Microbiology with diseases by body system

Tags: Case Study, instant, Microbiology, new critical thinking questions, Emerging, New Disease, pedagogy, Microbiology Animation, Robert W. Bauman, DNA Replication, treatment regimens, Respiratory System, Infectious Diseases, Global Science Learning Outcomes, Stacey Weinberger, Mastering Test Bank, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Digestive System, Lori Smith, INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL, designations, Permissions Department, Lyme disease, Clinical Case Study, Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection, cytomegalovirus disease, Snail Fever, Kelsey Churchman, Nancy Tabor Project Manager, CHAPTER, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, Pearson Education, Inc., River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montr, United States copyright laws, WILLIAM CAREY COLLEGE, Microbial Growth, Electron Transport Chain, Virulence Factors, Viral Replication, Overview, nosocomial infection, Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Test Bank questions, critical thinking questions, critical thinking, MasteringMicrobiology, introductory coverage, Dichotomous Keys, Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn, AMARILLO COLLEGE, Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo, AMERICAN RIVER COLLEGE, Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San, Microbial Metabolism, Pearson Education, Cell-Mediated Immunity, Photosynthesis, Host Defenses, Humoral Immunity, Replication, Passive Transport, 17th Street Copyright
Content: download instant at http://testbankinstant.com INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL AND TEST BANK Nichol Dolby, Ph.D AMARILLO COLLEGE Lori Smith, Ph.D AMERICAN RIVER COLLEGE Randall K. Harris, Ph.D WILLIAM CAREY COLLEGE Microbiology with Diseases by Body System FOURTH EDITION Robert W. Bauman Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montrйal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sгo Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo
download instant at http://testbankinstant.com This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work and materials from it should never be made available to students except by instructors using the accompanying text in their classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials. Executive Editor: Kelsey Churchman Director of Development: Barbara Yien Project Editor: Ashley Williams Team Leader: Nancy Tabor Project Manager: Dorothy Cox Marketing Manager: Neena Bali Senior Manufacturing Buyer: Stacey Weinberger Main Text Cover Design: Elise Lansdon Cover Photo: RGB Pictures/Alamy Supplement Cover Design: 17th Street Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc., 1301 Sansome St., San Francisco, CA 94111. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458. For information regarding permissions, call (847) 486-2635. Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps. ISBN 0-321-94984-6 ISBN 978-0-321-94984-4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9--EBM--18-17-16-15-14 www.pearsonhighered.com
download instant at http://testbankinstant.com Contents
CHAPTER 1 A Brief History of Microbiology
1
CHAPTER 2 The Chemistry of Microbiology
6
CHAPTER 3 cell structure and Function
12
CHAPTER 4 Microscopy, Staining, and Classification
21
CHAPTER 5 Microbial Metabolism
27
CHAPTER 6 Microbial Nutrition and Growth
34
CHAPTER 7 Microbial Genetics
41
CHAPTER 8 Recombinant DNA Technology
48
CHAPTER 9 Controlling Microbial Growth in the Environment
54
CHAPTER 10 Controlling Microbial Growth in the Body: Antimicrobial Drugs
61
CHAPTER 11 Characterizing and Classifying Prokaryotes
67
CHAPTER 12 Characterizing and Classifying Eukaryotes
73
CHAPTER 13 Characterizing and Classifying Viruses, Viroids, and Prions
82
CHAPTER 14 Infection, Infectious Diseases, and Epidemiology
89
CHAPTER 15 Innate Immunity
96
CHAPTER 16 Adaptive Immunity
101
CHAPTER 17 Immunization and Immune Testing
109
CHAPTER 18 Immune Disorders
114
CHAPTER 19 Microbial Diseases of the Skin and Wounds
121
CHAPTER 20 Microbial Diseases of the nervous system and Eyes
129
CHAPTER 21 Microbial Cardiovascular and Systemic Diseases
136
Chapter 22 Microbial Diseases of the Respiratory System
143
CHAPTER 23 Microbial Diseases of the Digestive System
151
CHAPTER 24 Microbial Diseases of the Urinary and Reproductive Systems
159
CHAPTER 25 Applied and Environmental Microbiology
166
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Answers to Micro in the Clinic Follow-Up Questions
175
Answers to Tell Me Why Questions
185
Answers to End-of-Chapter Questions for Review
207
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download instant at http://testbankinstant.com Preface This volume contains the Instructor's Manual and Test Bank accompanying Microbiology with Diseases by Body System, Fourth Edition, by Robert W. Bauman. The Instructor's Manual consists of the following resources: · Detailed chapter outline and synopsis for each chapter of the text · Answers to End-of-Chapter Chapter Review Questions, including critical thinking and Concept Mapping Questions · Answers to Micro in the Clinic Follow-Up Questions · Answers to in-text Tell Me Why Questions The Test Bank consists of approximately 1800 multiple-choice, matching, true/false, fill-in-the-blank, short-answer, and essay questions. The questions are ranked using Bloom's Taxonomy. The main text learning outcomes and the section upon which the question is based are also provided. The complete Mastering Test Bank is also tagged to ASMCUErecommended outcomes and the Global Science Learning Outcomes. Below is a list of additional print and media resources available to you as an adopter of Microbiology. Contact your local Pearson representative if you would like to order any additional supplements. To locate the representative nearest you, visit www.pearsonhighered.com/educator/replocator or call 1-800-922-0579. Using MasteringMicrobiology with Your Textbook Ask your Pearson representative for a demonstration of MasteringMicrobiology or take a tour (www.masteringmicrobiology.com). 1. Assign and assess with MasteringMicrobiology. MasteringMicrobiology will help you maximize class time with customizable, easy-to-assign, and automatically graded assessments. Many assessments have built-in feedback to help guide your students to the correct answer. You can then easily export grades to a course management system or spreadsheet. MasteringMicrobiology includes the following powerful online tools: · NEW Video Tutors, narrated by the author, that walk students through key concepts in the book · NEW MicroLab Practicals to give students extra practice in observing and analyzing important procedures and test results · NEW MicroCareers Coaching Activities to help students learn to think like a microbiologist by investigating emerging diseases from different career perspectives · NEW MicroLab Tutors to introduce students to a technique's background, purpose, and clinical applications before walking through the procedure itself v
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· NEW Lab Technique Videos to demonstrate specific lab techniques in 3 to 5 minutes · NEW Disease in Depth coaching activities, corresponding to the feature in the book, encourage students to employ investigative skills using epidemiological and clinical field work to understand each featured disease · NEW Disease at a Glance coaching activities that require students to recognize and sort diseases by different categories (transmission type, pathogenesis, signs and symptoms, associated organisms, treatment, etc.) · NEW Dynamic Study Modules boost knowledge acquisition and retention, fostering more effective study and class time and allowing students to come to class better prepared and ready for higher levels of learning · NEW Learning Catalytics provides meaningful question types and facilitates classroom discussions and activities, supporting active learning in every classroom · Clinical Case Study Activities help students connect microbiological theory to realworld disease diagnosis and treatment · Pre-lecture reading quizzes to make sure your students read the textbook before coming to class · Post-lecture quizzes to check students' understanding · MicroFlixTM and BioFlixTM quizzes and activities to give students practice with 3-D movie-quality animations · Microbiology Animation quizzes to ensure students have mastered the toughest topics in microbiology · Pre-lab quizzes to better prepare students for lab · Post-lab quizzes to check that your lab objectives were met · Get Ready for Microbiology quizzes to enable your students to come to your course prepared · Test Bank items to test every chapter section A list of Video Tutor topics follows, organized by chapter:
Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Video Tutor Title The Scientific Method The Structure of Nucleotides Bacterial cell walls The Light Microscope Electron Transport Chains Bacterial Growth Media Initiation of Translation Action of Restriction Enzymes Principles of Autoclaving Action of Some Drugs That Inhibit Prokaryotic Protein Synthesis Arrangements of Prokaryotic Cells Principles of Sexual Reproduction in Fungi The Lytic Cycle of Viral Replication Some Virulence Factors Inflammation
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16
Clonal Deletion
17
ELISA
18
Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn
A list of MicroFlix and BioFlix topics follows, organized by chapter:
Chapter 5 7 16
MicroFlix Title Metabolism DNA Replication Immunology
Chapter 3 7 12 12
BioFlix Title Tour of an Animal Cell Protein Synthesis Mitosis Meiosis
A list of Microbiology Animation topics follows, organized by chapter:
Chapter 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5
Microbiology Animation Title Active Transport: Overview Active Transport: Types Flagella: Arrangement Flagella: Movement Flagella: Structure Membrane Permeability Membrane Structure Motility Passive Transport: Principles of Diffusion Passive Transport: Special Types of Diffusion Spirochetes Dichotomous Keys: Overview Dichotomous Keys: Practice Dichotomous Keys: Sample with Flowchart Electron Microscopy light microscopy Microscopy and Staining: Overview Staining Electron Transport Chain: factors affecting ATP Yield Electron Transport Chain: Overview Electron Transport Chain: The Process Enzymes: Competitive Inhibition Enzymes: Overview Enzymes: Steps in a Reaction
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5
Enzyme-Substrate Interaction: Non-Competitive Inhibition
5
Fermentation
5
Glycolysis: Overview
5
Glycolysis: Steps
5
Krebs Cycle: Overview
5
Krebs Cycle: Steps
5
Metabolism: Overview
5
Metabolism: The Big Picture
5
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
5
Photosynthesis: Comparing Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
5
Photosynthesis: Light Independent Reaction
5
Photosynthesis: Light Reaction: Cyclic Photophosphorylation
5
Photosynthesis: Light Reaction: Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
5
Photosynthesis: Overview
6
Bacterial Growth Curve
6
Bacterial Growth: Overview
6
Binary Fission
7
Conjugation: Chromosome Mapping
7
Conjugation: F Factor
7
Conjugation: Hfr Conjugation
7
Conjugation: Overview
7
DNA Replication: Forming the Replication Fork
7
DNA Replication: Overview
7
DNA Replication: Replication Proteins
7
DNA Replication: Synthesis
7
Horizontal Gene Transfer: Overview
7
Mutagens
7
Mutations: Repair
7
Mutations: Types
7
Operons: Induction
7
Operons: Overview
7
Operons: Repression
7
Transcription: Overview
7
Transcription: The Process
7
Transduction: Generalized Transduction
7
Transduction: Specialized Transduction
7
Transformation
7
Translation: Overview
7
Translation: The Genetic Code
7
Translation: The Process
7
Transposons: Complex Transposons
7
Transposons: Insertion Sequences
7
Transposons: Overview
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8
PCR: Components
8
PCR: The Process
8
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR): Overview
8
Recombinant DNA Technology
10
Antibiotic Resistance: Forms of Resistance
10
Antibiotic Resistance: Origins of Resistance
10
Chemotherapeutic Agents: Modes of Action
13
Prions: Characteristics
13
Prions: Diseases
13
Prions: Overview
13
Viral Replication: Animal Viruses
13
Viral Replication: Overview
13
Viral Replication: Temperate Bacteriophages
13
Viral Replication: Virulent Bacteriophages
14
Epidemiology: Occurrence of Diseases
14
Epidemiology: Overview
14
Epidemiology: Transmission of Disease
14
Nosocomial Infections: Overview
14
Nosocomial Infections: Prevention
14
Virulence Factors: Endotoxins
14
Virulence Factors: Enteric Pathogens
14
Virulence Factors: Exotoxins
14
Virulence Factors: Hiding from Host Defenses
14
Virulence Factors: Inactivating Host Defenses
14
Virulence Factors: Penetrating Host Tissues
15
Complement System: Activation
15
Complement System: Overview
15
Complement System: Results
15
Host Defenses: Overview
15
Inflammation: Overview
15
Inflammation: Steps
15
Phagocytosis: Mechanism
15
Phagocytosis: Microbes That Evade It
15
Phagocytosis: Overview
16
Antigen Processing and Presentation: MHC
16
Antigen Processing and Presentation: Overview
16
Antigen Processing and Presentation: Steps
16
Cell-Mediated Immunity: Cytotoxic T Cells
16
Cell-Mediated Immunity: Helper T Cells
16
Cell-Mediated Immunity: Overview
16
Host Defenses: The Big Picture
16
Humoral Immunity: Antibody Function
16
Humoral Immunity: Clonal Selection and Expansion
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Humoral Immunity: Overview
16
Humoral Immunity: Primary Immune Response
16
Humoral Immunity: Secondary Immune Response
17
Vaccines: Function
17
Vaccines: Types
2. Encourage your students to use the Study Area in MasteringMicrobiology. They will find extensive self-study tools there, including: · Three-Step Chapter Guide takes students through these simple steps: Take a Pre-Test, Learn & Practice, and Test Yourself. · Get Ready for Microbiology helps students quickly prepare for their microbiology course, featuring pre- and post-tests with instant feedback, personalized study plans, animations, activities, tutorials, and an eText with live links. · Chapter Pre-Tests help students assess prior knowledge and/or preconceptions of topics relevant to the chapter at hand before students read the chapter. · Chapter Post-Tests help students assess their comprehension of the chapter after they have read it. · Practice Quizzes--multiple choice, fill-in-the-blank, and true/false--help students master chapter topics. · Concept Maps help students practice building maps to organize concepts in a meaningful, visual way. · MicroFlix 3-D movie-quality animations illustrate the three tough topics of metabolism, DNA replication, and immunology. · BioFlix 3-D movie-quality animations explain Basic Topics in general biology. · Microbiology Animations with Quizzes help students master the toughest topics in microbiology via interactive, animated tutorials. · Microbiology Videos feature live-action videos of microorganisms, illustrating microbial structures and motility. · MP3 Tutor Sessions offer mini-lectures on tough topics, including audio quizzes, that students can download for study on the go. · Flashcards help students review key terms and concepts from the text. · Glossary allows students to check the definition of bolded terms in the book. · Micro on the Web includes relevant microbiology websites with RSS Feeds from CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report and MicrobeWorld News. · Emerging Diseases features the RSS feeds from WHO Disease Outbreak Tracking, allowing students to follow the latest news on emerging and reemerging diseases throughout the world. · Careers provides useful information about working in a microbiology-related field; basic research, applied research, and health professions are covered. · Scientific American Quizzes help students check their understanding of articles in the Current Issues in Microbiology magazine by Scientific American. · Pearson eText provides the complete text of Microbiology with Diseases by Body System, Fourth Edition, in online electronic format.
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download instant at http://testbankinstant.com Other Instructor Media Resources Instructor Resource DVD 0-321-94986-2/ 978-0-321-94986-8 The Instructor Resource DVD offers a wealth of instructor media resources, including presentation art, lecture outlines, test items, and Answer Keys--all in one convenient location. These resources help instructors prepare for class--and create dynamic lectures--in half the time! The IR-DVD includes: · All figures from the book with and without labels in both JPEG and PowerPoint® formats, the latter including the Label Edit feature. · Select "process" figures from the book with the Step Edit feature in PowerPoint® format · All tables from the book · MicroLab Tutors, Lab Technique Videos, MicroFlixTM and BioFlixTM Animations, Microbiology Animations, and Microbiology Videos · PowerPoint® lecture outlines, including figures and tables from the book and links to the animations · Active Lecture Clicker Questions · Quiz Show Clicker Questions · The Test Bank as editable Microsoft® Word files · The Test Bank in TestGen® format · Instructions for where to download the Instructor's Manual All materials available on the Instructor Resource DVD are also available in the Instructor Resources area of MasteringMicrobiology. Biological Agents of Disease/HIV Slide Set for Microbiology 0-8053-7671-2 This slide set contains 100 clinical photos of microorganisms and pathologies, all from sources other than the text. Updates to the Fourth Edition · NEW Disease in Depth spreads feature important and representative diseases for each body system, extending the visual impact of the art program as well as the highly praised Disease at a Glance features. Each of these six visual spreads contains infographics, provides in-depth coverage of the selected disease, and includes a QR code and Investigate It! question that directs students to a major health website, prompting further exploration and critical thinking. New MasteringMicrobiology® assignable Disease in Depth coaching activities encourage students to apply and test their understanding of key concepts. · NEW Video Tutors developed and narrated by the author walk students through key concepts in microbiology, bringing the textbook art to life and helping students visualize and understand tough topics and important processes. These 18 video tutorials are accessible via QR codes in the textbook and are accompanied by multiple-choice questions, assignable in MasteringMicrobiology®. PREFACE xi
download instant at http://testbankinstant.com · NEW Tell Me Why critical thinking questions end every main section within each chapter. These questions strengthen the pedagogy and organization of each chapter and consistently provide stop-and-think opportunities for students as they read. · NEW Expanded coverage of helminths is provided in new highlight features, and an emphasis on virulence factors is included in Disease at a Glance and Disease in Depth features. · NEW Numbered Learning Outcomes in the textbook are used to tag Test Bank questions and all Mastering assets. In addition to being tagged to Learning Outcomes, all Mastering assessments are tagged to the Global Science Learning Outcomes and Bloom's Taxonomy. The complete Mastering Test Bank is also tagged to ASMCUE recommended outcomes. · NEW Visualize It! features appear at the end of each chapter. These short-answer or fill-in-the-blank questions are built around illustrations or photos. These are also assignable art labeling activities in MasteringMicrobiology®. · The immunology chapters (Chapters 15­18), which have been and continue to be reviewed in-depth by immunology specialists, reflect the most current understanding of this rapidly evolving field. · Over 50 NEW micrographs and photos enhance student understanding of the text and boxed features. · NEW MasteringMicrobiology® includes NEW Disease in Depth and Disease at a Glance coaching activities, NEW Video Tutors with assessments, NEW MicroCareers and Clinical Case Study coaching activities, NEW Visualize It! art labeling activities, and Microbiology Lab Technique videos with assessment and MicroLab Tutor coaching activities. MicroLab Tutors use lab technique videos, 3D molecular animations, and stepped-out tutorials to actively engage students in making the connection between microbiology lecture, lab, and the real world. Disease at a Glance coaching activities ask students to categorize and sort diseases by different concepts, that is, by mode of transmission, signs and symptoms, etc. Additionally, MasteringMicrobiology® and the Study Area include NEW MicroLab Practical quizzes, allowing more opportunities to analyze and interpret important lab tests, techniques, and results. The following section provides a detailed outline of this edition's chapter-by-chapter revisions. THROUGHOUT THE DISEASE CHAPTERS (19­24) · Updated disease diagnoses, treatments, and incidence and prevalence data · Updated immunization recommendations and suggested treatments for all diseases · Expanded coverage of virulence factors Chapter 1 A Brief History of Microbiology · Three new Tell Me Why questions · Four photos replaced for improved pedagogy (Figures 1.5a and b, 1.7b, 1.17) · One figure revised for improved pedagogy (Figure 1.13) · Update to CDC-preferred term healthcare associated infection (HAI) (formerly nosocomial infection) · New introductory coverage of normal microbiota and agar xii PREFACE
download instant at http://testbankinstant.com · Clarified the use of a control in Pasteur's experiment to disprove spontaneous generation · Clarified industrial use of microbes in making yogurt and in pest control · Three new critical thinking questions in the Emerging Disease Case Study: Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease · New Clinical Case Study: Can Spicy Food Cause Ulcers? · New end-of-chapter Short Answer question on healthcare associated (nosocomial) infections · New Visualize It! question on Pasteur's experiment to disprove spontaneous generation · New Video Tutor: The Scientific Method Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Microbiology · Five new Tell Me Why questions · Twelve figures revised for improved clarity and pedagogy (Figures 2.2, 2.3, 2.5, 2.7, 2.10­2.12, 2.15, 2.19, 2.20, 2.24, 2.26) · New figure legend question (Figure 2.3) · Expanded coverage of term nucleoside (nucleoside analogs treat a number of diseases) · New Visualize It! question on the structure of amino acids · New Video Tutor: The Structure of Nucleotides Chapter 3 Cell Structure and Function · Twelve new Tell Me Why questions · Four new/upgraded photos (Figures 3.7a and b, 3.8, 3.11) · Five figures revised for improved clarity and pedagogy (Figures 3.9, 3.14, 3.15, 3.20, 3.24) · Enhanced discussion of bacterial cytoskeletons and of bacterial and archaeal flagella · Enhanced discussion of the roles of glycocalyces in biofilms · New Visualize It! question on bacterial flagellar arrangements · New Video Tutor: Bacterial Cell Walls Chapter 4 Microscopy, Staining, and Classification · Four new Tell Me Why questions · Four figures revised for improved clarity and pedagogy (Figures 4.2, 4.5, 4.6, 4.17) · Three new critical thinking questions and one new photo in the Emerging Disease Case Study: Necrotizing Fasciitis · New Visualize It! question on the light microscope · New Video Tutor: The Light Microscope Chapter 5 Microbial Metabolism · Six new Tell Me Why questions · Seven figures revised for improved clarity and pedagogy (Figures 5.3, 5.6, 5.10, 5.14, 5.16, 5.17, 5.26) PREFACE xiii
download instant at http://testbankinstant.com · Two new figure legend questions (Figures 5.4, 5.12) · Expanded coverage of vitamins as enzymatic cofactors · Updated text and figure legends that more clearly explain energy transfer in glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and electron transport · Updated text clarifying that glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the Krebs cycle supply numerous precursor metabolites for anabolism · Expanded discussion of bacterial quorum sensing and biofilms · New end-of-chapter Fill in the Blanks question on anaerobic respiration · New Visualize It! question on locating glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and electron trans- port in eukaryotes · New Video Tutor: Electron Transport Chains Chapter 6 Microbial Nutrition and Growth · Three new Tell Me Why questions · Two figures revised for improved clarity and pedagogy (Figures 6.1, 6.20) · Significantly expanded coverage of biofilms and quorum sensing, including a new figure (Figure 6.7) · Updated Beneficial Microbes: A Nuclear Waste­Eating Microbe? · New Clinical Case Study about dental caries · New Clinical Case Study about MRSA infection in a high school · New Visualize It! question on identifying beta hemolysis · New Video Tutor: Bacterial Growth Media Chapter 7 Microbial Genetics · Four new Tell Me Why questions · Eleven figures upgraded for greater clarity, accuracy, ease of reading, and better pedagogy (Figures 7.1, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.9, 7.10, 7.21, 7.24, 7.30, 7.34, 7.37) · Expanded coverage of the difference between nucleoside and nucleotide (many antimicrobial drugs are analogs of the former, not the latter) · Clarified section on operons, introduction of the term polycistronic, new discussion of quorum-sensing as a trigger for inducible and repressible operons · Section on regulatory RNA molecules updated for clarity and for inclusion of newly discovered information · Three new critical thinking questions in Emerging Disease Case Study: Vibrio vulnifi- cus Infection · New Visualize It! question on DNA structure · New Video Tutor: Initiation of Translation Chapter 8 Recombinant DNA Technology · Five new Tell Me Why questions · One new photo (chapter opener) · Two figures revised for improved pedagogy (Figures 8.2, 8.9) xiv PREFACE
download instant at http://testbankinstant.com · New section discussing use of recombinant DNA techniques to address environmental problems, such as the reemergence of dengue fever · Expanded coverage of the debate concerning genetic modification of agricultural products · New Highlight: How Do You "Fix" a Mosquito? · New Highlight: Vaccines on the Menu · New Visualize It! question on DNA "fingerprinting" · New Video Tutor: Action of Restriction Enzymes Chapter 9 Controlling Microbial Growth in the Environment · Four new Tell Me Why questions · New photo (Figure 9.9) · Three figures revised for improved clarity and pedagogy (Figures 9.1, 9.4, 9.13) · Reorganization of the topics "Methods for Evaluating Disinfectants and Antiseptics" and "Biosafety Levels" for better flow and pedagogy · New Highlight: Microbes in Sushi? · Three new critical thinking questions in Emerging Disease Case Study: Acanthamoeba Keratitis · New end-of-chapter critical thinking question on salmonellosis pandemic from smoked salmon · New Visualize It! question on metal ions as a traditional water disinfectant in India · New Video Tutor: Principles of Autoclaving Chapter 10 Controlling Microbial Growth in the Body: Antimicrobial Drugs · Four new Tell Me Why questions · One new photo (Figure 10.10) · Eight figures revised for currency, improved clarity, and pedagogy (Figures 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.6, 10.8, 10.10, 10.15; Emerging Disease Case Study: Community-Associated MRSA map) · Expanded coverage of the terms therapeutic index and therapeutic window as applied to antimicrobials · New coverage on transfer of resistance genes between and among bacteria and on research to discover novel antimicrobials; updated discussion of the efficacy of probiotics · Updated tables of antimicrobials to include all new antimicrobials mentioned in disease chapters, including antibacterial carbapenems; new antiprotozoan drugs (lumefantrine, nitazoxanide, paromoycin, piperaquine, and tinidazole); the newly approved anti-HIV-1 drug enfuvirtide; the antifungal drug ciclopirox; and antiviral protease inhibitors (boceprevir, darunavir, and telaprevir) · New end-of-chapter critical thinking question on development of antimicrobial resistance · Three new critical thinking questions in Emerging Disease Case Study: Community-Associated MRSA PREFACE xv
download instant at http://testbankinstant.com · Nine new Learning Outcomes · New Visualize It! question on Etest interpretation · New Video Tutor: Action of Some Drugs That Inhibit Prokaryotic Protein Synthesis Chapter 11 Characterizing and Classifying Prokaryotes · Four new Tell Me Why questions · Fourteen new photos (Figures 11.1, 11.2, 11.7, 11.17, 11.22, 11.23b, 11.24, 11.25b) · Eight revised figures for improved clarity and pedagogy (Figures 11.1, 11.2, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.10, 11.21, 11.25) · Clarified and expanded coverage of "snapping division," which is a distinctive charac- teristic of corynebacteria, including C. diphtheriae · Updated taxonomy to correspond more completely with current Bergey's Manual · New Beneficial Microbes: Botulism and Botox · Enhanced discussion of nitrogen fixation, nitrification, and action of Agrobacterium · New Highlight: Your Teeth Might Make You Fat · Three new critical thinking questions in Emerging Disease Case Study: Pertussis · Six new Learning Outcomes · New Visualize It! on endospore identification · New Video Tutor: Arrangements of Prokaryotic Cells Chapter 12 Characterizing and Classifying Eukaryotes · Six new Tell Me Why questions · Eight new photos (Figures 12.11, 12.13, 12.15a­b, 12.23b, 12.29, 12.30, 12.33e) · Five revised figures for improved clarity and pedagogy (Figures 12.1, 12.8, 12.11, 12.22, 12.33e) · Updated algal, fungal, protozoan, water mold, and slime mold taxonomy · Simplification of the vocabulary in the coverage of the morphology and reproductive strategies of fungi · New Visualize It! question concerning fungal life cycles · New Video Tutor: Principles of Sexual Reproduction in Fungi Chapter 13 Characterizing and Classifying Viruses, Viroids, and Prions · Four new Tell Me Why questions · Five new photos (Figures 13.1b, 13.5c, 13.21, 13.23; Beneficial Microbes: Prescription Bacteriophages? photo) · Four figures revised for improved pedagogy and currency (Figures 13.8, 13.11, 13.13, 13.22) · Updated viral nomenclature to correspond to changes approved by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) · New coverage of discovery of Megavirus--the largest virus · Three new critical thinking questions in updated Emerging Disease Case Study: Chikungunya xvi PREFACE
download instant at http://testbankinstant.com · New Visualize It! question on recognizing viral shapes in transmission electron micrographs · New Video Tutor: The Lytic Cycle of Viral Replication Chapter 14 Infection, Infectious Diseases, and Epidemiology · Eight new Tell Me Why questions · Three new photos (Figures 14.10, 14.6, 14.13) · Seven figures updated for currency, improved clarity, and pedagogy (Figures 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.14, 14.15, 14.19, 14.20) · Updated epidemiology charts, tables, and graphs · Updated list of nationally notifiable infectious diseases · New discussion of hemolytic uremic syndrome (caused by E. coli), provided as an example of an epidemic with reference to an emerging disease (replaces prior discussion of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome) · New discussion of human West Nile virus infection added to explain the ways epidemiologists report their findings (replaces prior discussion of shigellosis) · New figure legend questions (Figures 14.15, 14.18) · Three new critical thinking questions in Emerging Disease Case Study: Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome · New Visualize It! question on recognizing viral shapes in transmission electron micrographs · New Video Tutor: Some Virulence Factors Chapter 15 Innate Immunity · Two new Tell Me Why questions · Six figures revised for improved clarity and pedagogy, including a new rendition to reflect more accurately the sequence of complement cascade and action of complement subunits (Figures 15.6, 15.9, 15.11­14) · Expanded coverage of the action of antimicrobial peptides (defensins) · Expanded coverage of NOD receptor proteins and their role in protecting against hepatitis C, AIDS, and mononucleosis · New Visualize It! question on identification of white blood cells · New Video Tutor: Inflammation Chapter 16 Adaptive Immunity · Three new Tell Me Why questions · Two new photos (Figures 16.1, 16.6) · Twelve figures revised for improved clarity, pedagogy, and currency (Figures 16.2­16.5, 16.8­16.13, 16.18; Emerging Disease Case Study: Microsporidiosis map) · Text reorganized to present discussion of T cells, major histocompatibility, antigen processing and presentation, and T cell clonal deletion before the discussion of B cells and B cell clonal deletion PREFACE xvii
download instant at http://testbankinstant.com · Three new critical thinking questions in Emerging Disease Case Study: Microsporidiosis · Revised Learning Outcomes · New Visualize It! question on major histocompatibility complex proteins · New Video Tutor: Clonal Deletion Chapter 17 Immunization and Immune Testing · Two new Tell Me Why questions · New photo (Figure 17.10) · Five figures revised for improved clarity and pedagogy (Figures 17.1­17.3, 17.8, 17.14) · New CDC 2013 vaccination schedule for children, adolescents, and adults · Updated table of vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States · New coverage of quantifying immunoassays--turbidimetry and nephelometry · New Visualize It! question on interpreting an immunoblot · New Video Tutor: ELISA Chapter 18 AIDS and Other Immune Disorders · Three new Tell Me Why questions · New photo (Figure 18.11) · Two new figures (Figures 18.16, 18.17) · Three revised figures for improved clarity and pedagogy (Figures 18.8, 18.20, 18.21) · Updated discussion of AIDS prevalence, transmission, prevention, and treatment · Updated discussion of HIV attachment, entry, and replication · New Visualize It! question on recognizing type I, III, and IV hypersensitivities · New Video Tutor: Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn Chapter 19 Microbial Diseases of the Skin and Wounds · Five new Tell Me Why questions · Ten new photos (Figures 19.7, 19.13, 19.15, 19.17; Disease in Depth and Disease at a Glance figures for Pseudomonas, Rocky Mountain spotted fever [RMSF], smallpox, herpes, shingles) · Three figures revised for improved accuracy, pedagogy, and currency (Figure 19.1; Emerging Disease Case Study: Buruli Ulcer map; Emerging Disease Case Study: Monkeypox map) · Coverage of spotted fever rickettsioses revised to clarify that Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is only one type and to explain that one reason rickettsias are obligate intracellular parasites is their requirement for amino acids and Krebs cycle intermediates · Updated coverage of chickenpox and shingle vaccine · Updated treatment regimens for staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, impetigo, erysipelas, cat scratch disease, cutaneous anthrax, gas gangrene, herpes skin infections, chickenpox, shingles, measles, erythema infectiosum, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, xviii PREFACE
download instant at http://testbankinstant.com pityriasis versicolor, cutaneous mycoses, chromoblastomycosis, sporotrichosis, and leishmaniasis · Expanded coverage of methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, VRSA) · Expanded and updated coverage of action of anthrax toxins · Three new critical thinking questions in Emerging Disease Case Study: Buruli Ulcer · Three new critical thinking questions in Emerging Disease Case Study: Monkeypox · One new end-of-chapter multiple choice question · Seven new Learning Outcomes · New Visualize It! question on identification of skin infections · New Disease at a Glance: Pseudomonas Infection · New Disease in Depth: Necrotizing Fasciitis Chapter 20 Microbial Diseases of the Nervous System and Eyes · Six new Tell Me Why questions · Sixteen new photos (Figures 20.3, 20. 4, 20.14, Highlight: Nipah virus; Clinical case studies: Ptosis burnt fingers and N. meningitidis; Disease at a Glance: West Nile Encephalitis; Disease in Depth feature) · Eight figures revised for currency and improved pedagogy (Figures 20.1, 20.2, 20.10, 20.14, 20.15, 20.16; Emerging Disease Case Study: Melioidosis map, Emerging Disease Case Study: Tick-Borne Encephalitis map) · Expanded coverage of virulence factors and pathogenesis of diseases, particularly botulism, West Nile virus encephalitis, African sleeping sickness · Updated treatment regimens for bacterial meningitis, leprosy, foodborne botulism, cryptococcal meningitis, primary amebic meningoencephalopathy, variant CreutzfeldtJakob disease, and chlamydial eye infections. · Three new critical thinking questions in Emerging Disease Case Study: Melioidosis · Three new critical thinking questions in Emerging Disease Case Study: Tick-Borne Encephalitis · New Highlight: Nipah Virus: From Pigs to Humans · New Visualize It! question on lumbar puncture · New Disease at a Glance: Polio · New Disease in Depth: Listeriosis Chapter 21 Cardiovascular and Systemic Diseases · Four new Tell Me Why questions · Eighteen new photos (Figures 21.5, 21.13; Beneficial Microbes: Wolbachia; Clinical Case Study: A Tired Freshman, and Man and Cat; Highlight: Malaria; Emerging Disease Case Study: Schistosomiasis; Disease at a Glance: Toxoplasmosis; Disease in Depth feature) · Thirteen figures revised for currency and improved pedagogy (Figures 21.1, 21.6, 21.9, 21.10, 21.12, 21.16, 21.17, 21.20, 21.21, 21.22; Disease at a Glance: Yellow Fever; PREFACE xix
download instant at http://testbankinstant.com Emerging Disease Case Study: Schistosomiasis map; Emerging Disease Case Study: Snail Fever in China map) · New Clinical Case Study: Nightmare on the Island · Three new critical thinking questions in Emerging Disease Case Study: Snail Fever in China · Updated treatment regimens for tularemia, Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, cytomegalovirus disease, malaria, toxoplasmosis, and schistosomiasis · Two new Learning Outcomes · New Visualize It! question on Lyme disease · New Disease at a Glance: Toxoplasmosis · New Disease in Depth: Malaria Chapter 22 Microbial Diseases of the Respiratory System · Three new Tell Me Why questions · Twenty-one new photos (chapter opener photo; Figures 22.2, 22.3, 22.4, 22.9, 22.13, 22.17; Disease at a Glance features: Bacterial Pneumonias, Coronavirus Respiratory Syndromes, Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection, and Histoplasmosis; Clinical Case Study: The Coughing Cousin; Disease in Depth feature) · Five figures revised for currency and improved pedagogy (Figures 22.1, 22.10, 22.11; Emerging Disease Case Study: Pulmonary Blastomycosis map; Emerging Disease Case Study: H1N1 Influenza map) · New table comparing and contrasting manifestations of some common respiratory diseases (Table 22.1) · New discussion of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) · Expanded discussion of diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis vaccine schedule, and the vaccines' nomenclature · Introduced new preferred term rhinosinusitis to replace sinusitis · Updated treatment regimens for bacterial pneumonia, pneumonic plague, ornithosis, Legionnaires' disease, drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB), multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), whooping cough, inhalational anthrax, blastomycosis, and histoplasmosis · Expanded coverage of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) · Three new critical thinking questions in Emerging Disease Case Study: H1N1 Influenza · Three new critical thinking questions in Emerging Disease Case Study: Pulmonary Blastomycosis · New Visualize It! question on bacteria · New Disease at a Glance: Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection · New Disease in Depth: Tuberculosis Chapter 23 Microbial Diseases of the Digestive System · Four new Tell Me Why questions · Fifteen new photos (Figures 23.6. 23.11, 23.17b; Disease at a Glance features: Dental Caries, Cholera, and Amebiasis; Disease in Depth feature) xx PREFACE
download instant at http://testbankinstant.com · Five figures revised for currency and improved pedagogy (Figures 23.5, 23.6, 23.14, 23.15, 23.18) · Updated treatment regimens for peptic ulcers, cholera, shigellosis, traveler's diarrhea, C. diff diarrhea/colitis, Typhoid Fever, oral herpes, hepatitis C, and cryptosporidiosis · Expanded coverage of Shiga-like toxins, probiotics, oral herpes, hepatitis viruses C and E, the newly approved xTAG Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel (xTAG GPP) as a way to diagnose causes of gastroenteritis, Clostridium difficile diarrhea, and pseudomembranous colitis · New coverage of the connection between esophageal cancer and the use of antibiotics to treat Helicobacter infection · New coverage of anisakiasis · New coverage of the reintroduction of the cholera pandemic into North America (Haiti, 2010; Dominican Republic, 2011; Cuba, 2013) · Three new critical thinking questions in Emerging Disease Case Study: Norovirus Gastroenteritis · One new Learning Outcome · New Visualize It! question on hepatitis B virus, Dane particles, filamentous particles, and spherical particles · New Disease at a Glance: Dental Caries · New Disease in Depth: Giardiasis Chapter 24 Microbial Diseases of the Urinary and Reproductive Systems · Seven new Tell Me Why questions · Twelve new photos (Figures 24.4, 24.12, Beneficial Microbes: Pharmacists of the Future?; Disease at a Glance: Gonorrhea and Genital Warts; Disease in Depth) · Eight new figures (Figures 23.4, 24.6a, 24.6c, 24.7b, 24.8, 24.13; Disease at a Glance features: Candidiasis, Gonorrhea) · Five figures revised for currency and improved pedagogy (Figures: 24.3, 24.5, 24.7a, 24.9, 24.11) · Updated treatment regimens for urinary tract infections, leptospirosis, staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome, lymphogranuloma venereum, gonorrhea, neonatal chlamydial conjunctivitis, and trichomoniasis · Two new Learning Outcomes · New Visualize It! question on pathogens of the urinary and reproductive systems · New Disease at a Glance: Trichomoniasis · New Disease in Depth: Bacterial Urinary Tract Infections Chapter 25 Applied and Environmental Microbiology · Four new Tell Me Why questions · Five new photos (Figures 25.3, 25.6, 25.7, 25.14; Emerging Disease Case Study: Attack in the Lake) · New figure legend question concerning food sterilization PREFACE xxi
download instant at http://testbankinstant.com · Clarification of the terms unripened and ripened in regard to cheeses and expanded coverage of the processes of cheese-making · New coverage of biomining--the use of microbes to extract insoluble forms of metals from ore · New coverage on the presence of significant nitrogen fixation by deep-sea archaea associated in microbial communities with bacteria · New Emerging Disease Case Study: Attack in the Lake · New Beneficial Microbes: Oil-Eating Microbes to the Rescue in the Gulf · New Visualize It! question on nitrogen cycling Send Us Your Feedback We hope that you find the Instructor's Manual and Test Bank useful, and we welcome your comments and feedback! Please write to us at the following address: Robert W. Bauman c/o Applied Sciences, Pearson Education 1301 Sansome St. San Francisco, CA 94111 xxii PREFACE

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