Local history subdivisions of the New Zealand class: a survey and a proposal

Tags: subdivision, New Zealand, counties, South Island, Public Library, geographical subdivision, Auckland province, public libraries, geographic subdivision, ZEALAND LIBRARIES, South Canterbury, Auckland, local history divisions, The School, ent, Turnbull Library, county subdivision, uckland, South Auckland, North Canterbury, Central Otago, Library School, territorial definition, classification schemes, Subdivision South Auckland, Library Association of Australia, ew, Library Service, National Library Service, Library Association, local history
VOLUME 2 4 N U M B E R 7
an d a p r o p o s a l , R. N. O'Reilly
book r e v i e w : Life on the Gold-fields of the South Island of New
Zealand, a Bibliography, by M. M. Turnbull
: new s a n d n o t e s : Another holder for Xerox reproduction of cards;
Status for the 60s; Library Association of Australia; Reorganis
ation of British Library Association
R. N. O ' R E I L L Y LOCAL H I S T O R Y S U B D I V I S I O N S OF T H E N E W Z E A L A N D G L A S S : A SURVEY AND A PROPOSAL New Zealand has been ill served by the authors of Classification Schemes, and New Z ealand librarians have done little to rem edy a situation costly in w asted tim e fo r library users and catalogue d ep a rt ments. For me it began when Dewey, trapped by the term A ustral asia. included New Z ealand along with M elanesia in his class 993 (following the E ast Indies 991 /2 ) before A ustralia 994, N ew G uinea 995 and Polynesia 996. T he correction is to swop over 993.1 and 995 as the library of the U niversity of A uckland, and the A uckland and Invercargill public libraries have both done. But though 993.1 has always chafed, we collectively have done little ab o u t it. The authors of the Library o f Congress Classification m ade New Zealand an A ustralian state. It w ould not have m attered if New Z ea land was the last in the sequence but it com es before T a s m a n ia ; and no New Zealand library using the classification appears to have been bold enough to swop over d u 4 0 0 - 4 3 0 and d u 4 5 0 - 4 8 0 . Bliss escapes such difficulties of prim ary collocation but was not satisfied with the livision of o c New Zealand in his A System o f Bibliographic tipcation, 1935 and altered it in A Bibliographic Classification, v,3 ,1953. Mr O'ReiUy is L ib ra ria n , C a n te rb u r y P u b lic L ib ra ry
THE JA M E S SUBDIVISION In 1910 H . L. Jam es, then A ssistant L ibrarian, G eneral Assembly Library, gave a paper to the first conference o f th e Libraries Associa tion of N ew Zealand at D unedin entitled T he D ew ey S y ste m . . .and its adaptation to N ew Zealand requirem ents. In it he outlined what is still referred to as if familiarly as the "Jam es Subdivision". O ne of the com plications was his use o f the letter Z as shorthand fo r 993.1 Since there is no clear rule fo r the use o f such letters in D ew ey they have since been superseded in m ost o f the many libraries that once used them -- and in superseding the Z (a t least as meaning w hat Jam es intended) these libraries also tended to supersede his subdivision which over the years had becom e unmanageable. How ever it (o r schemes derived from it) are still in use in the Auckland and Dunedin public libraries. T he main source o f difficulty in applying Jam es lies in his closer subdivisions rath er than in his broad structural ones. T he structure, not imm ediately obvious from the w ay the subdivision is set out in the 1910 Proceedings and Papers, is w orthy of study:
1 North Island Including H ot Lakes, King Country, Taupo, and Ruapehu 2 Auckland province 3 Wellington 4 T aranaki and H aw ke's Bay 5 South Island Including Southern Alps, Cold Lakes, Fiordland 6 Nelson and M arlborough 7 Canterbury 8 Westland 9 Otago [and "Off Islands")
O ne could quarrel with the o rd er o f classes 3 and 4 but generally this structure is sound and there appears to be no sufficient reason for radically superseding it, as later happened. It becam e unm anageable fo r the very faults th at m ake many of its rivals unm anageable: its subclasses were territorially undefined and either w ere (o r because o f the lack of territorial definition appear to have been) unsystematic, arbitrary, and incomplete. Otherw ise there is not as m uch to choose between it and its sucessors as those responsible fo r bringing them into being may have imagined. W hat, for example, is there to choose between its expansion of Auckland province and two of its successors' attempts?
James, 1910
A 1946 Subdivision
1 Auckland city
Auckland city
2 Bay of Islands and the North 3 Hokianga and Kaipara
North Auckland
A 1949 Subdivision Auckland city N orth Auckland
n e w Z e a l a n d l i b r a r i e s A u g u st 1961
James, 1910 4 Thames and Coro mandel 5 Waikato 6 Bay of Plenty 7 Poverty Bay 8. Note Hot lakes, K ing C oun try, T aupo, and R ua pehu classed with North Island
A 1946 Subdivision South Auckland Note Main library con cerned defines North Auckland as whole peninsula north of Auckland City, South A uckland in effect as balance of North Auckland land district
A 1949 Subdivision South Auckland (Waikato, West Coast) Coromandel, Bay of Plenty Therm al regions, Taupo Gisborne, East Coast Note Main library con cerned has made itself a map of these sub divisions
If we concede that the southern portion of the north Auckland land district is m ore deserving of a separate class than H okianga-K aipara there is little w rong with the 1910 version that territorial definition could not have tidied up. James's subdivision also had one useful feature that only one o f its successors has copied: a subdivision of M aori history both general and tribal. (E xam ination o f this is beyond the scope of this survey.) Little is known to me of the events leading to the eclipse of James but one may fairly assume that the interm inable w ork involved in classifying local histories under a scheme w ithout territorially defined classes led to its lack of cham pions when the Association, at the end of the Second W orld W ar, took a hand in a new scheme. It is also likely th a t these difficulties at the level of regions and districts led to the reaction against close geographical classification still prevalent in some New Zealand circles.
T H E N. Z. L. A. P L A N , 1 9 4 6 About the end of the Second World W ar the Wellington Branch1 set up a classification subcom m ittee under Miss Alice W oodhouse, and in the N ovem ber 1946 issue o f N e w Z e a l a n d L ib r a r ie s (9 :2 0 5 ) under the title "N ew Zealand H istory, Suggested Classification P lan" there appeared a subdivision of D.C. class 993.1 that soon becam e the main such subdivision in use in this country. In a letter to me dated 13 April 1961, Miss W oodhouse has this to say about its genesis: " ...D u r in g my last year or two at the T urnbull Library it seemed
1 Branch N o te s in N Z L i b 9 :1 3 , J a - F 1946 re fe rs to s u b c o m m itte e 's re p o rt.
lo me that som ething of the kind was essential, as the number of New Zealand books was rapidly growing, and m any of them dealt with particular provinces o r localities. So I drafted what seemed to me a I logical extension of Dewey's 993.1, consulting other members of the T urnbull staff, and presum ably also the other members of the sub com m ittee . . . and in due course the N .Z.L.A . classification was brought out, and was practically the same as my draft, with some minor alterations." H ere, for only the second time in print, are the geographical sub divisions ot the N.Z.L.A. plan:
1 Auckland province 11 Auckland city 12 N orth Auckland 15 South A uckland 2 Taranaki 21 New Plym outh (O ther provincial adding I to the province num ber.) 3 H aw ke's Bay 4 Wellington 5 Nelson 56 Marlborough 6 Westland 7 Canterbury 75 South Canterbury 8 Otago 85 Southland 87 Stewart Island 9 Outlying islands
similarly by
This fairly succinct scheme was published at that time "In order that any com m ents on . . . [this] am plification of the Dewey classifi cation of New Zealand history may be forwarded with the recommend ation to the Lake Placid In stitu te . . . " In due course it was so forwarded.
At that time the 14th edition of the D ecim al Classification was still current but Lake Placid was working on the 15th-- the radically pruned edition of 1952. N ew Zealand in the 14th edition was in the unsubdividcd class 993.1 and, with the tide running out against further subdivision generally, the A ssociation's recom m endation was not accepted. In the light of w hat the 15th edition turned out to be (and of the reclassification program m e already in store for us due to rather different causes) that might have been the appropriate time to raise the question of changing from 993.1 to 995. But this is hind-sight: it would not have appeared in the same light then. T he 15th edition added one subdivision to 993.1-- O utlying Islands. The num ber chosen was not -9 but -I. This om inous move apparently occasioned no protest here.
N E W Z E A LA N D LIBRARIES A lla n s ! 1961
In the meantime (in 1948) the National Library Service, with the Association's blessing, began its central cataloguing service for New Zealand books, and though no word o f this appears in the announce ment- in N e w Z e a l a n d L i b r a r i e s the N .Z.L.A . New Zealand sub division plan was adopted for this purpose. Though the N.Z.L.A. plan was evolved there, the Alexander T urn bull Library so far has not subdivided its class 993.1. The plan has been adopted by the library of the University of Auckland (but on the 995 not the 993.1 base), by the W ellington Public Libraries, and by perhaps twenty other New Zealand libraries. These are mainly the public libraries of the secondary cities and larger boroughs, but also include the library of the H aw ke's Bay M useum -- Miss W oodhouse herself has classified the Russell D uncan collection there by it. A major factor in its adoption by public libraries was the National Library Service move. O therw ise the libraries with large New Zealand collections have not followed suit.
W E A K N E S S E S I N T H E N. Z. L. A. P L A N The crucial criticism is that the N.Z.L.A. plan is not as it stands amenable to expansion. T o those opposed to all close subdivision this is a virtue; w hile to others who do not feel there is yet the need for closer subdivision it is a purely theoretical weakness. However, a classification scheme that cannot be expanded is doomed. The first source o f difficulty is that the plan is a provincial one and (since the provinces were abolished as local governm ents) there are no longer territorial units collectively covering New Zealand that are at the sam e time simple subdivisions of the provincial district terri tories. C ounties are the most suitable, probably the only, basis for the next level of subdivision. In some cases (e.g., Patea, W airoa) the different provincial parts of a county are each w orthy of attention; generally they arc not. But the class territories can be redefined so as to retain their general provincial character while becoming com patible with subdivision on a county basis. The second source of difficulty is the lack of definition of classes 12 North A uckland and 15 South A uckland. N ational Library Service gets over the problem by treating them as two regions w hich, with Auckland city, exhaust the N orth A uckland land district; though if the author of the plan had intended this interpretation she surely would have made South A uckland 13. N or is it likely that she would have singled out the area o f Pukekohe and the H unuas in preference to the Waikato o r R otorua (to go no fu rth e r). But oth er solutions are also unsatisfactory and some would run into difficulties from a third source. This springs from the com plication w here subordinate classes are added at the same decimal place. T here is often a great econom y and convenience in doing this, as for exam ple;
i N Z Lib 11:223-5 S ep tem b er 1948
NEW ZEALAND l i b r a r i e s A u g u s t 1 9 6 1
941.5 I r e l a n d
.6 Ulster
.7 Connaught
.8 Leinster
.9 M unster
But such is best done all at once, rather than that the main class
should first be given its -5 (o r -6 . . . ) and later the subordinate ones
theirs; because items belonging to the subordinate classes must then
have their num bers altered. It is one thing to add a number at the
next decimal place to an existing call num ber-- on the book itself or
on its catalogue cards; quite another to have first to use an eraser, as
anyone who has had to do this would testify.
T he four counties of South C anterbury can as well take up the sub
divisions 7 6 /7 9 as the four provinces of Ireland their .6 /.9 (after all
it takes two decimal places m ore to give each Irish county its separate
class). M ackenzie county, for example, might be 77; but it is a
deterrent when the w orks concerned are not 7 but 75. 85 Southland
and 87 Stewart Island offer still more com plex difficulties.
G enerally speaking it is unwise to open up a new decimal sub
division unless one can allocate rationally most of the nine places
available or so arrange things that another later on can allocate the
rem ainder. T he use of -1 for capital cities for exam ple creates no
difficulties later. T here does not seem adequate reason for the N.Z.L.A.
plan's use of its final decimal place apart from capitals.
It is ironic that the N.Z.L.A. plan was introduced in some circles as
a "classification suggested by H. L. J a m e s . . . revised" when it shares
only one of its nine main classes with Jam es and is
different that it does not even provide a place for N orth Island or
South Island. About Jam es Miss W oodhouse:1 states; " . . . T o the
best o f my recollection it was not considered as a possibility at all. It
seemed to me better to m ake one that w ould fit with Dewey methods
. . . never dream ing that they would start off with the little islands."
The James plan then was abandoned with no voice raised to save
it, whereas it might have been revised and strengthened. So much is
history. T he N.Z.L.A. plan needs revision and it cannot be revised
w ithout a certain am ount of trouble to the libraries using it. It would
be as well to take this trouble early, however, for the trouble will be
far greater if, unrcvised, it is in its turn superseded.
T H E G E N E R A L A S S E M B L Y S U B D I V I S I O N , I949 The advantage of the N .Z.L.A . plan over Jam es lay in its all-butconiplctc territorial definition and simplicity but when the General Assembly L ibrary', hom e of the Jam es subdivision, decided to turn it out, it found the N.Z.L.A. scheme " inadequate . . . to the large number of books in the . . . library." It was felt there at that tim e undesirable to have "to refer to the catalogue when wanting material on a
a ibid. 1 N 7 Lib 12:156-8 July 1949
particular place"-- a practice not obviated by the N.Z.L.A. plan when applied to a large collection. (The Jam es Maori history provision also was felt too valuable to lose.) However, the geographical expansion that was worked out shared Jam es's lack of territorial definition, and though the catalogue departm ent has since rendered first-aid by m ap ping the areas the library has been disappointed in the scheme and is considering the adoption of the N.Z.L.A. plan after all. It now con siders close geographical subdivision wrong. Two public libraries adopted this subdivision, one of these the Canterbury Public Library. It is agreed that it is difficult of operation; but not that this is due to its being too close. It is still desirable, at least in a public library, to be able to consult the shelves directly; and in m oderate to large collections the N.Z.L.A. plan is insufficient for this purpose. d. c. 1 6 t h e d i t i o n s u b d i v i s i o n The establishm ent of the N ational Library Service's New Zealand printed catalogue card to the point where it has been accepted by Library of Congress as part of the National Union Catalog may have carried along with it a false sense o f security in respect of the N.Z.L.A. New Zealand subdivision plan incorporated in it. Perhaps for this reason no further representations were made to the Lake Placid Club during the currency o f the 15th edition. Perhaps also it was not realised how quickly the 16th Edition was put in train to restore something like the closeness of subdivision that the 15th edition had pruned away. A t all events a New Zealand subdivision was prepared by the Club fo r the 16th edition and it took no cognisance of that recommended by the Association. It is understood that a draft was sent to New Zealand and that after protest was m ade it was am ended in some particulars, but generally the protest was disregarded and so in 1958 was published the 993.1 subdivision of that edition. Here, m inus redundancies, is the edition's geographic subdivision: 1 Outlying islands Including Chatham, Pitt, Auckland, Antipodes. 2 N orth Island 22 Auckland province 23 T aranaki province 25 H aw ke's Bay province Including Gisborne land district 27 Wellington province 5 South Island . . . Stewart Island Including Nelson province 52 M arlborough province 54 Westland province 55 C anterbury province 57 Otago province Including . . . Southland land district 575 Stewart Island (There is surely genius in the 575 touch)
It is almost incredible to a New Z ealander that this could ever be taken seriously but the fact is th at it is already accepted and used by British N ational Bibliography and (one can assum e) by hundreds if not thousands o f libraries all over the w orld. H ere in New Zealand its advent was hardly even noticed, let alone loudly protested; and to the best of my knowledge only one library (a public library in the 10,000-- 20,000 population group) has applied it. As to its faults, even the non-New Z ealander will appreciate its prodigality with decimal places. Stew art island apart; it takes two decimal places to achieve a provincial subdivision w hich Jam es and the N.Z.L.A . subdivisions virtually achieved in one. T he non-New Zea lander may not appreciate that (to the present at any rate) North Island and South Island hardly rate as bibliographic entries-- though it is a fault in the N .Z.L.A . scheme not to provide for them.
Other faults are: (a ) Opening instead of closing with O utlying islands. This gives a most misleading impression of their im portance. Besides, the weight of these islands is to the south (especially since the Kermadecs are om itted.) They do not naturally precede A uckland but follow Stew art Island. (T he move, it will be recalled, was m ade in the 15th edition-- tht 16th only developed its im plications.) (b ) Allowing unused num bers that might be useful later after Taranaki, H aw ke's Bay, W ellington, but not after A uckland. (c) With main numbers 6 to 9 unused (and so rendered henceforth unusable), the inclusion of N elson province under the main South Island class. (d ) Lack of separate provision for the Southland land district, that quasi-province. (e) Non-amenability to expansion (like the N.Z.L.A. and other province-based sub-divisions.) One could also carp in the interests of territoriality (on which the subdivision is otherw ise im peccable) at the inclusion of the Gisborne land district with H aw ke's Bay province. N ot all New Zealanders for that m atter realise that there is a strip of intervening country, adm ittedly not very interesting, that is neither one nor the other.
OTHER DECIMAL SUBDIVISIONS U.D.C. so far has no special geographic subdivision for New Zealand -- though it has a uniform subdivision applicable to any geographic class which can be and in the schedules is applied to New Zealand-- with not particularly bright results. L ow er H utt Public Library has its own expansions o f the main classes of the N.Z.L.A. plan-- for which I am responsible. They are the worst of all.

The best decimal subdivision in use to date is one within the framework not of the Decimal Classification but of Library of Congress. It was devised by Miss Enid Evans for the library of the Auckland Institute and Museum one of the few really big collections of New Zealand m aterial. It is a county subdivision, and counties are its main territorial units. It is also a regional subdivision in that the counties are grouped in regions, and a provincial one in that the regions are grouped under provincial designations; but the territories of the provincial classes correspond to the contained counties, not to the provincial districts. In most cases this is done without strain to the provincial idea. Following James, "O ther Islands" come at the end of the O tagor' class, which allows M arlborough a class to itself. O therw ise the sub division at the provincial level resembles the N.Z.L.A. plan with com mon num bers as far as 5 Nelson; while the N.Z.L.A. order of provinces, though not its num bers, is followed from class 6 M arl borough to 9 Otago. If the Kermadecs arc classified with Auckland province (they are not in it but are in the N orth Auckland land district) the C hatham s similarly with W ellington, this is a neater solution than that of the N.Z.L.A. plan. The regions singled out by Miss Evans for separate treatm ent arc:
I A uckland province I N orthland, 2 Auckland metropolitan, 3 South Auckland (i.e.. M anukau-F ranklin), 4 W aikato, 5 Corom andel, 6 Bay of Plenty, 7 King Country, 8 Therm al, 9 East Coast 4 Wellington province 1 Rangitikei (includes Wanganui region), 3 Manawatu, 5 W airarapa, 7 W ellington-Hutt metropolitan, with Hutt and M akara counties. 8 Canterbury 1 North Canterbury (Am uri, Cheviot, W aipara), 4 MidCanterbury (K ow hai/A shburton). 8 South Canterbury 9 Otago 1 Central Otago, 2 Rest of Otago, 7 Southland, 8 Stewart Island, 9 O ther islands Many of the regional inclusions can be challenged but the essential thing is that they provide a convenient fram ew ork for the grouping of counties-- for example:
14 W aikato 141 Raglan, 142 W aikato, 143 W aipa, 144 Piako, 145 M atam ata, 146 O torohanga
"» Stew art Is la n d , S o la n d c r a n d th e s u b a n ta rc tic isla n d s (B o u n ty , A n tip o d e s, S n ares. A u ck lan d , a n d C a m p b e ll) a rc n o n e o f th e m in th e O ta g o p ro v in c ia l d is tric t b u t all in th e S o u th la n d la n d d is tric t.
In case of the small provinces the county subdivision is direct, e.g. 2 Taranaki 21 T aranaki (c o .), 22 C lifton, 23 Inglewood, 24 Stratford, 25 Eltham , 26 H aw era, 27 Egm ont, 28 W aimate West, 29 Patea T he dom inance of the regional idea in the scheme is shown in the case of W aim arino county (p art both of the K ing Country and of W ellington province) w hich is allocated to K ing Country-- a sub division o f A uckland province. The King C ountry in fact overlaps three provinces (as also does one o f its m ain counties, Taumarunui) which makes it a test case fo r an expanded scheme; but Waimarino county is some distance from the A uckland provincial border, and m ore still from that of the South A uckland land district. Whichever way such an issue is decided there will be anomalies. T he A uckland Institute subdivision, which is further subdivided for photographs, and is also applicable to map classification (it has been taken over by the A lexander Turnbull Library for the latter purpose) is im portant because it dem onstrates the feasibility of subdivision to the county level in meeting the needs of a large collection. In structure it is superior to the N .Z.L.A . plan, but this superiority is hardly sufficient reason for superseding the N.Z.L.A. structure in the light of the burden of reclassification this would entail. L I B R A R Y OF C O N G R E S S The A uckland Institute subdivision was worked out within the framework of a variant Library o f Congress subdivision. Standard Library o f Congress practice is to arrange geographic regions alphabetically (by C utter nu m b er). T he scope as well as the pitfalls o f this are illustrated by reference to the printed examples under class d u 4 3 0 (Local history-- regions other than Wellington) which include: a35 Akaroa a4 Alps, Southern Such arrangem ent is com plex in adm inistration and yet can be calculated to drive the enquirer back from the shelves to the catalogue so often that it is surprising that libraries give themselves so much trouble to follow it through. T o find inform ation on a particular locality on the shelves the inquirer m ust first assume that it will be written about directly under the nam e he knows it by-- he will not find books on inclusive or partial o r overlapping regions near w here he is searching unless by chance the nam es begin with the same letters. From the viewpoint o f elem entary consistency the cataloguer is plagued with the problem of when to invert a compound place nam e such as Southern Alps, cited above. A nd is N o rth Auck- n e w Z e a l a n d l i b r a r i e s August 1961
land approxim ately the same place as N orthland or not? In one uni versity library m aterial on either o r both will be found divided indifferently between a 8 1 and n 8 . In the University of C anterbury variant, within whose framework Miss Evans w orked, an effort was m ade to avoid mixing up together non-cognate geographic entities (such as provinces, counties, towns) as happens u nder official Library o f Congress procedure. T o have carried out this plan, however, would have necessitated further pro vision for such entities as lakes and mountains; while the decision to regard "districts" as cognate with provinces has also led to confusion. Nor does the scheme avoid the problem of inverted names and synonymy already noted. It will thereby be seen that the frustrations that drove Miss Evans into her m onum ental w ork were serious enough. BLISS M r John H arris was responsible for the first adaptation and expansion of the Bliss class o c New Zealand within the framework of A System o f Bibliographic Classification 1935. His local history sub division is a simple lettered arrangem ent of provinces from Auckland to Otago, w hile a subdivision of the latter province (the only one sub divided) follows in the same alphabetical sequence: t Otago u Dunedin city v North Otago w Central Otago x Southland z Stewart Island (It is unclear w hether V and W are defined territorially.) Six letters are available for analogous treatm ent of A uckland pro vince, two for W ellington, one for N elson, two for C anterbury. In A Bibliographic Classification, v.3, 1953, Bliss so altered his History sections as to force reclassification; and at the Hocken Library, in process of changing over from its own Trim ble0 classification to Bliss, this has proved a useful opportunity to work out a new ex pansion including one for N.Z. local history. W hen this is com plete it will be followed in the main O tago University library. T he work done so far (as one would expect from M rs Linda R odda) is very good.
T H E C O U N T Y AS A T E R R I T O R I A L U N I T The D ecim al Classification uses the county as territorial unit in its geographical subdivision of the United States 9 7 4/9 . (It also does so for England and some other nations but the test is w hat it has settled on as the best basis in its own hom e territory.) Objection to sim ilar use of the county for New Zealand is m ade on the grounds that
6 A curious m ore o r less alphabeto-classed arrangem ent (e.g. N.,1 N ew spapers, N .,2 New Zealand, N .,2a A uckland, N .,2b C anterbury . . . )
counties change. In the last decade (it is pointed out) Kawhia has dis appeared (divided between Otorohanga and W aitom o), Taumarunui, once virtually confined to the Auckland province, has incorporated O hura (T aranaki) and Katicke (W ellington), M asterton has incor poraTed Castlepoint, M ackenzie taken a large tract of high country from G eraldine, and so on. In the present decade it is expected (even devoutly hoped) that this process will continue-- in fact it will prob ably never stop. The answ er to this is that classification schemes are themselves am enable to changes o f quite analogous kind-- and if there is no m achinery for keeping them up to date from time to time they will surely pass away. County boundaries at any given time are an am algam of geography and history: thus has constituted New Zealand Society dealt with the problem of organising local government. County boundaries cannot be changed w ithout very strong social and economic pressure; and, when changes occur, they are accom panied by publicity, formality, and new Lands and Survey departm ent maps. They should be similarly accom panied every decade or so by suitably altered N.Z. L.A. local history schedules, just as changes in U.S. counties are provided for in each new edition of the D ecim al Classification. This means a job o f reclassifying a few books from tim e to time. This adm ittedly is a nuisance-- like having to shave o r do other recur ring chores. The alternative is a really m ajor upheaval at somewhat longer intervals, and a lot of untidiness and difficulty in between.
C I. O S E S U B D I V I S I O N Resistance to taking N.Z. local history divisions beyond the pro vincial level is often expressed as a general dislike of close subdivision, at least of close geographical subdivision. It is pointed out that expert users know their authors, and find them easily in broad author arrangem ents, with difficulty in close ones. T he view here adopted is that there is a degree of closeness of sub division appropriate in any subject field to a given library at a given stage in the developm ent of its collection; and in the light of the special requirem ents of its public, who may not be experts at all. There should be a choice of degrees of closeness open to libraries. N o one objects if some keep all local history' at the broad New Zealand class while others group it provincially. If a choice was available, how ever, some libraries would group such m aterial regionally, others again (especially in respect of m aterial on their own dom estic area) by counties and even occasionally county ridings; for in this way they would best guide the laym an in New Zealand geography.
A R E V I S E D N. Z. L. A. S C H E M E In the hope it may meet the needs expressed above a three-stage scheme is in preparation and a limited num ber of copies should soon be available from the C anterbury Public Library. (O rders should be placed now.)
The scheme is within a modified N .Z.L.A . fram ew ork. Stage 1 is by provinces territorially modified in term s of Stages I I and I I I , Stage II by regional groups of counties, Stage III by counties o r districts related to counties. T here is also to be an index and a list of regional and district subject headings to tie in with class territories. If the scheme is adopted by the A ssociation, m achinery to r bringing it up to date at appropriate intervals would need to be established. In any case should we not together take a good look at the issues outlined here?
T u r n b u l l , M. M. Life on the Gold-Fields o f the South Island of New Zealand. Wellington, Library School, 1961. (Bibliographical series, no. 4) 22p. Photoprinted.
The publication of a series of bibliographical studies by students of the New Zealand L ibrary School is an occasion for rejoicing. The School has begun to produce studies in librarianship which cater m ore particularly for local needs. By this contribution to professional literature the work of the School exhibits an increased maturity which should be commended. The publications sponsored by certain other library schools have an established position in scholarly literature. To achieve international status for the New Zealand School and its graduates, it is necessary that publications issued under its auspices exhibit a satisfactory standard of general scholarship and Professional Competence. A consideration of the bibliography under review as a specimen example of the series raises certain questions. Those fam iliar with the programme of the School know that these bibliographies are compiled in a limited tim e as part of a crow ded syllabus. Students must confine their work either to a narrow subject or to a restricted treatm ent of a wider subject if they are to produce satisfactory studies. These are exercises in bibliography and not to be judged as m ajor contributions to library literature. T his is not to decry their value, but to present the studies fairly some mention of their limitations should be made. An introductory statement by the Director of the School would be a suitable m easure: the statem ent on the back of the title-page is in sufficient. It would also add to the value of the study to know what libraries and bibliographies had been used in com pilation. Mrs T urnbull has produced a bibliography o f a rom antic period in our history. T he literature of the subject is enorm ous, including official publications, unpublished material, illustrative matter, ballads, poems, newspaper and periodical articles and general works containing valuable incidental references. She has chosen wisely to limit her scope

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