­ Annapolis ­ Old Line State, Free State www.dhmh.state.md.us/html/vitalrec.htm, Vital Records www.mdarchives.state.md.us/msa/refserv/html/vitalrec.html, MD State Archives www.epfl.net/subjects/subjectguide.cfm?cid=73&sid=12, Enoch Pratt Library www.mdarchives.state.md.us/msa/refserv/genealogy/html/genstart.html, St. Arch. www.mdgenweb.org/, Maryland GenWeb www.everton.com/reference/usa/md.php, Everton's Genealogy: Maryland www.bcplonline.org/info/history/, Baltimore County Public Library, History & Gen. www.mdhs.org/explore/library/research/genealogy.html, MD Historical Soc. Lib. www.publiclibraries.com/maryland.htm, Maryland public libraries 21
· Massachusetts ­ Boston ­ Bay State, Old Colony www.mass-doc.com/vitals_research.htm, Vital Records www.state.ma.us/sec/arc/arcgen/genidx.htm, State Archives www.rootsweb.com/~magenweb/, Massachusetts GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/ma/mafiles.htm, Massachusetts USGenWeb Archives www.bpl.org/research/socsci/genealogy.htm, Boston Public Library, Genealogy www.state.ma.us/lib/genealogy/genelett.htm, State Library ­ Genealogy www.publiclibraries.com/massachusetts.htm, Maryland public libraries · Michigan ­ Lansing ­ Great Lakes State, Wolverine State www.michigan.gov/mdch/0,1607,7-132-4645---,00.html, Vital Records www.everton.com/reference/usa/mi.php, Everton's Genealogy: Michigan www.michigan.gov/hal/0,1607,7-160-17449_18635---,00.html, MI State Archives www.rootsweb.com/~migenweb/, Michigan GenWeb www.detroit.lib.mi.us/burton/, Detroit Public Library, Burton Collection www.publiclibraries.com/michigan.htm, Michigan public libraries · Minnesota ­ St. Paul ­ North Star State, Land of 10,000 Lakes www.rootsweb.com/~mngenweb/, Minnesota GenWeb www.mpls.lib.mn.us/genealogy.asp, Minneapolis Public Library www.mnhs.org/library/tips/family/family.html, Minnesota Historical Society www.mnhs.org/library/findaids/00260.html, Minnesota Ethnic History Project wilson.lib.umn.edu/reference/genealogy.html, University of Minnesota www.mnhs.org/library/collections/archives/search.html, State Archives www.mngs.org/, Minnesota Genealogical Society www.health.state.mn.us/divs/chs/osr/index.html, Vital Records www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/mn/mnfiles.htm, Minnesota USGenWeb Archives www.everton.com/reference/usa/mn.php, Everton's Genealogy: Minnesota www.publiclibraries.com/minnesota.htm, Minnesota public libraries · Mississippi ­ Jackson ­ Magnolia State www.mdah.state.ms.us/arlib/find.html, Mississippi State Archives & Library www.msdh.state.ms.us/phs/index.htm, Vital Records www.rootsweb.com/~msgenweb/, Mississippi GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/ms.html, Mississippi Roots-L www.publiclibraries.com/mississippi.htm, Mississippi public libraries · Missouri ­ Jefferson City ­ Show Me State www.sos.state.mo.us/archives/resources/resources.asp, Missouri State Archives www.slpl.lib.mo.us/library.htm, St. Louis Public Library www.rootsweb.com/~mogenweb/mo.htm, Missouri GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/mo.html, Missouri Roots-L www.health.state.mo.us/BirthAndDeathRecords/BirthAndDeathRecords.html, V-R www.everton.com/reference/usa/mo.php, Everton's Genealogy: Missouri www.publiclibraries.com/missouri.htm, Missouri public libraries 22
· Montana ­ Helena ­Treasure State www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/mt/mtfiles.htm, Montana USGenWeb Archives www.libdex.com/country/USA-Montana.html, Libdex library guide www.rootsweb.com/~mtgenweb/?sourceid=00228464116636121850, MT GenWeb www.his.state.mt.us/departments/collections/index.htm, MT Historical Society www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/mt.html, Montana Roots-L www.everton.com/reference/usa/mt.php, Everton's Genealogy: Montana www.publiclibraries.com/montana.htm, Montana public libraries · Nebraska ­ Lincoln ­ Cornhusker State www.hhs.state.ne.us/ced/cedindex.htm, Vital Records www.rootsweb.com/~negenweb/, Nebraska GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/ne/nefiles.htm, Nebraska USGenWeb Archives www.nlc.state.ne.us/nelib/nelib.html, Nebraska Library Commission www.omaha.lib.ne.us/aboutus/locations/gen.shtml, Omaha Public Library www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/ne/index.html, Nebraska Roots-L www.unl.edu/libr/libs/spec/subjects.html, University of Nebraska, Lincoln ­ Archives www.everton.com/reference/usa/ne.php, Everton's Genealogy: Nebraska www.publiclibraries.com/nebraska.htm, Nebraska public libraries · Nevada ­ Reno ­ Silver State, Sagebrush State, Battle Born State www.rootsweb.com/~nvgenweb/index.htm, Nevada GenWeb health2k.state.nv.us/Forms/formindex.htm, Vital Statistics dmla.clan.lib.nv.us/docs/nsla/services/genealres.htm, NV State Library & Archives www.library.unr.edu/depts/basqlib/genealogy.html, University of Nevada, Reno www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/nv/nvfiles.htm, Nevada USGenWeb Archives www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/nv/, Nevada Roots-L www.lvccld.org/special_collections/index.htm, Las Vegas/Clark County Library www.publiclibraries.com/nevada.htm, Nevada public libraries · New Hampshire ­ Concord ­ Granite State www.state.nh.us/nhsl/history/index.html, New Hampshire State Library nhsog.org/resource.htm, New Hampshire Society of Genealogists www.everton.com/reference/usa/nh.php, Everton's Genealogy: New Hampshire www.dhhs.state.nh.us/DHHS/BVR/LIBRARY/Form/A1.htm, Vital Records www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/nh/index.html, New Hampshire Roots-L www.publiclibraries.com/newhampshire.htm, New Hampshire public libraries · New Jersey ­ Trenton ­ Garden State www.state.nj.us/health/vital/vital.htm, Vital Statistics www.njstatelib.org/cyberdesk/genealog.htm, New Jersey State Library www.state.nj.us/state/darm/links/guideor.html, New Jersey State Archives www.rootsweb.com/~njgenweb/subindex.htm, New Jersey GenWeb www.libraries.rutgers.edu/rul/libs/scua/genealogy/genealogy.shtml, Rutgers Univ. www.publiclibraries.com/newjersey.htm, New Jersey public libraries 23
· New Mexico ­ Santa Fe ­ Land of Enchantment www.nmcpr.state.nm.us/archives/ancestors.htm, State Records Center & Archives dohewbs2.health.state.nm.us/VitalRec/Vital%20Records.htm, Vital Records sfweb.ci.santa-fe.nm.us/sfpl/localhistory.html, Santa Fe Public Library www.rootsweb.com/~nmgenweb/, New Mexico GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/nm/index.html, New Mexico Roots-L elibrary.unm.edu/oanm/, University of New Mexico, Online Archive of New Mexico www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/nm/nmfiles.htm, New Mexico USGenWeb www.publiclibraries.com/newmexico.htm, New Mexico public libraries · New York ­ Albany ­ Empire State www.cyndislist.com/ny.htm, Cyndi's List for New York www.rootsweb.com/~nygenweb/, New York GenWeb www.nygbs.org/, New York Genealogical & Biographical Society www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/ny/nyfiles.htm, New York USGenWeb Archives www.health.state.ny.us/nysdoh/consumer/vr.htm, Vital Records www.nypl.org/research/chss/lhg/research.html, New York Public Library www.archives.nysed.gov/a/researchroom/researchroom_pgc.shtml, State Archives www.archives.nysed.gov/a/researchroom/researchroom_family.shtml, State Arch. www.archives.gov/facilities/ny/new_york_city.html, National Archives ­ New York www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/ny/index.html, New York Roots-L www.everton.com/reference/usa/ny.php, Everton's Genealogy: New York www.publiclibraries.com/newyork.htm, New York public libraries · North Carolina ­ Raleigh ­ Tar Heel State, Old North State www.ah.dcr.state.nc.us/sections/archives/arch/default.htm, NC State Archives statelibrary.dcr.state.nc.us/iss/gr/genealog.htm, North Carolina State Library vitalrecords.dhhs.state.nc.us/vr/holdings/genealogy.html, Vital Records www.rootsweb.com/~ncgenweb/, North Carolina GenWeb www.everton.com/reference/usa/nc.php, Everton's Genealogy: North Carolina statelibrary.dcr.state.nc.us/nc/cover.htm, State Lib. of North Carolina, Encyclopedia www.publiclibraries.com/northcarolina.htm, North Carolina public libraries · North Dakota ­ Bismarck ­ Peace Garden State www.vitalnd.com/, Vital Records ndsl.lib.state.nd.us/Subject/Genealogy.html, North Dakota State Library www.state.nd.us/hist/sal/gen.htm, North Dakota State Archives & Library www.rootsweb.com/~ndgenweb/, North Dakota GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/nd/ndfiles.htm, North Dakota USGenWeb Archives www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/nd.html, North Dakota Roots-L www.everton.com/reference/usa/nd.php, Everton's Genealogy: North Dakota www.publiclibraries.com/northdakota.htm, North Dakota public libraries · Northern Mariana Islands* ­ Saipan www.mariana-islands.gov.mp/, Northern Mariana Islands site 24
· Ohio ­ Columbus ­ Buckeye State www.ohiohistory.org/resource/archlib/index.html, Ohio Historical Society www.odh.state.oh.us/Birth/vr_obtain.htm, Vital Records www.scioto.org/OHGenWeb/, Ohio GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/oh/ohfiles.htm, Ohio USGenWeb Archives www.cpl.org/libraryresources.asp?FormMode=Exhibit&ID=6, Cleveland Public Lib. www.jungclas.com/gensite/hamilton/, Cincinnati & Hamilton County www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/oh.html, Ohio Roots-L www.publiclibraries.com/ohio.htm, Ohio public libraries · Oklahoma ­ Oklahoma City ­ Sooner State www.rootsweb.com/~okgenweb/index.htm, Oklahoma GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/ok/okfiles.htm, Oklahoma USGenWeb Archives www.odl.state.ok.us/oar/archives/collections.htm, Oklahoma State Archives www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/ok.html, Oklahoma Roots-L www.everton.com/reference/usa/ok.php, Everton's Genealogy: Oklahoma www.publiclibraries.com/oklahoma.htm, Oklahoma public libraries · Oregon ­ Salem ­ Beaver State arcweb.sos.state.or.us/banners/genealogy.htm, Oregon State Archives www.ohs.org/collections/library/research-collection-indices.cfm, Oregon Hist. Soc. www.rootsweb.com/~orgenweb/, Oregon GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/or/orfiles.htm, Oregon USGenWeb Archives www.ohd.hr.state.or.us/chs/, Vital Records www.osl.state.or.us/home/gen/wvgs.html, Oregon State Library www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/or.html, Oregon Roots-L www.multcolib.org/train/jumpstart/family/index.html, Multnomah Co. Lib., Family www.publiclibraries.com/oregon.htm, Oregon public libraries · Pennsylvania ­ Harrisburg ­ Keystone State www.balchinstitute.org/, Balch Institute for Ethnic Studies, Historical Soc. of PA www.hsp.org/, Historical Society of Pennsylvania www.pagenweb.org/, Pennsylvania GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/pa/, Pennsylvania Roots-L www.library.phila.gov/ssh/genealogy/guidelist.htm, Free Library of Philadelphia www.phmc.state.pa.us/bah/dam/faq.htm, Pennsylvania State Archives www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/pa/pafiles.htm, Pennsylvania USGenWeb Archives www.everton.com/reference/usa/pa.php, Everton's Genealogy: Pennsylvania www.publiclibraries.com/pennsylvania.htm, Pennsylvania public libraries · Puerto Rico* ­ San Juan www.gobierno.pr/, official government site (in Spanish) www.rootsweb.com/~prsanjua/, Puerto Rico GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/~census/states/puertorico/, USGenWeb Census Project welcome.topuertorico.org/history.shtml, Puerto Rico history home.coqui.net/jalmeyda/biblioteca.htm, Biblioteca Virtual de P.R 25
. · Rhode Island ­ Providence ­ Little Rhody, Ocean State www.state.ri.us/rihrab/direct.html, Rhode Island Historical Records www.rihs.org/, Rhode Island Historical Society ­ Library www.rootsweb.com/~rigenweb/, Rhode Island GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/ri.html, Rhode Island Roots-L www.uri.edu/library/, University of Rhode Island Library www.users.ids.net/~ricon/rigs.html, Rhode Island Genealogical Society www.brown.edu/Facilities/Haffenreffer/, Haffenreffer Museum, Brown University www.provlib.org/accessinfo/ricollect/ricollect.htm, Providence Public Library www.publiclibraries.com/rhodeisland.htm, Rhode Island public libraries · South Carolina ­ Columbia ­ Palmetto State www.state.sc.us/scdah/research.htm, South Carolina State Archives www.schistory.org/scresources.html, South Carolina Historical Society www.scdhec.net/vr/, Vital Records www.geocities.com/Heartland/Hills/3837/, South Carolina GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/sc.html, South Carolina Roots-L www.scgen.org/, South Carolina Genealogical Society www.ccpl.org/, Charleston County Library www.sc.edu/library/, University of South Carolina Libraries www.publiclibraries.com/southcarolina.htm, South Carolina public libraries · South Dakota ­ Pierre ­ Coyote State, Mount Rushmore State www.sdhistory.org/arc_gen.htm, South Dakota State Archives www.state.sd.us/doh/VitalRec/Vital.htm, Vital Records www.rootsweb.com/~sdgenweb/, South Dakota GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/sd/sdfiles.htm, SD USGenWeb Archives dwdlib.sdln.net/genealogical_resources.htm, Deadwood Public Library www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/sd.html, South Dakota Roots-L www.rootsweb.com/~sdgenweb/gensoc/sdgensoc.html, SD Genealogical Society www3.sdstate.edu/Academics/Library/index.cfm, SD State Univ. Library www.usd.edu/library/, University of South Dakota Library www.siouxland.lib.sd.us/library/subpage.asp?ID=174, Siouxland Libraries www.publiclibraries.com/southdakota.htm, South Dakota public libraries · Tennessee ­ Nashville ­ Volunteer State www.state.tn.us/sos/statelib/pubsvs/intro.htm, Tennessee State Library & Archives tennesseeencyclopedia.net/catsearch.htm, Tennessee Historical Soc. Encyclopedia www.tngenweb.org/, Tennessee GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/tn/tnfiles.htm, Tennessee USGenWeb Archives www2.state.tn.us/health/vr/, Vital Records www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/tn/index.html, Tennessee Roots-L www.lib.utk.edu/spcoll/, University of Tennessee Library Special Collections www.library.vanderbilt.edu/speccol/, Vanderbilt University Library Special Coll. www.memphislibrary.lib.tn.us/history/guigen.htm, Memphis Pub. Lib. History Dept. www.publiclibraries.com/tennessee.htm, Tennessee public libraries 26
· Texas ­ Austin ­ Lone Star State www.tsl.state.tx.us/arc/genfirst.html, Texas State Library & Archives ­ Genealogy www.tdh.state.tx.us/bvs/default.htm, Vital Statistics www.rootsweb.com/~txgenweb/, Texas GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/tx/txfiles.htm, Texas USGenWeb Archives www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/, Texas State Hist. Assoc. Handbook of Texas www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/, Univ of Texas, Perry-Castaсeda Library Map Collection www.lib.utexas.edu/benson/, Univ. of Texas, Benson Latin American Collection www.hrc.utexas.edu/collections/guide/, Univ. of Texas, Ransom Humanities Res. Ctr. www.smu.edu/cul/degolyer/collections.html, SMU, DeGolyer Lib, Collections librtest.utep.edu/genealogy.html, U. of Texas at El Paso ­ Border Genealogy www.hpl.lib.tx.us/clayton/, Houston Public Lib, Clayton Library for Genealogy info.lib.uh.edu/sca/collections/findingaids.html, Univ. of Houston Lib, Spec. Coll. www.angelo.edu/services/library/wtxcoll/, Angelo St. Univ. West Texas Collection http://library.tamu.edu/vgn/portal/tamulib/content/renderer/0,2174,1724_32721,0 0.html, Texas A&M University Libraries Special Collections & University Archives www.rattler.tamucc.edu/dept/special/sp_title.html, Texas A&M ­ Corpus Christi, Bell Library, Special Collections and University Archives www.library.ttu.edu/ul/rat.php, Texas Tech University Lib, Special Collections www.library.ci.corpus-christi.tx.us/localhistory.htm, Corpus Christi Public Libraries, Local History & Genealogy www.sanantonio.gov/library/texana/, San Antonio Public Library ­ Texana www.fortworthlibrary.org/genlhst.htm, Fort Worth Public Library dallaslibrary.org/ctx/ctx.htm, Dallas Public Library, History and Archives www.youseemore.com/Alice/about.asp?p=9, Alice Public Lib, Texas History Room www.gvpl.ca/collections/researchcollections.htm, Victoria Pub. Lib, Research Coll www.waco-texas.com/city_depts/libraryservices/genealogy.htm, Waco PL Gen. www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/tx/index.html, Texas Roots-L www.publiclibraries.com/texas.htm, Texas public libraries · Utah ­ Salt Lake City ­ Beehive State www.rootsweb.com/~utgenweb/, Utah GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/ut/utfiles.htm, Utah USGenWeb Archives hlunix.hl.state.ut.us/bvr/html/certificates.html, Vital Records www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/FHL/frameset_library.asp, LDS (Church of Latter Day Saints)Family History Library & List of Family History Centers archives.utah.gov/referenc/genres.htm, Utah State Archives history.utah.gov/library/familyhist.html, Utah Historical Society www.lib.utah.edu/spc/wam/division.html, U. of Utah Library ­ Western Americana hbllmedia.lib.byu.edu/subs/listAllGuides.pl, Brigham Young Univ. Lib. Res. Guides www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/ut.html, Utah Roots-L www.everton.com/reference/usa/ut.php, Everton's Genealogy: Utah pioneer.utah.gov/, Utah State Library ­ Public Pioneer Online www.media.utah.edu/UHE/UHEindex.html, Utah Encyclopedia www.publiclibraries.com/utah.htm, Utah public libraries 27
· Vermont ­ Montpelier ­ Green Mountain State www.state.vt.us/health/_hs/vitals/records/obtain.htm, Vital Records vermont-archives.org/genealogy/gene.html, Vermont State Archives www.everton.com/reference/usa/vt.php, Everton's Genealogy: Vermont www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/vt.html, Vermont Roots-L dol.state.vt.us/, Vermont Automated Libraries System www.publiclibraries.com/vermont.htm, Vermont public libraries · Virginia ­ Richmond ­ Old Dominion State www.vdh.state.va.us/vitalrec/gene.htm, Vital Records www.rootsweb.com/~vagenweb/, Virginia GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/va/vafiles.htm, Virginia USGenWeb Archives www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/va.html, Virginia Roots-L www.publiclibraries.com/virginia.htm, Virginia public libraries · Virgin Islands* ­ Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas www.rootsweb.com/~caribgw/cgw_archive/index.html, Caribbean GenWeb vitalrec.com/vi.html, Vital Records www.rootsweb.com/~usvi/, U.S. Virgin Islands GenWeb (Danish, too) · Washington ­ Olympia ­ Evergreen State www.cyndislist.com/wa-local.htm, Cyndi's List for Washington www.lib.washington.edu/subject/History/tm/geneal.html, U. of Washington Lib. www.lib.washington.edu/specialcoll/, University. of Washington, Suzzallo & Allen Libraries, Special Collections www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/wa/wafiles.htm, Washington USGenWeb Archives www.rootsweb.com/~wagenweb/, Washington State GenWeb www.doh.wa.gov/EHSPHL/CHS/cert.htm, Vital Records www.secstate.wa.gov/archives/genealogy.aspx, Washington State Archives www.wsulibs.wsu.edu/holland/masc/masc.htm#ref, Washington State University Library, Special Collections and Archives www.spl.org/default.asp?pageID=collection_specialcollections, Seattle Public Library, Special Collections (new Central Library opening in May 2004) 198.1.37.9/research/genealogy/, Spokane Public Library ­ Genealogy www.seattlehistory.org/col_res.cfm, MOHAI (Seattle's Mus. of History and Industry) www.tpl.lib.wa.us/v2/NWRoom/nwroom.htm, Tacoma Pub. Lib., Northwest Room www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/wa.html, Washington Roots-L www.archives.gov/facilities/wa/seattle.html, National Archives -- Seattle www.publiclibraries.com/washington.htm, Washington public libraries · West Virginia ­ Charleston ­ Mountain State www.wvdhhr.org/bph/oehp/hsc/vr/birtcert.htm, Vital Registration www.rootsweb.com/~wvgenweb/, West Virginia GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/wv/wvfiles.htm, West Virginia USGenWeb www.wvculture.org/history/genealog.html, West Virginia State Archives www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/wv.html, West Virginia Roots-L www.publiclibraries.com/westvirginia.htm, West Virginia public libraries 28
· Wisconsin ­ Madison ­ Badger State www.rootsweb.com/~wigenweb/, Wisconsin GenWeb www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/wi/wifiles.htm, Wisconsin USGenWeb Archives www.wisconsinhistory.org/, Wisconsin Historical Society ­ Archives ­ Genealogy www.dhfs.state.wi.us/vitalrecords/index.htm, Vital Records www.mpl.org/Files/Great/bookmark.cfm?Category=12, Milwaukee Public Library www.everton.com/reference/usa/wi.php, Everton's Genealogy: Wisconsin www.co.brown.wi.us/Library/libinfo/genealogy.html, Brown County Library www.rootsweb.com/roots-l/USA/wi.html, Wisconsin Roots-L www.publiclibraries.com/wisconsin.htm, Wisconsin public libraries · Wyoming ­ Cheyenne ­ Equality State, Cowboy State www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/wy/wyfiles.htm, Wyoming USGenWeb Archives www.rootsweb.com/~wygenweb/, Wyoming GenWeb wyoarchives.state.wy.us/, Wyoming State Archives wdhfs.state.wy.us/vital_records/certificate.htm, Vital records wyshs.org/, Wyoming State Historical Society ­ Western Trails Project www.bbhc.org/hmrl/archive.cfm, Buffalo Bill Historical Center ­ Archives www.publiclibraries.com/wyoming.htm, Wyoming public libraries Step 6 ­ Looking for different categories of original records At some point in your search ­ whether online or on foot ­ you'll start finding "original records," many of them handwritten. Some of the largest collections of these messages from your ancestors are: · U.S. Census records ­ these are among the most revealing records you can use in trying to put together your family history. They're the equivalent of a snapshot of who was living under every household roof in America, every ten years, from 1790 to 1930 (the most recently available census). They include, to varying degrees: name, date of birth/age, relationship, race, gender, home value, years married, arrival in U.S., each person's birth state or country, each parent's birth state or country, education, veteran's status, occupation, industry or agriculture. It's an extraordinary experience to see in these records how our parents, grandparents, great-grandparents, and beyond, were clustered in nuclear and extended family units, and sometimes in transition to blended families. (This is how I discovered numerous ancestors I didn't know I had, and learned that a large part of our family had actually come to America from Scotland and Northern Ireland, and not from Sweden as was often repeated in our family's oral tradition.) These records also sometimes explain the cycles of a family's financial fortunes. (In the case of my own family, I discovered that we had transitioned from being nineteenth-century Pennsylvania dairy farmers to being twentiethcentury wholesale "rose-growers" and "horticulturalists" ­ unfortunately, not too long before the Great Depression.) It takes time to wade through all the listings of families ­ and to realize that other people have carried the same name as you. But, it's well worth the effort when you get to the right census page ­ as you surely will ­ and realize that you're sitting at the dinner table of a great family reunion. 29
For access and research advice about census records, see: the U.S. National Archives at www.archives.gov (Where is? ­ Genealogy); the U.S. Census Bureau at www.census.gov/genealogy/www; the Census Online site at www.censusonline.com, a user-friendly, map-based presentation that gives access state-bystate and county-by-county (full access requires a fee); and, of course, the always helpful Cyndi's List, www.cyndislist.com/census.htm. Beyond these, www.ancestry.com and www.familyhistory.com currently have exclusive indexes (full access requires a fee) to the 124 million names on the 1930 Census and to the 1920 Census. Another site, www.genealogy.com, has indexes to the 1910 and 1900 census records (full access requires a fee). In other words, you'll probably need to use several sources to move through time in these records. Many public libraries, incidentally, offer free access to Ancestry Plus indexes and the census records. Full access is also free at any U.S. National Archives facility, many university libraries, and the LDS Family History Centers. The U.S. National Archives has several good guides to the U.S. Census records available for purchase at www.archives.gov/publications/index.html. Another excellent overview, currently available in bookstores, is: Loretto Dennis Szucs and Matthew Wright, Finding Answers in U.S. Census Records, Orem, UT, Ancestry Publishing, 2002 (also available at www.ancestry.com). It has a state-by-state list of archives that currently hold microfilm copies of the U.S. Census. · Immigration records ­ Ellis Island, the gateway to America in New York Harbor for 12 million immigrants, is a moving experience at www.ellisislandrecords.org and www.ellisisland.com. Approximately 100 million Americans can trace their ancestors back to a passage through this immigration center. The index to the first site can lead you to a handwritten ship manifest and even a photo of the ship that your ancestors arrived on. One challenge is the spelling of names, many of which were changed or abbreviated during the process of translating dozens of languages and dialects. Figuring out the various spellings of your family's given names and surnames may be the key to finding your ancestors. (I've found this to be true several times in tracing my own nineteenth-century Irish and Scottish ancestors.) This same tendency to change the spelling of names, and sometimes date of birth, continues beyond Ellis Island and is further reflected in census and military service records. It's also important to realize that Ellis Island was only one of many ports of entry for immigrants to the United States that extended from Boston to New Orleans to Seattle. Angel Island in San Francisco Bay, for instance, was the point of entry for many Asian immigrants, especially the Chinese, to America. On this "Ellis Island of the West," see: www.angelisland.org/immigr02.html. The best introductions to all of the immigration and naturalization records are: Cyndis's List, Ports of Entry, at www.cyndislist.com/portsentry.htm; and, the U.S. National Archives at www.gov.org (Research Room ­ Genealogy ­ Research Topics ­ Immigration Records). You'll find extensive reference to ship arrivals, including those in Hawaii, and to Canadian and Mexican border crossings. These sites also lead you to the naturalization records kept by the federal government. Another good gateway to immigration history is the University of Minnesota's Immigration History Research Center at www.umn.edu/ihrc/genweb.htm. 30
Military service records ­ these date back to the Revolutionary War, and are among the most extensive, emotional, yet frustrating (because some are lost), records of America's "greatest generation." Most twentieth-century military service records are held by the National Archives at the National Personnel Records Center in St. Louis, Missouri. Unfortunately, a disastrous fire in 1973 destroyed a large percentage of pre-1960 U.S. Army personnel records. Nevertheless, if your immediate relative's medical information is vital to you, it's possible to reconstruct it from some National Academy of Sciences records now held as surrogate files in these military service collections. Start at www.archives.gov (Research Room ­ Veterans' Service Records ­ and keep clicking). Next of kin can order military service records online. It takes about five minutes; you print out and fax a signature sheet to St. Louis. Some records are in other locations and can be obtained through use of a mail-in form (Standard Form 180 for post-1917 records). You can print it out from this same web site. For further information about the St. Louis facility, call: 314-538-2050. To put military service records in perspective, see the detailed unit histories and resources for each armed service at: www.history.navy.mil (Navy); www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil (Air Force); www.history.usmc.mil (Marine Corps); and, www.army.mil/cmh-pg (Army). For sites related to the Vietnam War era, see also: http://www.mystae.com/reflections/vietnam/vnlinks.html. · Social Security Death Index records ­ you can reach this site, which currently holds over 69 million records, at ssdi.genealogy.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/ssdi.cgi. For a fee, you can obtain a copy of the original Social Security application form your ancestor filled out. For help with this, see: RootsWeb's "lessons" at http://www.rootsweb.com/~rwguide/lesson10.htm, which also includes details about the records of the U.S. Railroad Retirement Board and its pension system. See also: www.rrb.gov/geneal.html. . · Agricultural history records ­ so many of our families came from farms and ranches, we almost always find agricultural history in our search for family history. The National Agricultural Library offers an extensive list of links to agricultural web sites around the country at www.nal.usda.gov/ref/aghist.htm. The American Local History Network's site at www.alhn.org/topic/topic/ag.html also offers an eclectic range of sources. · Land history records ­ sometimes homesteading and land ownership records are the key to unlocking family history. It's complicated because geographic and political boundaries were fluid for much of American history. Some starting points for searching these records are: the Bureau of Land Management's General Land Office Records at www.glorecords.blm.gov/; Cyndi's List ­ Land Records, Deeds, Homesteads, www.cyndislist.com/land.htm; Linda Davenport, homepages.rootsweb.com/~haas/learningcenter/landinfo.html, especially if you're wondering about terms like "metes and bounds"; more is available at Direct Line's users.rcn.com/deeds/landref.htm. For Canadian land records (Western Land Grants, 1870-1930), see the Canadian National Archives at www.archives.ca/02/020111_e.html. 31
· Wills and Probates ­ a great deal of family history is revealed in the wills people wrote and the probate proceedings their estates went through. A good starting point to see the wide range of resources for this topic, especially for the U.S. is: www.cyndislist.com/wills.htm. Equally helpful along these same lines is: www.cyndislist.com/cemetery.htm, on the topic of Cemeteries and Funeral Homes. · City and County Directories ­ sometimes, as families moved from place to place across America, their home addresses, businesses, farms, and occasionally their biographies were listed in city and county directories and histories. Local libraries are the still the greatest source for finding these resources, but now many can be obtained online and on CDs. Some of the useful sources for these are: www.cyndislist.com/citydir.htm; uscitydirectories.com/; and, for county histories, www.higginsonbooks.com/. · Women's history records ­ one of the challenges in doing family history is the change of women's surnames with marriage. A good source to solving this is: Sharon Debartolo Carmack's Discovering Your Female Ancestors, Cincinnati: Betterway Books, 1998. Important sources of original records to look for are the Vital Records kept in state and county archives and public health files. See especially, www.vitalrec.com/ and Cyndi's List, cyndislist.com/usvital.htm. Some of the online sites that address the historical context are: www.lib.washington.edu/subject/History/tm/women.html, the History of Women site at the University of Washington's Libraries; www.mtsu.edu/~kmiddlet/history/women.html, The American Women's History Research Guide at Middle Tennessee State University; www.library.wisc.edu/libraries/WomensStudies/hist.htm, the Women's History Resources guide at the University of Wisconsin Libraries; www.iisg.nl/~womhist/vivalink.html#about, the WWW-Virtual Library Women's History site based in the Netherlands; www.fordham.edu/halsall/women/womensbook.html, Paul Halsall's Internet Women's History Sourcebook, currently housed at Fordham University. It has a large collection of electronic texts that offer a worldwide perspective. · History of money and finance ­ The value of money, interest rates, and even the concept of "value," whether expressed in land, minerals, crops, or investments, have often inspired great movements of humanity in search of opportunity. To look at this history and figure out what your ancestors faced, see the lists of sites and reverse calculators at www.cyndislist.com/money.htm#General, and the interesting questions posed by Economic History Services at www.eh.net/hmit/. See also: the web site and links of the National Numismatics Collection at the National Museum of American History, which is part of the Smithsonian Institution, americanhistory.si.edu/csr/cadnnc.htm. 32
Step 7 ­ Searching on foot ... using the `pebble in the pool' approach Today, this is the sequence of things our children learn in the social science curriculum of our educational system at the elementary, middle school, and high school levels: self-identity and self-esteem, family, community, state, and nation. So, start your search close to home. Visit your local community library, county museum, county historical society, or county records office. Then, go a little further to your state archives, state library, or state historical society (often at the state capital). Most of the public and private libraries and archives in the U.S. are listed at these sites: www.libdex.com/country/USA.html; www.cyndislist.com/lib-state.htm; or, www.academic-genealogy.com/media.htm. These are great field trips where you'll often find original documents, artifacts, and photos related to your family, or to the environment in which they lived. Be prepared though: sometimes seeing "originals," which were created or handled by your ancestors, can be a powerful emotional experience. Next, plan a visit to our national archives, libraries, and museums. They're all accessible online, but are even more fun to visit in person. They include: · National Archives of the United States (NARA) ­ the main facilities are in Washington, D.C. and College Park, Maryland. "Our nation's record keeper" organizes U.S. government records according to every agency, department, or commission that ever existed (well almost).To access these records, see: www.archives.gov (Where is?/Genealogy, or, Research Room). Or, go to the nearest National Archives Regional Center, Presidential Library, or affiliated library. Over forty are listed at www.archives.gov/facilities. They all have original records and research rooms equipped with microforms from other locations. It's fun to imagine your family history being safeguarded in the same place as copies of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. For an extensive alphabetical Guide to Federal Records held by the National Archives, see: www.archives.gov/research_room/federal_records_guide/. It includes hundreds of "record groups" created since the founding of our nation. Also, the National Archives has compiled "100 Milestone Documents of American History," from the Lee Resolution and Declaration of Independence to the Truman Doctrine of 1947. These are all documents that have affected our families' histories. You can view them at www.ourdocuments.gov/. · The Library of Congress. Don't forget to look here, too. This is the largest library in the world. If it's in print, it's probably here. The Library also has extensive manuscript collections and family papers ­ just in case you're related to one of twenty-three American presidents. The handwritten copy of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address is located here. Go to www.loc.gov (click "Find It/Research Centers" ­ "Local History & Genealogy"). · The Smithsonian Institution. "America's treasure house for learning," sometimes called the "nation's attic" at www.si.edu. It's worth a family trip to visit this "family" of museums and see everything from the Spirit of St. Louis, to Dorothy's shoes, to Kermit the Frog, to Julia Child's Kitchen. Their artifacts, documents, photographs, and numismatics depict every era of our nation's history. 33
Step 8 ­ Saving what you find Look for genealogy software or online storage programs. Or, use the tried and true method ­ paper and folders (whenever possible, try to use acid-free materials to store your original documents and photos). Most major online family history sites offer software, such as: Family Tree Maker (www.genealogy.com), Ancestry Family Tree (www.ancestry.com), Personal Ancestral File from the LDS (www.familysearch.org), and the mac-friendly Reunion (www.leisterpro.com). If you feel more comfortable with a paper format, try Emily Croom's Unpuzzling Your Past, 4th edition, Cincinnati: F & W Publications, 2001. It has numerous forms to guide you. The same publisher has a large array of online resources, family history books, and software, at www.familytreemagazine.com, and a "super search" function at www.familytreemagazine.com/search/. Or, try: Elizabeth Powell Crowe, Genealogy Online, 7th Edition (New York: Osborne/McGraw-Hill, 2003) ­ the best-seller; Everton Publishers, The Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, tenth edition (Draper, Utah: Everton, 2002) ­ the most complete state-by-state listing of resources from the publisher of Everton's Family History Magazine); Loretto Dennis Szucs and Sandra Hargraves Luebking, editors, The Source: A Guidebook of American Genealogy (Salt Lake City: Ancestry.com, 1997) ­ available as a CD at 800-262-3787. Step 9 ­ Some final navigation and lingo tips Ask any reference librarian, archivist, or museum curator for help (they're all amazing). Check out their online guide to the Internet at www.lii.org. Also, just know that libraries are organized according to "subject," and usually refer to any original records or manuscripts they have as Special Collections; archives are organized according to "who created the record" (provenance) and typically refer to their collections as Record Groups. (Tip: If you need language-translation help with web-sites, try Google's free, automatic-translation Language Tools at www.google.com. The translations are literal, but very helpful. For additional help with individual historical documents, see: the 67-languages capability of e-transcriptum.net/.) Look Back ­ Plan Ahead Apologies if your ancestors aren't listed here. But don't worry, they're probably just a click or two away when you do a SEARCH on their names at www.google.com, or www.yahoo.com, or check Cyndi's List, www.cyndislist.com. If you need Vital Records (birth, death, marriage, divorce, adoption), don't forget www.vitalrec.com (U.S.), and www.vitalrec.com/links2.html (Other Countries). Good luck with your search. Don't be surprised by what you find. And just remember, if you're here, your ancestors are there ­ somewhere in the records. If you need more help, have comments or additions for this guide, please feel free to call or write me directly. It's a work in progress. 34
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Once you look back at your family history, plan ahead for your legacy. Family history is often a reflection of the hopes and dreams, great plans, opportunities taken, and fortunes gained ­ and sometimes lost ­ of all of our families. Use what you learn to carry your family vision and values forward to future generations of your family. That's the best legacy of all.
With best wishes to your family,
Dr. Andy Anderson Chief Historian Wells Fargo & Company 420 Montgomery St. (A0101-114) San Francisco, CA 94104 415-222-5070 [email protected] Biographical Note, Acknowledgement, and Disclaimer: Andy Anderson is Chief Historian of Wells Fargo & Company. Over the years, he's overseen the building of several Wells Fargo history museums, the company archives, a modern fleet of stagecoaches, and the initial version of www.wellsfargo.com. He's taught history at Ohio State, Arizona State and Stanford Universities. He earned his M.A. and Ph.D. in history from The Ohio State University and took his training in archival administration at the Archives Institute of the National Archives of the United States and the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. Most recently, he's published a volume on Wells Fargo's historical "family" of 2,000-plus companies (Stagecoach: Wells Fargo and the Rise of the American Financial Services Industry, New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002). By way of acknowledgement, this family history guide is dedicated to all the genealogists, archivists, librarians, and historians who've preserved those messages in bottles our ancestors sent us `way back when' ­ and especially, to Cyndi Howells, founder of Cyndi's List, and to Jeff Murphy, late co-founder of the USGenWeb (as the Kentucky GenWeb says, it was "conceived in the hearts and minds of Kentucky researchers," www.kygenweb.net/index.html). Finally, the site selections, opinions, and recommendations expressed in this guide are those of the author alone, and do not constitute an endorsement or guarantee of any kind by Wells Fargo & Company, or any of its subsidiaries or affiliates. This guide is provided, free and gratis, as an educational tool for anyone interested in finding their family history. Please feel free to reproduce it for any personal or educational project; but please do not reproduce it for any commercial purposes. The author has no financial connection to any online site, government agency, company, organization, institution, research consortium, or group listed in this guide, except for Wells Fargo & Company, where he is employed as Chief Historian.
Andy Anderson, 2004
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