Movement of population in the Romanian border region, Case studing: Nova Crnja municipality, T Kovačević, B Đurđev, D Arsenović

Tags: population, municipality, Nova Crnja, population growth, municipal center, border region, population density, Republic Bureau of Statistics, Republicki zavod za statistiku, birth rate, Vojvoda Stepa, Srpska Crnja, municipalities, refugee population, Banat region, Republic Bureau of Statistics, 2004a, Unknown Number, population distribution, number of inhabitants, Republic of Serbia, Branislav UREV, population movement, NOVA CRNJA MUNICIPALITY1 Tamara KOVACEVI, Vojvodina Nova Crnja
Content: Geogaphica Timisiensis, vol. 18, nr. 1-2, 2009 (pp. 5-17) MOVEMENT OF POPULATION IN THE ROMANIAN BORDER REGION, CASE STUDING: NOVA CRNJA MUNICIPALITY1 Tamara KOVACEVI, Branislav UREV, Daniela ARSENOVI University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Science, Department for Geography, Tourism and Hotel Management Abstract: Part of Banat which belongs to Republic Serbia has less population than the part which belongs to Romania. The lack of population is especially observed in border municipalities. The paper has been focused on population movement in municipality Nova Crnja. It is one of the three border municipalities of Banat across which an international road line goes by. The special attention has been paid to time period from the end of the World War Second until the last population register, which was organized in 2002. Also, the short analysis of different external influences on the population of municipality Nova Crnja has been performed. The task of this paper is to determine what kind of population movement, in which period and from which regions have influenced the movement of the number of population in the municipality Nova Crnja. In completing this task different literary references have been used and also statistical and mathematical methods. The importance of this work is in enriching the knowledge on demographic conditions in Banat. Rezumat: Micarea populaiei оn regiunea frontierei cu Romвnia. Studiu de caz: Nova Crnja. Partea Banatului care aparine Serbiei este mai puin populat decвt cea care apaine Romвniei. Lipsa populaiei se observ mai ales оn comunele de grani. Articolul se concentraz asupra micrii populaiei оn municipalitatea Nova Crnja. Aceasta este una din cele trei municipaliti de grani traversate de un drum internaional. O atenie spacial a fost acordat perioadei cuprinse оntre sfвritul celui de+al doilea rzboi mondial i ultimul recensmвnt, din 2002. De asemenea, a fost realizat o scurt analiz a diferitelor influene externe care au afectat populaia municipalitii Nova Crnja. Scopul acestui studiu este s determine ce tipuri de micare a populaiei, оn ce perioad i din ce regiuni au influenat numrul populaiei din aceast municipalitate. Оn acest scop, au fost utilizate diferite surse bibliografice i metode statistice i matematice. Importana acestui studiu este s aprofundeze cunoaterea condiiilor demografice din Banat. Key words: Nova Crnja, population growth, migrations, Banat Cuvinte cheie: Nova Crnja, creterea populaiei, migraii, Banat 1 The paper is part of the project (EVB: 146017D) "demographic transitions in Serbia" which is financed by Ministry of Science and technological development
6 Movement of population in the Romanian border region, Case Study: Nova Crnja 1. WHY NOVA CRNJA? According to data of official statistics in Romanian part of Banat live over one million of inhabitants (1.011.145), while in other part of Banat which belongs to Republic of Serbia live half of the number of inhabitants (665.397) (Anuarul Statistic al Romвniei, 2007, 14-16) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banat#The_Whole_Banat), (Republic Bureau of Statistics, 2004). Considering the fact that natural geographic conditions for settlement are almost identical, it is evident that differences have been anthropogenically conditioned (Davidovi, 2004). The influence of anthropogenic factors on movement of population in Banat which belongs to Republic of Serbia can in some amount explain the stated differences. Namely, the population distribution on Banat region is not equally distributed. There is a noticeable less population density in border municipalities of Banat (Kicosev, Bubalo-Zivkovi, Ivkov, 2005, 36). Three of nine border municipalities distinguish themselves (Nova Crnja, Vrsac and Bela Crkva) because they have built infrastructure which enables international transport and there are border crossings (Geographical map of Vojvodina, 2001). According to criteria of distance from municipal center Novi Sad and according to the size of towns over which the Main Line of communications goes by, Nova Crnja has distinguished itself from the mentioned three towns as a municipality which in observed period, from the end of the World War Second i.e. the middle of the 20th until the beginning of the 21st Century, has gained predispositions for the most certain development, especially, by opening of the international border crossing at Nova Crnja, in 1970. That is the period when borders between Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) and Romania were open and when there were no obstacles for circulation of people and goods. Geographical position of municipality Nova Crnja has been improved since then. The circulation of population in the municipality Nova Crnja can illustrate the best how the conditions of that time influenced the population. Located in the northeastern Banat, municipality Nova Crnja belongs to the district of Middle Banat. In the West and Northwest it borders with the municipality Kikinda, in the south with municipality Zitiste, while its northeastern border is part of state border with Romania (fig. 1). 6
Tamara KOVACEVI, Branislav UREV, Daniela ARSENOVI 7 Fig. 1 Administratively geographical position of municipality Nova Crnja in Autonomous Province of Vojvodina Nova Crnja- poziia geografic i administrativ оn Provincia Autonom Vojvodina The municipality Nova Crnja covers the area of 273 kmІ, which represents only 1.3% of the territory of Vojvodina (Republic Bureau of Statistics, 2004d). Its 12.924 inhabitants comprise 0.6% of Vojvodinian population. According to the population density, the municipality Nova Crnja with its 47.3 inhabitants on kmІ is almost more double less inhabited (1.9 times) than Province (94.5 inh/kmІ) (Republic Bureau of Geodesy, 2009). The main line of communications in the municipality Nova Crnja is the international road M-7. It, connecting Zrenjanin with the border of Serbia and Romania, and further with Timisoara, goes over municipality territory (fig. 2). From the town Nova Crnja in the northeastern direction bituminous road branches off across Rusko Selo to Kikinda (Geographic map of Vojvodina, 2001). Narrow-gauge railroad existed since the year of 1898 until the year of 1969. It connected larger number of populated places with Zrenjanin. "ira" transported daily migrants and agricultural products. With the development of road traffic, railroad became unprofitable (Baji, 1984, 10).
8 Movement of population in the Romanian border region, case study: Nova Crnja 2. EVOLUTION OF THE NUMBER OF POPULATION Since the population register in the year of 1953, the number of inhabitants of the municipality Nova Crnja has decreased. The most intensive fall has been recorded in the decade, 1961-1971, of the most intensive industrialization, urbanization and deagrarization of the country. In the municipality Nova Crnja, the number of population has in the period between 1953 and 2002 decreased for 1.8 times (table 1). M-7
Fig. 2 Geographical positions of settlements in the municipality Nova Crnja Poziia geografic a localitilor municipalitii Nova Crnja Except in the municipal center, Nova Crnja, also in other settlements of the municipality Nova Crnja the number of inhabitants has been decreasing since 1953. In some, for example Toba, Srpska Crnja and Radojevo (map 2), it has been decreased more than half during the observed period. In other municipalities that fall is smaller. In settlements with smaller number of population, the fall has been smaller. In Nova Crnja, the number of population has begun decreasing since 1961.
Table 1 Evolution of the number of population in the municipality Nova Crnja according to the results of population register from 1948 to 2002 Evoluia numrului de locuitori оn municipalitatea Nova Crnja, conform rezultatelor оnregistrrilor de populaiei din perioada 1948-2002
Settlement Aleksandrovo
1948. 4564
1953. 4615
1961. 4034 8
1971. 3406
1981. 3061
1991. 2902
2002. 2702
Tamara KOVACEVI, Branislav UREV, Daniela ARSENOVI 9
Vojvoda Stepa
2832 3076 2857 2518 2032 1827
Nova Crnja
3185 3310 3317 2911 2739 2353
Radojevo
2869 2915 2595 2230 1872 1588
Srpska Crnja
8220 7977 7376 6001 5467 5046
Toba
1499 1489 1401 1232 1099 822
Total
23169 23382 21580 18298 16270 14538
Source: Republic Bureau of Statistics, 2004 (Republicki zavod za statistiku, 2004)
1760 1918 1399 4451 694 12924
3. EVOLUTION OF POPULATION DENSITY Population density of the municipality Nova Crnja has been calculated according to the received data on areas of real estate registry municipalities. According to them, the total area differs, i.e. it is smaller than the official 5.6 kmІ (Republic Bureau of Geodesy, 2009). Table 2 Evolution of population density (pop/kmІ) in the municipality Nova Crnja, according to results of the population register from 1948 to 2002 Evoluia densitii populaiei (loc/ kmІ) оn municipalitatea Nova Crnja, conform rezultatelor оnregistrrilor de populaiei din perioada 1948-2002
Settlement
1948. 1953. 1961. 1971. 1981. 1991.
Aleksandrovo
91,3 92,3 80,7 68,1 61,2 58,0
Vojvoda Stepa
69,0 74,9 69,6 61,3 49,5 44,5
Nova Crnja
219,5 228,1 228,6 200,6 188,8 162,2
Radojevo
70,5 71,6 63,7 54,8 46,0 39,0
Srpska Crnja
130,8 126,9 117,3 95,5 87,0 80,3
Toba
67,3 66,9 62,9 55,4 49,4 36,9
Total
100,1 101,1 93,3 79,1 70,3 62,8
Source: Republic Bureau of Geodesy, 2009 (Republicki geodetski zavod, 2009)
2002. 54,0 42,9 132,2 34,4 70,8 31,2 55,9
Since the end of the after war colonization, i.e. since the census from 1953, the population density in the municipality Nova Crnja has been decreasing (table 2). Only in the municipal center, Nova Crnja, that process has started from the next census in 1961. Compared to the average of the Province, only the municipal center has the larger population density while other municipal settlements have "fallen" bellow that average mainly in 1953, except Srpska Crnja (from 1981). The negative population growth and emigration, which appeared in the second half of the 20th century as a result of economical reasons, have had a negative impact on the decreasing of population density. The territory of municipality Nova Crnja was "placed" after the First World War in geographical sense beside the state border, so the population found the motivation to emigrate towards the centers in the country which were experiencing urban and industrial development and in which they could find economical security engaging themselves in nonagricultural activities.
10 Movement of population in the Romanian border region, case study: Nova Crnja
4. NATURAL MOVEMENT OF POPULATION In the period from 1971 to 2002, birth rates in the municipality Nova Crnja were going from 6.5 (2002) to 13.0 (1980). Larger fluctuations were noticed in the beginning and in the end of the period, while during the most of the period the birth rate was around 11. According to parameters of natural movement of population, the mortality has had from 1971 higher values than birth rate. It went from 7.8 (1982) to 21.6 (1999). Only in 1982 the mortality was lower than the birth rate. According to that it is understandable that population growth was positive (4.4) only in 1982. The lowest population growth was recorded in the year of NATO aggression, in 1999 (-13.6) (Internal records of Republic Bureau of Statistics, 1971-2002). In the observed period population growth fluctuated with the tendency of decreasing, which especially affected the decrease of the number of population (fig. 3).
Rate
Birth rate death rate Natural increase
30,0 20,0 10,0 0,0 -10,0 -20,0 1971.
1976.
1981.
1986. Years
1991.
1996.
2001.
Fig. 3 Evolution of parameters of natural movement of population in the municipality Nova Crnja, in the period from 1971 to 2002 Evoluia parametrilor micrii naturale a populaiei оn municipalitatea Nova Crnja оn perioada 1971 - 2002
5. TERRITORIAL MOVEMENT OF POPULATION
Almost 2/3 of population (65.56%) in municipality Nova Crnja are domicile population. More than municipal average of this population there are in municipal center in Nova Crnja (67.26%) and in Srpska Crnja (66.36%). The least of domicile population there is in Vojvoda Stepa (61.96%). Differences in the participation of population who live in the same place in settlements of the municipality Nova Crnja since their births are low (table 3).
10
Tamara KOVACEVI, Branislav UREV, Daniela ARSENOVI 11
Table 3 The share of immigrant population in the number of population in the municipality Nova Crnja, according to results of census in 2002 Proporia imigranilor оn populaia municipalitii Nova Crnja, conform rezultatelor recensmвntului din 2002
Settlement
Total
From the birth live in the same place
Immigrants
Number
% Number %
Aleksandrovo
2665
1675
62,9
990 37,1
Vojvoda Stepa
1720
1065
61,9
655
38,1
Nova Crnja
1861
1251
67,2
610
32,8
Radojevo
1385
988
71,3
397 28,7
Srpska Crnja
4383
2905
66,3 1478
33,7
Toba
691
443
64,1
248 35,9
Total
12705
8327
65,5 4378 34,5
Source: Republic Bureau of Statistics, 2004a (Republicki zavod za statistiku, 2004a)
The official statistics offers a lot of information on characteristics of immigrant population. On the basis of their origin, in the municipality Nova Crnja "symbolically" dominates the immigrant population that came from the territory of ex SFRY (36.16%) over the immigrant population from other municipality (34.66%). Each of these categories excels one third of immigrant population, i.e. together they make over 70% of immigrant population (fig. 4).
11% 35%
36% 2% 0% 16%
The same municipality Other municipality Other republic Ex Yugoslav republics Other countries Unknown
Nova Crnja municipality Fig. 4 The portion of immigrants in the number of population in the municipality Nova Crnja, on the basis of their origin, according to results of census in 2002 Proporia imigranilor оn populaia municipalitii Nova Crnja, оn conformitate cu originea lor, pe baza rezultatelor recensmвntului din 2002
12 Movement of population in the Romanian border region, case study: Nova Crnja
The highest part of immigrants from the territory of ex SFRY, more than half, is recorded in Vojvoda Stepa (50.4%), than in Srpska Crnja and Radojevo, with over 2/5, while there is the least immigrants in settlements in which dominate Hungarian population, such as Toba and Nova Crnja (only 5.9%) (Republic Bureau of Statistics, 2003). Every tenth immigrant in municipality Nova Crnja, according to census from 2002, originates from the territory of Montenegro, while 2% of immigrants have foreign origin. One fifth of immigrants in Aleksandrovo originate from Montenegro, while that share is half less in Vojvoda Stepa, Radojevo and Srpska Crnja and it is "symbolic" in other municipal settlements (table 4). According to the time of immigration, the most of immigrants came from the region of ex SFRY during the last decade of the 20th century (30.4%). On second place is the post war colonization, and immigrants make 17.7% (fig. 5). Its share decreases in time, because the contingent of that population is dieing out.
Table 4 The number of immigrants and its share in the number of population of the municipality Nova Crnja, on the basis of origin, according to results of census in 2002 Numrul imigranilor i ponderea lor оn populaia total a municipalitii Nova Crnja, оn conformitate cu originea lor, pe baza rezultatelor recensmвntului din 2002
Settlement Aleksandrovo Vojvoda Stepa Nova Crnja Radojevo Srpska Crnja Toba Total Settlement Aleksandrovo Vojvoda Stepa
Total
The same municipality
Other municipality
Other Republic
Number % Number % Number %
11,
33,
990
110 1
327 0
190 19,2
15,
19,
655
100 3
129 7
81 12,4
25,
62,
610
154 2
378 0
23 3,8
12,
32,
397
51 8
130 7
39 9,8
16,
27,
1478
239 2
405 4
142 9,6
17,
58,
248
44 7
146 9
2 0,8
15,
34,
4378
698 9
1515 6
477 10,9
Total
Ex Yugoslav republics
Other countries
Unknown
Number % Number % Number %
35,
990
353 7
7 0,7
3 0,3
655
330 50,
13 2,0
2 0,3
12
Tamara KOVACEVI, Branislav UREV, Daniela ARSENOVI 13
4
Nova Crnja
610
36 5,9
19 3,1
0 0,0
41,
Radojevo
397
165 6
11 2,8
1 0,3
43,
Srpska Crnja
1478
646 7
39 2,6
7 0,5
20,
Toba
248
50 2
5 2,0
1 0,4
36,
Total
4378
1580 1
94 2,1
14 0,3
Source: Republic Bureau of Statistics, 2004a (Republicki zavod za statistiku, 2004a)
Exactly 15.9% of migrants have moved within the municipal borders. Most of them migrated towards the municipal center, because the presence of these migrants is the highest exactly in Nova Crnja. There is more than one fourth (25.2%) of these migrants. Compared to other settlements, almost two third of immigrants to Nova Crnja (62.0%) came from the territory of another municipality. Also the situation observed towards the settlements shows that the highest portion of immigrants came in period between 1991 and 2002. The portion of immigrants from the regions of ex Yugoslav republics varied from 25.3% in Srpska Crnja to 44.6% in Radojevo. From 1961 to 1990, the most of immigrants came to municipal center. Immigrants who came after the World War Second until 1960, is with the highest share in Srpska Crnja. Immigrants who came during the World War Second have the highest portion, according to census in 2002, in Toba (table 5). Population that immigrated until 1940 has the highest number in Vojvoda Stepa.
Table 5 The share of immigrants in the number of population in the municipality Nova Crnja, based on the time of their arrival, according to results of census in 2002 Ponderea imigranilor оn populaia total a municipalitii Nova Crnja, оn conformitate cu momentul sosirii lor, pe baza rezultatelor recensmвntului din 2002
Settlement Aleksandrovo Vojvoda Stepa Nova Crnja Radojevo Srpska Crnja Toba Total Settlement Aleksandrovo Vojvoda Stepa
1940 and earlier Number % 64 6,5 75 11,5 23 3,8 8 2,0 27 1,8 10 4,0 207 4,7 1971-1980 Number % 127 12,8 75 11,5
1941-1945 Number % 14 1,4 18 2,7 13 2,1 8 2,0 134 9,1 10 4,0 197 4,5 1981-1990 Number % 160 16,2 87 13,3
1946-1960 Number % 128 12,9 109 16,6 89 14,6 47 11,8 363 24,6 41 16,5 777 17,7 1991-2002 Number % 330 33,3 204 31,1
1961-1970 Number % 121 12,2 76 11,6 86 14,1 45 11,3 150 10,1 29 11,7 507 11,6 Unknown Number % 46 4,6 11 1,7
14 Movement of population in the Romanian border region, case study: Nova Crnja
Nova Crnja
109 17,9
120 19,7
158 25,9
12 2,0
Radojevo
37 9,3
55 13,9
177 44,6
20 5,0
Srpska Crnja
159 10,8
188 12,7
374 25,3
83 5,6
Toba
42 16,9
25 10,1
86 34,7
5 2,0
Total
549 12,5
635 14,5 1329 30,4
177 4,0
Source: Republic Bureau of Statistics, 2004a (Republicki zavod za statistiku, 2004a)
According to records on refugee population that came to the territory of municipality Nova Crnja in the period between 1991 and 1996, the following conclusions can be drawn. Under the presumption that all immigrants stayed in the municipal territory, according to the census in 2002, they comprised 7.9% (table 6). Compared among settlements, the highest number of refugees came to Vojvoda Stepa (13.2%), and the lowest in Toba (1.7%). Most of the refugee population, 3/5, arrived from the territory of Croatia, probably in 1995. More than 50 refugees came from Donji Lapac (101), Otocac (64) and Knin (51), i.e. from settlements located in Dinaric region of Republic of Croatia. More than third (36%) emigrated from the regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Most of them came from Sarajevo (74), Sanski Most (62), Tuzla (30), Kljuc (30), Mrkonji Grad (29), Sipovo (20) etc. (Kicosev, Mesaros, 1999).
4% 5% 4%
1940. and earlier
1941-1945.
29%
18% 1946-1960.
1961-1970.
1971-1980.
12%
1981-1990.
15%
13%
Nova Crnja municipality
1991-2002. Unknown
Fig. 5 The share of immigrants in the number of population in the municipality Nova Crnja, based on the time of their arrival, according to results of census in 2002 Ponderea imigranilor оn populaia total a municipalitii Nova Crnja, оn conformitate cu momentul sosirii lor, pe baza rezultatelor recensmвntului din 2002
Table 6 The number and share of immigrant refugee population, according to results from 1996 14
Tamara KOVACEVI, Branislav UREV, Daniela ARSENOVI 15
Numrul i proporia populaiei refugiate, pe baza оnregistrrilor din 1996
Settlement
2002. 1996. %
Aleksandrovo 2702 287 10,6
Vojvoda Stepa 1760 233 13,2
Nova Crnja
1918 111
5,8
Radojevo
1399 96
6,9
Srpska Crnja
4451 280
6,3
Toba
694 12
1,7
Total
1292
4 1019
7,9
Source: Kicosev, Mesaros, 1999.
The origin of 2% of refugees is unknown. Arriving to Nova Crnja, as the last destination, refugees often changed republics moving towards the east. It is possible that for that reason part of them did not clearly state any specific republic they came from. The least of them arrived from the republics of SFRY that are the most distant from Vojvodina, Slovenia and Macedonia.
6. THE POPULATION GROWTH
Records on emigrated population are not available. For that reason the results on emigrational balance could be received only by applying mathematical and statistical methods for processing the data on natural and mechanical movement of population. According to it, the decreasing of population in the municipality Nova Crnja was influenced the most by emigration of population, and then also negative birth rate. The emigration has had the most powerful impact in the last decade (table 7). Although in the mentioned decade, from 1991 to 2002, the borders were still open, the population went away from the municipality Nova Crnja. It is the decade of political and economical instability of the country. Economical structures in the municipality Nova Crnja were also under the influence of cruel transition. Agriculture did not have the support of the state anymore. Young and reproductively capable population sought their economically sustainable future outside the borders of the municipality. Table 7 The growth of population in the municipality Nova Crnja in the decades from 1971 to 2002 Creterea populaiei оn municipalitatea Nova Crnja оn decada 1971-2002
Period Absolute birth rate Average annual birth rate Emigrational balance Average annual rate of emigrational balance The population growth The rate of average annual growth
1971-1980. -53 -3,0 -1975 1981-1990. -59 -3,8 -1673 1991-2001. -134 -9,0 -14404
-8,6 -7,4 -79,4
-2028 -1732 -14538
-11,7 -11,2 -88,3
16 Movement of population in the Romanian border region, case study: Nova Crnja Source: Republic Bureau of Statistics, 2004, Internal records of Republic Bureau of Statistics, 1971-2002 (Republicki zavod za statistiku, 2004, Interna dokumentacija Republickog zavoda za statistiku, 1971-2002) 7. CONCLUSION Compared to advantages that were given by geographical position and existing infrastructure to municipality Nova Crnja to most of the other border municipalities in Banat, the movement of number of population has not shown expected results. It has continuously decreased. Based on the parameters of circulation of population, the municipality Nova Crnja is endangered in two ways. The negative birth rate decreases potentials for natural growth of population. Although there was immigration to the municipal territory, it was not enough to replace the number of emigrants. Immigration Immigrants are often come to the villages inhabited mostly Serbs. Emigrant population is not visible in records published by official statistics. This unknown represents hidden danger for population such as population from Nova Crnja. Visa regime between Serbia and Romania was established when Romania became candidate for entering the European Union. Since then the frequency of transport across this border crossing has been reduced. This has also decreased the advantage of municipal border position. According to this it can be said that the future of the population of Nova Crnja has been endangered. If Serbia was on the "white Schengen list" or if it became the candidate for entering the European Union, the geographic position of settlements in municipality Nova Crnja, but also other socio geographical factors would "feel" positive effects. Border municipalities could in future be transformed in regions of cooperation, as it is potentially imagined Euro-region Danube - Kris ­ Moris - Tisa. Across border cooperation is especially supported both in financial and conception sense by institutions of the European Union and it can be the basis of the development of the municipality Nova Crnja. By creating the new posts the attractiveness of these regions could be increased and emigrational processes could gain retrograde character. BIBLIOGRAPHY Anuarul Statistic al Romвniei (2007), Populaia Judeelor, Municipiilor i Oraelor, Populaie 2, La 1 Iulie 2006, pp. 14-16 Baji, M. (1984), Opstina Nova Crnja, Geografske monografije vojvoanskih opstina, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Prirodno-matematicki fakultet, Institut za geografiju, Novi Sad, pp. 7-10 Geographical map of Vojvodina (2001), AP Vojvodina, Republika Srbija, 1:450.000, Magic Map, Smederevska Palanka Davidovi, R. (2004), Regionalna geografija Evrope, III, dopunjeno izdanje, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Prirodno-matematicki fakultet, Departman za geografiju, turizam i hotelijerstvo, Novi Sad urev, B. (2001), Osnovne tehnike u demografiji, Drustvo demografa Jugoslavije, Zmajeva biblioteka znanja, Beograd Internal records of Republic Bureau of Statistics (1971-2002), Roeni i umrli po naseljima, Vojvodina, Srednje banatski okrug, Opttina Nova Crnja, Novi Sad 16
Tamara KOVACEVI, Branislav UREV, Daniela ARSENOVI 17 Kicosev, S, Bubalo-Zivkovi, M, Ivkov, A. (2005), Promene broja stanovnika, Stanovnistvo Banata, Banat, Geografski aspekti stanja i pravci razvoja Vojvodine, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Prirodno-matematicki fakultet, Departman za geografiju, turizam i hotelijerstvo, Novi Sad, str. 23-41 Kicosev, S, Mesaros, M. (1999), Demografski atlas izbeglih lica. br.1 ­ Vojvodina, Institut za geografiju, PMF, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Novi Sad. Kovacevi, T, Kicosev S. (2006), Karakteristike dnevnih migracija ucenika i studenata Vojvodine, Strukturne promene i demografska kretanja zemalja Juzne Evrope, br. 11, Ekonomski fakultet, Univerzitet u Nisu, Nis, str. 405-412. Panev, G. (1995), Stanovnistvo po starosti i polu, Stanovnistvo i domainstva SR Jugoslavije prema popisu 1991. Stanovnistvo br. 47, SZS, CDI IDN, 117-145 Ranci, M. (1980), Statistika stanovnistva, Visa skola za primenjenu informatiku i statistiku, Odsek za statistiku, Beograd Republic Bureau of Statistics (2004), Uporedni pregled broja stanovnika ­ 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991 i 2002, podaci po naseljima, br. 9, Stanovnistvo, Popis stanovnistva, domainstva i stanova u 2002, Republika Srbija, Beograd Republic Bureau of Statistics (2004a), Migraciona obelezja, podaci po naseljima, br. 8, Stanovnistvo, Popis stanovnistva, domainstva i stanova u 2002, Republika Srbija, Beograd Republic Bureau of Statistics (2003), Nacionalna ili etnicka pripadnost, br. 1, Popis stanovnistva, domainstva i stanova u 2002, Stanovnistvo, Podaci po opstinama, Republika Srbija, Beograd Republic Bureau of Statistics (2004d), Opstine u Srbiji 2003, Opsti podaci, Opstine po okruzima, Beograd, 15. Republic Bureau of Geodesy (2009), Opstina Nova Crnja, interna dokumentacija, Nova Crnja http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banat#The_Whole_Banat

T Kovačević, B Đurđev, D Arsenović

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