List of Illustrations vii Acknowledgements viii Notes on Contributors ix Introduction: Home Tourism

Tags: Ireland, England, Scotland, Michael Cronin, London, tourists, Britain, Benjamin Colbert, Wales, n11, Cambridge University Press, University of California Press, tourist, travel, William Weaver, Daniel Williams, James Norris Brewer, Home Tour, John D., Lady Morgan, Letters on England, Thomas, Desmond Fennell, Palgrave Macmillan, Irish travellers, James Norris, William H. A. Williams, Malcolm Andrews, Ann Bermingham, Channel View Publications, John Hibernia, John Bull, William Whittaker, Ian Ousby, John Glendening, John Henry, Esther Moir, James Buzard, George Nelson, Charles Francis 37 Griffin, William Forbes, Thomas S. Badger, Alexander William, William 171 Davies, Irish Tourism, Britain and Ireland, beautiful scenery, British Isles, the British Isles, Tintern Abbey, Thomas Pennant, William Henry Shakespeare, Samuel Carter, George Bernard, Sir Walter Scott, William Makepeace, Thomas Noon, John 139 Schopenhauer, Peter George, William Williams, Richard Colt, 164�5 De Quincey, Sir William, Louis Letters, John R., Joseph Jean Marie Charles
Content: Contents
PROOF
List of Illustrations
vii
Acknowledgements
viii
Notes on Contributors
ix
Introduction: Home Tourism
1
Benjamin Colbert
1 Peripheral Vision, Landscape, and Nation-Building
in Thomas Pennant's Tours of Scotland, 1769­72
13
Paul Smethurst
2 Beside the Seaside: Mary Morgan's Tour to Milford
Haven, in the Year 1791
31
Zoл Kinsley
3 `Ancient and Present': Charles Heath of Monmouth
and the Historical and Descriptive Accounts ... of Tintern
Abbey 1793­1828
50
C. S. Matheson
4 Britain through Foreign Eyes: Early Nineteenth-Century
Home Tourism in Translation
68
Benjamin Colbert
5 The Attractions of England, or Albion under German Eyes
85
Jan Borm
6 The Irish Tour, 1800­50
97
William H. A. Williams
7 `Missions of Benevolence': Tourism and Charity on
Nineteenth-Century Iona
114
Katherine Haldane Grenier
8 Holiday Excursions to Scott Country
132
Nicola J. Watson
9 `Every Hill has Its History, Every Region Its Romance':
Travellers' Constructions of Wales, 1844­1913
147
Katie Gramich
v
vi Contents
PROOF
10 Famine Travel: Irish Tourism from the Great Famine to
Decolonization
164
Spurgeon Thompson
11 Meeting Kate Kearney at Killarney: Performances of the
Touring Subject, 1850­1914
181
K. J. James
12 `The Romance of the Road': Narratives of Motoring in
England, 1896­1930
201
Esme Coulbert
13 Home Truths: Language, Slowness, and Microspection
219
Michael Cronin
Bibliography
236
Index
250
PROOF Introduction: Home Tourism Benjamin Colbert A season comes in every year when Englishmen are converted into a nation of tourists. ... We are so far happy in the British Isles, that it is rather an advantage to those amongst us who love beautiful scenery for its own sake, to be turned back upon our own country. ... There are the Scotch Highlands and the English Lakes; there are North and South Wales, ­ Snowdon and the Vale of Festiniog; Chepstow and the Wye; ­ there is Devonshire with the Dart and the Exe; there are the southern counties with all their beautiful home scenery. All these points are more or less visited by all wanderers. There is one portion of the British Isles, however, which, as far as beauty and variety of scenery are concerned, yields to no other, but yet remains comparatively unknown. How few are the persons who, except for business purposes, have visited the southern and western districts of Ireland! The Times (18 June 1849)1 Travel begins and ends at home. The journey out and the homecoming have long been framing devices in travel accounts, while home itself remains a point of reference, perhaps more so the farther a traveller goes (Marco Polo, as Italo Calvino perceptively represents him in Invisible Cities, always speaks of Venice when describing Chinese cities to Kublai Khan).2 It is no different with `home tourism', localized itineraries that indicate a desire to discover closer at hand what is unfamiliar, yet at the same time to harmonize, homogenize, and extend the purview of home. Yet within the British Isles national, linguistic, and cultural 1
2 Introduction: Home Tourism
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boundaries are indelibly inscribed. Travellers from and to the four nations ­ England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales ­ have long found themselves at once `at home' and on foreign ground as they move beyond borders that demarcate their senses of belonging. Historically, travel writers have responded variously to these dislocations. Sometimes they engage in proto-colonialist commentary on the civilization, cultivation, or modernity of those whom they encounter; sometimes they grope towards a selfhood that acknowledges and embraces otherness (what Michael Cronin has called a `micro-cosmopolitan' identity3); and at other times they elide all questions of identity politics into an aesthetics of landscape, the `beauty and variety of scenery' that The Times projected in 1849 as the measure of tourist desire. The history of home tourism in Britain dates back at least to religious pilgrimage. Chaucer's Canterbury pilgrims, as Ian Ousby remarks, anticipate nearly all the attitudes and patterns of modern tourism: the fixed itineraries, the attention to predetermined sights, the trust in guides, the desire for keepsakes and souvenirs, and the longing for a higher purpose that justifies the whole.4 An earlier example might be found in Gerald of Wales, who recorded his travels in 1188 `accompanying Archbishop Baldwin on a mission to acquire volunteers to embark on a Crusade', as Katie Gramich notes in her contribution to this volume. However, Esther Moir traces `the habit of touring their native land' to English gentry in the sixteenth century, pride in the accomplishments of Tudor England and a desire to extend its power motivating their journeys.5 While the Grand Tour held sway on the European Continent and provided gentleman tourists with well-established itineraries and patterns of self-fashioning, the home tour, as Moir argues, was the preserve of individualists who toured out of enthusiasm but with fewer guidelines and expected outcomes.6 Refusing to be drawn into a traveller/tourist debate over the authenticity of experience, Moir is right to allow even these individualists their denomination as `tourists'. Nevertheless, there does appear to be a qualitative difference between the period of habitformation and that of institutionalization, when tourist sights become, in Dean MacCannell's phrase, `sacralized'; when patterns of apperception and mobility become formalized; and when tourism begins steadily to extend below the aristocracy and gentry to include the middle and, later in the nineteenth century, the working classes.7 Though rooted earlier, modern home tourism (and arguably tourism in general) flowers in the mid-eighteenth century as a popular leisure pursuit with a developing infrastructure of roads, inns, attractions, guides, guidebooks, engravings, narratives, and, with the rise of the taste for picturesque
PROOF Benjamin Colbert 3 landscape, its own vocabulary and aesthetics. Picturesque tourism became an end in itself for some and a pleasing contrast with labouring Britain for others. Tourists also pursued agricultural, industrial, and scientific information;8 or the homes, haunts, and tombs of writers.9 Spas and coastal resorts became popular, as did beauty spots: the Lakes in Cumberland, the Scottish Highlands, Tintern Abbey and the Wye River valley, or the Lakes of Killarney in Ireland.10 So many of the home tourist paths laid down then are with us now. While there is a burgeoning scholarship on travel writing and tourism in Britain and Ireland, the principal studies ­ several by contributors to this volume ­ have had a regional, gender, or thematic focus.11 The privilege of an essay collection is to take a wider prospect, and this one, bringing together the latest research from leading travel historians and travel writing specialists, is the first devoted solely to the home tour. The essays chart many of the key developments of modern tourism and travel writing in Britain and Ireland from the late eighteenth to the early twentieth centuries, rounded off by a retrospective and prospective essay that takes its vantage from the borderlands of Ireland in the 1980s. The volume as a whole covers a period of immense political, social, and cultural change in the British Isles. Political milestones such as the Acts of Union between England and Scotland (1707) and Great Britain and Ireland (1800), or the French Revolution and Napoleonic wars that followed, began a process in which tourism and travel writing played a central role in imagining or re-imagining the nations jostling for position in the mental geographies of the British and Irish peoples.12 The essays here accordingly consider identity from various national perspectives, including those of foreign visitors from America and Continental Europe, and describe complicated negotiations between tourists' growing sense of Britain as a unified imperial centre, their desire for (or resistance to) homogeneity from within, and their recognition that language and representation intervene fundamentally in perceptions of belonging. Socially and culturally, the essays are also concerned with such issues as the aesthetic idealization of landscape and the patria, gender transgression and class stratification, the rise of mass travel and commercial culture, and the politics of touristic enjoyment. While no essay collection can claim comprehensiveness, this volume will be an indispensable guide to advanced students and scholars seeking an overview of modern home tourism in Britain and Ireland. Home tourism is a special type of what Susan Pitchford calls `identity tourism', `in which collective identities are represented, interpreted, and potentially constructed through the use of history and culture'.13
4 Introduction: Home Tourism
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Picturesque aesthetics, antiquarianism, and ethnology all serve this process by linking the surfaces and depths of touristic experience to wider frames of reference; Thomas West's comparison in 1778 of the Lake District to Continental scenery (`in miniature, an idea of ... the ALPS and APPENINES'),14 for example, gestured to a larger perspective in which home tourism became an argument for national self-sufficiency. British peripheries in Wales, Scotland, and Ireland were brought together as living museums of an inter-related Celtic heritage by numerous tourists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Meanwhile, conjoining England to its Welsh and Scottish neighbours, encyclopaedic projects such as Edward Wedlake Brayley and John Britton's The Beauties of England and Wales (18 vols, 1801­18) and Richard Ayton and William Daniell's A Voyage round Great Britain (8 vols, 1814­25) re-centred the nation. Brayley and Britton ­ and the many subeditors who carried on the project when they no longer could ­ made a point of undertaking extensive travels and local interviews, cross-checking empirical with historical data. The retrospective introduction, produced by James Norris Brewer after the completion of the main body of the work, argued that the endeavour had `performed the laudable task of ameliorating much that was repugnant in the crust of antiquity; ... and ha[d] proved that ponderous masses of monastic or castellated stone, nearly shapeless through age, and overgrown with ivy, are often fraught with tales of touching emphasis.15 The compilers' excavations and analyses reinvigorate the picturesque, its regimented views and formalist principles, by layering historical meaning onto and beneath the surfaces that present themselves to the tourist. The volumes thus stand for and promote a textualized landscape subordinate to a grand narrative that elicits national feelings (`tales of touching emphasis'). Touring Britain, the volumes assure their readers, is not an act of superficial dilettantism, but amounts to a reading of the nation and the foundations on which it is built. Increasingly, readers looked to home tourism and travel writing more widely to provide this rich description, to connect the past and present in a single narrative, and to `accredit' the participation of the tourist classes in the cultural life of the nation.16 The epitome of the textualization of landscape and the sign of touristic saturation is the guidebook, a term first used in 1814, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. `We can no longer set forth as discoverers', remarked a reviewer for The London Quarterly Review in 1864, with reference to the extension of John Murray's guidebook series from Continental destinations to his `red books' on the British Isles. In a manner reminiscent of the 1818 introduction to The Beauties just
PROOF Benjamin Colbert 5 quoted, the reviewer celebrates the guidebooks' distillation of topographical and antiquarian study: `Such books ­ which not only show us England as it is at present, but point out and describe for us the numberless relics of its former history ­ were only possible after many generations of antiquaries and topographers, and contain the very essence of their labours. Whilst travelling in England was never so easy, the means of real benefit by such travel were never more completely within the reach of all classes.'17 The difference between Brewer's position and the reviewer's is the latter's acknowledgment of mass tourism and the access provided by guidebooks to the lore of previous generations. The democratization of taste that Tim Fulford has deemed the birthright of the picturesque18 finds its apotheosis in the humble guidebook. Surfaces give way to depths that, in turn, open out into breadth. The increasing importance and pervasiveness of guidebooks and travel narratives in the nineteenth century also testifies to the cumulative nature of tourism as a commercial phenomenon. These writings suggest a growing sense of the powers and responsibilities of domestic tourism: its effect on the psychological health of workers liberated from drudgery by their ability to go `on holiday'; its role in circulating wealth, agricultural `improvements', and industry; and its potential to help define a British modernity in which work and leisure played a mutually supportive role. Perhaps the greatest obstacle to the associations promoted between tourism and modernity, however, were tourists' confrontation with poverty. Popular aesthetic modes like the picturesque tended to airbrush labour from the domestic scene, writing nostalgic visions of common ground onto a landscape parcelled out into enclosures, as Ann Bermingham has influentially argued,19 and primitivist discourses too were at hand with which tourists might explain away or gloss over an impoverished peasantry, especially in Wales, the Scottish Highlands, and Ireland. Ireland was especially problematic. In pre-Famine Ireland, poverty became more visible on the tourist track. It was an unsightly reminder that modernity did not necessarily bring with it improvement for all, and it called into question the laissez-faire morality that underpinned this modernity. The aesthetic, political, and economic responses to poverty in fact tell us a great deal about the ideological fault lines in the development of mass tourism and are a recurrent concern in several of the essays below. The imaginative construction of the `whole island of Great Britain', as Daniel Defoe's 1707 travelogue phrases it, is the subject of the opening essay in this volume. Paul Smethurst traces a line from Defoe to Thomas Pennant, both of whom conceived of Britain as a centralized power
6 Introduction: Home Tourism
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whose unity in an imperial context they take for granted. Though a Welshman, Pennant carries with him an essentially English metropolitan frame of reference, even as he traverses national peripheries. In Pennant's tours to Scotland between 1769 and 1772, the Scottish Highlands embody a primitivism commensurate to that reported back from the Pacific by James Cook's travel accounts, of which Pennant was an avid reader. Yet the measure of the modern for Pennant is agricultural improvement and Scotland too becomes fertile ground for the export of economic `progress'. Linked to the centre by its susceptibility to improvement and distinguished by its outlandishness, Scotland represents the heterogeneous microcosm of the `whole island' linked concentrically to the wider world. Attention to coastal features of the `whole island' in Ayton and Daniell's circumnavigation narrative evolves out of a growing fashion for sea-bathing that Alain Corbin dates from the 1750s.20 Yet the coast could be treacherous and seductive, sublime and picturesque (and much of Ayton and Daniell's own first tour was conducted by carriage, when seas and winds would not cooperate). Zoл Kinsley develops the implications of the coast's liminality for women travellers, instancing a neglected travelogue, Mary Morgan's Tour to Milford Haven (1795). While popular satirists, poets, and other travel writers stressed the attractions of sea-bathing for women (and the attractions of their bodies on the beach to voyeuristic males), Morgan complicates the picture. Like Pennant, she is drawn to the peripheral nature of Wales and its coast, and indulges there in a cautious fantasy of the beach as a space of freedom from custom and from sexual restraint, yet ultimately she recoils from the sublime treachery of the sea, its promise of shipwreck, rape, and death. In Kinsley's view, Morgan's travelogue tallies with Jean-Didier Urbain's notion that the beach `re-centres' rather than destabilizes the self; Morgan's retreat from the coast symbolizes her embrace of a secure, inland identity. Travelogues that dramatize self-fashioning would appear to be of a different order from guidebooks that stage-manage touristic experience. C. S. Matheson's essay, however, complicates this in turning to a particularly rich example, Charles Heath's Historical and Descriptive Accounts of ... Tintern Abbey which, with its eleven editions between 1793 and 1828, grew up alongside and contributed to the popularity of the Wye River valley as a tourist attraction. Rather than merely distilling the `essence' of past antiquarians, historians, and topographers, Heath's guidebook proves to be dynamic, responding in successive editions to readers' feedback, to further research by Heath and others, and to new
PROOF Benjamin Colbert 7 arrangements in tourist infrastructure. Heath's hasty production of the editions, including unpaginated insertions of the latest topical material, bespeaks furthermore an elision between textuality and orality, authority and sociability, as Heath embeds in the experience of Tintern Abbey the purchase of his book as well as his own persona as on-thespot author/guide. As Matheson demonstrates, Heath increasingly interweaves references to himself into successive editions, breaking down the distinctions between the impersonal guidebook and autobiography, the most personal of genres. In the next essay, Benjamin Colbert considers another phenomenon of home tourism, the interest amongst British readers in how they were viewed by foreign travellers. While continental travellers had long made the British Isles a destination, the number of such narratives translated into English for a British market increased dramatically after 1780. The marketability of these reverse ethnologies gave rise as well to a spate of fictional `translations' in the manner of Montesquieu's Lettres Persanes or Oliver Goldsmith's Citizen of the World, yet wherein the tourist observers are not exotic visitors but fellow Europeans (for example, Robert Southey's Spanish persona in Letters from England by Don Manuel Alvarez Espriella (1807)). These proximate narratives become involved in party political representations of national identities, particularly during and immediately after the French Revolution, when Gallophobia characterized much mainstream discourse. However, Colbert identifies within the travelogues of two Francophone travellers, Jacque-Henri Meister and Louis Simond, a transcultural argument reflected by the visitors back upon their British hosts. Through the eyes of foreign travellers, the British see themselves as a travelling nation characterized by an `insular cosmopolitanism', fundamentally programmed by a restless mobility to defy the physical and psychological limits of their coastal nation. Of course, British translators, editors, and readers were especially adept at choosing and packaging foreign travel accounts that spoke to home affairs, politically and culturally. Turning from the British market for translation to continental, specifically German, accounts of England, the essay by Jan Borm describes a growing tradition in German travel accounts in which attractions are complicated by social critique, a recognition that cosmopolitanism among the wealthy is not universal in a class-divided, tradition-bound island nation. Tracing a line from Georg Forster to Johanna Schopenhauer (mother of the philosopher) to Heinrich Heine, Borm argues that German travellers are increasingly critical of British `liberty' (so important to pre-French Revolutionary models of political reform), looking to post-revolutionary France
8 Introduction: Home Tourism
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instead for signs of a liberal, democratic future. While the `practicality' of British approaches to property, industrialism, and commerce, as well as the persistence of the `garden of England' trope continued to draw German eyes, travel writers wrote their island neighbour out of continental affairs, using it more for satire or as a critical foil rather than a discursive repository for new ideas and ideals. As Ina Ferris has remarked, Ireland after its union with Great Britain was `the foreign place that was also home'.21 The cosmopolitan attitude Colbert discusses that was so flattering when retailed by foreign travellers was less in evidence when British travellers crossed the Irish channel. In his survey of the first fifty years of Irish home tourism after Union, William H. A. Williams describes the method of apprehending Ireland as the `petit tour', modelled on the Grand Tour, an exhaustive enquiry into the social, economic, political, and cultural life of a land newly incorporated into British polity. Protestant visitors, however, also brought with them distaste for `popery' and desired to sway the Irish to the `true religion', one of many incompatibilities between visitor and visited that the Irish home tour threw into relief. Cultural misunderstanding arose too on the question of poverty, for historical reasons chiefly rural in Ireland and urban in England ­ a disparity English travellers were apt to put down to the chaos and primitivism of the Irish national character, a `natural' predisposition. The contrast between poverty and natural beauty thus became a recurring feature of pre-Famine travel writing. Poverty within more isolated tourist-dependent economies was equally apt to be explained by national character, but it could also enhance the story tourism tells about itself. Katherine Grenier's discussion of tourism to the Hebridean island of Iona illustrates how tourist fascination with relics and ruins associated with the spiritual history of St Columba, credited with bringing Christianity to pagan Scotland in the sixth century, becomes reconfigured as a desire to ease poverty through acts of charity and tourist-inspired economic aid. The sights of `ragged children' selling pebbles and trinkets met every nineteenthcentury tourist who disembarked on the island, yet accounts of the Iona tour over time begin to represent the children less as Gaelic beggars than Scottish entrepreneurs attempting to better their lot by engaging with tourism. Under the guidance of Thomas Cook, day-trippers to Iona were encouraged to contribute money towards a charitable society that intervened directly in the island economy by purchasing fishing boats and providing Christian Education for promising youths. Publicizing the gratitude of these `deserving poor' in his journal, Cook's Excursionist,
PROOF Benjamin Colbert 9 Cook promoted a vision of mass tourism as a force for economic revitalization and social progress. Nicola J. Watson's essay considers the literary aspect of mass tourism in Scotland. Watson explores the making and unmaking of `Scott country', from the initial success of Scott's The Minstrelsy of the Border in transforming settings along the Tweed into romantic localities, through to the Victorian passion for `Scott-land', and finally to the cultural forgetting of Scott that began to make itself felt in the 1920s. Watson argues that the idea of `Scott country' developed as a result of interconnected practices of annotating, adapting, and illustrating Scott's works, all of which practices fed into travel-writing and tourism itself. She examines how this sense of Scott country eventually became over-extended into England, Europe, and beyond, and considers the ways in which early twentieth-century writings consequently conceived `Scott country' strictly within the limits of the verifiably biographical. No longer romancing the tourist nation, Scott became reduced to a footnote in Scottish history. Katie Gramich exposes the overlay of romance and history in travellers' constructions of Wales in the Victorian and Edwardian eras. Both foreign and native accounts of Wales sought to reclaim the region from Romantic aestheticization (Wales was considered replete with sublime and picturesque `scenes') as well as mid-century negative portrayals of its backwardness. Aided by a Celtic revival in British literature, travel writers paid closer attention to the cultural uniqueness of Wales but, in subtle and not so subtle ways, they underlined its otherness, idealized its peasantry as noble mountaineers, and, in later travelogues, prepared the grounds for Welsh nationalism by invoking cultural rootedness rather than acknowledging the political transformations underway in the South Wales coalfields and among the working classes generally. These positions ­ occupied in Gramich's analysis by an English emigrant to Wales, an Oxford don from Wales, and an American daughter of Welsh parentage ­ are in no way apolitical, but they do indicate an important class divide between tourists and their subjects, those who represent and those represented. The next two essays turn again to Irish tourist discourse and its construction of national space. In his cross-sectional survey from the Great Famine to decolonization, Spurgeon Thompson argues that post-Famine tourism becomes `post-political'; post-Union travel writing's imperative to explain Ireland and advance solutions to its economic problems is replaced by `description, directions, and historical associations'. The famine itself ­ its causes, the suffering it produced ­ becomes a taboo
10 Introduction: Home Tourism
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subject; travel writing instead commodifies the depopulated land of Ireland, promoting opportunities for its exploitation by investors and tourists (often assumed to be one and the same). In this sense, romantic landscape aesthetics returns as advertising, a reification still very much part of the Irish tourist industry today, as Thompson notes. K. J. James focuses on the Irish beauty spot Killarney, and finds a surprising homogeneity between travellers of different nations in their representations of the Irish peasantry, and, like Thompson, links this to the commodification of tourism, the recycling of older forms of touristic response. Involved and implicated in mass outings (sponsored by railway companies or Cook's tours), tourists developed ways of distinguishing their own authoritative statements about Ireland from those presented by their Irish guides, whom they accused of having low commercial motives. For visitors to Killarney, drinking `mountain dew' with descendents of the beauteous and seductive Kate Kearney ­ celebrated in song by the poet Sydney Owenson ­ became a performance not to be missed, but one that gave rise to standard disparagements in print. Past and present inscribed on the bodies of Kate Kearney's `descendants' thus reinforced the authority, intelligence, and discrimination of the English tourist. The homogenization of tourism through rail travel is a bugbear in much Victorian literature, yet technologies of mobility play an important role in the history of tourism. Perhaps a common denominator in the nineteenth century was the perception that macadamized roads, steam-driven ships and trains, and latterly the automobile increased accessibility to tourist sites and the speed with which one could arrive, achieving a compression of space and time. `The definition of a man is a locomotive animal', wrote a contributor to The New Monthly Magazine in 1843, not altogether in jest.22 In the penultimate essay, Esme Coulbert considers the transformations introduced by motor tourism from the turn of the century to the 1930s. As revolutionary as automotive technology undoubtedly was in liberating tourists from the constraints of package touring, motor tourism also recapitulates earlier patterns. At first the privilege of the wealthy, the car inevitably became commercialized, extending the possibilities of motor touring to the middle and lower classes. With commercialization came strategies in motor travel writing for self-valorization, an emphasis on the audacity of motorists off the beaten track and on `the open road' at the expense of less adventuresome followers. Ambivalence towards the technology was also a feature: while early motorists prided themselves on being at the forefront of modernization, they increasingly sought out signs of an unchanging England in bucolic, pastoral villages.
PROOF Benjamin Colbert 11 The final essay by Michael Cronin finds in its chronological distance from the other contributions a purchase on them, and might well be read as a coda to the book. His subject is Desmond Fennell's A Connacht Journey and Colm Tуibнn's Walking along the Border, the works of two Irish travellers, both published in 1987 and both concerned with complex border spaces in which multiple identities ­ colonial and post-colonial, English and Irish ­ create frictions through language. Like Colbert, Cronin explores the impulse of home tour readers and writers to defamiliarize, to re-see their home as if it were foreign, in what Cronin calls an `ethnology of proximity'. Like Kinsley, Cronin is also concerned with liminal spaces replete with danger and desire; in the case of Tуibнn's journey, the border between Northern Ireland and the Republic. Cronin's discussion of Fennell's travelogue engages with Williams's, Thompson's, and James's essays, too, in all of which the West of Ireland becomes figured by tourists as the mythic, pre-modern embodiment of `Irishness'; here, Fennell confronts a palimpsest of linguistic overlays that require translation even to those like himself who consider it `home' ground. Both travelogues lead Cronin, in contradistinction to Coulbert's depiction of the `time-space compression' inaugurated by automotive technologies, to emphasize the importance of slowing down in a world where speed of access across great distance rather than proximity has become the hallmark of intimacy, the legacy of the period covered by this book. Cronin fittingly looks to home tourism for a new departure, a micro-modernity, in which deceleration, staying close by, and `microspection' allow one to re-enchant a world grown uniform through globalization's relentless homogenization of space. Notes 1. Qtd in Description of the Lakes of Killarney, and the Surrounding Scenery (London, 1849), xii­xiii. 2. Italo Calvino, Invisible Cities, trans. William Weaver (London: Vintage, 1997), 86­7. 3. See Michael Cronin, `Global Questions and Local Visions: A Microcosmopolitan Perspective', in Beyond the Difference: Welsh Literature in Comparative Contexts: Essays for M. Wynn Thomas at Sixty, ed. Alyce von Rothkirch and Daniel Williams (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2004), 186­202. 4. Ian Ousby, The Englishman's England: Taste, Travel and the Rise of Tourism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 7­8. 5. Esther Moir, The Discovery of Britain: The English Tourists 1540­1840 (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1964), xiv; my emphasis. 6. See Moir, Discovery of Britain, 3­4. 7. Dean MacCannell, The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999), 43­8.
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8. See Benjamin Colbert, `Aesthetics of Enclosure: Agricultural Tourism and the Place of the Picturesque', European Romantic Review 13.1 (March 2002), 23­34. 9. See Nicola J. Watson, The Literary Tourist: Readers and Places in Romantic and Victorian Britain (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006), and Watson, ed., Literary Tourism and Nineteenth-Century Culture (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009). 10. For coastal tourism, see Zoл Kinsley's essay below; for picturesque tourism, see Malcolm Andrews, The Search for the Picturesque (Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1989). 11. In addition to Andrews, Moir, Ousby, and Watson, already mentioned, important studies of home tourism include: (General) Zoл Kinsley, Women Writing the Home Tour, 1682­1812 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008); (Ireland) Donal Horgan, The Victorian Visitor in Ireland: Irish Tourism 1840­1910 (Cork: Imagimedia, 2002), Michael Cronin, Irish Tourism: Image, Culture and Identity (Bristol: Channel View Publications, 2003), Glenn Hooper, Travel Writing and Ireland, 1760­1860 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), William H. A. Williams, Creating Irish Tourism: The First Century, 1750­1850 (London: Anthem, 2010); (Scotland) John Glendening, The High Road: Romantic Tourism, Scotland, and Literature 1720­1820 (London: Macmillan, 1997), Alastair Durie, Scotland for the Holidays: A History of Tourism in Scotland, 1780­1939 (East Linton: Tuckwell, 2003), Katherine-Haldane Grenier, Tourism and Identity in Scotland, 1770­1914: Creating Caledonia (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005), Betty Hagglund, Tourists and Travellers: Women's Non-fictional Writings about Scotland, 1770­1830 (Bristol: Channel View Publications, 2010). 12. See Susan Pitchford, Identity Tourism: Imaging and Imagining the Nation (Bingley: Emerald Group, 2008), 5. 13. Pitchford, Identity Tourism, 3. 14. Thomas West, A Guide to the Lakes: Dedicated to the Lovers of Landscape Studies, and to All Who Have Visited, or Intend to Visit the Lakes in Cumberland, Westmoreland, and Lancashire (London, 1778), 5­6. 15. James Norris Brewer, Introduction to the Original Delineations, Topographical, Historical, and Descriptive, Intituled The Beauties of England and Wales (London, 1818), vii­viii. 16. For `cultural accreditation' on the Continental tour, see James Buzard, The Beaten Track: European Tourism, Literature, and the Ways to `Culture' (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993), 110­11. 17. `Travelling in England', review Article VIII, The London Quarterly Review 231 ( July 1864), 115 (American edn, New York, 1864, Google Books, Web, 17 Feb. 2011). 18. Tim Fulford, Landscape, Liberty, and Authority: Poetry, Criticism, and Politics from Thomson to Wordsworth (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 142. 19. Ann Bermingham, Landscape and Ideology: The English Rustic Tradition, 1740­1860 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986). 20. See Alain Corbin, The Lure of the Sea: The Discovery of the Seaside, 1750­1840, trans. Jocelyn Phelps (London: Penguin, 1995). 21. Ina Ferris, The Romantic National Tale and the Question of Ireland (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 18. 22. `A Few Thoughts upon Tourists', The New Monthly Magazine 69.275 (Nov. 1843), 290.
Index
PROOF
A Abbotsford 135, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 144, 146 Abbott, Jacob, A Summer in Scotland 130 n46 acculturation (see also culture) 204, 212 accuracy 63, 95 n18, 139, 193, 212 Act of Union (see under Ireland and Scotland) Addison, Joseph 39, 48 n26, 186 Adler, Judith 112 n4 advertising 10, 15, 55, 76, 82 n24, 140, 168­9, 202, 203, 211, 216 n3 aesthetics (see also landscape, picturesque, sublime) 2, 3, 5, 9­10, 12 n8, 14, 20­1, 23­28, 34­5, 40­1, 44­5, 51, 52­5, 60, 69, 75, 97, 107­8, 134, 148, 165, 167­8, 186­90, 192, 195, 198, 199 n14, 204, 211 aestheticization and commodification 41, 115, 136, 168, 185, 220 allusion 24, 39, 49 n29, 79, 85, 92, 136, 185, 192 Africa 16, 102, 213 Agee, James 95 n18 Agricola 24 agriculture (see also tourism) 3, 5, 12 n8, 15­16, 20, 32, 102, 104, 106­9, 134, 167­8, 170, 175, 178, 214, 221­22 Alien Acts 69 alienation 68­9, 80, 102, 109, 160 politics of 68, 71 Anderson, Benedict, Imagined Communities 13, 28 n1 Anderson, George and Peter, Guide to the Highlands 119, 129 n19, 130 n19
Andrews, Malcolm 12 n10, 65 n2, 199 n24, 200 n31 Anglicanism 94, 125 Anglo-mania 85 anthropology (see also ethnography) 87, 226­7, 230, 234 n15 anti-Catholicism 102­3, 108­9, 119, 117 n21, 171 antiquarianism 4, 14­15, 21­2, 24, 25, 50, 52­3, 56, 61­2, 63, 65 n5, 98­9, 120, 135, 139, 144, 146 n25 Antrim 98, 109 anxiety 36, 43­4, 68, 76, 117, 135, 143, 149, 201, 208, 210­11 Archenholz, Johann Wilhelm von 73, 83 n27 Picture of England 70 Argyll, Duke of 26, 116, 119, 125, 128 Arndt, Ernst Moritz 87 Arnold, Matthew 148, 149, 161, 162 n5 Arthur's Seat 132, 133 arts and crafts movement 211 Ashworth, John Henry, A Saxon in Ireland 111, 113 n30 Augй, Marc 226­7, 230, 234 n15­17, 234 n28 Augustine 91, 119 Austen, Jane 33, 47 n8 Sense and Sensibility 62 authenticity 194, 233 of body 194 of English character 86 of experience 2, 218 n44 of home 233 of travel and traveller 121 autobiography 7, 58, 60, 150, 162 n19 Autocar (magazine) 202, 209, 211­12, 215, 216 n3, 217 n17, 218 n41 automobile 201­218 Ayrshire 134
250
PROOF Index 251
B Badcock, John. Letters from London 70, 71 Baikie, James, The Charm of the Scott Country 141 Baird, John D. 47 n1 Ballantyne, R. M., The Lakes of Killarney 200 n36 Balquihidder 137 Band of Hope Review 128 Banks, Joseph, Sir 14, 15, 16, 25, 28 n2, 72, 82 n20 Barnes, Julian 85, 95 n3 Barrow, John 110, 111 Tour round Ireland 110, 113 n29 Barry, William Whittaker 172, 180 n20 Bath 86, 90 bathing machine 33, 40 beach 6, 31­3, 37, 38, 40­1, 45, 47 n8, 49 n29, 121 Beale, Anne 153, 161, 162 n7 The Pennant Family 149 The Vale of the Towey 147­8, 157, 158 Beckford, William 75­6 beggars 8, 92, 105­6, 115, 123, 183, 193­4, 196 Bending, Stephen 53, 65 n5 Bennett, Betty T. 75 n3 Bennett, William 110 Bermingham, Ann 5, 12 n19 Birmingham 86­7, 89 Black, Adam and Charles Black's Guide to Dublin 180 n10 Black's Guide to Killarney 180 n10 Black's Picturesque Tourist of Scotland 116, 119, 122, 129 n19 Black's Shilling Guide to Edinburgh 140 Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine 80 Black Country 210 Blake, Henry (and Blake family) 110­11 Letters from the Irish Highlands 112 n9 Blake, William 90
body 36­47, 79, 183, 185, 190, 192, 194­5 as canvas 194­5, 197 as grotesque 194, 198 as site of carnival 195 landscape compared to 19 Bonaparte, Napoleon 35, 68, 72, 80, 92 borders 2, 3, 11, 21, 25, 26, 27, 77, 109, 136, 137, 140, 142, 144, 145 n16, 160, 220­1, 224­5, 230, 231, 233 Borm, Jan 7 Boswell, James 14, 19, 85, 95 n4 Boulton, James 90 Bowman, J. E. 121 Highlands and Islands 130 n37 Brayley, Edward Wedlake 4 Brewer, James Norris 4­5, 12 n15 Brietenbach, Esther 130 n27 Briggs, Carla 189, 199 n28 Britton, John 4 Browne, Junius Henri 196­7 Buffon, comte de 28 n2 Builth Wells 153 Burns, Robert 134, 144 n7 Burke, Edmund 71, 77 A Philosophical Enquiry into ... the Sublime and the Beautiful 168, 186­7, 199 n16 Burt, Edmund 16 Burwick, Frederick 84 n54 Bush, John Hibernia Curiosa 97 Buzard, James, The Beaten Track 12 n16, 69, 81 n4, 130 n35, 130 n50, 165, 179 n3, 180 n22, 198 n3, 205, 210, 212, 213, 218 n44 `cultural accreditation' 4 `saturation' 213 Byron, George Gordon, Lord 69, 80, 173 C Calvinism 86, 119 Calvino, Italo 1, 11 n2, 228, 234 n23 Campbell, Thomas Philosophical Survey 97
252 Index
PROOF
canals 101 Carlyle, Thomas 185, 198 n9 carnivalesque 190, 195, 197­8 Carr, Sir John A Stranger in Ireland 166, 179 n7 Carter, Nathaniel Hazeltine Letters from Europe 189­90, 200 n33 Cashel, Rock of 98 Catholic Emancipation 92, 102 Catholicism (see also religion) 100, 102­3, 105, 109, 112 n11, 119, 129 n22, 171, 226, 232 celebrity 136 Celtic church 119 Celtism 4, 9, 14, 17, 24, 119, 144 n5, 148, 162 n5, 176, 231 Chalmers, Alan 18, 29 n4 Chambers, Robert 145 n9 Chambers, William 129 n7, 130 n42 Chamisso, Adelbert von 87 Chapman, Robin 155, 157, 162 n26 Chard, Chloe 112 n4 Chatterton, Henrietta, Lady 107 Rambles in the South of Ireland 113 n21 Chaucer, Geoffrey 2 charity 8, 71, 74, 114­5, 123­4 Chepstow 52, 63 Chepstow-Tintern turnpike 52 Chester 21, 169 children 8, 42, 43, 90, 105, 106, 114­15, 121­22, 125, 126, 127­8, 148, 150, 155, 160, 225 Christianity 8, 93, 115, 117­20, 124­27 Church of England (see Anglicanism) city 87, 88­90, 100, 221, 230­1 vs. country 10, 77­8, 87, 88­9, 122, 208 civilization 2, 19, 24, 118, 119, 133, 168, 170, 175, 221, 229, 230 `civilizing mission', so-called 119­20, 127 class (see social class) Claude Glass 187 Cliffe, Charles Frederick 48 n17 Clifford, James 231, 235 n31 `clonialism' 228 Clymer, Lorna 29 n4
coasts (see Tourism) coenaesthetic 41, 43 Colbert, Benjamin 7, 8, 11, 12 n8, 216 Coleridge, Samuel Taylor 79 Colley, Linda 48 n16, 82 n11 colonialism (see also `clonialism'; imperialism) 14, 16, 18, 19, 29 n10, 71, 102, 111, 150, 152, 168, 170, 172­3, 222­3 Columba, St 8, 22, 115, 117­21, 123, 125, 127, 129 n3 commerce and commercialization 3, 5, 8, 10, 26, 35, 44, 48 n19, 57­8, 70, 73, 75, 77­8, 86, 91, 115, 126, 138, 169­70, 172, 175, 185, 191­2, 202, 211 Connaught (see also Ireland) 99, 101, 222­3 Connemara (see also Ireland) 101­2, 110­11, 179 n10, 198 n3, 222 consumerism 134, 136, 138, 210­11, 213 Cook, James 6, 14­15, 22 Voyages of the Endeavour 14 Voyage round the World 86 Cook, Thomas 8, 10, 115, 122­8, 130 n50, 130 n56, 145 n16, 165, 172, 183, 191, 211 Cook's Excursionist 8­9, 127, 130 n39 Cooke, John 174, 176­7, 198 n1 Constable, Archibald 138 Copley, Stephen 168, 180 n13 Corbin, Alain 6, 12 n20, 34, 43, 47 n9, 48 n23, 49 n30, 49 n38 Connacht (Knock) 11, 104, 220­3, 226, 230, 231­2 Connolly, Claire 199 n12 Cork 171, 179 n10 Cornwall 214 Cornwallis, Theresa (also known as Mrs Frederic West) 110, 189 Correspondance littйraire 72­4, 82 n23, 82 n26 Corrigan, Gordon 83 n45 cosmopolitanism 7­8, 68­9, 70, 73, 74, 75, 77, 79, 81 n5, 82 n12, 82 n16, 82 n22, 151, 162 n18, 231­2, 235 n30
PROOF Index 253
insular 7, 70, 78 micro- 2, 11 n3 vernacular c. 231 Coulbert, Esme 10, 11 countryside 18­21, 23, 27, 99, 106, 107, 136, 165, 167, 169, 172, 177, 203­4, 208­13, 215, 216 Cowper, William `Retirement' 31­2, 33, 46, 47, 47 n1, 47 n8 The Task 31 Crabbe, George 34, 47 n11 Craik, Dinah Maria 183 Craven, Elizabeth, margravine of Anspach 74­5, 77, 83 n27, 83 n33 Crockett, W. S. 146 n34 Scott Country 141, 143, 144 n4 Croker, T. Crofton Researches in the South of Ireland 99 Cromwell, Thomas K. Excursions through Ireland 105, 112 n17 Cronin, Michael 2, 11, 11 n3, 12 n11, 234 n22 Crossley, F. W. The Irish Tourist (magazine) 177­8 Culdees 119 Culler, Jonathan 234 n1 culture 3, 12 n17, 14, 17, 19, 24, 28 n1, 35, 52, 54, 69­70, 72, 76, 77, 80­1, 82 n12, 85, 86, 89, 92, 94­5, 99, 102, 107, 109, 122­4, 128, 132, 134, 148, 150­5, 159­61, 164, 166­8, 170­1, 175, 181­3, 185­6, 189­92, 195, 197, 201, 210­12, 214­15, 216 n1, 218 n44, 220, 223­4, 228, 231, 233 cultural nationalism 154­5 curiosity 14, 15, 16­18, 20, 25, 42, 52, 54, 58, 60, 65, 97, 102, 147, 224 Curran, Stuart 47 n10 D D., W. `Abbey Church of Iona' 129 n20 Dallas, Alexander 102
Dal Riata 115 Daly, Mary E. 171, 180 n18 Daniell, William 4, 6, 11 n3, 32­3, 46, 47 n4, 47 n5 Dargan, William 171 Davies, Damian Walford 61, 67 n38 Dearnley, Moira 149, 162 n9, 162 n10 defamiliarization 11, 43, 219, 220 Defoe, Daniel 5, 13­16, 20 Robinson Crusoe 46 Tour through the Whole Island 5, 13, 18, 21, 23, 29 n13, 29 n15, 30 n29, 89, 96 n25 `True-born Englishman' 13 De Maistre, Xavier Voyage autour de ma chambre 230 Dennis, John 186 depopulation 10, 126, 164­5 De Quincey, Thomas 79, 84 n54, 206, 217 n20 Derrida, Jacques 151, 157, 162 n18 Derry 221 desire 21, 31­2, 40­1, 43­4, 51, 60, 94, 186, 211 Dettelbach, Michael 30 n52 Dickens, Charles 92, 205 Dickson, M. F. 104, 112 n14 Diderot, Denis 72, 76, 82 n26, 83 n40 Donnelly, James S., Jr 112 n15 Dover 34, 35, 86 Drayton, Richard 29 n10 Druid 17, 24, 151 Dryburgh Abbey 135, 139, 140, 144 Dublin 101, 169, 170­2, 174, 222, 223 Dufferin, Lord 165 Dumont, Pierre Йtienne Louis Letters 70, 81 n10 Dunne, Tom 199 n12 Dunton, John 101, 112 n8 Durie, Alastair J. 12 n11, 129 n5 E East, John (Rev.) Notes and Glimpses of Ireland 110 Eastwood, Thomas S. Badger Ivanhoe-land 142, 146 n32
254 Index
PROOF
economy 5, 6, 8­9, 13, 16, 27, 29, 48 n19, 94, 97, 99­104, 106, 108, 111, 114­15, 121, 125­8, 164, 165, 167, 171, 177, 190, 201, 214, 220, 227­8 Edinburgh 77, 132­3, 137, 140, 144 n3 Edinburgh Review 77 Edwards, Owen Morgan 147, 148, 151­5, 157­8, 160­1, 172 n19 Cartrefi Cymru (The Homes of Wales) 155, 162 n26, 162 n28, 163 n31 Tro i'r De (A Trip to the South) 152, 158 Tro i'r Gogledd (A Trip to the North) 152, 154, 158, 160 emigration 9, 69, 71, 73, 77, 81 n7, 83 n27, 103, 104, 105, 110, 111, 164­5, 178 enclosure (see also landscape) 5, 12 n8, 20, 55, 103, 107­8, 211 Encumbered Estates Act 111 Engels, Friedrich 90 England (see also individual places) 2­5, 7, 9, 10, 13, 18­19, 21, 28, 32, 35, 68, 70­4, 76, 78, 81, 85­96, 98, 103, 104, 105, 107, 108, 115, 137, 142, 150, 160, 176, 201­18, 221 English character 86 as homely 91 as resistance to the foreign 86 Enlightenment 53, 70, 71, 85, 91 epistolary travelogue 18, 36 eroticism 41­2 Etherington, Lindsay 135, 145 n10 ethnography (see also anthropology) 4, 7, 17, 28, 220, 227 of proximity 11, 230 Evangelicalism 102, 118, 120 Evans, Walker 96 n18 Eyre-Todd, George 129 n4 exoticism 18, 223, 229­31 expatriate 68, 77 exploration 14, 16, 18, 32, 34, 41, 46, 89, 98, 101, 230 Pacific 6
F Faujas de Saint-Fond, Barthйlemi, Travels in England 69, 72, 82 n18, 82 n20 Fegan, Melissa 198 n3 Fenianism 172­3, 175 Fennell, Desmond, Connaught Journey 11, 220­3, 226­30, 232­3, 234 n5 Ferguson, Malcolm, A Trip from Callander to Staffa and Iona 129 n11 Ferris, Ina 8, 12 n21, 198 n3 fisheries 8, 15, 20, 25, 27, 33, 110, 124­8 Fletcher, Alexander 124 Fontane, Theodor, Ein Sommer in London 93­4, 96 n44 Fonthill Abbey 75­6 foreignness, perception / representation / experience of 2, 7, 8, 11, 26, 68­81, 85­95, 119, 148, 170, 219­20, 223, 230­1 Forster, Georg, 7, 95 n4 Ansichten von Niederrhein 85, 86­7, 88, 89, 90, 94, 95 n5, 95 n7 Forster, Johann Reinhold 30 n52 France (see also Paris) 77, 85, 93, 134, 216 n5 compared with England / Britain 35, 69, 71­4, 76, 77­81, 84 n57, 85, 91­2 Revolution in 3, 35, 68, 73­6, 99 Gallophobia and 70, 72, 79, 82 n11 manners and customs of 35, 74, 78­81, 88 Post-revolutionary 7­8, 70, 79­80 Franklin's Itinerary for the Trossachs 145 n16 Frantz, Anaпk 230 Friedman, Thomas 228, 234 n20 Fukuyama, Francis 234 n19 Fulford, Tim 5, 12 n18 G Gaelic (see language) Galway 102, 108, Gap of Dunloe 181­98
PROOF Index 255
Garside, Peter 168, 180 n13 gaze 14, 19, 38­9, 60, 107, 128, 172, 190, 200 n35 gender 3, 33, 37­43, 195­7 geology 25, 29 n22, George III, King of Great Britain 15 George, David Lloyd 161 Gerald of Wales (see Gerallt Gymro) Gerallt Gymro 2, 147, 161 German accounts of Britain 7, 66 n25, 70, 73, 81 n10, 85­96, 232 Giant's Causeway 98, 185 Giddens, Anthony 227, 234 n18 Gilpin, William 34, 36, 56, 59, 63 Observations on the Coasts of Hampshire 35, 48 n14 Observations on the River Wye 51 Glasgow 132, 135, 139 Glendening, John 12 n11, 135­6, 145 n11, 145 n14 globalization 11, 16, 227­8, 231 Goede, Christian, Stranger in England 70 Goethe, Wolfgang von 87 Gold, John R. and Margaret M. Gold 129 n5 Goldsmith, Oliver 7 Gordon-Cumming, Constance F., In the Hebrides 129 n10 Gosse, Edmund, `Journal in Scotland' 121­2, 130 n38 Gothic 53, 132, 148 Graham, Patrick 137 Gramich, Katie 2, 9 Grand Tour (see tourism) Grant, Elizabeth, Memoirs of a Highland Lady 136, 145 n13 Gray, Fred 47 n7 Gray, Thomas 51 Gray, William Forbes 145 n18 Great Britain (see England, Ireland, Wales, Scotland) Great Industrial Exhibition (Dublin) 171­2, 174 Grenier, Katherine Haldane 8, 12 n11, 129 n5, 199 n14 Greville, Charles Francis 37 Griffin, Phillip, of Hadnock 61, 62, 67 n41
Griffiths, Ann 156­7 Griffiths, Ralph 29 n14 Grimm, Friedrich, Baron von 72, 82 n26 Grose, Francis, Antiquities of England and Wales 52, 53, 56 Grosley, Pierre Jean, Londres 71 Grubenmann, Yvonne de Athoyde 82 n22, 83 n40 Guest, Harriet 30 n52 guidebook 2, 4­6, 16, 21, 50­67, 78, 90, 115, 118, 119, 121, 122, 125, 129 n8, 134­5, 141, 145 n16, 160, 164­80, 183­4, 188, 191­4, 201, 204, 213, 214, 215 guides 2, 7, 9, 116, 117, 121, 137, 188, 191, 193 H Hagglund, Betty 12 n11 Hagley Hall 60, 67 n33, 87 Haight, Canniff, Here and There in the Home Land 196, 200 n47 Haldrup, Michael 199 n24 Hall, Samuel Carter, and Anna Maria Hall 101, 109, 112 n7 Ireland, Its Scenery, and Character 110, 166, 179 n7 Week at Killarney 192, 200 n37 Hall, Stuart 231­2, 235 n30 Haines, W. H. 66 n14 Hammersley, Rachel 73, 83 n31 Hamilton, Sir William 37 Haverfordwest 36, 38, 42 Head, Frances Bond, A Fortnight in Ireland 167, 171, 179 n9 Heath, Charles 6­7, 50­67 Historical and Descriptive Account ... Tintern Abbey 6, 50­67 Heath's Picturesque Annual (1835) 139, 140 Hebrides 8, 15, 17, 18, 21, 22, 25, 69, 114­31, 142 Heely, Joseph (see also Hagley Hall) Description of Hagley Park 67 n33 Heine, Heinrich 7, 87 Reisebilder 85, 91­4 Hill, Richard 146 n26
256 Index
PROOF
Hissey, J. J. Untravelled England 201, 205­7, 210­13, 214, 215, 217 n27 Hoare, Richard Colt, Journal of a Tour in Ireland 99, 187, 199 n26 Holloway, James 135, 145 n10 Holyhead 169 home tour (see tourism) Hooper, Glenn 12 n11, 100, 109, 111 n2, 198 n3 Horgan, Donal 12 n11 hospitality 106, 151, 157, 176, 183, 193, 196, 197 Howitt, William, Homes and Haunts of the Most Celebrated British Poets 134, 137, 144 n6, 145 n9 Hughes, Mrs, of Uffington 137 Humboldt, Alexander von 86, 87 hybridity 53, 58, 71, 72, 77, 79, 137, 147, 154, 155 I Icolmkill (see Iona) identity 6, 13, 157, 201 British 32, 77, 150 hybrid 77 local 35 micro-cosmopolitan 2 mobile 70 multiple 11, 235 n30 national 3, 7, 18­19, 21, 35, 70, 74, 119, 133, 157, 161, 214 personal 68 Scottish 119, 133 tourism and 3 transcultural 81 transnational 71­2, 79 Welsh 150­1 illustration 9, 32, 54, 58, 60, 65 n9, 73, 138­41, 145 n20, 146 n26, 146 n32, 165, 225 imagination 3, 5, 13­14, 16, 17­18, 21, 37, 39, 41, 42, 92, 102, 117, 133­5, 138, 143, 165, 185­6, 197, 202, 208, 210, 230­1 imperialism (see also colonialism) 3, 6, 15, 28, 69, 100, 120, 151
improvement 5­6, 15­16, 18­20, 22­3, 25­8, 29 n10, 80, 93, 108, 110, 126, 128, 168, 170, 229 industry; industrialization 3, 5, 8, 10, 15­16, 48 n19, 86, 87, 89­90, 94, 101, 103, 105, 115, 117, 126, 128, 151, 161, 164, 165, 167, 171, 173, 177, 178, 201, 205, 208, 210­11, 214­16 Inglis, Henry D., Journey throughout Ireland 102, 103, 110, 111, 112 n7 Innisfallen 181 Iona 8­9, 22, 114­31 Ireland (see also individual places) 3, 97­113, 164­200, 219­35 Act of Union and 3, 8, 9, 97, 100, 103, 107, 109, 166, 169, 177 clachans in 104­5, 106, 168 colonial discourse on 102, 168 demographics of 103­4 famine / Great Famine in 9, 97, 102­4, 110­11. 126, 164­80, 182, 190­8 Free State of 171, 178, 221 Northern 177, 220­1 poverty in 5, 8, 100, 102, 105­7, 109­10, 111, 177­9, 226 Republic of 171, 221 West of 98, 101, 102, 107, 110, 111, 112 n13, 180, n11, 221­2 Ireland, Samuel, Picturesque Views on the River Wye 61, 63­4 Ireland, William Henry Shakespeare forgeries of 63 Irish Tourist Association 178 Irish Tourist's Illustrated Handbook 165­6, 168­9, 179 n5 Irving, Washington, Abbotsford and Newstead Abbey 146 n23 Isle of Wight 34, 48 n12 J Jacobite rebellion 25, 136 James, K. J. 10 Janowitz, Anne 21, 29 n27 Jeffrey, Francis 77, 79 Jemielity, Thomas 29 n4 Johnson, James, The Recess 129 n2
PROOF Index 257
Johnson, Samuel 14, 16, 20, 21, 29 n4, 85, 86, 87, 95 n4, 118, 120 Journey to the Western islands of Scotland 29 n3, 29 n4 Jones, Ifano 66 n11 Judet de la Combe, Pierre 234 n2 K K., J., Letters to the North 200 n34 Kahan, Jeffrey 67 n46 Kamtschatka 17 Kay, Lucy 47 n11 Kearney, Kate 10, 181­200 Kelso 27 Kenilworth Castle 142 Kent 35, 48 n12, 89, 119 Kerry 175, 182, 222 Killarney 3, 10, 98, 169, 175, 179 n10, 181­200 Kinglake, Alexander William, Eothen 93 Kinsley, Zoл 6, 11, 12 n10, 12 n11, 47 n11 Klein, Naomi 234 n21 Kroeg, Susan 198 n5 L labour 3, 5, 62, 90, 105­6, 154, 170, 210, 225 Lake District (English) 1, 3, 4, 12 n14, 21, 34, 48 n12, 68, 69, 212 landscape 13­30, 133­46, 181­200 aesthetics of 2­3, 5, 10, 14, 23, 26­8, 34, 46. 97, 102, 107­8, 111 n2, 164­5, 168, 185­9, 198 affective response to 18, 31, 44, 185­7, 195 associations of history and fiction with 4, 25, 78, 118, 133­46, 157 naming and 224 painting of 32, 138 representations of 20, 21, 23, 90, 108, 207­8 religion and 103, 112 n12 textualization of 4 (see also coast, illustration, improvement, picturesque, sublime, and individual places)
Landscape-Historical Illustrations of Scotland 139, 141 Landseer, Edwin 138, 146 n23 language 3, 11, 43, 75, 120, 122, 127, 134, 159, 175, 219­35 English 35 French 35, 69, 78, 93 Gaelic 14 Welsh 147­9, 152­3 (see also translation) Larsen, Jonas 199 n24 Leinster 108, 109 Lessing, Gottfried 87 Levi, Peter 29 n3 liberty 7, 73, 77, 79, 82 n24, 91, 93­4, 95 n2, 201, 206, 213 liminality 6, 11, 19, 32, 34­5, 221 Linnaeus, Carl 28 n2 Lizars, William Home, Lizars's Scottish Tourist 130 n30 Loch Katrine 135, 137, 139, 140, 143 Loch Lomond 137, 140, 145 n16 Lockhart, John Gibson 138 London 19, 69, 70, 72, 74, 77, 80, 86, 87­8, 89, 90­2, 105, 124, 137, 141, 158­9, 208 London and Paris, or Comparative Sketches 70, 80 Londonderry (see also Ireland) 109, 221 Luckombe, Philip, Tour through Ireland 97 Lynch, Michael 130 n24 M McBrayne's Shipping Company 115, 129 n8 MacCannell, Dean 4, 11 n7, MacCulloch, John, Highlands and Western Isles of Scotland 146 n25 MacDonald, Flora 25 MacKay, Charles 193 McKay, K. D. 48 n18 Macpherson, James, Ossian 14, 80, 134 Macready, William Charles 137, 145 n17 macro-modernity (see modernity)
258 Index
PROOF
McVeagh, John, Irish Travel Writing: a Bibliography 111 n1, 179 n1 Manchester 90, 222 Mandler, Peter 111 n3 Manners, John, Lord 110 manuscripts circulation of 51 relationship between print and 72 Martin, Martin 16 Marx, Karl 164­5, 179 n2 masculinity 31, 43, 46, 126 Maspero, Franзois, Les Passagers du Roissy Express 230­1 mass tourism (see also Cook, Thomas) 165, 176, 182­5, 197­8 Matheson, C.S. 6­7, 65 n2 Mavor, William, Travels through England 69, 81 n9 Mayer, Roeber 29 n4 Mayo 102, 103, 223, 226 Maxwell, Richard 146 n26 mechanization 205­6 Meister, Jacques-Henri, Letters Written during a Residence 7, 70, 72­8, 80­1, 82 n22, 82 n23, 82 n25, 83 n27, 83 n33, 83 n40 Meloy, Elizabeth 198 n3 Melrose Abbey 138, 140 Menzie's Tourist's Pocket Guide to Scotland 129 n23 mercantilism 19, 23 Merimйe, Prosper 224, 234 n9 micro-modernity (see modernity) `microspection' 11, 219­35 migration (see emigration) Milford Haven 6, 31, 36­46, 48 n19 missionaries 112 n11, 115, 119­20, 125, 127 Mitchell, Julian 65 n2 mobility 2, 7, 10, 44, 70, 201, 212, 220­1, 227, 229 modernity 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 14, 15­20, 22, 24, 25, 68­9, 75, 80, 118, 155, 161, 165, 201, 203, 208, 210­11, 220­1, 226­33 hyper- 214 macro- 227­9, 231, 233 micro- 11, 228­9, 233
Moir, Esther 2, 11 n5, 12 n11, 29 n12 monasticism 4, 52­3, 56, 99, 115, 119­20, 214 Monmouthshire 50­67 Montagu, Elizabeth 38 Montesquieu, Charles Secondat, Lettres Persanes 7, 230, 234 n28 Moore, Thomas 181 Morgan, Mary 6, 31­49 Moriarty, Daniel 193 Moritz, Karl Philipp, Travels Chiefly on Foot 71, 94, 96 n49 Morton, H. V. 201­2, 210­14, 217 n29 Motor tourism (see tourism) motoring 201­18 Mueller-Vollmer, Kurt 70, 82 n12 Mull, island/Sound of 115, 125, 127 Munster 101, 108, 109 Murray, John guidebook series of 180 n22 Handbook for Travellers in Ireland 172­9, 193, 198 n1 Muskau, Hermann Pьckler, Tour in England 66 n25 N Nally, David 199 n9 Nangle, Edward (Rev.) 102 Nath, Prem 29 n4 nation (see also England, Ireland, Wales, Scotland) 2, 3­4, 10, 34, 80, 88, 92, 99, 133, 144, 157, 229 -building 12­30, 161 of tourists 1, 7, 9 national character (see identity) National Identity (see identity) nationalism 9, 28, 35, 70, 98, 154­5, 158, 221, 225, 231 natural history 14­15, 17, 18, 20­1, 72 nature (see also landscape) 15, 21, 23, 25, 28, 34, 35, 44, 46, 53, 97, 98, 99, 117, 156, 186, 195, 216 as other 19, 107­8 return to 155
PROOF Index 259
state of 20, 22­4, 27 sublime in (see sublime) Nicholson, Asenath 110 Nicholson, George, Cambrian Traveller's Guide 65 n4 Nicolson, Marjorie Hope 199 n14 Nн Ghiobъin, Mealla 112 n11 Nodier, Jean Emmanuel Charles, Promenade from Dieppe 80, 84 n58 Noel, Baptist Wriothesley (Rev.), Notes on a Short Tour 102, 109, 112 n10 Norfolk 44 Nouzeillies, Gabriella 233, 235 n37 O Oban 115, 117 objectivity 15, 81 n10, 174, 176, 177, 179 У Conghaile, Michael 234 n6 O'Connell, Daniel 98, 102, 107 O'Connell, Sean 201, 216 n1, 216 n4, 216 n5, 217 n12 У Grбda, Cormac 105, 113 n20 Olcutt, Charles, The Country of Sir Walter Scott 141, 145 n15 Oldbuck, Jonathan, `A Visit to Iona' 117, 129 n9 Oliver and Boyd's Scottish Tourist 145 n16 open road 10, 208, 217 n31 Osborne, Sydney Godolphin (Rev.), Gleanings of the West of Ireland 110 O'Shea, Tony 225 Ossian (see Macpherson) otherness 2, 9, 19, 27, 70, 77, 147, 151, 158­9, 161, 220, 227, 230, 231, 233 Otway, Caesar (Rev.) 103 Sketches in Erris and Tyrawly 99 Sketches in Ireland 99 Tour in Connaught 99 Ousby, Ian 2, 11 n4, 12, n11, 200 n46, 218 n37 Overton, J. H., `A Cruise among the Hebrides' 129 n17
Ovid 39­41, 44, 48 n26, 49 n42 Owenson, Sydney (Lady Morgan) 10, 183­4, 191­2, 197 P Pacific (see exploration) Pantycelyn, William Williams (hymn writer) 153 Paris 72, 74, 80, 92, 93, 228­30 pastoral 10, 167, 189, 200 n31, 201, 208, 210­12, 214 Patagonia 22 Patmore, Peter George, Letters on England 70, 80, 84 n59 patriotism 15, 18, 21, 35, 77, 79, 118, 154­55 Paz, D. G. 129 n22 peasantry (see also social class) 5, 9, 10, 102, 104­8, 110, 148­9, 151, 183, 190­2, 197 pedestrianism 11, 52, 53, 101, 147, 157, 172­3, 180 n20, 221, 224­6, 228, Pembrokeshire 36­9, 44, 46, 147 Pennant, Thomas 5­6, 13­30 Perec, Georges 229, 234 n25 Pernot, Franзois Alexander, Vues pittoresque de l'Ecosse 139, 146 n27 Perthshire 20 Phelps, Jocelyn 47 n9 Phillips, Terry 47 n11 Pichot, Joseph Jean Marie Charles Amйdйe, Historical and Literary Tour of a Foreigner 80­1, 84 n60, 137, 145 n19 picturesque 2­5, 6, 9, 12 n8, 12 n10, 15, 17, 21, 23­4, 27­8, 52, 53, 58, 61, 63, 64, 65 n2, 86, 89, 97­100, 102, 106, 107, 119, 134, 139, 140, 160, 164, 166, 168­70, 172, 187­9, 204, 211, 212 Pitchford, Susan 3, 12 n12 Pittock, Murray 134, 144 n5 Plumptre, Anne, Narrative of a Residence in Ireland 99, 185, 199 n10 Polo, Marco 1
260 Index
PROOF
Pope, Alexander 89 popular culture 32­3, 53, 132, 166, 181, 185, 197 poverty 5, 8, 15, 19, 26­7, 88, 92, 100, 102, 105­7, 109­10, 111, 114­5, 121­3, 126­8, 177­9, 226 Presbyterianism 119 Price, Uvedale 26­7, 30 n48 primitivism 19, 23­4, 80, 148, 150 Protestantism 100, 102­3, 105, 109, 119, 157, 171, 174, 226, 232 Proust, Marcel 223, 234 n8 proximity 14, 19, 27, 35, 118, 151, 228, 230 Pudney, John 130 n50 Q Quarterly Review 71, 82 n13 R racism 151, 170, 171, 176 Radcliffe, Ann 34­5, 36, 46, 48 n12 Ragland Castle 57, railways 10, 101, 111, 132, 153, 164, 167, 169, 170, 171, 175, 177, 185, 191, 201, 204­7, 210, 211, 212, 215, 217 n16, 227 Rebecca Riots 150 Reformation English 102 Scottish 119 Reichard, Heinrich August Ottokar 73, 83 n27 Reid, Thomas, Travels in Ireland 99 religion (see also monasticism, missionaries, and under denominations) 8, 22, 53, 75, 92, 109, 114, 117­18, 120­1, 126, 128, 155, 156, 175 as cultural colonialism 102 Celtic 24 Ireland and 99 liberty and 91, 92, 93 militant Irish Protestantism pilgrimage and 2, 222 Scotland and 114­16 resorts 3, 31, 33, 40, 42, 46, 57, 177, 182
Richardson, Dorothy 46, 49 n45 Richmond, Legh 125, 128 Ritchie, Leitch, Ireland 99, 107, 112 n16 road (see also open road) 2, 10, 16, 19, 20, 29 n24, 44, 50, 52, 53, 98, 101, 105, 106, 169, 172, 201­18, 226, 227 Robinson, Matthew 38, 41, 49 n32 Robson, George 188 Romantic fascination with decay 99 gaze 190 internationalism 70, 82 n12 irony 75 travel and traveller 20, 53, 58, 67 n2, 148, 150, 181, 185, 187, 191, 195, 198, 214 Romanticism 9, 20, 25, 32, 33, 36, 43, 46, 50, 52, 59, 60, 65 n2, 69, 135, 185, 186, 188, 199 n12, 211 French 81, 85 visual culture and 52 Romans 17, 24, 53, Rosa, Salvator 189 Rossetti, Dante Gabriel 205 Rothkirch, Alyce von 11 n3 Roughley, Alan 47 n11 Rousseau, Jean Jacques 78 ruins 8, 51, 52­5, 58­9, 61­4, 66 n10, 73, 98­100, 117­18, 122, 123, 126, 128, 140, 141­2, 181, 188, 191, 214 Ruskin, John 34, 205 Russell, Richard 48 n22 Russell, Thomas, `Sonnet X' 115 Ryskamp, Charles 47 n1 S St Columba 8, 22, 115, 117­21, 123, 125, 127 Schiller, Johann Christoph Freidrich von 87 Schetky, John 139 Schopenhauer, Arthur 87 Schopenhauer, Johanna, Reise durch England und Schottland 7, 85, 87­91, 94
PROOF Index 261
science 3, 14, 17, 25, 72, 82, n21, 87, 117 Scotland (see also individual places) 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12 n11, 13­30, 80, 87, 89, 91, 98, 104, 114­31, 132­46, 165, 170, 186, 213 Act of Union (1707) and 3, 13, 21 Highlands of 1, 3, 5­6, 14, 16, 18­20, 22, 26, 80, 114, 117, 119, 121­2, 124, 126, 128, 135­6, 186 Scott, John, Visit to Paris 78­9, 84 n57, 92 Scott, Michael 112 n7 Scott, Walter 9, 78, 79, 80, 132­46, 173 hybrid tours based on works of 135­44 monuments and statues of 132­3 `Scott country' and 9, 132­46 Waverly novels, stage adaptations of 139 Works Chronicles of the Canongate 137 `Eve of St John' 136 `Glen Finglas' 136 Heart of Midlothian 137, 140 Ivanhoe 137, 142, 146 n32 Kenilworth 142 Legend of Montrose 137 Lady of the Lake 78, 135 Marmion 136, 137­8 Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border 136, 143 Old Mortality 137 Rob Roy 136­8, 139, 140 Waverley 133, 135­6, 137­8, 140, 141 sea-bathing 6, 33, 36­43, 46, 47 n8, 154 self-discovery 33­4, 59­60, 70 sexuality 6, 39­42, 46, 49 n29 Shackleton, Robert, Touring Great Britain 201, 204­5, 207, 208, 213 Shakespeare, William 37, 63, 67 n46, 74, 83 n27, 94, 214 Cymbeline 37 Macbeth 20, 24
Sharp, William 142­3, 146 n33 Sharpe, Richard 129 n3 Shaw, George Bernard, John Bull's Other Island 165 Shaw, Philip 199 n15 Shaw, Stebbing, Tour to the West of England 67 n28 Shelley, Frances, Lady, Diary 133, 144 n2 Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft 68, 81 n3 Shelley, Percy Bysshe 34, 80 `A Vision of the Sea' 47 n11 Alastor 68­9, 81 n1 Shields, Rob 47 n3 sightseeing 2, 112 n4, 116­7, 120, 122­4, 128, 160 Silliman, Benjamin, Journal of Travels in England 71 Simmons, Andrew 29 n6 Simmons, Jack 83 n48 Simond, Louis, Journal of a Tour 51, 65 n3, 69, 70, 71­2, 77­81, 84 n57 Skye 24­5, 124, 126 Smailholm tower 136, 140, 143 Smith, Anthony D. 155, 162 n27 Smith, Charlotte 46 Elegiac Sonnets 34, 47 n10, 47 n11 The Emigrants 69 Smith, George Nelson, Killarney, and the Surrounding Scenery 188, 199 n27 Smith, Henry EcRoyd 146 n32 Smollett, Tobias 33, Expedition of Humphrey Clinker 47 n8, 91 Smyth, Alfred P. 129 n3 Snowdonia 186 sociability 56­7, 90 social class 2, 3, 4­5, 7, 9, 10, 71, 88­9, 90, 99, 105, 107, 121­22, 124, 126, 128, 143, 149­50, 154­5, 159, 161, 164, 166, 175, 186, 197, 201, 202, 204, 211­13, 216 n3, 217 n12 Society for the Relief and Encouragement of the Poor Fisherman in the Highlands and Islands 8, 112, 124­8
262 Index
PROOF
Soubigou, Gilles 146 n22 Southern Ireland: Its Lakes and Landscapes 200 n41 souvenir 12, 44, 127, 194, 220 South Armagh 225­6 South Seas 16, 28, 95 n4 Southey, Robert 70­2, 79­80 `Accounts of England by Foreign Travellers' 70­2, 82 n13 Letters from England 7, 70, 78, 83 n48 spas 3, 134, 153 Sportsman in Ireland 101, 112 n7 Staлl, Germain, Madame de 68, 72, 74, 78, 82 n12 Staffa 14, 25, 115, 117 state of nature (see nature) Stawell, Maud M., Motor Tours in the West Country 201, 202, 213­15, 218 n50 steam power 10, 52, 80, 90, 93, 101, 116, 117, 120, 121, 122, 128, 167, 169, 210 Steiner, Gerhard 87, 95 n5 Stendhal 74 Stephens, James 173 Sterne, Laurence 94 Stevenson, Burton E., The Charm of Ireland 197, 200 n51 Stoddart, John, Remarks on Local Scenery 136, 145 n12 sublime 6, 9, 33­4, 43, 46, 97­8, 100, 107, 134, 148, 150, 168, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185­90, 196, 198 Sunderland (Scotland) 24, 27 Swinglehurst, Edmund 130 n50 Sylvan's Pictorial Handbook to the Scenery of the Caledonian Canal 118, 129 n15 Szerszynski, Bronislaw 69, 81 n5 T Tacitus 24 Talfourd, Thomas Noon 48 n12 Teilo, Gwilym, Llandeilo Vawr and Its Neighbourhood 149, 162 n8 temperance movement 124­5 Tennsyon, Alfred, Lord 148
Thackeray, William Makepeace, Irish Sketch Book 101, 103, 108, 110, 112 n7 Thames 18, 71, 73, 89, 91 Thesiger, Wilfred 224, 234 n10 Thomas, Bertha 158, 160­1, 163 n32 Thomas, Keith 29 n9 Thomas, Nicholas 30 n52 Thompson, Carl 199 n13, 211, 216, 218 n36 Thompson, Spurgeon 9­10, 11 Tilt, Charles, Illustrations ... to the Poetic Works of Sir Walter Scott 139 time 10, 11, 27, 29 n22, 99, 120, 133, 205, 207, 208, 215, 221, 225, 226­31 time-space convergence 11, 226, 227 Tintern Abbey 3, 6­7, 50­67, 215 Tipperary 108 Tуibнn, Colm, Walking along the Border 11, 220­2, 224­33 Tonypandy riots 161 topography 5, 6, 15, 18, 19, 20­1, 25, 54, 56, 57­8, 62, 65, 138­9, 141, 155, 186, 188, 222, 226 topographical illustration 138­9 tourism as industry 10, 114­15, 127, 164, 172, 177­8 as ritual 99, 122 capitalism and 167­72 modernity and (see also modernity) 5, 17­18, 211 semiotics of 219 types of agricultural 3 Borderland (Scotland) 145 n16 coastal 12 n10, 33­40, 46, 48 n12, 154 cycling 158 disaster 110 estate 98 Grand Tour 2, 8, 18, 99­100 home tour 1­4, 12 n11, 13, 15, 31, 32­4, 69­70, 85, 91, 98, 147, 186, 201, 204, 215, 219­20, 226, 229­31 identity 3­4, 12 n12
PROOF Index 263
literary 3, 37, 48 n21, 78, 122, 132­46, 191­2, 195, 204 mass 5, 9, 165, 176, 182­5, 197­8 motor 10, 201­18 package 10 pedestrian 52, 53 `petite tour' 8, 100, 106 picturesque 3, 12 n10, 15, 17, 20­1, 27, 52, 58, 63­4, 98, 107, 172 religious 102­3, 118­19 tourist culture 99, 210 day-tripper as 181 national identity and 1, 19 `tourist amnesia' 105 `tourist gaze' (see also gaze) 107, 128, 172, 190 tourists vs. travellers 2, 212 Towey valley 148­51, 153 translation 7, 11, 38, 68­84, 134, 158, 220, 223­4 transliteration 196, 223­4 transnationalism 70­2, 79 travel as leisure 2, 5, 33, 56, 62, 210, 213, 215 British propensity to 1, 7, 9, 78 deceleration and 11, 224­6 itineraries of 1, 2, 55, 103, 110, 134, 135­40, 205 moral benefits of 127­8 rail (see railways) relation of experience to 2, 4, 31­4, 37, 38, 45­6, 50, 59­60, 65, 78, 117, 120, 134, 136, 151, 159, 206, 215, 218 n44, 220 relation of language to 220 steamboat (see steam power) travel writing accuracy of (see accuracy) definitions of 50, 75 fiction and 48 n21, 69­70, 80, 83 n40, 132­46, 158 French 70, 71­3, 77­81 genre and 7, 50, 56­8, 64, 69­71, 77, 147, 151, 166, 212, 214, 220
German 85­95 illustrated (see illustration) interstitial 230 intertextuality and 68 Irish 107­11, 198 n3 politics and 18, 34, 80, 90, 166, 171, 173, 177 printing and publication of 51, 54­5, 56, 57, 59, 61, 64, 66 n15, 67 n29, 73, 78, 83 n33 representations of labour in (see labour) representations of poverty in (see poverty) Romantic (see Romantic) self-reflexivity of 155, 221 Travis, John 48 n23 Trossachs 78, 136, 140, 145 n16 Tuke, James Hack 110 Turner, J. M. W. 138­9, 145 n20 Turner, Richard 171 Twiss, Richard, Tour of Ireland 97, 101, 112 n8 U Ulster 100­1, 104, 108­9, 221 Ulster Tatler 233 Ulster Tourist Development Association (Belfast) 178 Urbain, Jean-Didier 38, 48 n25, 229 distinction between exotic and endotic travel 229­33 Urry, John 69, 81 n5, 190, 200 n35 V Vandeul, Marie-Angйlique 83 n40 Victoria (Queen) 98, 124, 140, 171­2 Victorian Period 9, 10, 85, 108, 115, 117, 119, 126, 132­4, 148, 181, 185 Vincent, J. E., Through East Anglia in a Motor Car 201, 203­8, 213 Virgil 24 visual culture 52, 107, 139, 187, 188, 209 Voltaire 28 Candide 85 Lettres philosophiques 95 n2
264 Index
PROOF
voyages (see also Cook, James) 4, 14, 15, 16, 18, 21, 22, 25, 32, 76, 86, 95 n4 voyeurism 11, 40­1 W Wales (see also individual places) 6, 9, 13, 14, 31­49, 50­67, 98, 147­63, 186, 213 Anglicization and 149, 155 as birthplace of domestic tourism 50­1 `Blue Book' reports on 148, 151 Celticism and 17, 148 colonial relationship with England of 150 links with United States of 9, 152, 160 nationalism in 9 peripheries and 17, 21, 26 territorialization and 18 Welsh language 147, 149, 151, 152, 153, 159, 161 Welshness 19, 149­51, 155, 161 Walton, John K. 198 n4 Walpole, Horace 28 Ward, C. S., The Thorough Guide 193­4 Washington, E. K., Echoes of Europe 195, 200 n44 Watson, Nicola J. 9, 12 n9, 12 n11, 48 n21, 78, 84 n52, 144 n7, 145 n10, 145 n14, 195, 200 n43 Waugh, Evelyn 203, 215 Weiskel, Thomas 199 n15 Wellek, Renй 83 n36 West, Frederic, Mrs. (Theresa Cornwallis West), A Summer Visit to Ireland 110, 189­90, 200 n30 West, Thomas 4, 12 n14 Whelan, Irene 112 n11 Whelan, Kevin 112 n9, 112 n13, 167, 180 n11, 180 n12 White, George Preston, Tour in Connemara 110­11 White, Gilbert 28 Wicklow 98, 169 Williams, Daniel 11 n3
Williams, David, Hist. of Monmouthshire 61­3, 64, 67 n36, 67 n41 Williams, David (Rev.), of Llandyfeisant 148 Williams, John (pseud. Anthony Pasquin) 40­1, 49 n31 Williams, William (hymn writer) 157 Williams, William H. A. 8, 11, 12 n11, 111 n2, 111­2 n3, 112 n4, 112 n12, 112 n13, 112 n18, 112 n19, 113 n26, 113 n31, 182, 187, 198 n2, 198 n3, 199 n11, 199n25 Williams, William Proctor 66 n15 Wilmot, Sarah Anne 65, 67 n50 Wilson, John Marius, Land of Scott 141 Wilson, William, Post Chaise Companion 179 n8 Winter, William, Over the Border 120, 130 n32 Wismann, Heinz 234 n2 Withers, Charles W. T. 29 n6 Wohlgemut, Esther 70, 82 n12 women 31­49, 181­200 agency and 159 as motor tourists 216 n2, 216n6 fashion and 74 `New Woman' fiction and 158 of Jura 17 represented as hag, crone, or witch 195­6 sea-bathing and 6, 31­49 writing by 12 n11, 31 Wood, Gillen d'Arcy 138, 145 n20 Woods, C. J. 200 n34 Wordsworth, William 79, 138 `The Brothers' 69, 81 n6 The Excursion 68 `Iona (upon landing)' 114­15, 121, 122, 123 Wye River 1, 3, 6, 50­3, 55, 60­3, 65 n2, 153 Y Yarrow river 138 Yates, William Holt, Ivanhoe Illustrated 146 n32 Z Zilcosky, John 220, 234 n3

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