Place-name and archaeological evidence on the recent history of birds in Britain

Tags: London, BRAMWELL, Britain, Excavations, HARRISON, LINNAEUS, Animal bones, Environmental Archaeology Unit, English Heritage, Pp, Anglo-Saxon, Archaeology, Bird bones, English Place-name Society, archaeological evidence, archaeological records, Romano-British, Ancient Monuments Laboratory, Archaeological Journal, BOISSEAU & YALDEN, White-tailed Eagle, BRAMWELL D., place-name, Devon Archaeological Society Proceedings, Oxford Journal of Archaeology, Archaeological Society, Council for British Archaeology, O'CONNOR T. P., Middlesex Archaeological Society, Archaeological Society Record Series, Sussex Archaeological Collections, Animal bone, archaeological record, LINNAEUS, 1758, SERJEANTSON, SERJEANTSON D., Jarlshof, Middle Saxon, Bird Remains, Medieval Medieval, Simon BOISSEAU, Celtic names, Derby Archaeological Journal, Terry O'CONNOR, Ravens, Ravens Corvus corax LINNAEUS, School of Biological Sciences, extinct species, history of birds, Acta zoologica cracoviensia, Roman PARKER, Roman BRAMWELL, Iron Age, Roman, Bronze Age, Britain Derek W. YALDEN, Linnean Society of London, archaeological sites, Derek W. YALDEN, Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
Content: Acta zoologica cracoviensia, 45(special issue): 415-429, Krakуw, 29 Nov.., 2002 Place-name and archaeological evidence on the recent history of birds in Britain Derek W. YALDEN Received: 11 Sep., 2001 Accepted for publication: 31 Jan., 2002 YALDEN D. W. 2002. Place-name and archaeological evidence on the recent history of birds in Britain. In: Proceedings of the 4th Meeting of the ICAZ Bird Working Group Krakуw, Poland, 11-15 September, 2001. Acta zoologica cracoviensia, 45(special issue): 415-429. Abstract. The history of birds in Britain is revealed both by the place-names that invoke them and the archaeological evidence. This is a partial survey, concentrating on wild rather than domestic species. Both sets of evidence are biased towards larger and conspicuous birds, and Cranes, Ravens and birds of prey are highlighted in both. Key words: place-names; eagle, raven, crane, Archaeological Sites, Britain. Derek W. YALDEN, School of biological sciences, 3.239 Stopford Building, University of Manchester, M13 9PT, UK. E-mail: [email protected] I. INTRODUCTION Most place-names in England are of Anglo-Saxon or Norse origin, and typically date to 1500-1000 years ago. They usually combine a noun and an adjective, or two nouns in apposition. Thus Cranmere and Tranmire both mean crane-lake, one being Anglo-Saxon and the other Norse (BOISSEAU & YALDEN 1998). Such names reveal something about the widespread occurrence and habitat preferences of birds in the past. The archaeological record also documents these, and this paper compares about 900 place-names in which birds feature with about 1700 archaeological records of birds to assess the extent to which these complement each other. Cranes Grus grus (LINNAEUS, 1758) and Ravens Corvus corax LINNAEUS, 1758 feature largely in both lists. I am very grateful to three undergraduate students, Simon BOISSEAU, Christopher JOHN and James WHITTAKER, whose third-year projects compiled a lot of the raw data on which this paper is based. Terry O'CONNOR helped considerably by supplying literature to them and me. The inspiration of my friend the late Don BRAMWELL must also be acknowledged. II. PLACE-NAME STUDIES Scholars of English place-names have scoured ancient documents and maps in an effort to understand the basis of the place-names. Their work is summarised in a number of reference works, most notably the county surveys published by the English Place-name Society. These give derivations for all the major and minor place-names that appear on recent Ordnance Survey maps at 1:25000, arranged by parish within each county, and the more recent volumes also list the names of
D. W. YALDEN 416 fields in each parish. Not all counties have so far been surveyed in this series, but other volumes fill some of the gaps. A full bibliography of available sources is given by AYBES & YALDEN (1995) and BOISSEAU & YALDEN (1998). Most long-established place-names have an Old English (OE, = Anglo-Saxon) basis, and must date back to 1500-1000 years ago, except in northern England where the Norse settlement of around 1000 years ago supplied most names (Old Norse, = ON). Animalderived place-names could of course have also been conferred more recently. It is a notable feature of English places that previous Celtic and Roman names were mostly lost or supplanted, with the exception that many rivers retained earlier Celtic names. In Wales, Scotland and Ireland, Celtic and Gaelic names have survived much more generally, though sometimes anglicized or supplanted, and the study of their place-names is a different topic, generally not considered here. Place-names typically consist of two words, often a noun and adjective, sometimes two nouns. Where birds (and other animals) are involved, the second word often tells something of the habitat of the bird concerned. One problem in this study is that the names might have been, or become, the names of individual humans, rather than the animals. One can imagine "hrafn", Raven, referring to an individual who had black hair or a deep voice, and the use of "wulfa", Wolf, as a personal name is well documented, both in old documents and in place-names, not only in its simple form but also in such well-known compounds as Beowulf and Ethelwulf. Sometimes the second element of the place-name makes it clear that people, rather than animals, were involved ­ suffixes such as -ham (village) and -ton (town) surely relate to people. Names of farms and clearings are more difficult to assign, and could be either the farm owned by someone of that name, or the farm frequented by that animal. Hills, cliffs, valleys and woods are more likely to be associated with animal inhabitants. Often the names have altered over the years, and it is the earliest recorded forms that most likely indicate their original meaning. It is in recording these early forms that the county volumes of the English Place-name Society are so valuable. Generally, the judgements of their authors have been accepted in compiling the lists used for this paper. Place-name records Domestic birds (hen, fowl, duck, goose) appear regularly in place-names, as do domestic mammals, but the evidence on them has not (yet) been collated, nor has that on swans, which might also have been wild or domestic. They may be more numerous than the names of any wild birds. Among the latter, however, the most extensive lists are those for Cranes and Ravens. These are of course large and conspicuous birds, but would probably not have been common enough to occur everywhere, so that their regular (or even, their exceptional) occurrence at some point in the landscape might well have been used to name it. There are some 225 crane-derived names listed by BOISSEAU & YALDEN (1998), some 48% of which are grouped with second elements implying water or marsh, as would seem appropriate. The OE roots "cran", "cranuc" (cf. German "kranich") but also "corn", which rarely seems to mean cereals in place-names, and the ON "trani" (cf. Swedish "trana") are the usual roots. There is some possibility of confusion between Heron Ardea cinerea and Crane Grus grus in these names, for some local recent usage certainly uses the vernacular name Crane for Ardea cinerea LINNAEUS, 1758. This seems to be a case of name-transference from an extinct species to a somewhat similar survivor after the extinction of the once-familiar animal: similar cases are recorded for Beaver to Badger or Otter, Urus/Aurochs to Bison/Wisent and Capercaillie/"woherhuhn" to Pheasant (YALDEN 1999). There is no doubt that the Anglo-Saxons knew both, equating their "cran" with the Roman "grus", and their "hragra" to the Roman "ardea". There only appear to be 12 Heron place-names, but these are mostly modern, and use the root "heron", rather than the ancient "hragra"; Rawreth, Essex, though, is OE "hragra, rid", heron stream. Names derived from OE "hraefn, hremn" or ON "hrafn" for Raven are also frequent; of the 143 names, 74 (52%) are combined with roots relating to uplands, cliffs and remote valleys, and another 22 to woodland and tree suffixes. Though there is a concentration in the Pennines and Lake District, there is also a scatter of names throughout southern England, a reminder that its recent confinement to the north and west is indeed a recent historical feature, largely brought about by 19th century persecution.
Place-name and archaeological evidence on the recent history of birds in Britain 417 Birds of prey, as a group, also figure widely in the place-names of England, but the precise species cannot always be specified. The OE "earn", giving the modern Erne or White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla (LINNAEUS, 1758), surely referred to any species of eagle, though most were probably this species rather than Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos (LINNAEUS, 1758). In placenames, it often got corrupted to Arn- or Yarn-, sometimes to Hern-. At least 53 names trace to these roots, and interestingly most names combine with woodland elements rather than cliffs or hills. Tree-nesting by White-tailed Eagles is usual in lowland, especially eastern, Europe, whereas the Golden Eagle is more confined to uplands everywhere (BAXTER 1993, BOND & O'CONNOR 1999). The OE elements "hafoc", hawk; "cyta", probably buzzard rather than kite; "gleoda" glider, ie kite or harrier; "puttoc", probably also kite and "wrocca", buzzard, and the ON "haukr", hawk, appear frequently. Deciding which species these represent is difficult. The Anglo-Saxon glossaries associate "cyta" with the Latin "buteo", "glida" with "milvus", and "hafoc" with "accipiter", but "wrocca" is omitted. Place-names based on "glida" are more common in northern England (where the dialect name glead for kite is recorded), while "cyta" is more common in southern England, so there may have been local variations in names. Probably the names were used somewhat interchangeably for any broad-winged raptor; collectively, they appear in at least 300 place-names.
III. ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORDS Ornithologists have been poor at incorporating evidence from the archaeological and palynological record into their understanding of bird distributions (TOMIAЈOJЖ 2000), though zooarchaeologists must accept some of the blame for this: they have been poor at accumulating and disseminating the knowledge they have. Most British ornithologists regard the Eagle Owl Bubo bubo (LINNAEUS, 1758) as an introduced species (MEAD 2000), though there is good evidence of its former presence in Britain, and are quite unaware that the Hazel Hen Bonasa bonasia (LINNAEUS, 1758) was formerly also a British bird (HARRISON 1980). Conversely, they seem not to realise that the Great Bustard Otis tarda LINNAEUS, 1758 cannot possibly have lived in Britain until farmers cleared the wildwood: it did breed in Britain during the Medieval period, but must have colonised from Europe somewhen in post-Neolithic times (there are archaeological records from Roman Fishbourne and Mediaeval London; EASTHAM 1971, BRAMWELL 1975a). It may be significant that there seem to be no places named after it. A survey of 127 archaeological sites in the British Isles (Table I, Fig. 1), ranging from Mesolithic through to post-Medieval dates, yields 1737 species-records belonging to some 160 species/species groups (some records identify only to finch, chat, plover, etc., rather than to species). Undoubtedly not a comprehensive list of all known records, it is never-the-less a representative sample, covering cave and conventional archaeological sites. It includes 419 records of Roman age, reflecting the very useful compilation by PARKER (1988), and 475 Medieval records, reflecting the predominance of sites of this age.
Table I
Archaeological sites for birds in Britain, as used to compile the maps and records cited
Site
Grid Ref
Age
Source
1 Star Carr 2 Thatcham 3 Gough's Cave, Cheddar 4 Hazleton 5 Dog Hole Fissure, Creswell Crags
TA0281 SU5167 ST4754 SP0718 SK5374
Mesolithic Mesolithic Mesolithic Mesolithic Mesolithic
CLARK (1954), HARRISON (1980) KING (1962) HARRISON (1980) SAVILLE (1990) JENKINSON (1984)
418 Site 6 Soldier's Hole, Somerset 7 Morton, Fife 8 Mount Pleasant, Dorset 9 Formby Point 10 Durrington Walls 11 Oronsay 12 Grime's Graves 13 Papa Westray, Orkney 14 Stonehenge 15 Ravencliffe Cave 16 Isbister, Orkney 17 Quanterness, Orkney 18 Jarlshof, Shetland 19 Burwell Fen 20 Ballycotton 21 Brean Down 22 Barton Mere 23 Norwich 24 King's Cave, Tarbert, Jura 25 Wigber Low, Derbyshire 26 Borwick, Lancashire 27 Runnymede Bridge 28 Elsay Broch, Caithness 29 Bishop's Caning Down 30 Dean Bottom 31 Rockley Down 32 Birderop Down 33 Glastonbury 34 Meare Lake Village 35 Meare East 36 Woodbury Setttlement 37 Haddenham 38 Gussage All Saints 39 Blunsdon St. Andrew 40 Danebury 41 Budbury 42 North Bersted 43 Glastonbury, Wirral Park 44 Aylesbury
D. W. YALDEN
Table I (continued)
Grid Ref
Age
ST5456 NO4625 SY7189 SD2606 SU1543 NM5959 TL8290 HY4851 SU1242 SK1773 HY4010 HY4114 HU3909 TL5967 W9864 ST2858 TL9166 TG2308 NR5-8SK2051 SD5273 TQ0171 SU0566 SU1474 SU1573 SU1676 ST4938 ST4541 ST4541 SY0189 TL4675 SU0010 SU1398 SU3237 ST8261 SU9200 ST4936 SP8213
Mesolithic Mesolithic Neolithic Neolithic Neolithic Neolithic Neolithic Neolithic Neolithic Neolithic Neolithic Neolithic Bronze Age Bronze Age Bronze Age Bronze Age? Bronze Age Bronze Age? Bronze Age Bronze Age Bronze Age Bronze Age Bronze Age Bronze Age Bronze Age Bronze Age Bronze Age Iron Age Iron Age Iron Age Iron Age Iron Age Iron Age Iron Age Iron Age Iron Age Iron Age Iron Age Iron Age
Source BRAMWELL (1960) COLE (1971) HARCOURT (1979) ROBERTS et al. (1996) HARCOURT (1971) BAYNTON (1880) MERCER (1981) BRAMWELL (1983a) SERJEANTSON (1995) HARRISON (1980) BRAMWELL (1983b) RENFREW (1979) PLATT (1933) NORTHCOTE (1980) NEWTON (1923) LEVITAN (1990) FISHER (1966) NEWTON (1923) HARRISON & COWLES (1977) MALTBY (1983a) JONES et al. (1987) DONE (1980) HARRISON (1980) GINGELL (1992) GINGELL (1992) GINGELL (1992) GINGELL (1992) HARRISON (1980) GRAY (1966) LEVINE (1966) HARRISON (1980) EVANS & SERJEANTSON (1988) HARCOURT (1979) COY (1982) COY (1984a), SERJEANTSON (1991) WAINWRIGHT (1970) KING & BEDWIN (1978) COY (1991) ALLEN & DALWOOD (1983)
Place-name and archaeological evidence on the recent history of birds in Britain 419
Table I (continued)
Site 45 Ulrome Lake 46 Howe, Orkney 47 Cleavel Point, Ower 48 Camulodunum 49 Wylye 50 Sollas, North Uist 51 Newgrange, Co Meath 52 Kesh Caves, Co Sligo 53 Slonk Hill, Shoreham 54 Holocombe, Devon 55 Werrington, Cambridge 56 Dragonby 57 Newstead 58 Papcastle 59 Corbridge 60 Ossom's Eyrie 61 Piercebridge 62 York, Blake St. 63 York, colonia 64 York, Minster 65 Chester 66 Wroxeter 67 Lincoln 68 Wakerley 69 Caerleon 70 Claydon Pike 71 Silchester 72 Exeter 73 Dorchester 74 Gorhambury 75 Stonea 76 Camulodunum (Sheepen) 77 London Wall 78 London, St Mildred's 79 Derby 80 Barnsley Park, Glos. 81 Wookey Hole, Somerset 82 St Alban's 83 Caerwent, Monmouthshire
Grid Ref
Age
Source
TA1656 HY2710 SZ0086 TL9925 SU0135 NF8174 O0073 G71111 TQ2206 SY3192 TF1603 SE9013 NT5734 NY1031 NY9864 SK0955 NZ2115 SE6052 SE6052 SE6052 SJ4066 SJ5608 SK9771 SP9599 ST3390 SU1999 SU6462 SX9192 SY6990 TL1107 TL4493 TL9825 TQ3280 TQ3280 SK3535 SP0806 ST5347 TL1507 ST4690
Iron Age
HARRISON (1980)
Iron Age
BRAMWELL (1994)
Iron Age
COY (1981)
Iron Age
HARRISON (1980)
Iron Age
HARRISON (1980)
Iron Age
FINLAY (1991)
Iron Age
van WIJNGAARDEN-BAKKER (1974)
Iron Age/Med. NEWTON (1903)
Iron Age/Rom. SHEPPARD (1977)
Iron Age/Rom. POLLARD (1974)
Iron Age/Rom. BRAMWELL & HARMAN (1988)
Iron Age/Rom. HARMAN (1996)
Roman
EWART (1911)
Roman
MAINLAND & STALLIBRASS (1990)
Roman
BELL (1922)
Roman
BRAMWELL et al. (1987)
Roman
PARKER (1988)
Roman
ALLISON (1986)
Roman
PARKER (1988)
Roman
ALLISON (1995)
Roman
PARKER (1988)
Roman
PARKER (1988)
Roman
DOBNEY et al. (1996)
Roman
JACKSON & AMBROSE (1978)
Roman
HAMILTON-DYER (1993)
Roman
PARKER (1988)
Roman
MALTBY (1984)
Roman
MALTBY (1979)
Roman
MALTBY (1993)
Roman
PARKER (1988)
Roman
STALLIBRASS (1996)
Roman
LUFF (1982)
Roman
HARRISON (1980)
Roman
BRAMWELL (1975)
Roman
BRAMWELL & HARMAN (1985)
Roman
BRAMWELL (1985ac)
Roman
BALCH & TROUP (1910)
Roman
BATE (1945)
Roman
NEWTON (1900, 1911), BRAMWELL (1983c)
420 Site 84 Waddon Hill 85 Carlisle, Blackfriar's St. 86 Godmanchester 87 Frocester Court, Glos. 88 Portchester 89 Fishbourne 90 Brancaster 91 Ower, Purbeck 92 Catterick 93 Uley Shrines, Glos. 94 Hucclecote Villa 95 London Wall 96 Witcombe Villa 97 Gloucester, Westgate 98 Ilchester 99 Colchester 100 Taunton 101 Carlisle 102 Southwark 103 Hartlepool 104 Flixborough 105 Aylesbury, Walton 106 North Elmham Park 107 Thetford 108 West Stow 109 Ipswich 110 London, Shorts Gardens 111 London, Barking Abbey 112 London, Westminster Abbey 113 London, Jubilee HALL 114 Thetford 115 Lewes 116 Ramsbury 117 Southampton (Hamwic) 118 Buckquoy, Orkney 119 Lagore 120 York, Fishergate 121 York, Coppergate 122 Steyning
D. W. YALDEN
Table I (continued)
Grid Ref
Age
SY4994 NY3955 TL2470 SO7803 SU6204 SU8304 TF7743 SY9681 SE2457 ST7898 SO8617 TQ2979 ST4721 SO8318 ST5222 TL9925 ST2324 NY4056 TQ3280 NZ5032 SE8715 SP8213 TF9820 TL8783 TL8170 TM1744 TQ3081 TQ4483 TQ3079 TQ3494 TL8783 TQ4110 SU2771 SU4213 HY3627 N9852 SE6052 SE6052 TQ1711
Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman/Med. Roman/Med. Roman/Med. Roman/Med. Roman/Med. Saxon Saxon Saxon Saxon Saxon Saxon Saxon Saxon Saxon Saxon Saxon Saxon Saxon Saxon Saxon Pict./Scand. 8-10th C. Saxon Anglo-Scand. Saxon/Med.
Source BRAMWELL (1964) RACKHAM (1990) ANON. (no date) BRAMWELL (1979) EASTHAM (1975) EASTHAM (1971) JONES, LANGLEY & WALL (1985) SUNTER & WOODWARD (1987) MEDDENS (1990) COWLES (1993) HARRISON (1980) HARRISON (1980) HARRISON (1980) MALTBY (1979) LEVITAN (1982) BRAMWELL (1982) LEVITAN (1984) STALLIBRASS (1993) LOCKER (1988) ALLISON (1989) DOBNEY et al. (1994) BRAMWELL (1976) BRAMWELL 1980 JONES (1984) CRABTREE (1989) JONES & SERJEANTSON (1983) STEWART (pers. comm.) WEST (in press) WEST (in press) WEST (1993) JONES (1984) BEDWIN (1975) COY (1980) BOURDILLON & COY (1980) BRAMWELL (1977) STELFOX (1938), HENCKEN (1950) O'CONNOR (1991) O'CONNOR (1989a) O'CONNOR (1978)
Place-name and archaeological evidence on the recent history of birds in Britain 421
Table I (continued)
Site 123 Jarrow 124 Ipswich 125 Carlisle, cathedral 126 Peel, Isle of Man 127 Walton Abbey 128 York, Walmgate 129 York, Coppergate 130 York, Tanner Row 131 Lincoln, Flaxengate 132 Oxford, St. Ebbe's 133 Aylesbury, Walton 134 Northampton 135 Kings Langley 136 London, Baynard's Castle 137 London, Peabody Site 138 Beverley, Turk Lane 139 Beverley, Eastgate 140 Beverley, Priory 141 York, Parliament St. 142 King's Lynn 143 Okehampton Castle 144 Southampton, Cuckoo Lane 145 Launceston 146 Southampton, Westgate 147 Newcastle, Quayside 148 Leominster Old Priory 149 Cliffe, Lewes 150 Reading Abbey 151 Bramber, W. Sussex 152 Hartlepool, Church St. 153 Oxford, Hamel 154 Nantwich 155 Trowbridge, Wiltshire 156 Lougher, W. Glamorgan 157 Rattray, Aberdeenshire 158 Copt Hay, Tetsworth 159 Dryslwyn Castle 160 Winchcombe 161 Abingdon
Grid Ref
Age
NZ3665 TM1644 NY3958 SC2484 SE4648 SE6052 SE6052 SE6052 SK9771 SP5305 SP8213 SP7561 TL0602 TQ3280 TQ3181 TA0440 TA0339 TA0440 SE6052 TF6120 SX5895 SU4213 SX3384 SU4213 NZ2564 SO4959 TQ4110 SU7173 TQ1810 NZ5233 SP5106 SJ6552 ST8557 SS5798 NO1745 SP6803 SN6242 SP0228 SU4997
Saxon/Med. Saxon/Med. Medieval Medieval Medieval Medieval? Medieval Medieval Medieval Medieval Medieval Medieval Medieval? Medieval Medieval 11-13th C. Medieval Medieval 11-13th C. 13-14th C. 14th C. 14th C. 13-15th C. 14-15th C. 14-16th C. Medieval Medieval Medieval Medieval Medieval Medieval Medieval Medieval Medieval Medieval Medieval Medieval Medieval Medieval
Source NODDLE (1987) CRABTREE (unpub.) STALLIBRASS (pers. comm.) FISHER (pers. comm.) NEWTON (1923) O'CONNOR (1984) O'CONNOR (1989a) O'CONNOR (1988) O'CONNOR (1982) WILSON et al. (1989) BRAMWELL (1976) BRAMWELL (1979) LOCKER (1977) BRAMWELL (1975a) WEST (1989) SCOTT (1991) SCOTT (1992) GILCHRIST (1986) CARROTT et al. (1995) BRAMWELL (1977) MALTBY (1982) BRAMWELL (1975b) ALBARELLA & DAVIS (1996) COY (1980) ALLISON (1988) LOCKER (1994) STEVENS (1991) COY (1990) STEVENS (1990) ALLISON (1988) BRAMWELL & WILSON (1986) FISHER (1986) BOURDILLON (1993) LEWIS (1993) MURRAY (1993) BRAMWELL (1973) GILCHRIST (1987) LEVITAN (1985) WILSON (1975), BRAMWELL & WILSON (1979)
422 Site 162 York, Coffee Yard Site 163 Coventry 164 Hereford City 165 Gloucester 166 Chepstow 167 Hackney Marsh 168 Clare caves 169 London, East Cheap 170 London, Cannon Street 171 London, Rangoon Street 172 London, Borough High Street
D. W. YALDEN
Table I (continued)
Grid Ref
Age
Source
SE6052 SP3378 SO5140 SO8318 ST5393 TQ3686 R3373 TQ3380 TQ3280 TQ3380 TQ3279
Med/Post-Med O'CONNOR (1989b)
Med/Post-Med BRAMWELL (1986)
Med/Post-Med BRAMWELL (1985b)
Med/Post-Med MALTBY (1983b)
Unknown
BRAMWELL (1991)
no date
HARRISON (1980)
no date
NEWTON (1906)
no date
STEWART (pers. comm.)
no date
STEWART (pers. comm.)
no date
STEWART (pers. comm.)
no date
STEWART pers. (comm.)
Fig. 1. Distribution of archaeological sites in Britain, as listed in Table I. At some sites, most obviously York, several excavations, of different dates, have been reported; only one symbol, usually the latest, is shown. Map created with Dr Alan Morton's DMAP programme.
Place-name and archaeological evidence on the recent history of birds in Britain 423 The most numerous species are prime human food ­ 92 records of Mallard Anas platyrhynchos LINNAEUS, 1758 and another 29 Anas sp., 71 records of Anser sp. and 50 of Greylag Goose A. anser LINNAEUS, 1758, 51 records of Teal Anas crecca LINNAEUS, 1758, and 58 records of Woodcock Scolopax rusticola LINNAEUS, 1758. The 46 records of Crane (Table II) might be counted among the food species, and make an interesting contrast with only 16 records of Heron, which must always have been more numerous, but less palatable. The most abundant of the non-food species is Raven, with 74 records; Carrion/Hooded Crow Corvus corone LINNAEUS, 1758 contribute 35 and there are 32 Rook C. frugilegus LINNAEUS, 1758, but only 11 Magpie Pica pica (LINNAEUS, 1758), now so abundant in Britain, fewer than the smaller Jay Garrulus glandarius (LINNAEUS, 1758) (14 records) or the similar sized Jackdaw C. monedula LINNAEUS, 1758 (with 42).
Table II
Archaeological records of birds used in compiling this paper (sites numbered as in Table I)
Crane Grus grus
1, 2, 8, 19, 21, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 56, 66, 71, 73, 75, 80, 81, 95, 99, 118, 121, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 118, 119, 121, 124, 130, 131, 132, 139, 145, 147, 155, 168.
Red Kite Milvus milvus
10, 33, 40, 44, 46, 56, 73, 75, 83, 106, 116, 120, 130, 134, 136, 137, 139, 143, 145, 162, 164.
Buzzard Buteo buteo
1, 13, 17, 27, 34, 38, 39, 40, 48, 56, 60, 81, 87, 90, 99, 106, 107, 108, 117, 119, 120, 124, 131, 154, 155, 163.
Goshawk Accipiter gentilis
16, 17, 21, 33, 51, 56, 60, 98, 109, 121, 142, 152, 154, 160, 162.
Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus
98, 99, 103, 106, 113, 124, 154, 156, 162, 164, 168.
Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos 34, 60.
White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla 14, 16, 19, 33, 34, 46, 47, 55, 56, 69, 75, 91, 93, 99, 102, 119, 121, 154.
Raven Corvus corax
10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 21, 25, 38, 39, 40, 41, 48, 49, 56, 60, 66, 69, 71, 73, 75, 79, 84, 85, 86, 88, 89, 90, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 98, 99, 106, 107, 109, 113, 118, 119, 120, 121, 123, 124, 130, 131, 132, 140, 142, 145, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 162, 163, 164, 165.
Crow Corvus corone
7, 16, 33, 40, 54, 55, 60, 66, 67, 69, 75, 79, 80, 87, 99, 109, 115, 117, 118, 119, 122, 124, 132, 139, 145, 151, 155, 159, 161, 162.
Rook Corvus frugilegus Jackdaw Corvus monedula Magpie Pica pica Jay Garrulus glandarius House Sparrow Passer domesticus
15, 27, 29, 34, 38, 40, 52, 60, 69, 73, 76, 80, 81, 83, 105, 119, 120, 130, 140, 145, 154, 164, 161. 5, 15, 40, 38, 52, 54, 60, 66, 67, 69, 75, 73, 81, 87, 88, 93, 97, 98, 99, 102, 106, 111, 115, 120, 121, 123, 124, 132, 139, 142, 148, 153, 159, 161, 162, 163, 165, 168. 60, 66, 67, 93, 120, 149, 154, 165, 168. 30, 40, 41, 38, 52, 60, 67, 106, 120, 142, 140, 161, 168. 38, 40, 52, 60, 66, 69, 75, 80, 93, 101, 103, 120, 152, 159, 161, 162, 168.
Passerines feature rather rarely, but it is worth noting that the 19 records of House Sparrow Passer domesticus (LINNAEUS, 1758) begin only in Iron Age times, the same time that House Mice and domestic cats appear in Britain, while Starling, Sturnus vulgaris LINNAEUS, 1758, often considered a late arrival by ornithologists, has a record of 34 occurrences, extending continuously back to Mesolithic times. Birds of prey are likewise relatively scarce. There are only 2 records of Golden Eagle, well outnumbered by 18 records of White-tailed Eagle (and there are another 14 records from other sites). The abundant Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus (LINNAEUS, 1758) contributes only 16 records, but the surely much rarer Goshawk A. gentilis (LINNAEUS, 1758) occurs 15 times. It might be thought that
D. W. YALDEN 424 this is due to a greater presence in Medieval times, when it might have been used in falconry, but only 6 records date to that period, as do 7 records of A. nisus, while the even more useful Peregrine Falco peregrinus TUNSTALL, 1771 contributes only 7 records overall, 3 of them in this period. Other raptors include 29 Buzzard Buteo buteo (LINNAEUS, 1758), 23 Red Kite Milvus milvus (LINNAEUS, 1758) and 6 harriers (3 Circus cyaneus (LINNAEUS, 1766), 2 C. aeruginosus (LINNAEUS, 1758), 1 C. pygargus (LINNAEUS, 1758). IV. DISCUSSION Cranes outnumber Ravens in the place-name evidence, but not in the archaeological record: presumably, they were more conspicuous or noteworthy. However, the abundant record of both species in both place-name and archaeological record supports assumptions about the frequency and widespread presence of both species in earlier times. Among the raptors, the archaeological record confirms the presumption that White-tailed Eagles were the likely donors of eagle-derived place-names. The relative evenness of (Red) Kites and Buzzards in place-name and archaeological records is reassuring; both must have been quite common, even if we cannot be sure that they were always correctly identified by our forebears. Archaeological identifications are more certain, and offer more extensive evidence about the former avifauna of Britain. The well-known occurrences of Dalmatian Pelican Pelecanus crispus BRUCH, 1832 at Glastonbury, King's Lynn, Feltwell Fen and Burnt Fen (FORBES et al. 1958), the record of Pygmy Cormorant Phalacrocorax pygmeus PALLAS, 1773 at Abingdon (COWLES 1982) and the 7 records of White Stork Ciconia ciconia (LINNAEUS, 1758), along with the records of Crane, emphasize that wetlands in particular were once much more extensive and once had a more diverse avifauna. The Mute Swan, Cygnus olor (GMELIN, 1789), usually regarded as a late introduction, has actually been present at least since Neolithic times (NORTHCOTE 1980), and must be accepted as a long-established native. These less common species have either not yielded place-names, or the relevant names have not (yet?) been recognised or extracted. Both the archaeological record and the place-name evidence yield useful clues about the former status of birds in Britain. Obviously, both offer a biased and anthropocentric view; smaller birds must always have been much more common than the large species discussed here, but are poorly recovered from archaeological sites and too common to merit noticing as place-names. Food species, and those of special status in culture, including falconry, dominate the archaeological record, and for similar reasons are likely to dominate in place-names too. It is reassuring, then, to find that the two lines of evidence do suggest a similar pattern. REFERENCES ALLEN D., DALWOOD C. H. 1983. Iron Age Occupation, a Middle Saxon Cemetery, and Twelfth to nineteenth century Urban Occupation: Excavations in George Street, Aylesbury, 1981. Records of Buckinghamshire, 25: 1-60. ALLISON E. P. 1986. An archaeozoological study of bird bones from seven sites in York. D. Phil. thesis, University of York; cited by PARKER 1988, q.v. ALLISON E. P. 1988. The Bird Bones. [In:] C. O'BRIEN, L. BOWN, S. DIXON, R. NICHOLSON ­ The Origins of the Newcastle Quayside. Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle, Monograph 3. Pp: 133-137. ALLISON E. P. 1989. Bird Remains. Pp: 199-201. [In:] S. R. DANIEL ­ The Anglo-Saxon monastery at Church Close, Hartlepool. Archaeological Journal, 145: 158-210. ALLISON E. P. 1991. Bird Remains. Pp: 395-396. [In:] S. R. DANIEL ­ Development of Medieval Hartlepool; excavations at Church Close, 1984-85. Archaeological Journal, 147: 337-410. ALLISON E. P. 1995. The Bird Bones. [In:] D. PHILLIPS, B. HEYWOOD (eds) ­ Exacavations at York Minster. Volume 1. From Roman fortress to Norman cathedral. H.M.S.O., London. Pp: 556-558 ANON. (no date). The faunal remains from Rectory Farm, Godmanchester. Unpublished Report, Faunal Remains Unit, Department of Archaeology, University of Cambridge.
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Place-name and archaeological evidence on the recent history of birds in Britain 429 O'CONNOR T. P. 1989a. Bones from Anglo-Scandinavian levels at 16-22 Coppergate. Archaeology of York 15/3. Council for British Archaeology, London. O'CONNOR T. P. 1989b. Bones from the Coffee Yard Site, York. Unpublished report 89/10, Environmental Archaeology Unit, York. O'CONNOR T. P. 1991. Bones from 46-54 Fishergate, York. Archaeology of York 15/4. Council for British Archaeology, London. PARKER A. J. 1988. The birds of Roman Britain. Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 7: 197-226. PLATT M. I. 1933. Report on the animal bones from Jarlshof, Sumburgh, Shetland. Pp: 127-136. [In:] A. O. CURLE ­ Further excavations at Jarlshof, Shetland. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 67: 82-136. PLATT M. I. 1956. The animal bones. [In:] HAMILTON J. R. C. ­ Excavations at Jarlshof, Shetland. H.M.S.O., Edinburgh. Pp: 212-215. POLLARD S. 1974. A Late Iron Age settlement at the Romano-British village at Holocombe, near Uplyme, Devon. Devon Archaeological Society Proceedings, 32: 59-162. RACKHAM D. J. 1990. The vertebrate remains and the mollusc shells. Pp: 320-329. [In:] M. A MCCARTHY ­ Roman, Anglian and Medieval site at Blackfriar's St., Carlisle. Excavations 1977-79. Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Record Series, 4, i-xxiv, 1-387. ROBERTS G., GONZALES S., HUDDART D. 1996. Intertidal Holocene footprints and their archaeological significance. Antiquity, 70: 647-651. SCOTT S. 1991. The animal bones. [In:] P. ARMSTRONG, D. TOMLINSON, D. H. EVANS ­ Excavations at Lurk Lane, Beverley, 1979-82. Sheffield Excavation Reports I, Sheffield University, Dept. of Archaeology. Pp: 216-227. SERJEANTSON D. 1991. The bird bones. [In:] B. CUNLIFFE, C. POOLE ­ Danebury: an Iron Age Hillfort in Hampshire vol. 5. The excavations 1979-1988. The finds. CBA Res. Rep. 73. Pp: 479-480. SERJEANTSON D. 1995. Animal bone. [In:] R. M. J. CLEAL, K. E. WALKER, R. MONTAGUE ­ Stonehenge in its Landscape. Archaeological Report 10, English Heritage, London. Pp: 437-451. SHEPPARD P. 1977. Animal remains. Pp: 133-140. [In:] R. HARTRIDGE ­ Excavations at he Prehistoric and Romano-British site on Slonk Hill, Shoreham. Sussex Archaeological Collections, 116: 69-142. STALLIBRASS S. 1993. Animal bones from the Excavations in the southern area of the Lanes, Carlisle, Cumbria, 1981-82. Ancient Monuments. Lab. Rep. 96. STALLIBRASS S. 1996. Animal bones. [In:] R. JACKSON, T. POTTER ­ Excavations at Stonea, Cambridgeshire 1980-85. London, British Museum. Pp: 587-612. STELFOX A.W. 1938. The birds of Lagore about one thousand years ago. Irish Naturalists' Journal, 7: 37-43. STEVENS P. M. 1990. Animal bones. Pp: 258-259. [In:] M. GARDINER ­ An Anglo-Saxon and Medieval settlement of Botolps, Bramber, West Sussex. Archaeological Journal, 147: 216-275. STEVENS P. M. 1991. Bird remains. Pp: 176-178. [In:] D. RUDLING ­ Excavations at Cliffe, Lewes 1987 and 1988. Sussex Archaeological Collections, 129: 165-181. SUNTER N., WOODWARD P. J. 1987. Romano-British industries in Purbeck. Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society Monograph 6. TOMIAЈOJЖ, L. 2000. Did White-backed Woodpeckers ever breed in Britain? British Birds, 93: 452-456. WEST B. 1989. Animal bones. Pp: 150-154. [In:] R. COWIE, R. WHYTEHEAD ­ Two Middle Saxon Occupation sites; Excavations at Jubilee Hall and 21-22 Maiden Lane. Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society, 39: 47-163. WEST B. 1993. Birds and mammals from the Peabody Site and National Gallery. Pp: 150-168. [In:] R. COWIE, R. WHYTEHEAD ­ Excavations at the Peabody Site, Chandos Place and the National Gallery. Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society, 40: 35-176. WEST B. (in press). Birds and Mammals. [In:] D. J. RACKHAM (ed.) ­ Saxon Environment and Economy in London. WIJNGAARDEN-BAKKER L. H. Van 1974. The animal remains from the Beaker Settlement at Newgrange, Co.Meath: a first report. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 74C: 313-383. WILSON R. 1975. Excavations in Abingdon 1972-74. Animal bones from the Broad Street and Gaol sites. Oxoniensia, 40: 105-121. WILSON R., LOCKER A. et al. 1989. Medieval animal bones and marine shells from Church Street and other sites in St. Ebbe's, Oxford. [In:] T. G. HASSAL, C. E. HALPIN, M. MELLOR ­ Excavations in St. Ebbe's, Oxford, 1967-1976. Oxoniensia, 54: 258-268. YALDEN D. 1999. The History of British Mammals. T. & A.D. Poyser, London.

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