Hurricane Sandy & the Emperor's New Clothes: Microgrids as a Risk Mitigation Strategy for Extreme Weather Events, M Roach

Tags: Hurricane Sandy, University of Wisconsin � Madison, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lasseter, University of Wisconsin, CERTS, utility companies, Presentation, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Net Zero Energy, Climate Change, Microgrid, extreme weather events, CERTS Microgrid, the Emperor's New Clothes, California Energy Commission, New York City, Power Outages, DER, American air forces, distributed energy resources, structural model, Cleaner Power Grid Post Hurricane Sandy, utility business, energy system, wireless communications companies, distributed systems, General Mitchell, Sandia National Laboratory, Kirby Microgrid Energy Management System, Steve District Energy Systems, Critical Electric Power Infrastructure, California Public Utilities Commission, MIT Technology Review, Billy Mitchell, Martin Microgrids Keep Power Flowing Through Sandy Outages, Energy Systems for Military Microgrids, Risk Analysis, Hans Christian Andersen, Elisabeth Greed, Risk Mitigation Strategy, Governor Cuomo, risk management, space shuttle Challenger, prevention measures, Pate-Cornell, Stanford University, Hurricane Irene, National Hurricane Center, Michael Roach, Kevin Microgrid, Risk Mitigation, National Weather Service, government leaders, Elisabeth Pate-Cornell, Hurricane Katrina, Roger Pielke, Distribution Engineering, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Elisabeth Risks, University of Illinois, Elisabeth Risk, Net Zero Energy Building, Zero Energy Building, NREL, Zero Energy, Arizona State University & Colorado State University, New York, Chris Resilience Lessons, Andrew C. Lessons, Hurricane Risks, National Infrastructure Advisory Council Risk Management Approaches, Jack David Hans Christian Andersen, Superstorm Sandy Floods New York, The Advisory Board Company, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Phil Sandy, Smart Grid Initiative, Aalborg University, R. Lasseter, National Infrastructure Advisory Council, Wisconsin, Elisabeth Organizational Aspects, Elisabeth Learning, Peter Moving Microgrids, Microgrids, Power System Engineering Research Center, Phil Hurricane Sandy, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, U.S. Department of Energy, Net Zero Energy Buildings, Dolan Technology Center, Department of Energy, Renewable Energy, Smart Grid, Microgrid Planning, CERTS Microgrid Applications, Construction Engineering Research Laboratory
Content: - MicroGridHorizons.com - White Paper Hurricane Sandy & the Emperor's New Clothes: Microgrids as a Risk Mitigation Strategy for Extreme Weather Events Michael Roach CEO, MicroGrid Horizons [email protected] 917-596-1950 December 13, 2012 1
- MicroGridHorizons.com - Michael Roach CEO, MicroGrid Horizons Hurricane Sandy & the Emperor's New Clothes: Microgrids as a Risk Mitigation Strategy for Extreme Weather Events "Sight becomes insight, which, in turn, prompts action." Jack Zipes Hans Christian Andersen, 2005 A Fairy Tale for a Hurricane In 1837, one hundred and seventy-five years ago, Hans Christian Andersen published a children's tale that epitomizes impervious leaders and still has much relevancy today as we reevaluate the leadership and structure of the modern electric utility industry in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. The plot of Andersen's tale is simple: "A vain Emperor who cares for nothing hires two swindlers who promise him the finest, best suit of clothes from fabric invisible to anyone who is unfit for his position or "hopelessly stupid." The Emperor cannot see the clothing himself, but pretends that he can for fear of appearing unfit for his position; his ministers do the same. When the swindlers report that the suit is finished, they mime dressing him and the Emperor marches in procession before his subjects, who play along with the pretense, until a child in the crowd, too young to understand the desirability of keeping up the pretense, blurts out that the Emperor is wearing nothing at all and the cry is taken up by others. The Emperor cringes, suspecting the assertion is true, but continues the procession." (Wikipedia) In today's real world, Hurricane Sandy "blurted out" what we can all see but do little to change - that the electric utility companies are naked to extreme weather events and have no credible alternative other than what they have done for the last one hundred years: wait for the storm to blow over; sequentially respond to customer complaints calls about loss of power; and then send line crews out to repair the distribution grid as fast as possible. In the 20th century, this strategy worked because our lives and businesses were less dependent upon electricity 2
- MicroGridHorizons.com - and we were passive, voiceless consumers that that accepted our fate like animals going to the slaughterhouse. Some critics have recommended various prevention measures to improve the old utility disaster model, including: · Better vegetation management (i.e., cutting down more trees so that fewer lines are broken by falling trees); · Installing smart meters so that the utility company doesn't have to wait for customer complaint calls; · Burying electric cables to get them out of harm's way. Each of these measures has value and attendant costs. These measures may ameliorate some impact of extreme weather events, but with a storm of the size and power of Hurricane Sandy, these measures are quite literally "a drop in the bucket." Only "hopelessly stupid" people will understand that no matter how "smart" the grid becomes under normal operating conditions, the "smart grid" is no match for the ferocity of extreme weather events, especially at the distribution level. After Hurricane Sandy, the Emperor (i.e., utility companies, government leaders, regulators and corporations) has no clothes on! How have our leaders and agencies responded to this crisis? Tactically, many government emergency response agencies responded very well in many instances. The National Hurricane Center and the National Weather Service provided very accurate forecasts of where and when the storm would make landfall and what its human and property consequences would be. Local media pounded the drums to warn people of the imminent danger, to prepare for the wide power outages and to evacuate the most endangered zones. First Responders had a full week to prepare equipment and crews and then they leaped into the storm chaos with immense dedication and courage. FEMA quickly set up disaster recovery operations in the worst hit areas. NGOs and many individuals filled in the gaps with essential supplies and human comfort. The horrendous scale of the damage overwhelmed the utility companies, our government leaders and our personal contingency plans. Over eight million people were without electricity from days to weeks. Right after the storm, 85% of Long Island was dark. For many people in the urban Northeast, Hurricane Sandy brought the unimaginable, especially for well-to-do classes that thought they were totally secure in their suburban McMansions. It is one thing to sit in your media room with your large screen TV and pooh, pooh how terrible the people in New Orleans suffered with Hurricane Katrina and another thing entirely when a 3
- MicroGridHorizons.com - hundred year old oak tree smashes through your bedroom or two feet of ice-cold seawater flows through your living room. On a strategic level, neither the utility companies nor most of our government leaders have offered any real system alternatives other than business as usual. Governor Cuomo formed the Moreland Commission to assess the emergency preparedness and management response to the storm by utility companies in New York State. This commission may be another a classic "cooling out" mechanism designed to demonstrate immediate concern and leadership. Unfortunately, these types of commissions are often better at buying time until the event gets out of the headlines and delaying strategic action to the indefinite future. What are the fundamental system problems of the utility industry under extreme weather events and how are risks managed? Are there historical precedents for analyzing catastrophes of this scale and fixing "the system"? The engineering world has long used `Probabilistic Risk Analysis' (PRA) to understand the probabilities of different system failure scenarios occurring and to analyze failures after the fact. Prof. Elisabeth Pate-Cornell of Stanford University has spent her career analyzing catastrophic system failures in various sectors such as: commercial aviation, oil platforms, medical anesthesiology, space shuttle Challenger, and insurance companies. In her view, "probabilistic risk analysis" is a counter to the excuse that "stuff happens": Risk analysis is thus an alternative to the "stuff happens" philosophy ­ ignoring signals or deciding that accidents are "normal" events or are too unlikely to be accounted for. We can apply Prof. Pate-Cornell's general risk management methodology (without the rigor of probabilistic mathematics) to the electric utility industry. In her recent paper, On "Black Swans" and "Perfect Storms", she describes the two basic types of uncertainties that risk managers face: "Perfect storms" involve mostly aleatory uncertainties (randomness) in conjunctions of rare but known events. "Black swans" represent the ultimate epistemic uncertainty or lack of fundamental knowledge, where not only the distribution of a parameter is unknown, but in the extreme, the very existence of the phenomenon itself... In reality, most scenarios involve both types of uncertainties. Pate-Cornell stresses the power of systems analysis and probability to face these uncertainties: 4
- MicroGridHorizons.com - Engineering risk management requires an in-depth analysis of the system, its functions and the probabilities of its failure modes. The PRA method was designed to address cases in which failure statistics at the global level were not sufficient to assess the failure risks, including conjunctions of unlikely and often dependent events... A critical feature of the probability of a scenario is the level of dependence among factors involved... Most accidents are rooted in errors, often several of them in the same chain of events, and these behaviors, in turn, are often influenced by the structure, procedures and culture of the organization. What is the Objective of Probabilistic Risk Analysis? Pate-Cornell summarizes the goal: "The objective is to find and fix system weakness and reduce the risks of failure as much as possible within resource constraints." What Are the Risk Components to Analyze Regarding the Utility Industry? We have three basic components to analyze in the failure scenario wrought by Hurricane Sandy: · Extreme Weather Event ­ Hurricane Sandy; · Technology ­ the electric grid; · Utility Structure ­ the business model and attendant regulatory framework that enables it. What is the First Step in the Analysis? Pate-Cornell looks to precursors to give guidance in analyzing the current situation: "Precursors provide invaluable signals that action has to be taken, sometimes quickly, to prevent an accident. A probabilistic risk analysis coupled with a measure of the quality of the signal (rates of false positives and false negatives) can be a powerful tool for identifying and interpreting meaningful information, provided that an organization is equipped to do so, appropriate channels have been established for accurate communications, and mechanisms are in place for filtering information and reacting to true alerts." The First Risk Factor: Did we have signals or warnings that Hurricane Sandy could cause the scale of physical devastation that it did? Large hurricanes have hit the New York City area in the past. The most unforgettable ones were the 1821 storm that made landfall at Jamaica Bay and brought with it a 13-foot surge and the "The Long Island Express" of 1938 5
- MicroGridHorizons.com - pushed a surge of 25-35 feet on shore and killed nearly 700 people across New England. In 2011, Hurricane Irene blew through the area without a lot of damage in the New York City area and, unfortunately, gave many people a false sense of security. In recent years, scientists from NASA and Columbia University have published several scholarly reports on how climate changes raise sea levels and may impact the surge levels of hurricanes hitting the New York City area. It's simple mechanics, if the sea level is higher when a storm surge arrives in the area, it will penetrate further inland and to higher elevations. In 1995, a transportation study evaluated the vulnerability of the transportation system to hurricane surges and estimated that a category three storm would send a surge of up to 25 feet at JFK Airport and 21 feet at Lincoln Tunnel. A 2001 study projected sea levels rises of 11.8 to 37.5 inches in the New York City area by the 2080s. The 2006 study projects sea level rises of 15 to 19 inches by the 2050s. Vivien Gornitz, one of the authors of that study said: "With sea level at these higher levels, flooding by major storms would inundate many low-lying neighborhoods and shut down the entire metropolitan transportation system with much greater frequency." A 2012 study concludes that: "The combined effects of storm climatology changes and a 1 m (meter) SLR (sea level rise) may cause the present NYC 100-yr surge flooding to occur every 3-20 yr and the present 500-yr flooding to occur every 25-240 yr by the end of the century." Ocean temperatures have also been rising and warm oceans are the super fuel of hurricanes. Chris Mooney writes: "Surface sea temperatures off the Mid-Atlantic coast were near record high in September and 2.3 degrees Fahrenheit above the long term average. In fact, averaged across the globe, ocean temperatures in September were the second highest on record, surpassed only by 2003 ­ and with much of the excess heat occurring in the Atlantic region." New York City government took these climate change warnings to heart and a panel commissioned by the City produced "Climate Change Adaptation in New York City: Building a Risk Management Response." Unfortunately, only 2 pages out of the total 354 pages are devoted to the dependency of the entire infrastructure on energy. The vulnerability is clearly identified though: "Production facilities for electric power are concentrated in a relatively few locations relative to the customer base they serve. Presently, about two dozen power plants of varying sizes are operating in New York City, and 6
- MicroGridHorizons.com - over a dozen more were proposed as of 2005. These facilities are owned and/or operated by half-dozen entities. Traditional power plants have required shoreline or close to shoreline locations for water intake structures and cooling water discharges; thus a number of the city's existing production facilities are located at lower elevations and potentially sensitive to flooding due sea level rise." The city's report fully acknowledges the obvious vulnerability of the infrastructure upon the city grid: "Most infrastructure in the city relies on the city's power grid for energy, thus if it fails the other infrastructures that depend upon it fail." Did the city's energy grid fail during Hurricane Sandy? Yes, 650,000 customers in New York City were without power after the storm. Did the surge reach part of the critical grid infrastructure? Yes, the 14th Street Con Edison substation blew up (click here for video) and knocked out power for most of lower Manhattan below 34th Street. Did the report offer possible alternatives? None at all! The authors threw up their hands and wrote the energy risk off as an intractable challenge beyond their humble scope and without practical solution. "The electric power industry is subject to a variety of regulations which presents a challenge to incorporating any new demands, such as climate change information, into its portfolio. Limited resources and multiple demands on those resources present another challenge to meeting energy needs. This situation is not only specific to New York City but also is common to the energy sector in general, occurring in many urban areas as well." Other leaders have responded with more prudently and foresight. The State of Connecticut, under the leadership of Governor Malloy, reevaluated the state's energy risk after last year's pounding by Hurricane Irene and the "Halloween Storm" that left huge swaths of the state without power for weeks. In the "Report of the Two Storm Panel" report of January 2012, Connecticut got its first call for microgrids as a means to prevent power outages. In June, the General Assembly created a microgrid pilot program with funding of $20 million to test microgrid development at selected municipalities. The Governor warned the utilities that if that didn't cooperate with the program: "I think they understand they're playing with fire if they don't get on board." 7
- MicroGridHorizons.com - The Second Major Risk Factor: What is the technology of the electric grid and how risk prone is it? At the generation level, the grid in the United States has been very reliable, as long as you exclude accidents like Three Mile Island. In Japan, although the historical record clearly indicated that earthquakes and tsunamis had previously destroyed much of the area where the Fukushima nuclear power plants were built, the risk was not even included in the scenario analysis due to power industry political influence. At the transmission level, the U.S. grid has been continually struck by major collapses of the transmission system caused by cascading failures, such as the 2003 Blackout that knocked out power to 60 million people in the Northeast and most recently, the September 2011 Blackout in the San Diego Gas & Electric territory that shut down all of southern California around San Diego. The grid system is designed to prevent these cascading failures, but they seem to happen will a regularly that disproves the supposed assurances of the technological safeguards. The grid is most vulnerable at the distribution level where pole-strung electric lines deliver the "final mile" to customers. Trees, electric wires and hurricane winds just don't get along with each other no matter how "smart" the grid is. At the distribution level, the grid is inherently vulnerable and impossible to fix without truly massive investments burying lines and elevating distribution gear. By design, "all of the eggs are in one basket." The Third Risk Factor: The structure and business model of the existing investor-owned utility companies. The business-as-usual (BAU) utility model is clear to everyone: the company receives explicit regulatory authority to be the monopoly electric provider in a designated territory in exchange for a guaranteed rate of return on its investment subject to state oversight; power generation is at central plants owned by the company or independent power providers (IPP); fuel is sourced from an oligarchy of suppliers; regulatory oversight varies by the degree of political influence the company musters; large business customers receive preferential discounted rates; retail customers are passive and powerless consumers. This BAU model worked throughout the 20th century. In the 21st century, the model is undergoing extreme stress, internally from unstable customer markets, financial pressures and often highly volatile energy supply commodity markets. Externally, new competitors are rising at both the technological level and the business level. Most utility companies resist structural change and continually fall back on their vestigial monopoly position to fight competition. For the last decade, utility companies have grudgingly integrated more renewable resources 8
- MicroGridHorizons.com - and distributed systems, and, usually, only because they were required to comply with legislative mandates. The structural model of the utility business has been considered sacrosanct. Defenders say that nothing can be changed because any change would endanger the reliability of the grid. Hurricane Sandy has finally exposed the reckless and extreme level of risk of maintaining the BAU utility model. Do Business Models Change? Models don't changed easily, especially if they have vast forces of vested interests in support of the model. Structures and business models, no matter how entrenched, do change, though, and sometimes very quickly. We have numerous examples from civilian business sectors switching from one dominant business model/technology to another: · Whale oil - petroleum · Pony Express ­ telegraph lines · Ma Bell landline companies ­ wireless communications companies · Horse-drawn carriages ­ automobiles · Sailboats ­ steamships · Steamships - airplanes · Mainframe computers ­ distributed computing · Express mail ­ fax machines · Fax machines - email Classic Example of the Military Changing Technologies ­ Col. Billy Mitchell and Air Power vs. Battleships The military has also had similar crises and radical technology transformations, such as the change from 19th century style cavalry charges against 20th century machine guns to tank warfare assaults. The most dramatic military example comes from the tribulations and trial of Col. Billy Mitchell in the 1920s. General Mitchell was a U.S. Army General with superb leadership characteristics and a fine combat record. He led all American Air Forces in World War 1. Unlike most of his contemporaries, he felt that World War 1 was not the "War to End All Wars." In fact, he believed that unless America invested heavily in air power after the war, the country would be at a strategic disadvantage in the conflict he saw coming in Europe in the next decade. In his view, this strategic realignment of American military forces would require the development of an independent branch of the military devoted solely to air power. From a pure economic efficiency perspective, Mitchell also felt that it was much cheaper to build and maintain a fleet of one thousand airplanes to defend the Eastern coast of the U.S. than to build one battleship for its defense. Even more, 9
- MicroGridHorizons.com - he resolutely believed that the supremacy of battleships as the most powerful expression of military might was over. To prove it, he fought for several years with the military brass to show them that airplanes could easily sink battleships. They finally agreed to "Project B," a demonstration test of his philosophy. Even though the Navy rigged the test in their favor with lopsided rules of engagement, Mitchell's airplanes sunk the ships as predicted. The public loved him but the brass were so outraged that they went on an all out campaign to drum him out of the military service. To get him out of the headlines, Mitchell was sent on a long tour of the Asian Pacific. He returned with a 324-page report that identified Japan as the source of the next war threat in the Pacific and he also believed that the Japanese would attack Pearl Harbor as part of their initial assault. Battles between Mitchell and the brass escalated until he criticized Army and Navy leadership for incompetence and "almost treasonable administration of national defense." He was court-martialed for insubordination in the fall of 1925 and, after a seven-week trial, he was found "guilty of all specifications and of the charge." Mitchell was suspended from active service and spent the next decade of his life preaching about the strategic importance of the new aviation technology in changing the world. Ironically, he was later honored by modern military brass as having the courage and foresight to prepare America for the turbulent times later in the 20th century. He is now regarded as the father of the modern U.S. Air Force. Are there strategic alternatives to massive power outages from extreme weather events? Has anyone offered alternatives to the utility BAU model of disaster preparedness and resiliency? Yes. The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) has devoted large resources to "studying" distributed generation and microgrids in particular. Very little action has resulted from their numerous, high quality reports. Other parties have studied and taken action. The Consortium for Electricity Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) was founded in 1998 by a group of universities, government research laboratories and corporate partners. The U.S. Government sponsored the initial research program to improve the quality and reliability of the U.S. electricity grid. The impetus for the program was that, although the grid had undergone continuous technological development for a century, it continued to experience intermittent, but catastrophic blackouts. Whether nature-made (e.g., hurricanes, lightning, snowstorms, fires, etc.) or man-made (operator errors, equipment malfunction, etc.), the results of an outage were the same for electricity customers ­ no grid electricity for extended periods of time and no backup. And, 10
- MicroGridHorizons.com - customers have no guarantee that it won't continue to happen with the same results. One of the priorities of the CERTS program was to qualitatively improve grid reliability by integrating distributed energy resources (DER). Very early in the program it was realized that if DER and load management systems were integrated at the facility level, then the vulnerabilities of the grid could be greatly reduced or eliminated entirely. Small scale electrical systems, that later came to be called "microgrids," could resolve many seemingly intractable technical problems identified by the utility companies. These new microgrid designs could also make the integrated DER systems "good citizens" from the perspective of the grid operators. Technical Challenges Faced by All Microgrids Many of the technical problems that microgrids face were originally associated with problems encountered by grid operators as efforts to promote large-scale integration of DER, especially renewable energy technologies (e.g., solar and wind), gained momentum. Every microgrid faces a set of technical challenges similar to those that the main grid encounters, including: · DER Component Connection to Microgrid - How do DER units join the microgrid and whose responsibility is it to figure out how to make safe interconnections? · DER Component Output Balancing - How does the microgrid balance the resources and technical operating constraints of different types of DER components (e.g., solar, wind, fuel cells, microturbines, combined heat and power generators, batteries, etc.)? · Facility Load Fluctuations - How does the microgrid accommodate highly variable changes in the attached load? · System Electrical Stability - How does the microgrid balance loss of voltage and frequency control? · Grid Interconnection & Islanding - How do the DER units communicate with the microgrid during normal operation and when the main grid defaults (especially when it shuts down) how do the DER units reconnect? · System Performance - How does the microgrid optimize the DER mix and the energy output or environmental performance of each DER unit relative to External conditions (e.g., weather conditions, electricity prices, environmental regulations)? The CERTS Microgrid Concept CERTS microgrid technologies have been in R&D stage for the last decade and are now entering the commercialization phase. The CERTS model of microgrids is based upon the pioneering research work of Prof. Robert Lasseter of the University of Wisconsin - Madison. Prof. Lasseter's solutions allow true "plug-n- 11
- MicroGridHorizons.com - play" and "peer-to-peer" implementations of distributed energy resources into an integrated on-site energy system without the need for a dedicated command and control system. (Please see the attached: Appendix B. "Compendium of CERTS Research" for details of the research program.) CERTS Microgrid DER Operational Functionality Each DER unit is a microgrid forming component and does not require mode switching to operate on the microgrid electrical circuit. The key technical features of the CERTS microgrid include: · Autonomous load following droop (local power vs. frequency) · Insures multi-unit stability (local voltage control V vs. Q) · Autonomous load transfer from overloaded sources to other sources (Pmax) · Intelligent load and source shedding · Intelligent and fast interface switch provides for autonomous islanding and re-synchronizing to the grid (automatically opens on grid power quality events or faults and seamlessly re-closes to re-join the grid) CERTS Microgids Poised to Become the "Killer App" for Disaster Resilience CERTS microgrid systems are scalable from a small facility to large multi-facility campuses. The robust system integrity and outstanding energy assurance performance of CERTS microgrids will radically transform existing utility industry as we know it today. At an exponential rate, CERTS microgrids will become the fundamental building block of the global "smart grid" industry due to their strategic technological advantages and dramatic impact on reducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). CERTS microgrid technology is now being used in numerous demonstration sites (please see Appendix B.), including: · AEP Dolan Center · SMUD Corporate Headquarters · Santa Rita Jail · military installations (see Appendix C.) For several years, Tecogen has incorporated CERTS algorithms into the control software in hundreds their CHP units. Their installations operate as microgrids except the inclusion of a static switch. Chris Marnay, a lead microgrid researcher at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, assesses the technical advantages of the microgrid at the Santa Rita Jail and the most important impact of microgrids on the grid: 12
- MicroGridHorizons.com - "Of course, the microgrid can also function when it's connected to the grid, allowing the Jail to reduce its electricity bill as well as lowering the load on the local electricity distribution network. Part of this grant is to demonstrate the ability to lower the electrical load on the neighboring PG&E feeder, which is the part of the of the electricity distribution system from the substation to the meter. So the Jail can coordinate with nearby loads such that the overall peak load on that feeder is reduced, which is another way of saying that it provides a big financial benefit to the utility because it postpones them having to upgrade their equipment to increase capacity." "Besides reliability, microgrids offer several other advantages. One is that they can be tailored to take advantage of local resources, such as the sun or wind. Integrating small and uncontrollable renewables into our legacy grid is tricky because of the requirement that supply and demand must constantly be in balance while these resources vary continuously." "This thinking leads to the most controversial advantage, by far, which is that we may be able to live with a less reliable grid because highly sensitive loads, such as the Jail, are served in a more localized fashion. To me, that's where the huge advantage lies, in unshackling the traditional grid. With our current system, the grid has no feasible way to differentiate and prioritize between a recharging iPhone and hospital life-saving equipment." So the vision of our future may be a hybrid energy system whereby the BAU grid goes on as before (with improvements) and within it are pockets of hardened and resilient microgrid powered facilities. How the utility companies resist or embrace this new movement is still an open question but the movement is already well underway. Exemplars of Resilience in the Face of Hurricane Sandy During and after Hurricane Sandy, distributed energy systems across the Northeast demonstrated their reliability and resilience to the ravages of the storm. Thoughtful leaders who implemented systems before the storm were rewarded with power and heat when all about them was plunged into darkness and cold. Exemplars of this new microgrid and cogeneration world include: · Brevoort Apartment Building, New York City ­ The 20-story residential building used four natural gas-fired Tecogen cogeneration microgrid-based systems to supply power and heat for the permanent 720 residents as well as another 700 people who took refuge there. 13
- MicroGridHorizons.com - · New York University, New York City ­ A combined cycle generator kept the core buildings around Washington Square supplied with power and heat for days. · One Penn Plaza ­ Cogeneration units kept essential functions at the facility running throughout the disaster. · Co-op City, Bronx, New York ­ The huge housing complex used its cogeneration systems to ride through the citywide outages. · Princeton University, Princeton, NJ ­ A large gas-fired turbine keep essential campus facilities (i.e., 4000 apartments, 35 high-rise buildings, townhouses, garages and more) operating for two days until grid power was restored. · U.S. FDA White Oak Research Center, Maryland ­ Its cogeneration system keep the huge facility running for two days until grid power was restored. · South Windsor High School, Connecticut ­ The school, which usually uses its large fuel cell system to offset daily power costs, switched over to grid power independence after the storm and served as an emergency shelter. Will the Utility Companies Change Their Business Model? Some utility companies may fight just as tenaciously as the old Generals and Admirals did in denying the importance of a new world-changing energy technology on their business model. But, others utilities are slowly embracing the new technology. American Electric Power, Sacramento Municipal Utility District, PG&E, and Con Edison all have testing programs underway to integrate new distributed energy systems. Whether the majority of utility companies will embrace microgrid technology is currently an open question. They may have no choice because of political mandates, such as Connecticut's microgrid program. Even more important than political mandates or its energy resiliency capabilities, CERTS microgrid technology is designed at its core to easily incorporate cheaper and cheaper distributed energy systems from different manufacturers. The cost of solar technology has dropped 75% over the last few years. Other DER technologies will follow suit as the microgrid market grows. The economic efficiency (i.e., lower price) of microgrids in generating and managing loads locally will be the most formidable challenge faced by the utility companies. Mere technical superiority isn't enough to radically change markets. But, huge prices declines in energy costs are! Microgrid Challenge for Governments Around the Globe Price declines for microgrid-generated electricity are the real "tipping point." Due to Hurricane Sandy and other extreme weather events, American government leaders have been warned to make to make a rapid and orderly transition to a 14
- MicroGridHorizons.com - new energy world or continue to suffer the consequences. In many high-priced U.S. markets, this transition may only take three years and in cheaper markets five years. This microgrid-enabled energy market transition is not only imminent for government but also for business. In short order, "To Be or Not to Be" will be a fundamental issue of corporate governance. Should the company bring microgrid power generation and management in-house at potentially higher short-term costs and management responsibilities and long-term savings and benefits or just continue to ride along with the BAU utility company whatever the risks. American government and business leaders have to take microgrids seriously right now and take action because microgrid technology is not the exclusive domain of the USA. Countries all over the world are facing the same grid resiliency and energy cost issues. Many of those countries already understand that the American grid design is obsolete, especially in many developing countries. Their leaders want to embrace the most efficient technology that brings the greatest benefits at the lowest cost and they will embrace microgrids very rapidly. Along with microgrid project development comes technology advances, manufacturing development, jobs and even export opportunities. What Can We Do Now to Accelerate the Transition in the USA? Several steps can be taken to build resilience into our power system before the next Sandy, including: · Fast Track Microgrid Development for Critical Infrastructure Facilities ­ Identify appropriate sites, expedite interconnection, reward first movers; · Change Regulatory Environment ­ Reevaluate the regulatory matrix to unencumbered microgrid development, especially for community microgrids where lines cross property lines or right of ways; · Incentivize the Development Process ­ Devise innovative financing mechanisms to lessen risk for private investors; publicly support early adopters; form public-private partnerships to give the process a "Manhattan Project" priority. The studying is done. The microgrid demonstrations have been completed. Now, it is time for our leaders to demonstrate that they are true leaders by taking charge and initiating the actions necessary to make the transition to a world of resilient power systems based upon microgrids. Maybe when the next superstorm hits, it won't be deja vu all over again! (Please Note ­ The following Appendices demonstrate that there is no "excuse" for a lack of knowledge regarding the technical development of microgrids and their practical use for critical infrastructure facilities.) 15
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- MicroGridHorizons.com - Appendix A. Hurricane Sandy & the Emperor's New Clothes: References The Emperor's New Clothes The Emperor's New Clothes Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Emperor's_New_Clothes Zipes, Jack David Hans Christian Andersen: The Misunderstood Storyteller (2005) New York and Middleton Park: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-97433-X. Extreme Weather Events & Climate Change Lin, Ning, Emmanuel, K., Oppenheimer M., & E. Vanmarcke Physically Based Assessment of Hurricane Surge Threat Under Climate Change (February 14, 2012) Nature Climate Change http://www.eenews.net/assets/2012/02/15/document_cw_01.pdf Miller, Peter Weather Gone Wild: Rains that are almost biblical, heat waves that don't end, tornadoes that strike in savage swarms--there's been a change in the weather lately. What's going on? (September 2012) National Geographic Magazine http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/print/2012/09/extreme-weather/miller-text Mooney, Chris Did Climate Change Supersize Hurricane Sandy: Scientists Weigh the Evidence (October 29, 2012) Mother Jones http://www.motherjones.com/print/203531 National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Looks at Sea Level Rise, Hurricane Risks to New York City (October 24, 2006) http://www.giss.nasa.gov/research/news/20061024/ 17
- MicroGridHorizons.com - New York City Panel on Climate Change Climate Change Adaptation in New York City: Building a Risk Management Response (May 2010) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 1196 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nyas.2010.1196.issue-1/issuetoc Sweet, Bill The Buzz This Week about Rising Sea Levels (November 30, 2012) Spectrum IEEE http://spectrum.ieee.org/energywise/energy/environment/the-buzz-this-weekabout-rising-sea-levels Hurricane Sandy Bleicher, Ariel Network Damage after Sandy Through the Eyes of a Disaster Forensics Expert (November 14, 2012) Sprectrum IEEE, Tech Talk Blog http://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-talk/telecom/security/network-damage-after-sandy Bryan, Alix Explosion at New York Substation Caught on Tape (October 30, 2012) CBS 6, WTVR.com http://wtvr.com/2012/10/30/explosion-at-new-york-substation-caught-on-tape/ Fahey, Jonathan Hurricane Power Outages After Sandy Not Extraordinary, According to Report Analyzing Katrina, Past Storms (November 16, 2012) Huff Post New York http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/11/16/hurricane-power-outages-aftersandy_n_2146393.html Goodman, J. David & Colin Moynihan Patients Evacuated from City Medical Center after Power Failure (October 30, 2012 The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/30/nyregion/patients-evacuated-from-nyulangone-after-power-failure.html?_r=0 Hooke, William Hurricane Sandy's Real Lesson . . . Will We Learn It? (October 31, 2012) Living on the Real World http://www.livingontherealworld.org/?p=755 18
- MicroGridHorizons.com - Huff Post Green Long Power Outages During Storms Like Hurricane Sandy Could Be Prevented (November 1, 2012) Huff Post Green http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/11/01/power-outagessandy_n_2060236.html Pielke, Roger Opinion - Roger Pielke: Hurricanes and Human Choice (October 31, 2012) The Wall Street Journal http://online.wsj.com/article/ SB10001424052970204840504578089413659452702.html? mod=wsj_share_tweet Nelder, Chris Resilience Lessons from Hurricane Sandy (October 30, 2012) Smart Planet http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/take/resilience-lessons-from-hurricane-sandy/ 201 The Daily Briefing `This Isn't a Drill': Hospital Evacuate as Superstorm Sandy Floods New York (October 30, 2012) The Advisory Board Company http://www.advisory.com/Daily-Briefing/2012/10/30/This-isnt-a-drill-hospitalsevacuate-as-Superstorm-Sandy-floods-NYC Transmission & Distribution World PSEG Estimates the Utility's Cost of Superstorm Sandy Restoration (December 5, 2012) Transmission & Distribution World http://tdworld.com/overhead_distribution/pseg-sandy-cost-1212/ Varrone, Chris Industry Update: Hurricane Sandy, Climate Change, and Microgrids (November 2, 2012) Riverview Consulting, Inc. http://www.riverviewconsultinginc.com/uncategorized/industry-update-hurricanesandy-climate-change-and-microgrids Probabistic Risk Analysis National Infrastructure Advisory Council Risk Management Approaches to Protection (October 11, 2005) National Infrastructure Advisory Council http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/niac/NIAC_RMWG_-_2-13-06v9_FINAL.pdf 19
- MicroGridHorizons.com - Pate-Cornell, Elisabeth On "Black Swans" and "Perfect Storms": Risk Analysis and Management When Statistics Are Not Enough (2012) Risk Analysis, Vol. 32, No. 11, 2012 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2011.01787.x/pdf Pate-Cornell, Elisabeth Organizational Aspects of Engineering system safety: The Case of Offshore Platforms (1990) Science Magazine http://www.stanford.edu/group/mse278/cgi-bin/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/ 2010/01/Offshore-Platforms.pdf Pate-Cornell, Elisabeth Greed and Ignorance: Motivations and Illustrations of the Quantification of Major Risks (2000) Proceedings on Science for Survival and Sustainable Development, March 12-16, 1999 http://www.stanford.edu/dept/MSandE/cgi-bin/people/faculty/mep/pdfs/C. 51.Vatican.paper.6-99.pdf Pate-Cornell, Elisabeth Learning from the Piper Alpha Accident: A Postmortem Analysis of Technical and Organizational Factors (1993) Risk Analysis, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1993 http://engineeringfailures.org/files/Learning%20from%20the%20Piper%20Alpha %20Accident.pdf Pate-Cornell, Elisabeth On Signals, Response, and Risk Mitigation (2004) http://www.riskinstitute.org/peri/images/file/NAE_4560.pdf Pate-Cornell, Elisabeth risk and uncertainty Analysis in Government Safety Decisions (2002) Risk Analysis http://www.ce.ncsu.edu/risk/pdf/pate.pdf Pate-Cornell, Elisabeth Risks of terrorist attacks: Probabilistic Assessment and Use of Intelligence Information (2005) Terrorism Risk Analysis Symposium, USC, January 15, 2005 http://create.usc.edu/assets/pdf/51867.pdf 20
- MicroGridHorizons.com - Pate-Cornell, Elisabeth The Engineering Risk Analysis Method and Some Applications (2006) Advances: Engineering Risk Analysis, Chapter 16 http://www.usc.edu/dept/create/assets/002/50856.pdf Pate-Cornell, Elisabeth & Paul S. Fischbeck Risk Management for the Tiles of the Space Shuttle (1994) Interfaces, Vol. 24, No. 1 (Jan-Feb, 1994) http://psychweb.psy.umt.edu/denis/datadecision/columbia.pdf Col. Billy Mitchell Billy Mitchell Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billy_Mitchell Grid Vulnerability & Resilience Asmus, Peter How Microgrids Improve Grid Reliability and City Resilience (December 5, 2012) GreenBiz.com http://www.greenbiz.com/blog/2012/12/05/how-microgrids-build-resiliencyextreme-weather?utm_source=E-News+from +GreenBiz&utm_campaign=67d085931bVERGE_Wednesday_December_5_20129_4_2012&utm_medium=email Carson, Phil Hurricane Sandy: Testing Grid Assumptions (October 31, 2012) Intelligent Utility http://www.intelligentutility.com/article/12/10/hurricane-sandy-testing-gridassumptions Carson, Phil Sandy: the Power Sector's 9/11 (November 6, 2012) Intelligent Utility http://www.intelligentutility.com/article/12/11/sandy-power-sectors-911 Carson, Phil Cost of Sandy's Damage Underscores Investment Challenge: Wouldn't Preventive Measures Be Cheaper than Addressing Damage? (November 26, 2012) Intelligent Utility 21
- MicroGridHorizons.com - http://www.intelligentutility.com/article/12/11/cost-sandys-damage-underscoresinvestment-challenge?quicktabs_6=2&quicktabs_4=1 Carson, Phil Smart Grid Vulnerabilities Revealed by Sandy (November 29, 2012) Intelligent Utility http://www.intelligentutility.com/article/12/11/smart-grid-vulnerabilities-revealedsandy?quicktabs_4=2&quicktabs_6=2 Carson, Phil Round-up of New Sandy Coverage: More System Integration Talk, for Next Time (December 5, 2012) Intelligent Utility http://ec.ec.webenabled.net/article/12/12/round-new-sandy-coverage De Chant, Tim Hurricane Sandy and the Limits of the Smart Grid (November 5, 2012) PBS.org http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/insidenova/2012/11/hurricane-sandy-and-thelimits-of-the-smart-grid.html Fehrenbacher, Katie The Case for a Distributed, Smarter, Cleaner Power Grid Post Hurricane Sandy (October 30, 2012) Gigaom http://gigaom.com/cleantech/the-case-for-a-distributed-smarter-cleaner-powergrid-post-hurricane-sandy/ Hartke, Jason Resiliency and Sustainability: A Great Convergence and Synergies in Solutions (March 14, 2012) USGBC Blog http://usgbcblog.blogspot.com/2012/03/resiliency-sustainability-great.html Issacson, Betsy Hurricane Sandy Power Outages: Why It Takes Con Edison Days to Get the Lights Back On (October 31, 2012) Huff Post Tech http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/10/31/hurricane-sandy-power-outages-coned_n_2051002.html?view=print&comm_ref=false Lester, J. Can Hurricane Sandy Spur the Adoption of Smart Microgrid Technologies? (October 31, 2012) Cleantech Finance http://www.cleantechfinance.net/2012/adoption-microgrid/ 22
- MicroGridHorizons.com - Revkin, Andrew C. A Systems Approach to Resilient and Sustainable Urban Energy Supply (November 5, 2012) http://www.slideshare.net/Revkin/a-systems-approach-to-resilient-urban-energysupply Revkin, Andrew C. Lessons from Sandy: Building with Resilience in Mind (November 2, 2012) Dot Earth, The New York Times http://dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/11/02/lessons-from-sandy-building-withresilience-in-mind/?gwh=286AD87C375619E6B9E7F70A3D848D9B Revkin, Andrew C. On Sandy and Humanity's `Blah, Blah, Blah Bang' Disaster Plans (November 1, 2012) Dot Earth, The New York Times http://dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/10/31/on-sandy-and-humanitys-blahblah-blah-bang-disaster-plans/ Sherman, Genevieve Rose Sharing Local Energy Infrastructure: Organizational Models for Implementing Microgrids and District Energy Systems in Urban Commercial Districts (June 2012) Master Thesis in City Planning, MIT http://web.mit.edu/energy-efficiency/docs/theses/sherman_thesis.pdf St. John, Jeff How Microgrids Helped Weather Hurricane Sandy: Also, How to Make Microgrids Pay for Themselves When There Isn't a Hurricane on the Way (November 20, 2012) greentechmedia http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/how-microgrids-helped-weatherhurricane-sandy Taleb, Nassim Nicholas Learning to Love Volatility (November 16, 2012) The Saturday Essay, The Wall St. Journal http://online.wsj.com/article/ SB10001424127887324735104578120953311383448.html Exemplars of Grid Resilience California Fuel Cell Partnership Superstorm Sandy and Fuel Cells in Action 23
- MicroGridHorizons.com - (November 6, 2012) California Fuel Cell Partnership http://cafcp.org/go/sandy California Fuel Cell Partnership Superstorm Sandy and Fuel Cells in Action 2 (November 7, 2012) California Fuel Cell Partnership http://cafcp.org/go/sandy2 Clayton, Mark Lessons from Sandy: How One Community in Storm's Path Kept Lights On (November 15, 2012) The Christian Science Monitor http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/2012/1115/Lessons-from-Sandy-how-onecommunity-in-storm-s-path-kept-lights-on Revkin, Andrew C. How Natural Gas Kept Some Spots Bright and Warm as Sandy Blasted New York City (November 5, 2012) Dot Earth, The New York Times http://dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/11/05/how-natural-gas-kept-some-spotsbright-and-warm-as-sandy-blasted-new-york/ Tecogen Grid-independent Cogen System from Tecogen Comes Through for Greenwich Village Co-op Building During Superstorm Sandy (November 15, 2012) Tecogen http://www.tecogen.com/2944109b-07d0-44c5-9ea7-48b71fa292b6/about-usnews-and-events-press-releases-detail.htm Wald, Mathew L. In New N.Y.U. Plant, a Collateral Carbon Benefit (January 21, 2011) Green Blog, The New York Times http://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/01/21/in-new-n-y-u-plant-a-collaterialcarbon-benefit/ Wald, Mathew L. How N.Y.U. Stayed (Partly) Warm and Lighted (November 5, 2012) Green Blog, The New York Times http://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/11/05/how-n-y-u-stayed-partly-warm-andlighted/ Connecticut Microgrids Daigneau, Elizabeth Microgrids: A Disaster-Resistant Power Supply? (November 20, 2012) Emergency Management 24
- MicroGridHorizons.com - http://www.emergencymgmt.com/disaster/Microgrids-Disaster-Resistant-PowerSupply.html Kelly-Detwiler, Peter With All Eyes on Hurricane Sandy, A Good Time to Evaluate Micro-Grids (October 26, 2012) Forbes http://www.forbes.com/sites/peterdetwiler/2012/10/26/with-all-eyes-on-hurricanesandy-a-good-time-to-evaluate-micro-grids/ Kelly-Detwiler, Peter Questioning the Power Grid (November 14, 2012) MetroFocus THIRTEEN http://www.thirteen.org/metrofocus/2012/11/questioning-the-power-grid/ Office of Governor Daniel P. Malloy Gov. Malloy Will Seek $3.2 Billion from the federal government for Infrastructure Improvements: Funding Would Be Invested in Microgrids, Sea Walls, Sewage Treatment Facilities, Burying Power Lines and Other Measures November 29, 2012) Office of Governor Daniel P. Malloy http://www.governor.ct.gov/malloy/cwp/view.asp?A=4010&Q=514784 Schuppe, Jon After Storms Massive Blackouts, One State Explores High-Tech Solutions (November 15, 2012) NBC Connecticut http://www.nbcconnecticut.com/news/national-international/A-Year-After-StormsBlackouts-A-State-Explores-High-Tech-Solutions-175871031.html Two Storm Panel Report of the Two Storm Panel (January 6, 2012) Office of Governor Daniel P. Malloy http://www.ct.gov/dep/lib/dep/forestry/vmtf/two_storm_panel_final_report.pdf New York Microgrids The Associated Press Utilities Get Subpoenas Over Sandy Response in NY (November 29, 2012) CNBC.com http://www.cnbc.com/id/100259001 Bourgeois, Tom Deployment of Distributed Generation for Grid Support and Distribution System Infrastructure: A Summary Analysis of DG Benefits and Case Studies (prepared for NYSERDA) (February 2011) Pace Energy and Climate Center 25
- MicroGridHorizons.com - www.nyserda.ny.gov/~/media/Files/Publications/Research/Electic Power Delivery/11-23-Deployment-of-Distributed-Generation-for-Grid-Support-Final.pdf Center for Energy, Marine Transportation and public policy at Columbia University etal Microgrids: An Assessment of the Value, Opportunities and Barriers to Deployment in New York State (prepared for NYSERDA) (September 2010) www.nyserda.ny.gov/~/media/Files/Publications/Research/Electic Power Delivery/10-35-microgrids.pdf Governor's Press Office Governor Cuomo Launches Moreland Commission to Investigate and Study Utility Companies' Storm Preparation and Management: Recommend Reforms to Overhaul Regulation of Entire System to Better Deal with Emergencies (November 13, 2012) Office of Governor Cuomo http://governor.ny.gov/press/11132012Section6 Kennedy, Kit How Can New York State Strengthen Its Electric Grid to Better Withstand Future Monster Storms? (November 14, 2012) Switchboard: NRDC Staff Blog http://switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/kkennedy/ how_can_new_york_state_strengt.html Nagaraja, Mysore New York, New Jersey Put $71B Price Tag on Sandy (November 27, 2012) MSN.com http://news.msn.com/us/new-york-new-jersey-put-dollar71b-price-tag-on-sandy Pullins, Steve District Energy Systems & Microgrids: Multi Building CHP (June 2012) 2012 Northeast Microgrids: New Paradigms and New Leverage www.nyserda.ny.gov/~/media/Files/EIBD/Research/Combined Heat and Power/ 2012 CHP Conference/2012-6-22_steve_pullins_horizon_pace.pdf Rubinstein, Dana Cuomo Launches a Moreland Commission, Finally Moving to Take Charge of the Utilities Issue (November 13, 2012) Capital NY http://www.capitalnewyork.com/article/politics/2012/11/6539334/cuomo-launchesmoreland-commission-finally-moving-take-charge-utili 26
- MicroGridHorizons.com - Rubinstein, Dana Cuomo Complains Again About Power Companies, Says They're Stateregulated `in theory' (November 20, 2012) Capital NY http://www.capitalnewyork.com/article/politics/2012/11/6634293/cuomocomplains-again-about-power-companies-says-theyre-state-regul Saia, Doreen U. & William A. Hurst New York's Governor Cuomo Convenes Moreland Commission to Investigate Emergency Preparedness of Utilities Following Hurricane Sandy (October 29, 2012) The National Law Review http://www.natlawreview.com/article/new-york-s-governor-cuomo-convenesmoreland-commission-to-investigate-emergency-prep Microgrid Technology & the Grid Asmus, Peter Moving Microgrids into the Mainstream (October 17, 2012) Forbes http://www.forbes.com/sites/pikeresearch/2012/10/17/moving-microgrids-into-themainstream/ Berenshteyn, Yakov Musing on Microgrids (November 9, 2012) Cleantech Insights http://blog.cleantech.com/sector-insights/smart-grid/musings-on-microgrids/ Bredenberg, Al Could Decentralized Microgrids Solve the Extreme Weather Outage Problem? (November 12, 2012) News Thomasnet.com http://news.thomasnet.com/green_clean/2012/11/12/could-decentralizedmicrogrids-solve-the-extreme-weather-outage-problem/ Bullis, Kevin Microgrid Keeps the Power Local, Cheap, and Reliable (July 23, 2012) MIT Technology Review http://www.technologyreview.com/view/507106/microgrids-keep-power-flowingthrough-sandy-outages/ 27
- MicroGridHorizons.com - Coulson, Ken Now Is a Good Time to Talk About Micro-grids (November 2, 2012) FutureBrightBlog http://futurebrightblog.wordpress.com/2012/11/02/now-is-a-good-time-to-talkabout-micro-grids/ LaMonica, Martin Microgrids Keep Power Flowing Through Sandy Outages (November 7, 2012) MIT Technology Review Lesser, Adam What Hurricane Sandy Could Tech Us About a More Distributed Microgrid (October 31, 2012) GigaOM Pro Blog http://pro.gigaom.com/blog/what-hurricane-sandy-could-teach-us-about-a-moredistributed-microgrid/ Pullins, Steve District Energy Systems & Microgrids: Multi Building CHP (June 22, 2012) Pace Conference: Northeast Microgrids - New Paradigms and New Leverage http://www.nyserda.ny.gov/en/Research-and-Development/Manufacturing-andPower-Applications/Combined-Heat-and-Power/~/media/Files/EIBD/Research/ Combined%20Heat%20and%20Power/2012%20CHP%20Conference/ 2012-6-22_steve_pullins_horizon_pace.ashx 28
- MicroGridHorizons.com - Appendix B. CERTS Research Compendium 1998 Lasseter, R. H. Control of Distributed Resources (August 1998) University of Wisconsin ­ Madison; Presentation at: Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control IV ­ Restructuring, August 24-28, 1998, Santorini, Greece http://www.pserc.wisc.edu/documents/publications/papers/ 1998_general_publications/Lasseter.1.pdf 2000 Lasseter. R. & P. Piagi Providing Premium Power through Distributed Resources (2000) University of Wisconsin ­ Madison; Presentation at: Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences ­ 2000 http://www.computer.org/csdl/proceedings/hicss/2000/0493/04/04934042abs.html Lasseter, R., Tomsovic, K. & P. Piagi Scenarios for Distributed technology applications With Steady State and Dynamic Models of Loads and Micro-Sources (April 14, 2000) Power System Engineering Research Center, University of Wisconsin ­ Madison; Prepared for the Transmission Reliability Program Office of Power Technologies Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy http://www.fglongatt.org.ve/Archivos/Archivos/SistGD/Steady%20State%20and %20Dynamic%20Models%20of%20Loads%20and%20Micro-Sources.pdf 2001 Akhil, A., Marnay, C. & R. Lasseter Microgrids and the Macrogrid: Presentation to the California Public Utilities Commission (February, 2001) Sandia National Laboratory, Berkeley Lab, University of Wisconsin ­ Madison http://www.pserc.wisc.edu/documents/general_information/presentations/ presentations_by_pserc_university_members/ 29
- MicroGridHorizons.com - Boyes, J. & A. Akhil CERTS Microgrid Concept and the Role of Storage (April 26, 2001) Sandia National Laboratories; Presentation at: ESA Meeting, Chattanooga, TN, 2001 http://www.bpa.gov/Energy/n/tech/energyweb/docs/Energy%20Storage/ SANDIA.PDF Lasseter, R.H., Venkataramanan, G. & A.P. Sakis Meliopoulos mGrid Operation and Control (HICSS-34, Tutorial 14) (January 3, 2001) University of Wisconsin and Georgia Institute of Technology http://www.google.com/url? sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=1&sqi=2&ved=0CBwQFjAA&url =http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pserc.wisc.edu%2Fdocuments%2Fgeneral_information %2Fpresentations%2Fpresentations_by_pserc_university_members %2FMicrogrid_Tutorial.pdf&ei=pM7gTse9GYja0QGQj8GoBw&usg=AFQjCNEQy OOATDg-wbqahPI2M3gPS8V-ig&sig2=TBwRtTXrtrD48mCcizF3Mg Marnay, C., Rubio, F.J. & A.S. Siddiqui Shape of the Microgrid (January 31, 2001) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, LBNL-47451; Presentation at: Role of Distributed Generation in Reinforcing the Critical Electric Power Infrastructure at the IEEE Winter Meeting, Columbus, OH, January 31, 2001 http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/843057-aXv0mA/native/843057.pdf Piagi, P. & R.H. Lassetter Industrial Application of Microgrids (October 2001) CERTS, Power System Engineering research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison http://certs.lbl.gov/pdf/industry-microgrid-6.pdf 2002 Lasseter, R., Akhil, A., Marnay, C., Stephens, J., Dagle, J., Guttromson, R., Meliopoulous, A., Yinger, R. & J. Eto Integration of Distributed Energy Resources: The CERTS MicroGrid Concept (April 2002) Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions http:// der.lbl.gov/new_site/pubs/LBNL-50829.pdf 30
- MicroGridHorizons.com - 2003 Kueck, J., Staunton, R., Labinov, S. & B. Kirby Microgrid Energy Management System (January, 2003) Oak Ridge National Laboratory & UT-Battelle, LLC http://certs.lbl.gov/pdf/phase2-kueck.pdf Lasseter, R. etal Integration of Distributed Energy Resources: The CERTS Microgrid Concept (October 2003) CERTS Program Office, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Consultant Report to California Energy Commission (CEC) http://certs.lbl.gov/pdf/50829.pdf 2004 Lasseter, R.H. & P. Piagi Microgrid: A Conceptual Solution (June, 2004) University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin; Presentation at: PESC'04, June 20-25, 2004, Aachen, Germany http://certs.lbl.gov/pdf/mg-pesc04.pdf Lasseter, R. Electronics at the Core Layer of Power flow control (October 26, 2004) University of Wisconsin ­ Madison; Presentation at: SuperGrid-2 Workshop, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), October 25-27, 2004 http://www.conferences.uiuc.edu/supergrid/PDF/SG2_Lasseter.pdf Marnay, C. & O. Bailey The CERTS Microgrid and the Future of the Macrogrid (August 2004) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory http://der.lbl.gov/new_site/ pubs/Marnay_ACEEE.pdf 2005 Engle, D. CERTS Proves Two Girds Are Better Than One: New Microgrid Array Promises Vastly Improved DG Functionality (2005) Distributed Energy, March/April 2005 http://certs.lbl.gov/press/distributedenergy/de_0503_certs.html 31
- MicroGridHorizons.com - Firestone, R. & C. Marnay Energy Manager Design for Microgrids: Consultant Report for the California Energy Commission (January, 2005) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/54447.pdf Piagi, P. Microgrid Control ­ PSERC Tele-Seminar Presentation (June 7, 2005) Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin ­ Madison http://preview.pserc.wisc.edu/documents/general_information/presentations/ pserc_seminars/2psercsemin/piagi_seminar_slides_june_2005.pdf Ye, Z., Walling, R., Miller, N., Du, P. & K. Nelson Facility Microgrids (May 2005) NREL/SR-560-38019 http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy05osti/38019.pdf 2006 Abdallah, T. etal Control Dynamics of Adaptive and Scalable Power and Energy Systems for Military Microgrids (December 2006) US Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Research and Development Center, Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, ERDC/ CERL TR-06-35 http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc? Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf&AD=ADA460715 Lasseter, R.H. Dynamic Distribution Using (DER) Distributed Energy Resources (May 2006) University of Wisconsin ­ Madison; Presentation at: Panel on Rethinking T&D Architecture for a DER Environment: 2006 IEEE PES T&D Meeting, Dallas, TX, 2006 http://certs.lbl.gov/pdf/dynamic-distribution.pdf Lasseter, R. Enhance Business Case for CERTS Microgrid (May 26, 2006) Presentation at: U.S. DOE, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, FY06 Annual Program and Peer Review Meeting, May 25-26, 2006 http://events.energetics.com/electricdist06/pdfs/Lasseter.pdf 32
- MicroGridHorizons.com - Marnay, C. Microgrids Research Assessment ­ Phase 2 (Final Report) (May 2006) Navigant Consulting http://der.lbl.gov/sites/der.lbl.gov/files/montreal_navigantmicrogridsfinalreport.pdf Marnay, C. & G. Venkataramanan Microgrids in the Evolving Electricity Generation and Delivery Infrastructure (February 2006) IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting 2006/ Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory http://der.lbl.gov/new_site/pubs/ GiriMarnay_LBNL59544_16Feb2006.pdf Piagi, P. & R. Lasseter Autonomous Control of Microgrids (June, 2006) IEEE PES Meeting, Montreal http://certs.lbl.gov/pdf/automomous-control.pdf 2007 Kroposki, B. Microgrids: Hardware Testing and Standards Development (2007) NREL http://der.lbl.gov/sites/der.lbl.gov/files/nagoya_kroposki.pdf Lasseter, R. Microgrids and Distributed Generation (September, 2007) University of Wisconsin-Madison; Journal of Energy Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineers http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download? doi=10.1.1.117.8039&rep=rep1&type=pdf Marnay, C. & R. Firestone Microgrids: An Emerging Paradigm for Meeting Building Electricity and Heat Requirements Efficiently and with Appropriate Energy Quality (April 2007) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, LBNL-62572 http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/62572.pdf Marnay, C., etal Optimal Technology Selection and Operation of Microgrids in Commercial Buildings (July 2007) Research Report No. 282, Department of Statistical Science, University College London http://www.ucl.ac.uk/statistics/research/pdfs/rr282.pdf Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, LBNL-62315 33
- MicroGridHorizons.com - http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/emp/reports/62315.pdf Nikkhajoei, H. & R.H. Lasseter Microgrid Protection (2007) IEEE PES General Meeting, June 24-28, 2007, Panel: Microgrid Research and Field Testing http://www.pserc.wisc.edu/documents/publications/papers/ 2007_general_publications/lasseter_ieee-protection-f_2007.pdf 2008 Engle, D. Microgrids Up and Running (2008) Distributed Energy May/June 2008 http://www.tecogen.com/68131a21-022e-46f1-8da6-83d50e2fbf84/download.htm Kramer, W., Chakraborty, S., Kroposki, B. & H. Thomas Advanced Power Electronic Interfaces for Distributed Energy Systems Part 1: Systems and Topologies (March 2008) NREL, NREL/TP-581-42672 http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy08osti/42672.pdf Krishnamurthy, S., Jahns, T.M. & R.H. Lasseter The Operation of Diesel Gensets in a CERTS Microgrid (2008) University of Wisconsin ­ Madison http://certs.lbl.gov/pdf/diesel-gensets.pdf Lasseter, R. Microgrids and Distributed Energy Resources (October 2008) CERTS, University of Wisconsin ­ Madison; Presentation at: Sustainability Innovation Workshop, HP Laboratories, Palo Alto, CA http://www.hpl.hp.com/open_innovation/workshops/microgrid%20and %20distributed%20power/LasseterFinal.pdf Lasseter, R. White Paper on Integration of Distributed Energy Resources: Microgrid Concept (October 2008) Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin; Prepared for: Engineer Research and Development Center, Construction Engineer Research Laboratory, US Army Corps of Engineers Unlinked Document 34
- MicroGridHorizons.com - Neville, A. Microgrids Promise Improved Power Quality and Reliability (June 15, 2008) Power Magazine http://www.powermag.com/business/Microgrids-promise-improved-power-qualityand-reliability_134.html Nikkhajoei, H. & R. Lasseter Distributed Generation Interface to the CERTS Microgrid (2008) IEEE http://certs.lbl.gov/pdf/dgi-certs-mg.pdf Venkataramanan, G. & C. Marnay A Larger Role for Microgrids: Are Microgrids a Viable Paradigm for Electricity Supply Expansion? (2008) IEEE Power & Energy Magazine, May/June 2008 http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/microgrids-larger-role.pdf 2009 Eto, J.H. etal CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed: PIER Final Project Report (February 2009) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Prepared for: California Energy Commission, CEC-500-2009-004 http://certs.lbl.gov/pdf/certs-mgtb-report.pdf Krishnamurthy, S. & R. Lasseter Control of Wound Field Synchronous Machine Gensets for Operation in a CERTS Microgrid ­ Final Report Task 5: Value and Technology Assessment to Enhance the Business Case for the CERTS Microgrid (March 6, 2009) University of Wisconsin; Prepared for: US Department of Energy Lasseter, R. & M. Erickson Integration of Battery-Based Energy Storage Element in the CERTS Microgrid (October 27, 2009) CERTS, University of Wisconsin ­ Madison http://www.pserc.wisc.edu/documents/research_documents/certs_documents/ certs_publications/certs_microgrid/ CERTS_Microgrid_Battery_Storage_UWisc.pdf Lemmon, M.D. Advanced Distribution and Control for Hybrid Intelligent Power Systems: Phase I - Final Report (February 5, 2009) University of Notre Dame http://www.nd.edu/~lemmon/projects/Odyssian-2009/Publications/Phase-I-FinalReport.pdf 35
- MicroGridHorizons.com - Lemmon, M.D., Venkataramanan, G. & P. Chapman Using Microgrids as a Path Towards Smart Grids: PositionPaper (2009) University of Notre Dame, University of Wisconsin - Madison, University of Illinois ­ Champaign-Urbana http://icee.hku.hk/2009%20nsf%20workshop/notredame.pdf Marnay, C., Lai, J., Stadler, M. & A. Siddiqui Added Value of Reliability to a Microgrid: Simulations of Three California Buildings (April 2009) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, LBNL-1853E http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/emp/reports/lbnl-1853e.pdf Wan, P. & M.D. Lemmon Optimal Power Flow in Microgrids Using Event-triggered Optimization (September 13, 2009) Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame http://www.nd.edu/~lemmon/publications/2010/ACC2010-powersystem.pdf 2010 CERTS CERTS Microgrid Phase Two Test Report (2010) LBNL http://certs.lbl.gov/pdf/microgrid-phase-two.pdf Eto, J. CERTS Microgrid Test Bed: Renewable Integration Analysis (November 3, 2010) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Presentation at: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Smart Grid R&D Program, Peer Review, November 3, 2010 http://events.energetics.com/smartgridpeerreview2010/pdfs/presentations/day2/ am/ 15_SG_LBNL_Presentation_CERTS_Microgrid_Test_Bed_Renewable_Integratio n_Analysis_NEW.pdf Krovvidi, S. Competitive Microgrid Electricity Market Design (M.S. Thesis) (2010) Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-05182010-171005/unrestricted/ Krovvidi_SS_T_2010.pdf Lasseter, R.H. etal CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed 36
- MicroGridHorizons.com - (June 30, 2010) IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery http://certs.lbl.gov/pdf/lbnl-3553e.pdf Lasseter, R. & J. Eto Value and Technology Assessment to Enhance the Business Case for the CERTS Microgrid: Final Report for the US Department of Energy (May, 2010) CERTS, University of Wisconsin ­ Madison http://certs.lbl.gov/pdf/microgrid-final.pdf Marnay, C. Microgrid Architectures: Old and New Friends and the Paradigm Shifts They May Cause (December 17, 2010) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Presentation at: 4th International Conference on Integration of Renewable and Distributed Energy Resources December 6-10, 2010 Albuquerque, NM, USA http://www.4thintegrationconference.com/downloads/Session %205-4_Marnay_IRED.pdf Panora, Bob Application of the CERTS Microgrid at the Sacramento Municipal Utility District Headquarters (October 12, 2010) Tecogen http://www.uschpa.org/files/Conferences-Presentations/2010%20Annual %20Meeting%20Presentations/4%20c%20USCHPA-CHPSmart_Panora.pdf PSERC Challenges in Integrating Renewable Technologies into an Electric Power System (2010) PSERC (PSERC Document 10-07), Arizona State University http://www.pserc.wisc.edu/documents/publications/papers/ 2010_general_publications/pserc_grid_integration_white_paper_april_2010.pdf Rawson, M. Microgrid And Smart Grid Activities At SMUD (July 2010) Energy Research and Development Program Sacramento Municipal Utility District; Presentation at: 2010 Microgrid Symposium, July 2010 http://der.lbl.gov/sites/der.lbl.gov/files/Rawson_2010.pdf Stevens, J. & B. Schenkman DC Energy Storage in the CERTS Microgrid (2010) Sandia National Laboratories http://certs.lbl.gov/pdf/microgrid-dc-storage.pdf Wells, C. Solar Microgrids to Accommodate Renewable Intermittency (2010) OSIsoft Research Department 37
- MicroGridHorizons.com - http://pacificdragonenergy.com/Gridergy/Wells-Microgrid.pdf 2011 AEP CERTS Microgrid Test Bed: Dolan Technology Center (2011) AEP http://certs.aeptechlab.com/ Dominguez-Garcia, A.D., Heydt, G.T. & S. Suryanarayannan Implications of the Smart Grid Initiative on Distribution Engineering: Part 1 - Characteristics of a Smart Distribution System and Design of Islanded Distributed Resources (September 2011) University of Illinois at Urbana/Champaign, Arizona State University & Colorado State University; PSERC http://www.pserc.wisc.edu/documents/publications/reports/2011_reports/ PSERC_T-41_Final_Report_Part_1_2011.pdf Dominguez-Garcia, A.D., Heydt, G.T. & S. Suryanarayannan Implications of the Smart Grid Initiative on Distribution Engineering: Part 3 ­ Restoration, State Estimation and Reliability Enhancement (September 2011) University of Illinois at Urbana/Champaign, Arizona State University & Colorado State University; PSERC http://www.pserc.wisc.edu/documents/publications/reports/2011_reports/ PSERC_T-41_Final_Report_Part_3_2011.pdf Erickson, M.J., Jahns, T.M. & R.H. Lasseter Comparison of PV Inverter Controller Configurations for CERTS Microgrid Applications (July 4, 2011) Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin http://certs.lbl.gov/pdf/pv-inverter-ctrl-configs.pdf Eto, J. CERTS Microgrid Test Bed - Phase III Activities: Role of Microgrids in Facilitating Integration of Distributed Renewable Electricity Sources (October 28, 2011) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory http://certs.lbl.gov/pdf/microgrid-phsiii.pdf Kroposki, B. IEEE 1547.4 and Beyond (May 27, 2011) NREL; Presentation at Jeju 2011 Symposium on Microgrids, Korea http://der.lbl.gov/sites/der.lbl.gov/files/jeju_kroposki.pdf 38
- MicroGridHorizons.com - Kroposki, B. & C. Vartanian Microgrid Standards and Protocols (August 2011) DOE Microgrid Planning Meeting http://e2rg.com/microgrid/standards_breakout2.pdf Lasseter, R.H. Microgrids (October 20, 2011) The College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin ­ Madison http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/EAC%20Presentation%20-%20Microgrids %202011%20-%20Lasseter.pdf Lasseter, R. Smart Distribution: Coupled Microgrids (2011) University of Wisconsin - Madison http://www.pserc.wisc.edu/documents/publications/papers/ 2010_general_publications/LasseterIEEEJan2011.pdf Marnay, C. etal A Green Prison: Santa Rita Jail Creeps Towards Zero Net Energy (ZNE) (June 2011) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; LBNL-4497E; Presented at: ECEEE 2011 Summer Study, June 6-11, 2011, Belambra Presqu'оle de Giens, France http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/lbnl-4497e.pdf Marnay, C. etal Applications of Optimal Building Energy System Selection and Operation (2011) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, LBNL-4764E http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/lbnl-4764e.pdf Marnay, C., Nordman, B. & J. Lai Future Roles of Milli-, Micro-, and Nano- Grids (September 2011) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; LBNL-4927E; Presented at: the CIGRЙ International Symposium: The Electric Power System of the Future ­ Integrating Supergrids and Microgrids, Bologna, Italy, September 13-15, 2011 http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/lbnl-4927e.pdf McGowan, E. Why Two Grids Can Be Better Than One ­ How the CERTS Microgrid Evolved from Concept to Practice (May 12, 2011) Contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability http://www.warf.org/uploads/media/CERTS_Article_May2011final_posted.pdf 39
- MicroGridHorizons.com - Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Smart Grid R&D Program Breakout Session 1: Lassetter, R. (University of Wisconsin ­ Madison): Switchgear; Zeller, M. (Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories): Technical Topic Session: Protection & Controls (August 30-31, 2011) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Smart Grid R&D Program http://e2rg.com/microgrid/session1_report-out.pdf Smith, M. U.S. Department of Energy's Research & Development Activities on Microgrid Technologies (May 26-27, 2011) U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Presentation at Jeju 2011 Symposium on Microgrids, Korea http://der.lbl.gov/sites/der.lbl.gov/files/smith.pdf Smith, M. OE Microgrid R&D Initiative (October 20, 2011) U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/EAC%20Presentation%20-%20OE%20Microgrid %20R%26D%20Initiative%202011%20-%20Smith.pdf Ton, D. & M. Smith DOE Goal of Microgrid Development and "Setting the Stage" for the Workshop (August 30-31, 2011) DOE Microgrid Workshop http://e2rg.com/microgrid/doe_opening.pdf 2012 Klapp, D., Zimmerly, R. & J. Howard CERTS Microgrid - Mechanical Switch Test Report (January 23, 2012) AEP Dolan Technology Center http://certs.lbl.gov/pdf/sel700gt.pdf Lasseter, R. Microgrids: Technical Innovations (January 18, 2012) Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin; Presentation at: Army Research Laboratory Unlinked Document 40
- MicroGridHorizons.com - Appendix C. Net Zero Energy Approach to Microgrid Design Summary Giraldez, J. Energy Security: Microgrid Planning and Design (May 12, 2912) NREL http://e2s2.ndia.org/schedule/Documents/2012%20Abstracts/Breakout %20Sessions/14413.pdf Supporting Documents Abdallah, T. Charting a Course to Energy Independence (August 2009) http://www.govenergy.com/2009/pdfs/presentations/Security-Session04/ EnergySecurity-Session04-Abdallah_Tarek.pdf Anderson, K. Net Zero Energy Installation Assessment and Planning (January 9, 2012) http://posts.same.org/pikespeak/PDFs/NetZeroAssessmntPlanning_NREL.pdf Anderson, K. etal Targeting Net Zero Energy at Fort Carson: Assessment and Recommendations (October 2011) FEMP http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy12osti/51998.pdf ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guides ­ Final Report (December 7, 2006) http://www.google.com/url? sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=10&ved=0CFEQFjAJ&url=http %3A%2F%2Fwww.ashrae.org%2FFile%2520Library%2FdocLib%2FPublic %2F20101108_scopingstudy_50pctapptonzeb.pdf&ei=cjd3UKavFoPq0gG9pYHA CQ&usg=AFQjCNHMeJPpnIt4igTED6KbzWrEl477A&sig2=SLQA9tgQj8M1AR3flDBQGw 41
- MicroGridHorizons.com - Baring-Gould, I. etal Guam Initial Technical Assessment Report (April 2011) http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy11osti/50580.pdf Booth, S. etal Net Zero Energy Military Installations: A Guide to Assessment and Planning (August 2010) NREL/TP-7A2-48876 http://www1.eere.energy.gov/office_eere/pdfs/48876.pdf Booth, S. etal Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar: Assessment and Recommendations (December 2010) NREL/TP-7A40-47991 http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy11osti/47991.pdf Burman, K. etal Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay (May 2012) NREL/CP-7A20-54661 http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy12osti/54661.pdf Burman, K. etal Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Base Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii: Assessment and Recommendations (November 2011) NREL/TP-7A40-52897 http://www1.eere.energy.gov/office_eere/pdfs/52897.pdf Callahan, M. etal Lessons Learned from Net Zero Energy Assessments and Renewable Energy Projects at Military Installations (September 2011) NREL/TP-7A40-51598 http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy11osti/51598.pdf Imanari, T. etal Renovation of "Earth Port" for Net Zero Energy Building (2012) International High Performance Buildings Conference at Purdue, July 16-19, 2012 http://www.google.com/url? sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=14&ved=0CGIQFjAN&url=http %3A%2F%2Fwww.conftool.com%2F2012Purdue%2Findex.php %2FImanari-2012-Renovation_of_%25E2%2580%259CEarth_Port %25E2%2580%259D_for_Net-Zero_Energy_Building-3254.pdf%3Fpage %3DdownloadPaper%26filename%3DImanari-2012-Renovation_of_ %25E2%2580%259CEarth_Port%25E2%2580%259D_for_NetZero_Energy_Building-3254.pdf%26form_id%3D3254%26form_version 42
- MicroGridHorizons.com - %3Dfinal&ei=BC13UN-UKIjq0gGutYGYDg&usg=AFQjCNEDWjvpfnsr2UpfbndD4am6TkvyA&sig2=uDatOp9e3HJEhLcG-25h_w Marszal, A.J. & P. Heiselberg A Literature Review of Zero Energy Building (ZEB) Definitions (December 2009) Aalborg University http://ene.aalto.fi/fi/ajankohtaista/uutiset/literature_review_ajm-ph.pdf Marszal, A.J. Life Cycle Cost Optimization of a BOLIG+ Zero Energy Building (December 2011) PHD Thesis, Aalborg University http://vbn.aau.dk/files/60695799/ Life_Cycle_Cost_Optimization_of_a_BOLIG_Zero_Energy_Building.pdf Marszal, A.J. etal Net Zero Energy Buildings - Calculation Methodologies versus National Building Codes (January 1, 2010) http://www.academia.edu/1078804/Net_Zero_Energy_BuildingsCalculation_Methodologies_versus_National_Building_Codes Marszal, A.J. etal North European Understanding of Zero Energy /Emissions Buildings (2010) Zero Emission Buildings - Proceedings of Renewable Energy Conference 2010, Trondheim, Norway http://www.google.com/url? sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=3&ved=0CC0QFjAC&url=http %3A%2F%2Fwww.tapironline.no%2Flast-ned%2F288&ei=BC13UNUKIjq0gGutYGYDg&usg=AFQjCNEEknVSRWhlAwhraJSktphSMqLgog&sig2=jinj T0rnfKJ7F7h77BHy3Q Musall, E. etal Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings: An Overview and Analysis on Worldwide Building Projects (2010) http://www.iea-shc.org/publications/downloads/STC134895.pdf Voss, K. etal Load Matching and Grid Interaction of Net Zero Energy Buildings (2010) http://www.iea-shc.org/publications/downloads/task40c-netzero_load_matchingabstract.pdf Widen, J. 43
- MicroGridHorizons.com - A Systems Perspective on Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings in the Power System (August 23, 2011) Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics, Uppsala University http://www.zeb.aau.dk/digitalAssets/28/28809_07_joakim-widen.pdf 44

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