Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Professor Emeritus, Charles R. Mischke, machine design, University of Michigan, chapters, machine designer, The University of Michigan, normal stress, the first edition, Joseph E. Shigley, Joseph Edward Shigley Joseph Edward Shigley, stochastic methods, Charles R. Mischke Editor, chapter, design factor, University of Kansas, Joseph E. Shigley Editor, McGraw-Hill books, The McGraw-Hill Companies, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Gleason Machine Division, Purdue University, Joseph Edward, Standard Handbook of Machine Design, University of Wisconsin, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Professor Shigley, Professor Mischke, McGraw-Hill, Joseph E. Shigley Charles R. Mischke, Brigham Young University, Concordia University, Aerospace Engineering, Ohio State University, Cambridge, Mass, Virginia Tech, University of Swansea, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Warsaw Technical University, Industrial and Systems Engineering Department, Consulting Engineer, Kenneth C. Ludema Professor, A. R. Lansdown, Kenneth J. Waldron, University of Delaware, Joseph Edward Shigley, Cornell University, Lincoln Electric Company, University of New Brunswick, Joseph E. Shigley Professor Emeritus, design, Swansea Tribology Centre, engineering student, Graphic Designer
STANDARD HANDBOOK OF MACHINE DESIGN Joseph E. Shigley Editor in chief Late Professor Emeritus The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan
Charles R. Mischke Editor in chief Professor Emeritus of Mechanical Engineering Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa Second Edition McGraw-Hill New York San Francisco
Washington, D.C. Auckland Bogota Caracas Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan Montreal New Delhi
San Juan Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Standard handbook of machine design / editors in chief, Joseph E.
Shigley, Charles R. Mischke. -- 2nd ed.
1. Machine design--Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Shigley, Joseph
Edward. II. Mischke, Charles R.
McGraw-Hill A Division of The McGraw-Hill Companies
Copyright © 1996 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976
, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system
, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 DOC/DOC 9 0 1 0 9
The sponsoring editor for this book was Harold Crawford, the editing supervisor was Bernard Onken, and the production supervisor was Pamela Pelton. It was set in Times Roman by North Market Street Graphics. Printed and bound by R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company. McGraw-Hill books are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. For more information, please write to the Director of Special Sales, McGrawHill, 11 West 19th Street, New York, NY 10011. Or contact your local bookstore.
Information contained in this work has been obtained by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ("McGraw-Hill") from sources believed to be reliable. However, neither McGraw-Hill nor its authors guarantees the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein and neither McGraw-Hill nor its authors shall be responsible for any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of use of this information. This work is published with the understanding that McGraw-Hill and its authors are supplying information but are not attempting to render engineering or other professional services. If such services are required, the assistance of an appropriate professional should be sought.
This book is printed on recycled, acid-free paper containing 10% postconsumer waste.
To the late Joseph Edward Shigley Joseph Edward Shigley was awarded bachelor degrees in electrical (1931) and mechanical (1932) engineering by Purdue University
, and a master of science in Engineering Mechanics
(1946) by The University of Michigan. His career in engineering education began at Clemson College (1936-1956) and continued at The University of Michigan (1956-1978). Upon retirement, he was named Professor Emeritus of Mechanical Engineering by the Regents in recognition of his outstanding achievement and dedicated service. At the time when Professor Shigley began thinking about his first book on machine design, many designers were unschooled, and textbooks tended to give results with only a brief explanation--they did not offer the reader many tools with which to proceed in other or new directions. Professor Shigley's first book, Machine Design (1956), showed his attention to learning and understanding. That milestone book is currently in its fifth edition
. Other books followed, among which are Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (with John J. Uicker, Jr.), Mechanical Engineering Design (with Charles R. Mischke), and Applied Mechanics of Materials. Early in the 1980s, Professor Shigley called Professor Mischke and said, "I've never done a Handbook before; there is no precedent in machine design, and it is time there was one. I propose we do it together. Take a couple of months to consider what ought to be in it, the organization and presentation style. Then we can get together and compare notes." The result was the first edition of the Standard Handbook of Machine Design (1986), which won the Association of American Publishers Award for the best book in engineering and technology published in 1986. Eight Mechanical Designers Workbooks followed. Professor Shigley received recognitions such as the grade of Fellow in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers
, from which he also received the Mechanisms Committee Award in 1974, the Worcester Reed Warner Medal in 1977, and the Machine Design Award in 1985. I believe he would have given up all the above rather than give up the effect he had as mentor and tutor to students, and in guiding boys toward manhood as a scoutmaster. He indeed made a difference. Charles R. Mischke
CONTRIBUTORS Erich K. Bender Division Vice President, Bolt, Beranek and Newman Inc., Cambridge, Mass. R. B. Bhat Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. John H. Bickford Retired Vice President, Manager of the Power-Dyne Division, Raymond Engineering Inc., Middletown, Conn. Omer W. Blodgett Design Consultant, Tb Lincoln Electric Company, Cleveland, Ohio. Daniel M. Curtis Senior Mechanical Engineer, NKF Engineering, Inc., Arlington, Va. Daniel E. Czernik Director of Product Engineering, Pel-Pro Inc., Skokie, 111. Joseph Datsko Professor of Mechanical Engineering Emeritus, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. Raymond J. Drago Senior Engineer, Advanced Power Train Technology, Boeing Vertol, Philadelphia, PA
. K. S. Edwards Professor of Mechanical Engineering,The University of Texas at El Paso,Tex. Rudolph J. Eggert Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, University of Idaho, Boise, Idaho. Wolfram Funk Professor, Fachbereich Maschinenbau, Fachgebiet Maschinenelemente und Getriebetechnik, Universitat der Bundeswehr Hamburg, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany. Richard E. Gustavson Technical Staff Member, The Charles Dn sr Laboratory Inc., Cambridge, Mass. Jerry Lee Hall Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, Russ Henke Russ Henke Associates, Elm Grove, Wis. Harry Herman Professor of Mechanical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ. R. Bruce Hopkins The Hopkins Engineering Co., Cedar Falls, Iowa. Robert J. Hotchkiss Director,Gear Technology, Gleason Machine Division, Rochester, N.Y. Robert E. Joerres Applications Engineering Manager, Associated Spring, Barnes Group Inc., Bristol, Conn. Harold L.Johnson Associate Professor Emeritus, School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Ga. Ray C. Johnson Higgins Professor of Mechanical Engineering Emeritus, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Mass. Theo J. Keith, Jr. Professor and Chairman of Mechanical Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio. Theodore K. Krenzer Manager, Gear Theory Department, Gleason Machine Division, Rochester, NY.
Karl H. E. Kroemer Professor, Industrial and Systems Engineering Department, Virginia Tech
(VPI & SU), Blacksburg,Va. A. R. Lansdown Director, Swansea Tribology Centre, University of Swansea, United Kingdom. Kenneth C. Ludema Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. Charles R. Mischke Professor of Mechanical Engineering Emeritus, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. Andrzej A. Oledzki Professor Emeritus, Warsaw Technical University, Warsaw, Poland. Leo C. Peters Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. Paul J. Remington Principal Engineer, Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc., Cambridge, Mass. Richard S. Sabo Manager, Educational Services, The Lincoln Electric Company, Cleveland, Ohio. T. S. Sankar Professor and Chairman, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Howard B. Schwerdlin Engineering Manager, Lovejoy, Inc., Downers Grove, 111. Joseph E. Shigley Professor Emeritus, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. Charles O. Smith Consulting Engineer, Terre Haute, Ind. L. E. Torfason Professor of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada. David A. Towers Senior Consulting Engineer, Harris Miller & Hanson Inc., Burlington, Mass. Eric E. Ungar Chief Consulting Engineer, Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc., Cambridge, Mass. Kenneth J. Waldron Professor of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Milton G. WiIIe Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Brigham Young
University, Provo, Utah. John L.Wright General Product Manager, Diamond Chain Company, Indianapolis, Ind. John R. Zimmerman Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
, University of Delaware, Newark, Del.
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION There is no lack of good textbooks dealing with the subject of machine design. These books are directed primarily to the engineering student. Because of this, they contain much theoretical material that is amenable to mathematical analysis. Such topics are preferred by the instructor as well as the student because they appeal to the student's scientific, mathematical, and computer backgrounds; are well-defined topics with a beginning, a middle, and an end; and are easy to use in testing the student's knowledge acquisition. The limited amount of time available for academic studies severely limits the number of topics that can be used as well as their treatment. Since textbooks devoted to mechanical design inevitably reflect this bias, there is great need for a handbook that treats the universe of machine design--not just the readily teachable part. The beginning designer quickly learns that there is a great deal more to successful design than is presented in textbooks or taught in technical schools or colleges. This handbook connects formal education and the practice of design engineering by including the general knowledge required by every machine designer. Much of the practicing designer's daily informational needs are satisfied by various pamphlets or brochures, such as those published by the various standards organizations. Other sources include Research Paper
s, design magazines, and the various corporate publications concerned with specific products. More often than not, however, a visit to the design library or to the file cabinet will reveal that a specific publication is on loan, lost, or out of date. This handbook is intended to serve such needs quickly and immediately by giving the designer authoritative, up-to-date, understandable, and informative answers to the hundreds of such questions that arise every day in his or her work. Mathematical and statistical formulas and tabulations are available in every design office and, for this reason, are not included in this handbook. This handbook has been written for working designers, and its place is on the designer's desk--not on the bookshelf. It contains a great many formulas, tables, charts, and graphs, many in condensed form. These are intended to give quick answers to the many questions that seem constantly to arise. The introduction of new materials, new processes, and new analytical tools and approaches changes the way we design machines. Higher speeds, greater efficiencies, compactness, and safer, lighter-weight, and predictably reliable machines can result if designers keep themselves up to date on technological changes.This book presents machine design as it is practiced today; it is intended to keep the user in touch with the latest aspects of design. Computer-aided design methods and a host of other machine-computation capabilities of tremendous value to designers have multiplied in the last few years. These have made large and lasting changes in the way we design. This book has been planned and written to make it easy to take advantage of machine-computation facilities of whatever kind may be available. Future developments in computer hardware and software will not render the content of this book obsolete.
This Handbook consists of the writings of 42 different contributors, all wellknown experts in their field. We have tried to assemble and to organize the 47 chapters so as to form a unified approach to machine design instead of a collection of unrelated discourses. This has been done by attempting to preserve the same level of mathematical sophistication throughout and by using the same notation wherever possible. The ultimate responsibility for design decisions rests with the engineer in charge of the design project. Only he or she can judge if the conditions surrounding the application are congruent with the conditions which formed the bases of the presentations in this Handbook, in references, or in any other literature source. In view of the large number of considerations that enter into any design, it is impossible for the editors of this Handbook to assume any responsibility for the manner in which the material presented here is used in design. We wish to thank all contributors, domestic and foreign, for their patience and understanding in permitting us to fine-tune their manuscripts and for meeting and tolerating our exacting demands. We are also grateful to the many manufacturers who so generously provided us with advice, literature, and photographs. Most of the artwork was competently prepared and supervised by Mr. Gary Roys of Madrid, Iowa, to whom the editors are indebted. Care has been exercised to avoid error. The editors will appreciate being informed of errors discovered, so that they may be eliminated in subsequent printings. Joseph E. Shigley Charles R. Mischke
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION
The introduction of new materials, new processes, and new (or more refined) analytical tools and approaches changes the way in which machines are designed. Complementary to the urge to update and improve, it is useful to look back in order to retain a perspective and appreciate how all this fits into the fabric of machine design methodology. Many of the machine elements we know today were known to the ancients. We have the advantage of improved materials, better manufacturing methods, and finer geometric control, as well as insightful theory and the opportunity to stand on the shoulders of the giants among our predecessors. Assuring the integrity of a contemplated design, its components, and the aggregate machine or mechanism has always been a problem for the engineer. The methods of record include the following:
· The Roman method This method, developed in the Macedonia-Roman period, was to replicate a proven, durable design (with some peripheral improvements). Encyclopedic "books" were compiled for the guidance of designers. In strengthlimited designs, the essential thought was,"Don't lean on your element any harder than was done in the durable, extant designs of the past." There are times when contemporary engineers still employ this method. · The factor of safety method (of Philon of Byzantium) In today's terms, one might express this idea as
n = losis:m-opf-rfeusnsecdt--iolno--aldoad
for linear load-stress relations. Alternatively,
Allowable load =
for linear load-stress relations. The factor of safety or design factor was experiential and came to consider uncertainty in load as well as in strength. · The permissible stress method Since the concept of stress was introduced by Cauchy in 1822, some engineers have used the idea of permissible stress with load uncertainty considered, and later with the relevant material strength included, as for example in
0.405, < (aall)bending < 0.605,
It is not clear whether the material strength uncertainty is included or not. When the word "allowable" or "permissible" is used among engineers, it is important to clearly define what is, and what is not, included. · Allowable stress by design factor The definition of allowable stress oan is expressed as
where a = §Pm, i.e., stress is proportional to the rath power of load P. The design factor nd is experiential and includes load and material strength uncertainty. In gear and cam design, contact stresses are not linear with load. In the form above, if the design factor is 2, then doubling the load creates the loss-of-function load, whether the stress is bending or Hertzian. · Stochastic design factor method Recognizing that strength S, load-induced stress a, and the design factor nd are stochastic (random) variables, one writes nd = S/tr. For lognormal strength and lognormal loading, the mean design factor nd is
n, = exp[Cn(z-Cn/2)]
cn = Vci + c* = Vci + c2
in which the C's are coefficients of variation of strength, stress, load, or design factor as subscripted. From this point on,
5 CTaIl = -- nd and one proceeds deterministically using mean values. Note in particular that nd is quantitatively experiential from data. · The stochastic method The design factor nd and the factor n are not used. Distributions are identified,and by simulation procedures the reliability corresponding to a decision set is identified. The computer becomes an important tool.
The practicing designer should be familiar with all of these methods. Although some of them may not be the method of choice under particular circumstances, it is important to understand them all in order to communicate with others and to follow their work. Developments since the appearance of the first edition of this book in 1986 are reflected in additions to chapters, rewritten chapters, and completely new chapters. More attention is being paid to probabilistic approaches to the design of machinery, and information and methods continue to develop. The reader can appreciate where parts fit in with the historical summary above. Chapter 2, "Statistical Considerations," has been rewritten to show the relationship between the design factor method and the stochastic methods of design as the inevitable uncertainties are considered. The result on the necessary size of the mean design factor of the interfering of a normal stress with a normal strength is shown. The more useful result on the necessary size of the mean design factor of the interference of a lognormal stress with a lognormal strength is explained. General interference methodology is included, as well as a caution on the nature of numbers, with the reason why significant numbers are rarely useful and possibly harmful.
Chapter 5,"Computer Considerations," has had material added on the important application of computer simulation and, very importantly, on assessing the confidence interval on the result. Chapter 8, "The Strength of Cold-Worked and Heat-Treated Steels," now includes a Fortran code for cold-work property predictions using the method of Datsko. Chapter 13, "Strength under Dynamic Conditions," now includes both stochastic and deterministic Marin fatigue reduction factor
s, and the correlation method for estimating endurance limits in steels. A tabular summary of fatigue equations is also presented in Customary Engineering Units and in SI. The methods for estimating the strength amplitude component and its coefficient of variation are shown for distortion energy-Gerber, ASME-elliptic, and Smith-Dolan fatigue loci. A section on complicated stress variation patterns has also been added. Chapter 37, "Shafts," has been completely rewritten to show the interplay between deflections (including shear deflections in short shafts) and stress-strength considerations. The fatigue failure loci featured are those that cannot be statistically rejected. These are the distortion energy-Gerber and the ASME-elliptic loci. A section on estimating the first critical speed using Rayleigh's equation has been added. A new Chapter 9, "Usability," has been added, recognizing that human capabilities and limitations are an integral part of designing tools and machines, and that a practicing machine designer has need for a handy reference. The four essential steps to assure that the product or system fits the operator are enumerated, and sources of available anthropometric information are given. Some basic information is included and references identified. A new Chapter 10, "Safety," has been added. The ASME Code of Ethics states, "Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public in the performance of their professional duties." This chapter identifies the why of safety; what safety is; the nature of hazard, risk, and danger; and the designer's obligation. Human beings interact with all products in the processes of designing,manufacturing, and maintaining them. This ties in with Chaps. 1 and 9. A new Chapter 11, "Minimizing Engineering Effort," addresses a topic that engineers are reluctant to discuss, namely, "How do you know you are right?" Intertwined with this is the matter of checking and its effectiveness. The chapter "Gaskets and Seals" has been partitioned into "Gaskets" and "Seals" for this edition. New contributors present the first edition topics of "Power Screws" and "Chain Drives." As in the previous edition, the Handbook continues to be written to take easy advantage of whatever kind of machine-computation facilities may be available. Future developments in hardware and software will not render the contents of this book obsolete. This edition contains the work of 41 different contributors, all well-known experts in their fields. There are now 50 chapters, assembled and organized to form a coherent approach to machine design. The ultimate responsibility for design decisions rests with the engineer in charge of the design project. Only he or she can judge if the conditions surrounding the applications are congruent with the circumstances which formed the bases of the presentations in this Handbook, in references, or in any other literature source. In view of the large number of conditions that enter into any design, it is impossible for the editors of this Handbook to assume any responsibility for the manner in which the material presented here is used in design. We wish to thank all the contributors, domestic and foreign, for their patience and understanding in letting us fine-tune their manuscripts, and for meeting and tol-
crating our exacting demands. We are also grateful to the many manufacturers who so generously provided us with advice, literature, and photographs. The new artwork for this edition was competently prepared by Ms.Lynn Ekblad, Graphic Designer, of Ames, Iowa. Care has been taken to avoid error. The editors would appreciate being informed of any errors discovered, so that they may be eliminated in subsequent printings. Joseph E. Shigley Charles R. Mischke
ABOUT THE EDITORS Joseph Edward Shigley is Late Professor Emeritus of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Michigan. Refer to the Dedication (p. iii). Charles R. Mischke, Professor Emeritus of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, B.S.M.E. (1947), M.M.E. (1950) Cornell University
, Ph.D. (1953) University of Wisconsin. He served on the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
, University of Kansas (1953-1957), as Professor and Chairman of Mechanical Engineering, Pratt Institute
(1957-1964), and as Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Iowa State University (1964-1992). His books include Elements of Mechanical Analysis (1963), Introduction to Computer-Aided Design (1968), and Introduction to Engineering through Mathematical Model Building (1980), and he was Coeditor-in-Chief, with J. E. Shigley, of the Standard Handbook of Machine Design (1986) and Mechanical Designers' Workbooks, eight volumes (1989). He coauthored with J. E. Shigley Mechanical Engineering Design, 5th ed. (1989). He had authored many technical papers on designing to a reliability specification, computer-aided design, and design morphology. He created the CADET (Computer-Augmented Design Engineering Technique) software, and he served on the Reliability, Stress Analysis and Failure Prevention Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Reliability Subcommittee chair). Dr. Mischke's honors and awards include Life Fellow, A.S.M.E. (1993), Centennial Certificate of Recognition of A.S.E.E. (1993), the Ralph Coats Roe Award of A.S.E.E. (1991), The Iowa Legislature Teaching Excellence Award (1991), the Machine Design Award of A.S.M.E. (1990), the Association of American Publishers Award (1987), Outstanding Teaching Award, Iowa State University (1980), the Ralph Teeter Award of the Society of automotive engineers
(1977), and Alcoa Foundation Professor (1974).