International comparisons of criminal justice statistics 2000

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Content: International comparisons of criminal justice statistics 2001 by Gordon Barclay & Cynthia Tavares with Sally Kenny, Arsalaan Siddique & Emma Wilby
Issue 12/03
24 October 2003
This bulletin brings together statistical information on criminal justice collected by the Home Office and the Council of Europe. The data covers all the European Union member states, the EU accession countries and selected other countries. The data in this bulletin covers the period up to 2001 but more recent information for England & Wales covering the period up to 2002/2003 was published in July 2003. It shows that over the past year for crimes recorded by the police q total crime fell by 3%; q total violent crime rose by 2%; q robbery fell by 14%; q burglary fell by 1%; and q vehicle crime fell by 9%.
Introduction
Crime
1. This bulletin brings together statistical information on criminal justice collected by the Home Office and the Council of Europe. The data covers all the European Union Member States1, the EU accession countries2 and selected other countries. It reflects the co-operation that exists between countries both in the sharing of data but also in exploring the different definitions used within statistical collection systems. The majority of the data has been collected from official sources in other countries but we are not in a position to comment on either the accuracy or completeness of the figures provided. 2. In making any comparisons it is necessary to be aware that such data will be the outcome of different legal and administrative systems and may also be derived from different statistical data collection processes. Such differences are described in this bulletin and in the European Sourcebook of Crime and Criminal Justice Statistics3 and in an article discussing the usefulness of comparative data4. In view of the many differences, comparisons are usually given in this bulletin as a percentage change over time rather than as an absolute change on the assumption that other factors will have remained constant over this period. 3. The most recent information on crime recorded by the police for England & Wales for 2002/2003 was published in a Home Office Bulletin5 in July 2003. 1 European Union Member States: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden United Kingdom (England & Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland). 2 European Union accession countries: Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia. 3 European Sourcebook of Crime & Criminal Justice Statistics 2003 (forthcoming, Home Office UK, WODC The Netherlands & University of Lausanne, Switzerland) and Key Findings, June 2000 (Council of Europe) both available at www.europeansourcebook.org. 4 Comparing crime rates: The International Crime (Victim) Survey, the European Sourcebook of Crime & Criminal Justice Statistics and Interpol Statistics (de Sitter Publications, International Journal of Comparative Criminology 2/1 June 2002) by Marcelo Aebi, Martin Killias & Cynthia Tavares. Details available at www.ingenta.com. 5 Crime in England & Wales, 2002/2003 (Home Office Bulletin 07/03) edited by Jon Simmons & Tricia Dodd is available at www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds.
4. Although it is impossible to gauge the true extent of crime in any country, there are two main measures available. The first is that of offences recorded by the police. The second measures crime from the results of victimisation surveys carried out on a sample of the public. For international comparison purposes, results from the International Crime Victims Survey can be examined. Recorded crime Total crimes recorded (Tables 1 & A) 5. Although most countries collect information on the number of crimes recorded or reported by the police, absolute comparisons of crime levels are often misleading. Recorded crime levels will be affected by many factors including: a) Different legal and criminal justice systems; b) Rates at which crimes are reported to the police and recorded by them; c) Differences in the point at which crime is measured. For some countries, this is the time at which the offence is reported to the police while for others recording does not take place until a suspect is identified and the papers are forwarded to the prosecutor; d) Differences in the rules by which multiple offences are counted; e) Differences in the list of offences that are included in the overall crime figures; f) Data quality. 6. Over the period 1997 - 2001, recorded crime rose on average by 4% in the EU with the largest rises in France, Greece and Portugal (all 16%), followed by the Netherlands and Spain (both 10%). There were falls in Denmark (11%), Italy (11%), Finland (3%), England & Wales (2%) and Sweden (1%). The largest falls in other countries were in Bulgaria (41%), Switzerland (28%), the Czech Republic (11%), New Zealand (10%) and the USA (10%). There were large rises in Slovenia (101%), Japan (44%), Estonia (43%) and Poland (40%). 7. In 2000 - 2001, there was an average rise of 3% in recorded crime in the EU with the largest rises in Greece (19%), Northern Ireland (17%), Spain (10%) and France (8%).
2
Table A
Crimes(1) recorded by the police (percentage changes)
Country EU average(16) England & Wales(2) Northern Ireland(3) Scotland Austria Belgium(4) Bulgaria Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany(5) Greece(6) Hungary Ireland (Eire)(7) Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg(8) Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal(9) Romania Russia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden(10) Switzerland(11) Turkey Australia(12) Canada(13) Japan(14) New Zealand South Africa U.S.A(15)
1991-2001 -1% -11% (17) .. -27% 11% .. .. 25% .. -9% 84% -7% 8% .. 22% 6% .. -18% .. 76% .. .. 13% 28% 61% .. .. 37% 6% 77% 3% -1% -28% .. .. -17% 60% -4% .. -20%
1997-2001 4% -2% (17) .. 0% 9% 17% (18) -41% 16% -11% -11% 43% -3% 16% -3% 16% -9% .. -11% 39% 5% .. .. 10% 5% 40% 16% -6% 24% 1% 101% 10% -1% -28% 36% (18) 18% -5% 44% -10% .. -10%
2000-2001 3% 7% 17% 0% -7% 0% (19) -3% 4% -8% -6% 1% -6% 8% 2% 19% 3% .. -2% 2% -4% -1% 6% (19) 4% -2% 10% 2% -4% 1% 5% 11% 10% -2% 2% 6% (19) 3% 2% 12% 0% .. 2%
Average annual 1991-2001 -0.1% .. .. -3.0% 1.1% .. .. 2.2% .. -0.9% 6.3% -0.7% 0.8% .. 2.0% 0.6% .. -2.0% .. 5.8% .. .. 1.2% 2.5% 4.8% .. .. 3.2% 0.5% 5.9% 0.3% -0.1% -3.2% .. .. -1.8% 4.8% -0.5% .. -2.0%
See Table 1 for footnotes (1) to (15). (16) In calculating the EU average, all countries have been given equal weight. (17) Comparisons between the earlier year and 2001/2002 are based on figures for the financial year 2001/2002
which have been adjusted to take account of the effect of the new counting rules and also using financial year data for the earlier year. (18) 1996 - 2000. (19) 1999 - 2000.
Homicide (Tables 1.1, 1.2 & B) 8. Since the definition of homicide is similar in most countries, absolute comparisons of rates are possible. For the period 1999 to 2001, the average rate (the number of homicides per 100,000 population) was 1.6 in the EU with the highest rates in Finland (2.9), Northern Ireland (2.7) and Scotland (2.2). For the other countries, the highest rates were found in Russia (22.1), Estonia (10.6), Lithuania (10.6) and the USA (5.6).
9. In the EU capital cities, the average number of homicides over the period 1999 to 2001 was 2.3 per 100,000 population with the highest rates in Belfast (5.6), Amsterdam (3.1), Vienna (2.8), Stockholm (2.8) and London (2.6) and Berlin (2.3). There were higher rates in some American cities: Washington DC (42.9), New York NY (8.7) and San Francisco CA (8.1).
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Violent crime (Table 1.3) 10. For the period 1997 - 2001, the average rise was 22% in the EU for violent crime with the highest rises in France (50%), Spain (49%), the Netherlands (35%), Portugal (29%) and England & Wales (26%). Amongst the other countries, there were high rises in Japan (79%), Poland (27%) and Australia (22%). There were falls in Estonia (18%), Russia (18%), the U.S.A. (12%), the Czech Republic (7%) and Cyprus (4%). 11. In 2000 - 2001, the average rise was 5% in the EU with the highest rises in Northern Ireland (22%), France (15%) and England & Wales and the Netherlands (both 11%). There was a 1% rise in the USA.
Theft of a motor vehicle (Table 1.6) 16. Over the period 1997 - 2001, there was an average fall of 7% in the EU for theft of a motor vehicle with the highest falls in Germany (36%), Denmark (31%), England & Wales (30%), Scotland (19%), and Greece (17%). Amongst the other countries, there were sharp rises in Estonia (60%) and Lithuania (33%) but falls in Hungary (39%), New Zealand (37%) and the Czech Republic (25%). 17. In 2000 - 2001, there was an average fall of 7% in the EU with the largest falls in Austria (33%), Finland (14%), Denmark (13%) and Scotland (12%). There was a 6% rise in the USA.
Robbery (Table 1.4) 12. For the period 1997 - 2001, the average rise was 24% in the EU for robbery with the highest rises in England & Wales (92%), France (67%), the Netherlands (48%), Austria (42%), Portugal (34%), Sweden (29%) and Denmark (27%). Amongst the other countries, there were high rises in Japan (128%), Turkey (88%), Poland (72%), South Africa (71%), Cyprus (68%), Norway (39%), Slovenia (35%), Russia (32%), Estonia (29%) and Australia (25%). There were falls in Bulgaria (37%), Germany (18%), New Zealand (18%), USA (15%), Switzerland (10%), Czech Republic (8%), Canada (7%), Scotland (6%), Italy (5%) and Greece (1%). 13. In 2000 - 2001, the average rise was 5% in the EU with the highest rises in England & Wales (28%), Northern Ireland (26%) and France (22%). There was a 4% rise in the USA.
Drug Trafficking (Table 1.7) 18. Over the period 1997 - 2001, there was a rise of 4% in the EU for drug trafficking with the highest rises in Finland (79%), Greece (62%) and Scotland (26%) but falls in France (51%), Sweden (32%) and the Netherlands (24%). Amongst the other countries, the highest rises were in Eastern Europe (nearly 2,000% in Estonia), Cyprus (62%), Canada (38%) and Norway (32%). 19. In 2000 - 2001, there was an average rise of 6% in the EU with largest rises in Austria (60%), the Netherlands (39%), Greece (25%) and Portugal (20%).
Domestic burglary (Table 1.5) 14. Over the period 1997 - 2001, there was an average fall of 10% in the EU for domestic burglary. The highest falls were in Greece (28%), Germany (27%), England & Wales (26%), Finland (24%), Scotland (18%) and Sweden (17%). Amongst the other countries, there were high falls in Bulgaria (58%), Turkey (50%), Norway (39%), Switzerland (31%), Canada (28%) and New Zealand (27%). 15. In 2000 - 2001, there was no change in the EU but rises in France (13%), Spain (10%), Northern Ireland (8%) and England & Wales (7%).
4
Victimisation rates (Table 2) 20. An estimate of absolute levels of crime can be obtained from the International Crime Victims Survey (ICVS) relating to victims' experience of crimes in 1999. The most recent report6 examined criminal victimisation in the 17 industrialised countries. 21. Generally speaking, the ICVS suggests that crime rose between 1988 and 1991, stabilised or fell in 1995, and then dropped more in 1999. Comparison with data on crimes recorded by the police suggests that, for 11 countries (Canada, England & Wales, Finland, France, Netherlands, Northern Ireland, Poland, Scotland, Sweden, Switzerland and the USA), the trends from the victimisation survey data are similar to those from the police data. 22. Of the 17 countries examined in the report, England & Wales had well above average levels of both property and contact crime (i.e. robbery, assault and sexual assault). Police officers (Table 3) 23. Police forces are organised in different ways in different countries. Some countries have more than one "police force", for example state police, communal or municipal police, judicial police or gendarmerie, all of which perform some policing duties. These differences should be borne in mind when making comparisons between countries, as there is no information available on the percentage of policing duties carried out by these other bodies.
rates in Northern Ireland (605), Italy (472), Greece (461), Portugal (461), Spain (457), France (381), Belgium (360), Austria (337) and Ireland (306). Sentencing (Tables 4.1, 4.2 & 4.3) 27. Neither the Home Office nor any international bodies regularly collect information to provide international comparisons of sentencing. Many countries do not collect sentencing data or are unable to provide it in a format that enables useful comparisons. 28. However, a survey covering 36 Member States of the Council of Europe7 provides information for 1999 on both the types of sentences imposed by the public prosecutor or the courts and on the sentence lengths for specific offences. Some of its findings have been summarised in these tables for 3 offences (assault, robbery and theft). The use of custody and the lengths of sentences vary widely between countries for the three offences. This may be due to the age at which juveniles may be prosecuted and sent to prison. The use of custody in England & Wales was slightly above the average for assault and theft but substantially so for robbery. In addition, England & Wales had a much lower use of short custodial sentences but a higher use of indeterminate sentences (i.e. life). 29. In comparing sentence lengths, it should be noted that this relates to the sentence length imposed by the court and not the time actually served in custody which may depend upon the remission policy in each country.
24. Over the period 1997 - 2001, there was an average rise of 3% in the number of police officers in the EU with the highest rises in Greece and the Netherlands (both 16%) but there was a large fall in Northern Ireland (20%).
25. In 2000 - 2001, there was no change in the EU average. The largest falls were in Northern Ireland (11%) and France (10%).
26. For the period 1999 to 2001, the average number of police officers was 337 per 100,000 population in the EU with the highest
6 Criminal Victimisation in 17 Industrialised Countries: Key findings from the 2000 International Crime Victims Survey,
7 European Sourcebook of Crime & Criminal Justice
February 2001 (Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en
Statistics 2003 (forthcoming, Home Office UK, WODC The
Documentatiecentrum, the Netherlands) by John van
Netherlands & University of Lausanne Switzerland) available
Kesteren, Pat Mayhew & Paul Nieuwbeerta.
at www.europeansourcebook.org.
5
prison population (Tables 5 & B) 30. The prison population in a country reflects: a) The crime rate; b) The extent to which crimes were cleared up; c) The extent to which the accused were remanded in custody; d) The length of pre-trial detention; e) The extent to which courts impose custodial sentences; f) The length of custodial sentences (more precisely, the length of time served); and g) The extent to which custodial sentences were suspended. 31. Each year the Council of Europe collects data from its Member States on the characteristics of their prison population on 1 September8 each year and the Home Office supplements this data with that collected from other countries. 32. In 2001, England & Wales (at 129 prisoners per 100,000 general population) had the highest per capita rate in the EU (average 87) followed by Portugal (128), Scotland (120) and Spain (116). The high rates in the United Kingdom and Portugal reflect, in part, the longer sentences imposed in these countries. There were higher rates in the USA (689), Russia (673) and some Eastern European countries (up to 370 in Latvia). 33. Over the period 1997 - 2001, there was an average increase of 3% in the EU with the highest rises in Greece (50%), Ireland (25%), Sweden (17%), Finland (10%), Italy (10%) and the Netherlands (10%). 34. In 2000 - 2001, there was a rise of 1% in the prison population in the EU with the highest rises in Finland (8%), the Netherlands (8%) and Sweden (7%). 35. The World Prison Population List9 gives details of the number of prisoners held in some 200 independent countries and dependent territories (more than 8.75 million people). It shows that prison population rates vary considerably between different regions of the world and between different parts of the same continent. 8 Annual penal statistics published in the Penological Information Bulletin (Council of Europe) available at www.coe.int. 9 World Prison Population List 4th edition (Home Office research findings No. 188) by Roy Walmsley available at www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds. 6
Table B
Prison population(1) (percentage changes and rates)
Country
% change 1991-2001
% change 1997-2001
% change 2000-2001
EU average(12)
26%
3%
1%
England & Wales(2) Northern Ireland Scotland(3)
45% -56% 27%
8% -44% 1%
2% -14% 5%
Austria(4) Belgium(3) Bulgaria
5%
2%
3%
38%
4%
0%
..
-24%
-5%
Cyprus Czech Republic(5) Denmark Estonia(6) Finland(5) France(7) Germany(5) Greece Hungary(5)
65% 52% -9% 9% -9% -3% 33% 57% 17%
40% -10% -2% 4% 10% -14% 3% 50% 29%
28% -10% -4% 3% 8% -4% 0% 4% 11%
Ireland (Eire) Italy(5) Latvia Lithuania(6) Luxembourg Malta
43% 70% .. 7% -7% ..
25% 10% .. -22% -23% 1%
5% 2% .. -35% -15% 0%
Netherlands Norway(3) Poland(2)
105% 3% 40%
10% 4% 39%
8% 3% 22%
Portugal Romania Russia(5)
62%
-7%
4%
..
14%
1%
36%
-3%
6%
Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden(8) Switzerland(9) Turkey Australia(10) Canada(11) Japan(3) New Zealand(4) South Africa(3) U.S.A.(10)
.. 41% 28% 17% 13% (14) .. 50% 2% 39% 38% 72% 61%
-4% 50% 7% 17% 5% (15) .. 17% -6% 27% 14% 30% 13%
3% 2% 3% 7% -2% (16) 12% 3% 0% 8% 3% 5% 1%
See Table 5 for footnotes (1) to (11). (12) In calculating the EU average, all EU countries have been given equal weight. (13) Based on estimates of national population.
(14) 1990 - 2000. (15) 1996 - 2000. (16) 1999 - 2000.
Rate(13) per 100,000 population in 2001 87 129 52 120 87 83 116 52 188 58 351 60 77 85 76 171 79 96 370 273 77 65 94 58 207 128 225 673 137 60 116 69 71 84 116 101 50 150 411 689
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Table 1
Crimes(1) recorded by the police
Country England & Wales(2) Northern Ireland(3) Scotland
1991 5 276 173 63 492 572 921
1992 5 591 717 67 532 564 890
1993 5 526 255 66 228 517 247
Austria Belgium(4) Bulgaria
468 832 382 667 ..
502 440 386 474 ..
493 786 388 150 ..
Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark
3 626 .. 519 775
3 811 345 205 536 821
4 302 398 505 546 894
Estonia Finland France Germany(5) Greece(6) Hungary Ireland (Eire)(7) Italy Latvia
31 748 389 180 3 744 112 5 302 796 358 998 440 370 94 406 2 647 735 ..
41 254 389 536 3 830 996 6 291 519 379 652 447 215 95 391 2 390 539 ..
37 163 383 268 3 881 894 6 750 613 358 503 400 935 98 979 2 259 903 ..
Lithuania Luxembourg(8) Malta
44 984 25 046 ..
56 615 26 746 ..
60 378 28 446 ..
Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal(9) Romania Russia
1 083 733 252 362 866 095 .. 2 173 074
1 168 493 254 099 881 076 .. 2 760 652
1 173 643 244 659 852 507 307 328 2 799 614
Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden(10) Switzerland(11) Turkey Australia(12) Canada(13) Japan(14)
88 157 42 250 990 306 1 199 101 382 661 .. 1 205 277 2 898 988 1 707 877
105 060 54 085 934 070 1 195 154 374 237 .. 1 146 558 2 847 981 1 742 366
146 125 44 278 938 612 1 191 251 371 740 .. 1 156 028 2 735 626 1 801 150
New Zealand South Africa U.S.A(15)
446 417 .. 14 872 883
464 596 .. 14 438 191
462 536 .. 14 144 794
1994 5 146 383 67 886 500 110 504 568 577 902 .. 4 330 372 427 546 926 35 739 383 351 3 919 008 6 537 748 303 311 389 451 101 036 2 173 448 .. 58 364 29 160 .. 1 206 128 249 615 906 157 330 010 2 632 708 137 713 43 635 901 696 1 112 505 358 028 .. 1 147 318 2 646 209 1 784 432 447 525 2 014 589 13 989 543
1995 5 139 307 68 808 475 697 486 433 709 836 196 346 4 029 375 630 538 963 39 570 381 652 3 665 320 6 668 717 329 110 502 036 102 484 2 267 488 39 141 60 819 28 380 .. 1 126 659 286 037 974 941 326 572 297 046 2 755 669 114 579 37 288 908 264 1 145 945 346 634 293 252 1 133 123 2 639 654 1 782 944 465 052 2 056 569 13 862 727
1996 4 930 678 68 549 451 956 485 450 725 914 184 975 4 528 394 267 528 488 35 411 376 788 3 559 617 6 647 598 349 476 466 050 100 785 2 422 991 38 205 68 053 27 566 .. 1 076 074 292 249 897 751 322 256 321 651 2 625 081 99 402 36 838 930 780 1 175 339 356 018 344 130 1 190 852 2 644 893 1 812 119 477 596 2 049 100 13 493 863
1997 4 545 337 59 922 420 642 481 549 818 759 228 219 3 909 403 654 531 102 40 972 373 846 3 493 442 6 586 165 377 871 514 403 90 875 2 440 754 36 865 75 816 24 355 .. 1 104 760 308 055 992 373 321 643 361 061 2 397 311 92 395 37 173 924 393 1 196 065 382 769 389 219 1 243 729 2 534 766 1 899 564 473 547 2 073 049 13 194 571
1998 5 109 089 109 053 431 551 479 859 856 495 159 317 4 318 425 930 499 167 45 721 383 479 3 565 525 6 456 996 385 681 600 621 85 627 2 425 748 36 374 78 149 27 155 14 793 1 102 670 318 275 1 073 042 341 122 399 105 2 581 940 93 895 55 259 917 314 1 181 056 378 045 359 980 1 299 480 2 461 156 2 033 546 461 677 2 192 080 12 485 714
1999 5 301 187 119 111 435 703 493 246 849 323 137 815 4 212 426 626 494 191 51 539 372 207 3 567 864 6 302 316 373 680 505 716 81 274 2 373 966 43 969 77 108 26 957 16 031 1 152 068 315 924 1 121 545 362 589 363 690 3 001 748 94 016 61 693 961 787 1 194 171 355 212 441 445 1 329 797 2 356 831 2 165 626 438 074 2 345 011 11 634 378
2000 5 170 843 119 912 423 172 560 306 848 648 138 709 4 358 391 469 504 231 57 799 385 797 3 771 849 6 264 723 369 137 450 673 73 276 2 205 782 50 199 82 370 22 816 17 016 1 173 688 330 071 1 266 910 363 294 353 745 2 952 367 88 817 67 617 923 269 1 214 968 270 733 467 220 1 429 327 2 352 768 2 443 470 427 230 .. 11 608 070
2001 5 525 316 139 786 421 093 522 710 .. 135120 4 517 358 577 473 290 58 497 361 105 4 061 792 6 363 865 439 630 465 694 86 621 2 163 830 .. 79 265 22 646 .. 1 219 653 321 959 1 390 089 372 170 340 414 2 968 300 93 053 74 795 1 015 640 1 189 393 275 591 .. 1 471 948 2 408 021 2 735 612 426 526 .. 11 849 006
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(1) More serious offences. In many countries defined as against the "penal code" or "criminal code" and excludes less serious crimes (misdemeanours). The range of offences covered differs between each country and comparisons based upon absolute figures are therefore misleading. (2) By financial year from 1994 (e.g. 1994 = 1 April 1994 to 31 March 1995). Expanded offence coverage and revised counting rules from 1 April 1998. England & Wales (3) By financial year from 1997 (e.g. 1997 = 1 April 1997 to 31 March 1998). Figures from 1998/99 are recorded under revised counting rules. Northern Ireland (4) New collection system introduced in 1994, however not all police forces submitted returns in 1994. Data may only be regarded as complete from 1995 onwards. Belgium (5) From 1992, including former East Germany but only part of East Germany in 1991. Germany (6) Includes misdemeanours and traffic offences. Greece Source: Statistical contacts in each country.
(7) A new recording system is being implemented which has resulted in improvements in recording. Therefore recent figures may not be comparable with those of previous years. Ireland (8) Figures from 2000 onwards are not comparable with previous years as they no longer include offences dealt with by the Judicial Police. Luxembourg (9) New unified collection system introduced in 1993 covering the three police forces. From 1995, other police functions e.g. gambling, economic activities, customs and county public finance are included. Portugal (10) Includes attempts, preparation and conspiracy to commit an offence. Sweden (11) Figures include selected penal offences and all drugs offences. Penal code offences are estimated to be approximately two-thirds of all offences which also include less serious offences such as shoplifting, bicycle theft and use of cars for "joyriding". Switzerland (12) Data for selected violent and property crimes. By financial year until 1992 and by calendar year from
1993 onwards. Figures before 1995 are not comparable with later years due to differences in the offences included. Australia (13) Includes Criminal Code incidents (violent, property and other crimes within the Criminal Code - e.g. prostitution, arson, mischief). Does not include drugs, traffic, provincial or municipal bylaw violations. Canada (14) Excludes traffic, professional negligence and offences against special penal codes such as drugs, firearms and sword control offences. Japan (15) FBI Uniform Crime Index covering murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, manslaughter by negligence, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, and theft of motor vehicles but excludes arson and drugs offences. Excludes the murder and non-negligent homicides that occurred as a result of the attacks on 11 September 2001. USA .. Data not available.
9
Table 1.1
Crimes(1) recorded by the police: Homicide(2) Number of homicides(2)
Country EU average(14) England & Wales(3) Northern Ireland(3) Scotland(4) Austria Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark(5) Estonia(6) Finland France Germany(7) Greece Hungary Ireland (Eire) Italy(8) Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg(9) Malta Netherlands(10) Norway Poland(6) Portugal Romania(11) Russia(11) Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden(12) Switzerland Turkey(11) Australia Canada(8) Japan(11) New Zealand South Africa U.S.A.(13)
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
748 49 90 66 145 369 6 291 88 178 139 963 1 178 203 289 53 924 173 391 4 .. 230 38 807 129 660 29 285 140 36 370 94 87 1 691 360 586 1 282 151 24 588 18 208
750 75 97 77 218 370 14 313 49 196 113 961 975 176 289 51 918 169 356 4 5 207 38 759 150 561 29 551 128 15 429 98 76 1 693 332 558 1 388 99 24 875 16 974
766 34 119 60 172 305 12 265 53 157 142 953 1 005 155 253 47 854 152 343 3 10 230 37 741 131 465 31 140 141 25 416 108 89 1 541 386 538 1 265 99 23 823 15 522
850 48 105 82 158 318 8 279 58 143 146 1 051 961 158 205 56 818 150 398 1 4 226 49 854 125 560 31 829 143 28 460 90 69 2 175 346 546 1 391 99 21 683 15 586
891 52 107 158 .. 282 9 234 52 137 155 1 047 868 139 254 59 .. .. 378 6 .. 264 41 776 107 593 33 583 129 15 494 .. 86 1 550 340 554 1 340 93 .. 15 980
% change 1997-2001 11% 19% 6% 19% 139% 34% (15) -24% 50% -20% -41% -23% 12% 9% -26% -32% -12% 11% -18% (15) -15% (15) -3% .. .. 15% 8% -4% -17% -10% 15% -8% -58% 34% .. -1% -8% -6% -5% 5% -38% -16% (15) -12%
% change 2000-2001
Homicides(2) per 100,000 population average per year 1999 to 2001
33%
1.59
5%
1.61
8%
2.65
2%
2.16
93% -8% (16) -11%
1.23 1.79 (17) 3.87
13%
1.39
-16%
2.52
-10%
1.02
-4%
10.61
6%
2.86
-0%
1.73
-10%
1.15
-12%
1.38
24%
2.34
5% -4% (16) -1% (16)
1.42 1.50 (17) 6.47 (17)
-5% 500% -60% (16)
10.62 .. 1.63 (17)
17%
1.51
-16%
0.95
-9%
2.05
-14% 6% 6%
1.17 2.41 22.05
-10% -46% 7% -17% (16) 25% -29%
2.55 1.18 1.12 1.11 (17) 1.12 2.67
-2%
1.87
1%
1.77
-4%
1.05
-6% -9% (16) 3%
2.50 55.86 (17) 5.56
(1) Definitions of offences vary between countries both due to legal differences and statistical recording methods; comparisons may be affected by these differences. (2) Intentional killing of a person excluding attempts: murder, manslaughter (excluding death by dangerous driving), euthanasia and infanticide; excluding abortion and help with suicide. (3) By financial year from 1997 (e.g. 1997 = 1 April 1997 to 31 March 1998). (4) Currently (as at 7.11. 02) recorded as homicide victims. (5) Includes all deaths initially reported as homicide to the police. (6) Excludes assault leading to death. (7) Includes homicides recorded by the ZERV (Central Group for the investigation of crime associated with the government and reunification), which were committed in former East Germany or at the border before reunification of the country. (8) Includes murder, manslaughter and infanticide.
(9) Figures from 2000 onwards are not comparable with previous years, as they no longer include offences dealt with by the Judicial Police. (10) Excludes euthanasia. (11) Includes attempts. (12) Includes all deaths initially reported as homicide to the police. (13) Excludes the murder and non-negligent homicides that occurred as a result of the attacks on 11 September 2001. (14) In calculating the EU average, all EU countries have been given equal weight. (15) 1996 - 2000. (16) 1999 - 2000. (17) 1998 to 2000. .. Data not available. Source: Statistical contacts in each country.
10
Table 1.2
Crimes(1) recorded by the police: Homicide(2) in selected capital and other cities
Number of homicides(1)
Homicides(1) per 100,000 population
City
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
average per year from 1999 to 2001
EU capital cities' average(14)
2.28
London, England Belfast(3), N. Ireland Edinburgh(4), Scotland
190 159 190 189 202
16 18 11 21 15
8
8
9
4
6
2.60 5.59 1.40
Vienna, Austria Brussels, Belgium Sofia, Bulgaria
25 27 26 57 53
20 22 33 26
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.84 2.87 (15) ..
Lefkosia, Cyprus
0
0
1
1
1
Prague, Czech Republic
40 51 64 49 51
Copenhagen(4), Denmark
34
8
8
9 10
Tallinn(5), Estonia
38 58 40 39 35
Helsinki, Finland Paris, France
11
8 16 11
9
46 50 43 36 49
Berlin(6), Germany
150 97 86 76 77
Athens & Pireus, Greece 14 17 19 17 18
Budapest, Hungary
59 59 49 35 46
0.36 4.33 1.81 9.40 2.18 2.00 2.34 0.57 2.40
Dublin, Ireland Rome(7), Italy Riga, Latvia Vilnius(8), Lithuania Luxembourg Ville, Lux. Valletta, Malta Amsterdam(9), Netherlands Oslo, Norway Warsaw(5)(8), Poland
21 31 24 16 21
35 33 29 36
..
..
..
..
..
..
59 56 54 59 40
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
40 38 22 29 33
12
8
9
6 11
98 66 72 62 60
1.88 1.24 (15) .. 8.90 .. .. 3.13 1.70 4.00
Lisbon, Portugal Bucharest, Romania Moscow(8), Russia
48 33 28 24 33
..
..
..
..
..
1 477 1 180 1 206 1 129
..
1.50 .. 18.38 (15)
Bratislava, Slovakia
27 14 18 15 17
3.72
Ljubljana, Slovenia
4
4
6
5
1
1.38
Madrid, Spain
40 41 47 48 66
1.84
Stockholm(4), Sweden
11 19 29 15 18
2.77
Berne, Switzerland
3
4
4
0
0
1.04
Geneva, Switzerland
8
3 13
5
3
1.72
Ankara, Turkey
98 111 86 110 111
2.55
Canberra, Australia Sydney, Australia Ottawa(7)(10), Canada Tokyo(8), Japan
4
1
2
2
1
74 58 67 55 77
9
4 12
8
3
131 132 157 151 133
Wellington(11), NZ
20
9
7
7 14
Pretoria(12), South Africa 527
..
..
..
..
New York NY(13), U.S.A.
770 633 671 673 660
San Francisco CA, U.S.A. .. 58 64 69 62 Washington DC(13), U.S.A. 301 260 241 232 231
0.53 1.63 0.94 1.21 2.13 .. 8.65 8.10 42.87
(1) Definitions of offences vary between countries both due to legal differences and statistical recording methods; comparisons may be affected by these differences. (2) Intentional killing of a person excluding attempts: murder, manslaughter (excluding death by dangerous driving), euthanasia and infanticide; excluding abortion and help with suicide. (3) By financial year (e.g. 1997 = 1 April 1997 to 31 March 1998). (4) Includes all deaths initially reported as homicide to the police. (5) Excludes assault leading to death. (6) Includes homicides recorded by the ZERV (Central Group for the investigation of crime associated with the government and reunification), which were committed in former East Germany or at the border before reunification of the country. Source: Statistical contacts in each country.
(7) Includes murder, manslaughter and infanticide. (8) Includes attempts. (9) Excludes euthanasia. (10) Ontario part of the Ottawa-Hull Census Metropolitan Area. (11) Includes the police district of Wellington and the southern triangle of the North Island. (12) Including rural areas. (13) Excludes the murder and non-negligent homicides that occurred as a result of the attacks on 11 September 2001. (14) In calculating the EU average, all EU countries have been given equal weight. (15) 1998 to 2000. .. Data not available.
11
Table 1.3
Crimes(1) recorded by the police: Violent crime(2)
Country
1997
1998
1999
2000
EU average(16) England & Wales(3) Northern Ireland(4) Scotland(5) Austria Belgium(6) Bulgaria Cyprus(7) Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland (Eire)(8) Italy(9) Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg(10) Malta Netherlands Norway(11) Poland(12) Portugal Romania Russia(7) Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden(13) Switzerland Turkey Australia(14) Canada(15) Japan New Zealand South Africa U.S.A.
352 873 7 837 23 656 46 942 60 605 .. 184 23 223 13 963 781 31 202 186 006 186 447 8 766 26 987 5 488 64 945 .. 6 667 4 471 .. 74 691 18 507 66 927 16 733 .. 119 041 11 564 900 87 775 68 310 7 472 .. 162 063 296 890 40 570 43 442 645 737 1 636 096
605 797 21 452 25 725 48 200 61 882 .. 168 23 464 13 754 710 31 726 194 873 186 306 9 312 28 414 4 515 71 775 .. 6 633 4 949 .. 76 666 18 445 70 001 15 463 .. 92 697 12 427 1 172 91 099 70 488 8 015 .. 171 012 296 166 41 751 43 734 661 779 1 533 887
703 107 24 163 27 321 49 242 61 992 .. 178 23 228 14 735 638 32 089 215 698 186 655 9 097 28 277 .. 76 823 .. 6 411 4 376 .. 86 587 18 811 78 457 18 942 .. 97 153 13 531 1 355 128 496 75 745 8 528 .. 172 972 291 327 43 822 42 712 768 932 1 426 044
733 387 24 323 27 047 .. 59 791 .. 165 21 996 15 748 676 34 291 243 166 187 103 9 105 29 144 3 312 74 136 .. 7 339 4 280 .. 90 944 20 582 89 993 19 730 20 818 93 290 13 549 1 414 119 923 74 646 8 152 .. 179 773 302 098 64 418 44 887 .. 1 425 486
2001 813 271 29 757 27 605 .. .. .. 176 21 709 16 010 643 33 355 279 324 188 413 9 501 30 819 6 851 .. .. 6 861 3 881 .. 101 141 20 325 84 863 21 554 25 787 97 954 14 450 .. 130 545 76 758 8 653 .. 197 219 309 101 72 801 47 133 .. 1 436 611
% change 1997-2001
% change 2000-2001
22% 26% (17) .. 17%
5% 11% 22% 2%
.. 11% (18) ..
.. -4% (19) ..
-4%
7%
-7%
-1%
15%
2%
-18% 7% 50%
-5% -3% 15%
1%
1%
8%
4%
14%
6%
.. 20% (18) ..
.. -3% (19) ..
3%
-7%
..
-9%
..
..
35% 10% 27%
11% -1% -6%
29% .. -18%
9% 24% 5%
.. 36% (18) 49%
.. 4% (19) 9%
12%
3%
16%
6%
..
..
22% 4% 79%
10% 2% 13%
8%
5%
..
..
-12%
1%
(1) Definitions of offences vary between countries both due to legal differences and statistical recording methods; comparisons may be affected by these differences. (2) Violence against the person, robbery and sexual offences. (3) By financial year (e.g. 1997 = 1 April 1997 to 31 March 1998). Revised counting rules from 1 April 1998. (4) By financial year (e.g. 1997 = 1 April 1997 to 31 March 1998). Figures from 1998/99 are recorded under revised counting rules and are not comparable with previous years. (5) Includes homicide, other violence against the person, robbery, sexual offences (excluding indecent exposure, brothel keeping and offences related to prostitution). (6) Excludes robbery. (7) Violence against the person, aggravated assault and sexual offences only. (8) Includes homicide, other violence against the person, intimidation, abduction and false imprisonment, sexual offences, robbery and aggravated burglary. A new recording system is being implemented which has resulted in improvements in recording. Therefore recent figures may not be comparable with those of previous years. (9) Includes homicide, injuries, sexual assault, robbery, extortion and kidnapping. (10) Includes homicide, murder, rebellion, intimidation, other
violence against the person and sexual offences. Figures from
2000 onwards are not comparable with previous years as they
no longer include offences dealt with by the Judicial Police.
(11) Includes homicide, sexual offences and robbery but excludes
crimes against personal liberty (for example threats, duress
and limitation of liberty).
(12) Includes homicide, rape, fighting and battery, causing bodily
injury and robbery.
(13) Includes attempts, preparation and conspiracy to commit an
offence.
(14) Includes murder, attempted murder, manslaughter, driving
causing death, sexual assault, kidnapping and abduction,
robbery, blackmail and extortion, and assault.
(15) Includes homicide, attempted murder, sexual and non-sexual
assault, other sexual offences, abduction and robbery.
(16) In calculating the EU average, all EU countries have been
given equal weight.
(17) Comparisons between the earlier year and 2001/2002 are
based on figures for the financial year 2001/2002 which have
been adjusted to take account of the effect of the new
counting rules.
(18) 1996 - 2000.
(19) 1999 ­ 2000.
.. Data not available.
Source: Statistical contacts in each country
12
Table 1.4
Crimes(1) recorded by the police: Robbery(2)
Country
1997
1998
1999
2000
EU average(9) England & Wales(3) Northern Ireland(4) Scotland Austria Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece(5) Hungary Ireland (Eire)(6) Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg(7) Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden(8) Switzerland Turkey Australia Canada(5) Japan New Zealand South Africa U.S.A.
62 652 1 573 4 484 1 991 .. 6 481 25 4 751 2 523 3 478 2 016 80 498 69 569 1 967 3 056 .. 69 993 .. 3 971 288 .. 14 186 1 073 23 988 13 901 4 010 146 369 1 199 430 104 008 6 641 2 498 1 319 21 305 29 587 2 809 2 032 122 369 498 534
66 835 1 395 4 951 2 234 .. 5 053 27 4 306 2 606 3 978 2 092 84 291 64 405 2 254 3 056 .. 73 289 .. 3 646 372 318 14 447 1 354 26 647 12 442 3 548 160 879 1 231 453 104 475 6 713 2 572 1 477 23 801 28 963 3 426 2 004 150 430 447 186
84 277 1 383 5 075 2 283 .. 4 171 32 4 817 2 781 4 918 2 277 94 947 61 420 2 048 3 167 .. 72 836 .. 3 376 352 212 17 462 1 698 36 597 16 065 3 336 180 111 1 437 558 100 716 8 628 2 642 1 385 22 606 28 740 4 237 1 585 178 080 409 371
95 154 1 767 4 420 2 763 .. 4 321 43 4 644 3 152 4 754 2 600 109 836 59 414 1 707 3 494 1 397 67 424 .. 4 374 307 146 18 630 1 781 43 255 17 156 3 280 171 830 1 264 581 93 504 8 999 2 178 1 632 23 314 27 037 5 173 1 779 197 837 408 016
2001 121 370 2 222 4 228 2 824 .. 4 069 42 4 372 3 192 4 475 2 157 134 281 57 108 1 939 3 319 1 744 66 671 .. 4 185 257 .. 21 064 1 491 41 208 18 585 .. 193 600 1 366 579 104 735 8 538 2 256 2 480 26 565 27 414 6 393 1 658 208 932 422 921
% change 1997-2001 24% 92% (10) .. -6% 42% .. -37% 68% -8% 27% 29% 7% 67% -18% -1% 9% .. -5% .. 5% .. .. 48% 39% 72% 34% -15% (11) 32% 14% 35% 1% 29% -10% 88% 25% -7% 128% -18% 71% -15%
% change 2000-2001 5% 28% 26% -4% 2% .. -6% -2% -6% 1% -6% -17% 22% -4% 14% -5% .. -1% .. -4% -16% -31% (12) 13% -16% -5% 8% -2% (12) 13% 8% 0% 12% -5% 4% 52% 14% 1% 24% 7% 6% 4%
(1) Definitions of offences vary between countries both due to legal differences and statistical recording methods; comparisons may be affected by these differences. (2) Stealing from a person with force or threat of force. Includes muggings (bag-snatching) and theft with violence; excludes pick-pocketing, extortion and blackmailing. (3) By financial year (e.g. 1997 = 1 April 1997 to 31 March 1998). Revised counting rules from 1 April 1998. (4) By financial year (e.g. 1997 = 1 April 1997 to 31 March 1998). Figures from 1998/99 are recorded under revised counting rules and are not comparable with previous years. (5) Includes attempts. (6) A new recording system is being implemented which has resulted in improvements in recording. Therefore recent figures may not be comparable with those of previous years.
(7) Figures from 2000 onwards are not comparable with previous years as they no longer include offences dealt with by the Judicial Police. (8) Includes attempts, preparation and conspiracy to commit an offence. (9) In calculating the EU average, all EU countries have been given equal weight. (10) Comparisons between the earlier year and 2001/2002 are based on figures for the financial year 2001/2002 which have been adjusted to take account of the effect of the new counting rules. (11) 1996 - 2000. (12) 1999 - 2000. .. Data not available.
Source: Statistical contacts in each country.
13
Table 1.5
Crimes(1) recorded by the police: Domestic burglary(2)
Country
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
EU average(14) England & Wales(3) Northern Ireland(3) Scotland(4) Austria Belgium(5) Bulgaria(6) Cyprus(6) Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece(6) Hungary Ireland (Eire)(7) Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg(8) Malta Netherlands Norway Poland(8) Portugal Romania Russia Slovakia Slovenia Spain(6) Sweden(10) Switzerland(11) Turkey(6) Australia Canada(12) Japan(5) New Zealand South Africa(13) U.S.A.(11)
501 593 7 155 36 792 12 826 143 769 85 356 1 079 13 068 34 648 6 610 10 436 213 561 182 009 44 286 31 269 16 970 237 445 .. 9 424 2 416 .. 97 690 16 923 70 187 24 202 31 311 268 355 3 854 558 229 790 18 359 82 559 96 775 284 974 233 724 221 678 49 376 249 375 2 460 526
473 349 7 725 38 033 11 811 63 022 47 770 1 358 12 752 31 463 7 026 10 291 207 274 166 742 43 228 30 515 15 840 246 804 .. 9 246 2 649 .. 90 357 15 106 74 137 21 515 29 404 292 501 3 639 518 226 207 17 536 83 416 113 421 295 699 221 366 237 703 49 481 266 817 2 332 735
442 602 7 665 36 265 10 111 61 916 34 579 1 019 12 445 34 311 7 588 9 763 191 102 149 044 36 947 29 902 14 286 234 252 .. 9 180 2 092 .. 91 996 12 636 74 326 22 224 21 287 374 764 3 601 988 239 896 16 834 76 322 104 282 273 867 197 022 260 981 47 621 285 515 2 100 739
402 984 8 375 32 684 13 262 75 846 37 375 1 018 11 294 32 846 7 285 9 264 186 492 140 015 31 840 26 866 13 376 207 317 .. 9 203 2 081 .. 91 146 11 066 77 427 21 153 19 024 348 097 3 248 .. 224 725 17 581 60 384 89 351 275 821 175 804 296 486 40 999 302 826 2 050 992
430 372 9 064 30 181 13 008 .. 36 269 801 10 590 32 274 7 652 7 957 210 850 133 722 31 903 26 194 14 877 .. .. 8 647 1 947 .. 91 693 10 303 72 167 20 806 .. 350 259 3 144 .. 247 491 15 169 57 375 48 159 275 369 167 322 303 698 36 255 .. 2 109 767
% change 1997-2001 -10% -26% (15) 27% -18% 1% .. -58% -26% -19% -7% 16% -24% -1% -27% -28% -16% .. -10% (16) .. -8% .. .. -6% -39% 3% -14% -34% (16) 31% -18% .. 8% -17% -31% -50% -3% -28% 37% -27% 23% (16) -14%
% change 2000-2001 0% 7% 8% -8% -2% 22% (17) -3% -21% -6% -2% 5% -14% 13% -4% 0% -3% .. -11% (17) .. -6% -6% .. 1% -7% -7% -2% -11% (17) 1% -3% .. 10% -14% -5% -46% 0% -5% 2% -12% 6% (17) 3%
(1) Definitions of offences vary between countries both due to legal differences and statistical recording methods; comparisons may be affected by these differences. (2) Gaining access to a dwelling by the use of force to steal goods. (3) By financial year (e.g. 1997 = 1 April 1997 to 31 March 1998). (4) Includes domestic housebreaking in buildings other than dwellings. (5) Until 1997, includes burglary in non-domestic premises (e.g. shop, garage, hotel). (6) Includes burglary in non-domestic premises (e.g. shop, garage, hotel). (7) A new recording system is being implemented which has resulted in improvements in recording. Therefore recent figures may not be comparable with those of previous years. (8) Figures from 2000 onwards are not comparable with previous years as they no longer include offences dealt with by the Judicial Police.
(9) Includes burglary from garrets and basements in blocks of flats. (10) Includes attempts, preparation and conspiracy to commit an offence. (11) Includes attempts and burglary in non-domestic premises (e.g. shop, garage, hotel). (12) Includes attempts. May or may not include the use of force. (13) Includes attempts. (14) In calculating the EU average, all EU countries have been given equal weight. (15) Comparisons between the earlier year and 2001/2002 are based on figures for the financial year 2001/2002 which have been adjusted to take account of the effect of the new counting rules. (16) 1996 ­ 2000. (17) 1999 ­ 2000. .. Data not available.
Source: Statistical contacts in each country.
14
Table 1.6
Crimes(1) recorded by the police: Theft of a motor vehicle(2)
Country
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
EU average(11) England & Wales(3) Northern Ireland(4) Scotland(5) Austria Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia(6) Finland France Germany Greece(7) Hungary(7) Ireland (Eire)(8) Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg(8) Malta Netherlands(7) Norway Poland(7) Portugal Romania Russia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden(10) Switzerland Turkey Australia Canada(5) Japan New Zealand South Africa U.S.A.
400 524 8 090 28 646 5 950 35 242 2 433 1 609 31 331 42 701 1 762 22 015 417 360 190 585 6 568 20 163 13 589 301 233 2 082 6 697 675 .. 37 309 20 019 56 871 22 792 2 110 35 778 7 438 1 145 133 330 78 826 .. 19 515 130 138 177 130 269 138 32 082 100 637 1 354 189
391 807 9 715 28 433 5 771 36 555 1 433 1 252 29 779 38 871 2 106 26 404 415 930 162 518 7 610 20 849 13 793 309 113 2 483 6 946 655 1 166 37 408 21 672 65 399 26 965 2 284 35 448 7 682 1 311 136 084 76 495 .. 19 109 131 587 165 920 282 248 30 803 107 513 1 242 781
374 686 10 196 29 818 5 679 35 780 976 959 28 946 35 195 2 455 29 611 395 947 140 636 7 239 16 670 14 851 294 726 3 102 6 671 626 1 076 37 831 20 863 74 514 28 163 2 331 37 152 7 123 1 147 138 961 78 216 .. 17 912 129 552 161 388 286 069 25 680 113 091 1 152 075
338 796 10 806 26 238 8 601 33 395 2 298 1 237 25 539 33 730 2 322 26 391 401 057 127 750 5 702 14 297 15 964 243 890 2 932 9 006 542 1 051 38 320 23 339 68 062 26 428 2 149 38 439 6 073 1 291 134 583 75 125 .. .. 139 094 160 315 309 638 21 992 100 647 1 160 002
328 147 11 635 23 208 5 740 .. 2 076 1 441 23 539 29 464 2 818 22 583 418 983 121 533 5 459 12 397 14 533 .. .. 8 924 496 .. 35 037 20 598 59 458 26 162 .. .. 6 073 1 222 147 441 73 309 .. .. 139 943 170 213 305 792 20 201 98 942 1 226 457
% change 1997-2001 -7% -30% (12) 44% -19% -4% -1% (13) -15% -10% -25% -31% 60% 3% 0% -36% -17% -39% .. -23% (13) 32% (13) 33% .. .. -6% 3% 5% 15% 19% (13) -8% (13) -18% 7% 11% -7% .. .. 8% -4% 14% -37% -2% -9%
% change 2000-2001 -7% -3% 8% -12% -33% -7% (14) -10% 16% -8% -13% 21% -14% 4% -5% -4% -13% .. -17% (14) -5% (14) -1% -8% -2% (14) -9% -12% -13% -1% -8% (14) 3% (14) 0% -5% 10% -2% .. .. 1% 6% -1% -8% -2% 6%
(1) Definitions of offences vary between countries both due to legal differences and statistical recording methods; comparisons may be affected by these differences. (2) All land vehicles with an engine that run on the road which are used to carry people (including cars, motor cycles, buses, lorries, construction and agricultural vehicles, etc.). (3) By financial year (e.g. 1997 = 1 April 1997 to 31 March 1998). (4) By financial year (e.g. 1997 = 1 April 1997 to 31 March 1998). Figures from 1998/99 are recorded under revised counting rules and are not comparable with previous years. (5) Includes attempts. (6) Taking/conversion of motor vehicles. (7) Cars only. (8) A new recording system is being implemented which has resulted in improvements in recording. Therefore Source: Statistical contacts in each country.
recent figures may not be comparable with those of previous years. (9) Figures from 2000 onwards are not comparable with previous years as they no longer include offences dealt with by the Judicial Police. (10) Includes attempts, preparation and conspiracy to commit an offence. (11) In calculating the EU average, all EU countries have been given equal weight. (12) Comparisons between the earlier year and 2001/2002 are based on figures for the financial year 2001/2002 which have been adjusted to take account of the effect of the new counting rules. (13) 1996 ­ 2000. (14) 1999 ­ 2000. .. Data not available.
15
Table 1.7
Crimes(1) recorded by the police: Drug trafficking(2)
Country
1997
1998
1999
2000
EU average(12) England & Wales(3) Northern Ireland(3) Scotland Austria Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus(4) Czech Republic(5) Denmark Estonia(6) Finland(4) France Germany Greece(4) Hungary Ireland (Eire)(7) Italy Latvia(4) Lithuania(6) Luxembourg(4)(8) Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania(4) Russia(4) Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden(9) Switzerland Turkey(4) Australia Canada(4) Japan(10) New Zealand(4) South Africa(4) U.S.A.(11)
23 336 176 8 180 2 656 11 072 32 239 2 404 171 30 8 323 8 300 69 093 5 970 51 1 637 41 420 426 616 805 37 13 675 16 169 1 006 3 390 803 175 868 967 620 14 274 5 501 3 253 2 900 24 313 66 593 2 359 14 532 42 805 33 628
21 788 193 8 490 2 594 10 158 39 285 4 156 178 117 9 461 11 908 68 994 6 574 122 1 766 43 014 389 607 825 88 7 690 17 276 2 297 3 538 620 181 481 520 659 13 263 5 320 3 734 2 569 23 348 70 922 2 712 15 158 39 830 37 762
19 956 193 8 668 2 514 9 968 31 252 6 100 129 180 11 674 12 529 73 271 6 692 390 1 971 45 038 511 693 941 100 7 613 17 820 2 181 4 091 653 206 874 362 740 12 389 5 256 3 715 3 303 17 702 80 142 2 299 25 103 41 461 39 500
19 820 228 8 761 1 503 9 488 80 289 3 292 229 306 13 445 4 254 76 594 7 785 578 1 706 34 800 655 915 1 226 .. 7 474 19 302 1 866 3 214 561 233 490 604 964 11 032 4 012 3 021 3 448 14 601 88 091 2 307 24 419 45 572 38 957
2001 19 645 210 10 293 2 399 .. 60 388 1 932 168 628 14 869 4 047 79 787 9 693 857 2 134 .. .. 954 1 077 .. 10 380 21 411 2 219 3 853 .. .. 652 1 140 11 574 3 719 2 978 .. 12 697 91 920 2 381 23 839 49 839 33 539
% change 1997-2001 4% -16% 19% 26% -10% 13% (13) 88% 62% -20% -2% 1993% 79% -51% 15% 62% 1580% .. -11% (13) 81% (13) 55% .. .. -24% 32% 121% 14% -6% (13) 160% (13) -33% 84% -19% -32% -8% 29% (13) -48% 38% 1% .. 16% 0%
% change 2000-2001 6% -1% -8% 17% 60% -5% (14) -25% 34% -41% -27% 105% 11% -5% 4% 25% 48% .. -23% (14) 28% (14) 4% -12% .. 39% 11% 19% 20% -14% (14) 13% (14) 8% 18% 5% -7% -1% 4% (14) -13% 4% 3% -2% 9% -14%
(1) Definitions of offences vary between countries both due to legal differences and statistical recording methods; comparisons may be affected by these differences. (2) Illegal importing, exporting, supplying, transportation, etc. of narcotic drugs. (3) By financial year from 1997 (e.g. 1997 = 1 April 1997 to 31 March 1998). (4) All drugs offences. (5) Number of people prosecuted. (6) Illegal manufacture, acquisition, storage, transportation, delivery or trafficking of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances. (7) A new recording system is being implemented which has resulted in improvements in recording. Therefore
recent figures may not be comparable with those of previous years. (8) Figures from 2000 onwards are not comparable with previous years as they no longer include offences dealt with by the Judicial Police. (9) Includes attempts, preparation and conspiracy to commit an offence. (10) Excluding amphetamines. (11) Arrests by Drug Enforcement Agency. (12) In calculating the EU average, all EU countries have been given equal weight. (13) 1996 ­ 2000. (14) 1999 ­ 2000. .. Data not available.
Source: Statistical contacts in each country.
16
Table 2 Country
Victimisation risk
Percentage victim once or more in 1999
Overall
Contact crime(1)
Theft of a car
England & Wales
26
Northern Ireland
15
Scotland
23
3.6
2.6
2.4
1.5
3.4
1.0
Belgium Denmark Finland
21
1.8
0.8
23
2.3
1.4
19
3.2
0.5
France
21
2.2
1.9
Netherlands
25
2
0.5
Poland
23
2.8
1.7
Portugal Spain Sweden
15
1.4
1.2
19
1.5
0.5
25
2.2
1.6
Switzerland
18
2.1
0.4
Australia Canada Japan U.S.A
30
4.1
2.1
24
3.4
1.6
15
0.4
0.1
21
1.9
0.5
(1) Robbery, assaults with force and sexual assaults (against women only). Source: Criminal Victimisation in 17 Industrialised Countries: Key findings from the 2000 International Crime Victims Survey (Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum, The Netherlands).
Burglary (inc. attempts) 5.2 2.5 3.2 4.1 4.2 1.2 2.3 3.6 3.1 2.5 1.9 2.3 2.7 6.6 4.4 1.8 3.8
17
Table 3
Number of police officers(1)
Country EU average(8) England & Wales Northern Ireland(2) Scotland Austria Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany(3) Greece(7) Hungary Ireland (Eire) Italy(5) Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Norway Poland(6) Portugal Romania Russia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Australia Canada(7) Japan New Zealand South Africa U.S.A.
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
127 158 11 480 15 050 26 291 35 613 .. 4 092 43 722 9 837 5 640 7 843 224 693 229 424 44 183 29 532 10 968 261 082 11 067 17 991 .. .. 39 917 7 404 101 027 44 448 50 261 .. 19 577 6 815 188 143 16 783 14 210 145 000 40 270 54 719 226 401 .. .. 618 127
126 814 11 358 14 854 26 817 36 419 .. 4 288 43 888 9 962 5 306 7 889 223 582 237 786 45 389 30 356 11 235 265 093 10 878 18 229 .. 1 756 40 340 7 384 99 285 45 484 48 803 .. 13 988 6 821 187 620 16 429 14 367 152 000 40 776 54 763 226 401 .. .. 641 208
126 096 11 081 14 684 26 883 36 179 .. 4 288 44 083 10 048 3 787 7 960 227 123 .. 48 981 29 872 11 458 273 422 10 697 18 069 .. 1 734 41 370 7 725 99 955 46 781 48 106 .. 13 957 6 465 187 152 16 201 14 156 160 000 40 570 55 321 226 401 .. .. 637 551
124 170 10 306 14 948 26 815 36 933 .. 4 288 44 828 10 197 3 633 8 030 233 484 237 198 51 081 28 873 11 640 273 211 10 649 17 562 1 196 1 718 42 930 8 031 100 754 48 047 45 830 .. 14 373 6 882 185 012 16 089 14 500 166 000 40 573 55 974 226 351 .. .. 654 601
125 682 9 161 15 093 28 440 37 432 .. 4 467 44 940 10 228 3 550 8 186 211 258 .. 51 254 28 966 11 815 270 696 .. 16 663 1 205 .. 46 341 8 121 101 246 48 399 .. .. 14 585 7 359 184 604 16 120 14 466 .. 40 779 57 076 228 843 .. .. 659 101
% change 1997-2001
% change 2000-2001
Police officers(1) per 100,000 population average per year 1999 to 2001
3%
0%
337
-1%
1%
241
-20%
-11%
605
0%
1%
292
8%
6%
337
5%
1%
360
..
..
..
9%
4%
623
3%
0%
434
4%
0%
190
-37% 4% -6% .. 16% -2%
-2% 2% -10% .. 0% 0%
266 156 381 289 (12) 461 288
8% 4% 15% (9)
2% -1% 0% (10)
306 472 443 (11)
-7% .. ..
-5% 1% -1% (10)
496 273 (13) 447 (11)
16%
8%
274
10%
1%
178
0%
0%
260
9% -11% (9) ..
1% -5% (10) ..
461 212 (11) ..
-25%
1%
265
8%
7%
358
-2%
0%
457
-4% 2% 20% (9)
0% 0% 4% (10)
182 198 246 (11)
1%
1%
212
4%
2%
182
1%
1%
179
..
..
..
..
..
..
7%
1%
230
(1) All ranks of police officers including criminal police, traffic police, border police, gendarmerie, uniformed police, city guard, municipal police. Excludes civilian staff, customs officers, tax police, military police, secret service police, part-time officers, special duty police reserves, cadets, court police. (2) Includes full-time reserves. (3) Up to 1997, all personnel counted; from 1998 only established (permanent) posts included. (4) Includes police officers, special guards and border guards. (5) Includes Polizia di Stato, Arma dei Carbinieri and Corpo della Guardia di Finanza. Source: Statistical contacts in each country.
(6) Includes criminal police, uniformed police and traffic police. (7) Excludes border police. Includes part-time officers which are converted to full-time equivalents. (8) In calculating the EU average, all EU countries have been given equal weight. (9) 1996 ­ 2000. (10) 1999 ­ 2000. (11) 1998 ­ 2000. (12) In 2000. (13) 2000 ­ 2001. .. Data not available.
18
Table 4.1
Sentencing and sentence lengths: Assault(1), 1999
England & Wales
Northern Ireland
Scotland
SENTENCING
Total number sentenced per 100,000 population
65
35
229
Percentage of which were: Fined Non-custodial sentences Suspended sentences Unsuspended sentences Other measures
13% 54% 1% 29% 3%
19% 28% 25% 24% 4%
51% 34% .. 15% ..
Denmark 79 6% 11% 29% 51% 3%
France
Germany
88
71
26% 14% 40% 20% ..
44% 25% 23% 8% ..
Portugal
Sweden
2 (2)
90
2% 1% 15% 83% ..
26% 39% 10% 26% ..
Number of unsuspended sentences Percentage of which were: under 6 months 6 and less than 12 months 12 and less than 24 months 24 and less than 60 months 60 months and over Life (absolute number)
SENTENCE LENGTHS
9 985
137
39% 21% 21% 16% 3% 71
30% 33% 13% 18% 7% 0
1 814 57% 18% 12% 9% 4% 1
2 156 91% 6% 2% 1% 0% 0
10 555 61% 23% 13% (3) 2% (4) 1% 0
4 043 23% 34% 24% 18% 1% 0
134 11% 24% 33% 25% 7% ..
1 898 64% 17% 17% 2% 0% ..
(1) Inflicting bodily injury on another person with intent, excluding assault leading to death, threats, only causing pain, slapping or punching and sexual assault. Source: European Sourcebook of Crime & Criminal Justice Statistics 2003 (forthcoming, Home Office UK, WODC The Netherlands & University of Lausanne Switzerland) available at www.europeansourcebook.org.
(2) Figures for Portugal appear low because the criminal procedure only commences if the alleged victim makes a complaint. The alleged victim may withdraw the complaint at any time and thereby stop the process.
(3) 12 and less than 36 months. (4) 36 and less than 60 months. .. Data not available.
19
Table 4.2
Sentencing and sentence lengths: Robbery(1), 1999
England & Wales
Northern Ireland
Scotland
Total number sentenced per 100,000 population Percentage of which were: Fined Non-custodial sentences Suspended sentences Unsuspended sentences Other measures
SENTENCING 11 0% 26% 1% 72% 1%
8 1% 32% 15% 53% 0%
13 5% 25% .. 70% 0%
Denmark 13 0% 9% 12% 74% 6%
France 9
Germany 13
Portugal
Sweden
1 (2)
7
1% 11% 27% 60% ..
1% 26% 36% 38% ..
3% 3% 12% 82% 0%
1% 29% 6% 64% ..
Number of unsuspended sentences Percentage of which were: under 6 months 6 and less than 12 months 12 and less than 24 months 24 and less than 60 months 60 months and ov er Lif e (absolute number)
SENTENCE LENGTHS
4 085
68
5% 6% 21% 52% 16% 37
0% 9% 38% 40% 13% 0
463 19% 16% 22% 25% 17% 0
507 21% 31% 31% 16% 1% 1
3 149 37% 25% 23% (3) 6% (4) 10% 1
3 394 2% 11% 29% 47% 12% 2
50 1% 6% 22% 47% 25% ..
344 13% 7% 54% 26% .. ..
(1) Stealing f rom a person with f orce or threat including muggings (bag-snatching) and thef t with v iolence; excluding pick-pocketing, extortion and blackmailing. Source: European Sourcebook of Crime & Criminal Justice Statistics 2003 (forthcoming, Home Office UK, WODC The Netherlands & University of Lausanne Switzerland) available at www.europeansourcebook.org
(2) Figures f or Portugal appear low because the criminal procedure only commences if the alleged v ictim makes a complaint. The alleged v ictim may withdraw the complaint at any time and thereby stop the process.
(3) 12 and less than 36 months. (4) 36 and less than 60 months. .. Data not av ailable.
20
Table 4.3
Sentencing and sentence lengths: Theft(1), 1999
England & Wales
Northern Ireland
Scotland
SENTENCING
Total number sentenced per 100,000 population
290
167
370
Percentage of which were: Fined Non-custodial sentences Suspended sentences Unsuspended sentences Other measures
20% 53% 0% 24% 2%
18% 42% 12% 26% 2%
37% 32% .. 31% ..
Denmark 383 70% 6% 11% 12% 1%
France
Germany
158
209
9% 21% 37% 33% ..
59% 18% 9% 14% ..
Portugal
Sweden
12 (2)
292
3% 8% 33% 56% 0%
48% 41% 0% 11% ..
Number of unsuspended sentences Percentage of which were: under 6 months 6 and less than 12 months 12 and less than 24 months 24 and less than 60 months 60 months and over Life (absolute number)
SENTENCE LENGTHS
37 164
697
61% 12% 16% 10% 1% 0
53% 37% 5% 4% 1% 0
6 011 76% 18% 4% 2% 0% 0
2 320 86% 11% 3% 0% 0% 0
31 533
20 293
66% 22% 10% (3) 1% (4) 1% 4
41% 28% 21% 10% 0% 0
661 7% 19% 20% 42% 12% 0
2 843 64% 26% 9% 1% .. ..
(1) Depriving a person or organisation of property without force with the intent to keep it including burglary, theft of motor vehicles, of other items and of small value; excluding embezzlement, theft by employees and receiving and handling of stolen goods. Source: European Sourcebook of Crime & Criminal Justice Statistics 2003 (forthcoming, Home Office UK, WODC The Netherlands & University of Lausanne Switzerland) available at www.europeansourcebook.org
(2) Figures for Portugal appear low because the criminal procedure only commences if the alleged victim makes a complaint. The alleged victim may withdraw the complaint at any time and thereby stop the process.
(3) 12 and less than 36 months. (4) 36 and less than 60 months. .. Data not available.
21
Table 5
Prison population(1)
Country England & Wales(2) Northern Ireland Scotland(3) Austria(4) Belgium(3) Bulgaria
1991 46 310 1 996 4 839 6 714 6 194 ..
1992 46 350 1 811 5 257 6 913 6 869 8 022
Cyprus Czech Republic(5) Denmark Estonia(6) Finland(5) France(7) Germany(5) Greece Hungary(5)
223 12 730 3 404 4 408 3 427 48 675 52 970 5 321 14 810
221 13 967 3 406 4 778 3 175 49 323 59 579 6 602 15 913
Ireland (Eire) Italy(5) Latvia Lithuania(6) Luxembourg Malta
2 114 32 813 .. 8 891 365 ..
2 155 46 152 8 340 9 175 408 169
Netherlands Norway(3) Poland(2)
7 302 2 548 57 083
7 495 2 477 61 040
Portugal Romania Russia(5)
8 171 .. 722 636
9 183 39 609 750 280
Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden(8) Switzerland(9) Turkey Australia(10) Canada(11) Japan(3) New Zealand(4) South Africa(3) U.S.A.(10)
.. 820 3 512 5 203 5 375 .. 15 021 30 808 45 749 4 278 101 775 1 219 014
6 311 936 40 950 5 249 5 441 31 582 15 559 32 188 44 876 4 369 102 268 1 295 150
1993 45 633 1 902 5 637 7 099 7 489 .. 194 16 567 3 370 4 514 3 432 51 134 65 828 7 135 13 196 2 801 51 231 .. 9 900 418 .. 8 037 2 650 61 895 11 079 .. 844 870 .. 960 45 341 5 697 5 627 .. 15 866 33 076 45 057 4 600 111 798 1 369 185
1994 49 392 1 911 5 585 6 806 7 489 .. 184 18 753 3 508 4 518 3 322 53 758 65 452 5 835 13 143 2 053 52 041 .. 10 357 452 204 8 737 2 670 61 694 10 023 .. 920 685 .. 879 48 201 6 210 5 676 .. 16 944 32 803 45 573 4 413 110 933 1 476 621
1995 51 265 1 740 5 626 6 180 7 564 9 045 202 19 508 3 421 4 401 3 092 53 178 65 652 5 831 12 454 2 032 49 102 9 457 12 768 453 196 11 616 2 610 65 819 11 829 46 454 1 017 372 7 979 648 45 198 6 285 5 655 49 895 17 428 34 744 46 535 4 685 110 069 1 585 586
1996 55 537 1 640 5 862 6 778 8 039 10 900 235 20 860 3 194 4 224 3 248 54 014 71 675 5 270 12 762 2 139 48 747 .. 13 289 427 189 13 261 2 602 57 320 13 743 43 609 1 051 515 8 168 614 44 312 5 768 5 479 .. 18 193 34 754 48 395 4 983 118 731 1 646 020
1997 61 940 1 555 6 084 6 946 8 174 11 847 263 21 560 3 170 4 638 2 836 54 442 75 026 5 577 13 405 2 424 50 527 .. 12 200 443 254 13 618 2 536 57 424 14 167 44 227 1 009 863 7 656 768 43 453 5 221 5 428 60 606 19 128 33 723 50 091 5 152 134 202 1 743 643
1998 65 771 1 454 6 018 6 891 8 130 11 773 226 22 067 3 340 4 791 2 772 53 607 78 324 7 129 14 366 2 620 49 173 10 070 13 628 392 260 13 333 2 466 59 180 14 330 51 310 996 913 6 897 793 44 747 5 290 5 648 60 391 19 906 32 714 51 986 5 450 141 441 1 816 931
1999 65 594 1 158 6 029 6 877 8 143 10 787 247 23 060 3 496 4 379 2 663 53 948 79 666 7 525 15 110 2 741 53 296 .. 14 412 386 230 13 231 2 512 54 842 13 086 51 396 106 085 6 904 935 45 384 5 484 5 818 67 581 21 538 32 390 53 947 5 661 154 576 1 893 115
2000 65 666 1 011 5 869 6 861 8 524 9 424 288 21 358 3 240 4 679 2 887 48 835 79 348 8 038 15 539 2 887 54 479 .. 14 566 400 257 13 847 2 548 65 336 12 728 49 682 923 600 7 136 1 136 45 309 5 678 5 727 49 512 21 714 31 608 58 747 5 720 166 334 1 935 919
2001 67 056 872 6 137 7 059 8 536 8 971 369 19 320 3 105 4 803 3 110 47 005 78 959 8 343 17 257 3 019 55 743 8 831 9 516 341 257 14 968 2 634 80 004 13 210 50 307 979 285 7 348 1 155 46 594 6 089 5 160 55 609 22 458 31 547 63 415 5 887 174 893 1 964 301
22
(1) At 1 September: number of prisoners including pretrial detainees. (2) At 31 August. (3) Average daily population. (4) Annual averages. Source: Statistical contacts in each country; World Prison Population Brief (International Centre for Prison Studies, Kings College, London) at www.kcl.ac.uk/depsta/rel/icps.
(5) At 31 December. (6) At 1 January. (7) Metropolitan and overseas departments. (8) At 30 September. (9) At 21 March. From 2001, at 4 September.
(10) At 30 June. (11) Average daily counts by financial year (e.g. 1991 = 1 April 1991 - 31 March 1992). .. Data not available.
23
Research Development & Statistics Directorate mission statement RDS is part of the Home Office. The Home Office's purpose is to build a safe, just and tolerant society in which the rights and responsibilities of individuals, families and communities are properly balanced and the protection and security of the public are maintained. RDS is also part of National Statistics (NS). One of the aims of NS is to inform Parliament and the citizen about the state of the nation and provide a window on the work and performance of the government, allowing the impact of government policies and actions to be assessed. Therefore: Research Development & Statistics Directorate exists to improve policy making, decision taking and practice in support of the Home Office's purpose and aims, to provide the public and Parliament with the information necessary for informed debate and to publish the information for future use.
Notes 1. The Home Office has been collecting and publishing data from other countries on the number of crimes recorded by the police and the prison population since 1993. The number of countries covered and the comparability of the data received has improved since then due to closer liaison with foreign organisations. Although the information received is double-checked with the countries supplying the data, the Home Office cannot guarantee that the data presented is completely accurate or comparable. 2. The authors would like to thank the data suppliers in each country for their assistance in preparing this Bulletin. 3. The tables in this Bulletin are based on Excel spreadsheets which are available from the RDS Website at http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/publf.htm Other RDS publications are also available at the URL above or by contacting: RDS Communications & Development Unit Home Office 50 Queen Anne's Gate Room 264 LONDON SW1H 9AT Tel: 020 7273 2084 FAX: 020 7222 0211 Email: [email protected] 4. If you have any enquiries about the figures in this bulletin please contact the authors: Gordon Barclay (Tel: 020 7273 3960) Cynthia Tavares (Tel/FAX: 020 7273 3154) Research, Development & Statistics Directorate 50 Queen Anne's Gate LONDON SW1H 9AT Email: [email protected] Email: [email protected] 5. Press enquiries should be made to: Home Office Press Office 50 Queen Anne's Gate LONDON SW1H 9AT Tel: 020 7273 4545 24

File: international-comparisons-of-criminal-justice-statistics-2000.pdf
Title: International comparisons of criminal justice statistics 2001
Author: Gordon Barclay,Cynthia Tavares
Keywords: Home Office,RDS,international comparisons,criminal justice statistics,2001,statistical bulletin 12/03
Published: Wed Oct 15 14:39:06 2003
Pages: 24
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