Politics in music

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Content: POLITICS IN MUSIC Music and Political Transformation from Beethoven to Hip-Hop Courtney Brown Atlanta FARSIGHT PRESS
FARSIGHT PRESS First published by Farsight Press, a member of Farsight, Inc. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Copyright © Courtney Brown, 2008 All rights reserved
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Brown, Courtney, 1952Politics in music : music and political transformation from Beethoven to hip-hop / Courtney Brown. ­ 1st ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-9766762-3-2 ISBN-10: 0-9766762-3-0
1. Music­Political aspects. 2. Political science. I. Title.
ML3916.B76 2007
780'.032 QBI07-600211
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Contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Music as a Conveyor of Political Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Representational vs. Associational Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Beethoven . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Beethoven's Music and His Contemporary Political Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 The Re-invention of Beethoven During the Second Reich . . . . . . 16 Beethoven and the Weimar Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Beethoven and the Nazi Peril . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Post World War II and the Fall of the Berlin Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Political Manifesto Music: The Cases of Bob Marley and Richard Wagner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Robert Nesta Marley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 A Prelude to Wagner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 The Essential Plot and Allegory of the "Ring" Operas . . . . . . . . . 41 Alberich, Wotan, and the Babylon System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Life without Fear, Siegfried, and the Rastas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 The Connection Between Love and Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Love as an Engine of Political Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Nationalist and Patriotic Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 The Period of European Nation-Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Italian Nationalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Russian Nationalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Finnish Nationalism: A Nation Musically Transformed . . . . . . . . 87 Spanish Nationalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Musical Nationalism in England . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 American Nationalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Modern Nationalist Hybrids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Nationalist and Patriotic Elements in American Country Music . . 98 National Anthems and Pseudo Anthems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 The Psychology of Nationalist and Patriotic Music . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Industrialization and the Emergence of Labor Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 A Selection of Songs by Joe Hill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
"The Preacher and the Slave" by Joe Hill (1911) . . . . . . . . . 118 "The Rebel Girl" by Joe Hill (1914-5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 "Casey Jones--The Union Scab" by Joe Hill (1912) . . . . . . 120 "Down in the Old Dark Mills" by Joe Hill (1913) . . . . . . . . 121 "Everybody's Joining It" by Joe Hill (1911) . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 "There is Power in a Union" by Joe Hill (1913) . . . . . . . . . . 124 "Workers of the World, Awaken" by Joe Hill (1914) . . . . . . 125 "The White Slave" by Joe Hill (1912) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 "Stung Right" by Joe Hill (1913) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 "Should I Ever Be a Soldier" by Joe Hill (1913) . . . . . . . . . 129 The Subsequent Labor Music Inspired by Joe Hill . . . . . . . . . . . 130 "I Dreamed I Saw Joe Hill Last Night" by Alfred Hays (1925) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Protest Music: Movement and Non-movement Motivations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 The Vietnam war and Its Effect on the Development of Protest Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Protest Music of the Late 1960s and Early 1970s . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Comic Satire: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Calls for Peace, and Warnings Against Taking Protest "Too Far": . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Psychological Portraits of Profound and Personal Inner Conflict: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 The Fusion of Political and Spiritual Change: . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Protest Music and Other Wars: The Chilean and Northern Ireland Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Protest Music with Non-Movement Motivations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Politics and Hip-Hop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 The Emergence of Socially Relevant Hip-Hop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 The Radicalization of Political Hip-Hop Rhetoric . . . . . . . . 192 Class Warfare and the Rise of Ghetto-centric Gangsta Rap . . . . . 194 The Transformation of Hip-Hop into a Vehicle for White Rebellion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Political Music and the Transformation of Civilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 The Underground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 The Future of Political Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Preface This book is an outgrowth of a course that I have taught at Emory University for a number of years. The course is titled, "Politics in Music," and the idea of the course is to introduce undergraduates to the political content of music (mostly Western) as it has been expressed since the time of Beethoven up to the present. This requires a broad survey approach to the subject. To teach this course, I typically have the students read from a variety of books that cover more specialized areas relating to political music. This is fun for me to do since there are many such books, and I assign different books most terms, thereby keeping the course interesting to myself as well as to the students. The authors of some of these books sometimes offer their own theoretical perspectives that are useful to those students who want a more in-depth approach to the subject. But it has always been disconcerting that my lectures seemed to find no connection with a book that "fits" the general orientation of the course more closely. What I needed was a book that identified and summarized where political content can be located in a broad spectrum of music. Interestingly, a university press editor contacted me after looking through my course syllabus and other materials that I offer on my web site (www.courtneybrown.com). The editor suspected that a book could be written from the Course material, and he told me that he had done his own investigations prior to contacting me to confirm to himself that there was no broad-spectrum book in the extant literature that covered the subject in the manner that I address it in my course. He encouraged me to write such a book, and said that it might be a nice contribution to his press's list. With that hopeful idea in mind, I began writing this book. Eventually, the editor decided to leave his position at the university press, and I was faced with the question of whether or not to complete this book. I finally decided that (minimally) the existence of the book would make teaching my course easier since
x I could include material in the book that I did not have time to present in my lectures. I also considered that a more general readership that extended beyond the university environment may enjoy the book as well. So I pushed onward. This is my first book that relies almost totally on secondary sources. That is, this book is in large part a summary and synthesis of what many others have written about the political content of music. While I have certainly added my own interpretive arguments to the mix, I have avoided writing this book from a rigid theoretical perspective. Rather, I have approached this subject with more of a journalistic orientation, encouraging readers to add their own interpretations along the way. Again, my main purpose here is primarily to describe where politics can be found in music, not to promote a particular ideological or academic/theoretical point of view. For those readers who want to do additional reading in the subject, I might suggest starting with the references that are listed at the end of some of the chapters. Here I identify important sources from which I drew much of the information for the chapter in question. These sources often offer theoretical focuses that some readers may find useful or interesting. These sources also tend to be rich with additional information, and they offer other references that readers may want to pursue. The exceptions to this are chapters 4 and 6. Chapter 4 focuses on nationalist and patriotic music, whereas chapter 6 deals with movement and non-movement related political music. The primary sources used for these two chapters are too varied to include in a short list at the end of the chapters. For these chapters, I suggest following the various references that are included in the text itself and listed in the larger reference section at the end of the book. Some readers will also enjoy conducting their own literature searches to find other indepth sources for the subjects of these chapters. Finally, let me mention a bit about chapter 3. In this chapter, I offer a controversial interpretive connection between the music of Richard Wagner and Bob Marley. It seems likely that some readers will find my enthusiastic comparative pairing of Wagner
xi and Marley intriguing and lots of fun. Perhaps some will even find the argument compelling. Nonetheless, I am also certain that some readers will find the comparison insufficiently defended, or even preposterous. Comparing an iconic operatic genius with a "people power" Reggae star is not normally done, at least in academic circles. Nonetheless, I am raising ideas in this chapter, not trying to sell them. I like to make the Wagner and Marley comparison in part because I think there is something to the idea, but also because it may help some readers think "out-of-the-box." To draw from my own teaching experiences, I sometimes fear that students too often seek to find the "right" answers rather than their own answers. Combining ideas from highly divergent schools of thought can sometimes provide an opportunity for original thinking. This is how I view the Wagner and Marley comparison. I hope readers find the comparison between Wagner and Marley compelling. But if some readers do not find the argument compelling, I hope they at least find the ideas sufficiently provocative such that they serve as a basis for subsequent political argumentation with friends and colleagues. Arguing, after all, is much of what politics is all about! Thus, in the spirit of inciting a healthy and intellectually stimulating good spat, I offer the Wagner and Marley comparison with serious enthusiasm.
Music as a Conveyor of Political Messages 1 CHAPTER 1 Music as a Conveyor of Political Messages Music is filled with political content. One only has to be a casual listener of any number of musical genres to observe this. For example, hip-hop music is historically rooted in the expression of social and political protest as voiced by urban African-American youth. Similarly, the protest music related to the Vietnam War and the Civil Rights movement in America during the 1960s and 1970s was profoundly political, and country music is widely laced with overtly patriotic overtones and politically explicit content. But music has also been a venue for profound political expression for centuries, with contributions coming from composers as diverse as Beethoven, Wagner, Verdi, Mussorgski, Sibelius, Copeland, and many others. The potential for music to directly influence the political evolution of society has long been recognized by some thinkers, and even Plato warned that "the modes of music are never disturbed without unsettling of the most fundamental political and social conventions" (Republic, Book IV: 424). Indeed, the need for social scientists to understand the interaction of politics and music is especially cogent given the potential long-term impact this phenomenon is likely to have on current and subsequent generations of young adults. Ignoring this would of course put contemporary social scientists in the same position as Marshall D. Beuick subsequently found himself in when he prophesied in 1927 that the content of radio broadcasting was not likely to ever penetrate the national consciousness, that the attraction of radio would be a passing fad, and "the sophisticated city dweller will tire of the novelty" (Beuick 1927, 622). Many of the extant social and political investigations of music
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have been conducted by social scientists and musicologists who focus on musically-mediated approaches to social theory. For example, Cerulo ( 1984) demonstrates that music creation responds to the events of society, and societies that experience dramatic change or trauma tend to develop music with message content that reflects these circumstances. Elsewhere, Cerulo (1989) examines how degrees of social and political control by elites correspond with the choice of musical styles in the creation of national anthems. Blau (1988) finds that listening to popular music is related to feelings of social dislocation and alienation, while listening to music with elite appeal (such as classical orchestral music) corresponds with low levels of alienation. Peterson and DiMaggio (1975) argue that evolving musical styles can reveal emerging classes within cultures that are defined more in terms of consumption patterns than by socioeconomic criteria. And Ballantine (1991) examines the social role of Black Jazz in the growth of radicalized political consciousness in South Africa. An excellent (although early) survey of research examining the political relevance of music as a force of change can be found in an examination of musical preferences of college students by Fox and Williams (1974). Scott (1997) and Bokina (1997) have published research that extends the idea of linking musical analysis to the examination of social and Political Thought. Here Scott (1997) explores the connectivity between the musical writings and political philosophy of Rousseau, while Bokina (1997) offers political interpretations of a variety of operas. It is most likely that political and sociological musicology will continue to mature as an area of research as social scientists become increasingly aware of the developing interactive dependency between the evolution of our society and the music that it generates. Also, the productive interaction between political science, sociology, and psychology in the study of music seems inevitable as music continues to be recognized as a cardinal element of political and social change, and indeed one can see Peter Martin's attempt to create a sociology of music prescient in this respect (Martin, 1995). Leppert and McClary (1987) also
Music as a Conveyor of Political Messages 3 attempt to extend such a discussion of music in much the same way in their interesting collection of essays on music and its social and political groundings. What is new about the contemporary relevance of music as a conveyor of political ideas is not that music is being used at all in this regard. Rather, what is new is the magnitude of this phenomenon combined with technological advances in the distribution and accessability of music, minimally affecting hundreds of millions of mostly young adults across nearly all cultures in the world today. It is not difficult to witness music's potential as a political force. For example, it is arguably a common experience for many to observe passengers in cars who are singing (or rapping) along with a song containing politically potent lyrics that is being played on a radio or from a tape, CD, or iPod, and one can assume that this activity is repeated in countless other settings as well. To do this, of course, the lyrics must be memorized by such listeners. Forcing a comparison with a more traditional source of political information, I have yet to meet an individual who has memorized the words of any recent speech made by a presidential candidate over the past few elections. Here we see a continuation and possible acceleration of the diminishing role of political parties as socializing agents and informational pipelines which guide both the formation of attitudes as well as the influence of political behavior for members of mass society. (See Wattenberg 1984, and for a contrasting perspective, see Hetherington 2001.) This well-documented process of party decline began in earnest with the rise of network television, and continues with the emergence of the Internet and other alternative sources of political information. Indeed, and crucially among the younger generation, music is now a primary player in this increasingly diverse competition for the attention of the masses with respect to the dissemination of political ideas, and the increasing importance of political music is not at all limited to the most recent ascendancy of rebellious hip-hop.
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Representational vs. Associational Music
There are two primary approaches by which music can convey political content. The first is "representational," and this is by far the most direct method of linking music with a political perspective. Representational political music presents a clearly defined political point of view that corresponds with the composer's intent with respect to the music. This is normally the consequence of the composer placing explicit political content into a piece of music. Obviously this can be done through the lyrics in a song, and a national anthem is one example that fits into this category. Normally, representational political music addresses politics that are contemporary with the composer, but this is not an absolute requirement. It is possible for music to convey an explicit political message that is entirely relevant to a time period that resides in the future relative to the life of the composer. For example, a composer may write a song about the destruction of the Earth's environment and the political corruption that is ultimately responsible for that destruction. This is an explicit political message that would directly address the precise issue regardless of time period, and so this song would remain an example of representational political music long after the death of the composer. But again, it is far more common for representational political music to be identified as such in relation to the politics that are contemporary with the life of the composer, and future representations of that same political message tend to be more the exception than the rule. "Associational political music" is somewhat of a mirror image of its representational counterpart. Associational political music is the result of activities by individuals who are normally not involved in the original composition of the music. Typically, associational political music is created when someone or some group makes a connection between a particular piece of music (or in some instances, the entire collected work of a composer) and a political message or ideology. This individual or group makes this connection as a means of using the music to support a political
Music as a Conveyor of Political Messages 5 agenda. A classic example of a composer's work being exploited to support a political campaign long after the death of the composer was the 20th century portrayal of Beethoven's music by Germany's Nazi Party as intentionally supportive of a fascist world view (see chapter 2), an occurrence that would have surprised no one more thoroughly than Beethoven himself. When political music is associated with purposes or meanings that are not intended by the original composer, it is typical for this to happen after the composer's death. It is obvious that the composer cannot protest the use of the music in this manner, and other defenders of the composer's original intentions can be more easily drowned out by the general noise of political campaigns. Also, in many situations it can be unclear as to what a composer actually intended with a particular piece of music, and the defense of a political association with that music may not be entirely demonstrable without resorting to after-the-fact interpretations of the composer's own political perspective. But it is also possible (although less frequently) for associational political music to appear in venues that are contemporary with a composer's own political setting, such as when a musical composition written for a particular purpose nonetheless seems to tie in well with a related or similar situation or setting. In such a situation it can sometimes be quite clear that the association between the music and the new setting does not strongly violate the original explicit meaning of the music, yet the connection is not so clear as to warrant calling it "representational." A good example of such music would be an anti-war composition that was composed in response to, say, the involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War, but which might find itself revived in connection with a future conflict between the United States and another country, or perhaps a conflict involving two entirely different nations. Indeed, sometimes the composers themselves attempt to connect their old protest songs with new conflicts, a phenomenon that has occurred recently with respect to the invasion of Iraq by the United States military in 2003 (see especially "Decades Later, 60's Icons Still
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Live by Their Message," by James Barron, The New York Times, Sunday, 30 March 2003, p. B15[N]).
Orientation
Politically laced music is present in every culture on the planet, and it is impossible for any one book to address satisfactorily the great diversity of such music. For this reason, the current volume focuses primarily on political music originating from Western society, from the classical period to the present. This also is a large body of music to include in any single volume, and one could easily argue that no book could cover every element of even this more limited collection of material. Indeed, one need look no further than Ben Arnold's extensively organized and heavily annotated discussion and listing of war-related music to understand how challenging it is to be truly comprehensive in any single volume dealing with musical interpretations of significant social and political events (see especially Arnold 1993, pp. xiiixiv). But since one of the primary purposes of writing this book is to identify both the clear existence as well as some of the dominant strands of political music within Western society over an extended time period, heuristic choices regarding particular musical genres, composers, and musical pieces become a desired and necessary element of the discussions included in these pages. Thus, this volume is not a collection of essays defining the absolute scope of extant political music, nor is this volume a comprehensive listing of political music within any one society or genre. Rather, it is a tracing of some of the most important political themes that have resonated in much of the music of Western society for over twohundred years. Crucially, this book is not about music as music. Rather, this volume is a discussion of politics as it has been--and continues to be--expressed musically. This may require some flexibility from the reader with respect to traditional approaches to music categorization and history. For example, from a musical perspective, it would be natural to object to comparisons between
Music as a Conveyor of Political Messages 7 the music of Richard Wagner and that of Bob Marley, or perhaps to discussions of nationalist and patriotic music that extend from the Romantic period all the way up to contemporary examples in the pop and rock genres. But the politics in music is quite different from the music itself. In the above examples, I obviously cannot compare the music of Wagner with that of Marley. But in these pages I do examine their political ideas relating to revolution and other matters that they expressed musically. Similarly, and again for example, I cannot compare Modest Mussorgsky's music with that of Bruce Springsteen, but I can and do point out similarities in the manner with which both composers have expressed their nationalist political ideas in their music. In the chapters that follow, these discussions are arranged according to general themes. Many of these themes may also appear to have a rough chronological ordering as well, and this is certainly a consequence of the way in which history self-organizes itself to inspire new waves of political music. But chronology is not the dominating element here, as can clearly be seen in an early chapter on political manifesto music that combines discussions of Bob Marley and Wagner's "Ring" operas. Among all classical composers, none have had their musical works more often and profoundly exploited for political purposes than Ludwig van Beethoven. The next chapter focuses on the way much of Beethoven's music has been laced with political meaning from the time of the composer's life up to the present. This chapter also offers an early opportunity to demonstrate the concepts of representational and associational political music, since both ideas are appropriate in various contexts to a discussion of Beethoven. Since identifying the way in which music is connected with politics is a required component of any analysis of political music, the clarity of the dual usage of Beethoven's music in this regard provides an ideal opportunity to offer a base-line application of the representational and associational ideas that assists with the discussions that follow in later chapters. Chapter 3 introduces the idea of "political manifesto music." This type of music is so blatantly political that it is hard to miss at
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least the overt elements of its political content. But there are nuances to such music, and indeed for the general category. Political manifesto music has the added element of offering a more coherent set of political ideas than is often the case with political music more generally, and so it usefully expands early-on the discussions in this volume that address the range of purposeful uses of music as a political tool. This chapter juxtaposes two very different musical personalities, Bob Marley and Richard Wagner. Readers may find it intriguing that two such diverse composers can be analyzed in the context of one chapter, and it is here that the definition and purpose of political manifesto music becomes so crucial to that treatment. When nations emerge through war or merely the codification of cultural boundaries, the new citizens seek various means of political expression. Nationalist political music (or simply, nationalist music) plays an important role in this regard. In chapter 4, nationalist music is both defined and identified through the works of various composers who mostly appeared in the lateRomantic Era (late 1800s) which immediately followed the Classical Period. However, there are nationalist composers that are very active today, and their works span a variety of musical genres, including contemporary pop. The discussions in chapter 4 differentiate nationalist compositions from those that are more clearly patriotic. The distinction is important since the purpose of nationalist music is quite different from that of patriotic music. The 20th century was a period of tremendous growth for political music that had a working class or labor orientation. Chapter 5 focuses on this brand of music by following the development of labor music primarily in the United States. The discussion begins with an introduction to the highly controversial figure, Joe Hill, and it includes an outline of his involvement with a number of labor luminaries of his day. The discussion then extends through the century up to the modern period, addressing examples of such music from sources as diverse as Woody Guthrie and The Rolling Stones. When many people think of political music in general, they
Music as a Conveyor of Political Messages 9 probably thing of protest music emerging from the Vietnam War period. This indeed is much of the focus of chapter 6. While it is obvious that protest music can emerge from a political movement as potent as the anti-war movement of that troubled period, this type of music can also occur without the presence of a major movement. Chapter 6 addresses the general topic of protest music as it may appear in both movement and non-movement situations. This is probably one of the most powerful genres of political music, and without doubt its importance to the transformation of society becomes clearer during intermittent times of national stress. Hip-hop is a very contemporary genre of politically rich music, and it is the focus of chapter 7. Born of the inner-city ghetto, the style and content of hip-hop is transforming the political and musical landscapes in new and provocative ways. Lyrics--spoken poetically with driving rhythms--have assumed a significance that rivals that of the strongest examples coming from the genre of protest music. Watching this relatively new hiphop genre continue to develop is one of the most interesting elements in the general evolution of political music today. There are both subtle and sublime elements in this genre, and I attempt to outline the most important political characteristics of this type of music in that chapter. Never has there been a more pregnant opportunity than now for people to turn their attention to an investigation of how music conveys political ideas in our society. Following more traditional paths of research, social scientists have long examined how the flow of political information to individuals and groups affects the development of political attitudes and behaviors in our society. The focus of such research usually has one of three orientations: (1) psychological influences (e.g., Campbell, Converse, Miller, and Stokes 1960), (2) theories of rational decision-making on the individual level (e.g., Downs 1957), and (3) the influences of social and political contexts (such as those identified in group-defined milieu) on mediating the acceptance or rejection of
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political information (e.g., Berelson, Lazarsfeld, and McPhee 1954; Huckfeldt and Sprague 1988). Nearly all of these approaches focus on political information as it is presented to individuals through orthodox informational conduits, such as through political parties, nightly news broadcasts, interactions with campaign workers, candidate advertisements, and so on. However, a huge amount of political information is now transmitted to contemporary society--particularly younger elements of society--through nontraditional sources, and it serves us well to examine these other contributions to our informational mix more closely. Music is one of the most important of these increasingly pervasive new sources of political content. It is perhaps because of the explosive rise of music as a venue of political expression that it has become so timely to take a retrospective and generalized look at the phenomenon. If politics is the blood that feeds our societies with the energy to evolve, then music is an essential ingredient to political transformation. We listen to music not only to be entertained. We listen to music to understand ourselves both individually and collectively. Yet it is precisely because music is so entertaining that it carries such great potency as a venue for political expression. It conveys more than the written or spoken word. Through rhythm and tone, music becomes a powerful link between the emotionally rich ideas of a political thinker and the listeners. We are both political and musical creatures. This is, indeed, one of the things that makes it so fun to be human, and this is also why it is so crucial to understand the potential of music as a mediating factor in the political transformation of society.
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222 POLITICS AND MUSIC Berger, William. 1998. Wagner Without Fear. New York: Vintage Books. Berger, William. 2000. Verdi with a Vengeance. New York: Vintage Books. Beuick, Marshall D. 1927 (January). "The Limited Social Effect of Radio Broadcastin." American Journal of Sociology 32(4): 61522. Blau. Judith R. 1988 (June). "Music as Social Circumstance." Social Forces 66(4): 883-902. Bokina, John. 1997. Opera and Politics. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. Brown, Courtney. 1982 (June). "The Nazi Vote: A National Ecological Study," American Political Science Review, 76(2): 285-302. Brown, Courtney. 1987(February). "Mobilization and Party Competition within a Volatile Electorate," American Sociological Review, 52(1): 59-72. Brown, David. 2002. Musorgsky: His Life and Works. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Budden, Julian. 1992. The Operas of Verdi: From Oberto to Rigoletto. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Campbell, Angus, Philip E. Converse, Warren Miller, and Donald E. Stokes. 1960. The American Voter. New York: Wiley. Cerulo, Karen A. 1984 (June). "Social Disruption and Its Effects on Music: An Empirical Analysis." Social Forces 62(4): 885-904.
References 223 Cerulo, Karen A. 1989 (September). "Sociopolitical Control and the Structure of National Symbols: An Empirical Analysis of National Athems." Social Forces 68(1): 76-99. Cooper, Martin. 1985. Beethoven: The Last Decade 1817-1827. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Dennis, David B. 1996. Beethoven in German Politics, 18701989. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. Donington, Robert. 1969. Wagner's `Ring' and Its Symbols: The Music and the Myth. New York: St. Martin's Press. Donington, Robert. 1990. Opera and Its Symbols: The Unity of Words, Music, and Staging. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. Downs, Anthony. 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper & Row. Ford, Charles. 1991. Cosi? Sexual Politics in Mozart's Operas. New York: University of Manchester Press. Fowke, Edith, and Joe Glazer. 1973. Songs of Work and Protest. New York: Dover. Fowke, Edith, and Joe Glazer. 1960. Songs of Work and Freedom. Chicago: Roosevelt University Press. Fox, William S. and James D. Williams. 1974(Autumn). "Political Orientation and Music Preferences Among College Students." Public Opinion Quarterly 38(3): 352-71. Gutman, Robert. 1968. Richard Wagner: The Man, His Mind, and His Music. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.
224 POLITICS AND MUSIC Heffer, Simon. 2001. Vaughan Williams. Boston: Northeastern University Press. Hetherington, Marc J. 2001(September). "Resurgent Mass Partisanship: The Role of Elite Polarization." American Political Science Review 95(3): 619-31. Huckfeldt, R. Robert and John Sprague. 1988. "Choice, Social Structure, and Political Information: The Informational Coercion of Minorities." American Journal of Political Science 32:467-82. Kaiser, Charles. 1988. 1968 in America. New York: Grove Press. Katz, Jacob. 1986. The Darker Side of Genius: Richard Wagner's Anti-Semitism. Biddeford, Maine: University of New England Press. Kaiser, Charles. 1988. 1968 In America: Music, Politics, Chaos, Counterculture, and the Shaping of a Generation. New York: Grove Press. Knight, Frida. 1973. Beethoven and the Age of Revolution. New York: International Publishers. Lee, M. Owen. 1990. Wagner's Ring: Turning the Sky Around. New York: Summit Books. Leonard, Richard Anthony. 1957. A History of Russian Music. New York: MacMillan. Leppert, Richard, and Susan McClary (Eds.) 1987. Music and Society: The Politics of Composition, Performance, and Reception. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lukes, Timothy J. 2001 (September). "Lionizing Machiavelli." American Political Science Review 95(3): 561-75.
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226 POLITICS AND MUSIC Pollack, Howard. 2000. Aaron Copland: The Life and Work of an Uncommon Man. Champaign: University of Illinois Press. Rackwitz, Werner. 1971. "Die Bedeutung Beethovens fьr die sozialistische National-kulture der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik." In Heinz Alfred Brodkhaus and Konrad Neimann (Eds.), Berickt ьber den Internationalen Beethoven-Kongress 1012 Dezember 1970 in Berlin. Berlin: Verlag Neue Musik. Renshaw, Patrick. 1999. The Wobblies: The Story of IWW and Syndicalism in the United States. Chicago, Illinois: Ivan R. Dee, Inc. Rosselli, John. 2000. The Life of Verdi. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Rux, Carl Hancock. 2003. "Eminem: The New White Negro." In Everything but the Burden," Greg Tate (Ed.). New York: Broadway Books, pp. 15-38. Schrцder, Heribert. 1986. "Beethoven im Dritten Reich: Eine Materialsammlung." In Helmut Loos, ed., Beethoven und die Nachwelt: Materialien zur Wirkungsgeschichte Beethovens. Bonn: Beethovenhhaus, pp. 198-235. Scott, John T. 1997(August). "Rousseau and the Melodious Language of Freedom." The Journal of Politics 59(3): 803-29. Shaw, George Bernard. 1966(1898). The Perfect Wagnerite. New York: Dover. Smith, Gibbs M. 1984. Joe Hill. Layton, Utah: Gibbs Smith Publisher. Solomon, Maynard. 1977. Beethoven. New York: Shirmer.
References 227 Solomon, Maynard. 1968. "Beethoven and Napoleon." Music Review 29: 96-105. Spotts, Frederic. 1994. Bayreuth: A History of the Wagner Festival. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. Swafford, Jan. 1998. Charles Ives: A Life With Music. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. Tate, Greg. 2003. Everything but the Burden. New York: Broadway Books. Tate, Greg. 2003. "Hip-Hop." In the Encyclopedia Britannica 2003 Deluxe Edition. Unger, Irwin, and Debi Under (Eds.) 1998. The Times Were a Changin': The Sixties Reader. New York: Three Rivers Press. Valentin, Erich. 1938(July). "Beethovenfest der Hitlerjugend: Bad Wildbad (Schwarzwald) 20. Bis 22. Mai 1938)," Zeitschrift fьr Musik 7, p. 735. Wagner, Cosima. 1980. The Diaries of Cosima Wagner. Edited by Martin Gregor-Dellin and Dietrich Mack, translated by Geoffrey Skelton. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Wagner, Richard. (n.d.) Richard Wagner's Letters to August Roeckel. Translated by Eleanor C. Sellar. Bristol, Great Britain: J.W. Arrowsmith. Wagner, Richard. 1996(1895). Art and Politics. Translated by William Ashton Ellis. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. Wattenberg, Martin P. 1984. The Decline of American Political Parties, 1952-1980. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard
228 POLITICS AND MUSIC University Press. West, Cornell. 1999[1982]. "On Afro-American Music: From Bebop to Rap." In The Cornell West Reader, New York: Basic Civitas Books, chapter 40. West, Cornell. 2001[1991]. "Nihilism in Black America." In Race Matters by Cornell West. New York: Vintage Books. Westbrook, Alonzo. 2002. Hip Hoptionary: the Dictionary of Hip Hop Terminology. New York: Harlem Moon and Broadway Books. White, Timothy. 2000(1983). Catch a Fire: The Life of Bob Marley. New York: Henry Holt and Co. Williams, Ursula Vaughan. 1992. R.V.W.: A Biography of Ralph Vaughan Williams. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
INDEX Listing Note: When searching for a name, check both the first and last names. First names especially are useful when referencing a performer, composer, or noted personality, since first names are integral parts of formal identifiers regardless of whether or not the full names have one part (as in Madonna and Bono) or two parts (as in Africa Bamtaattaa and Dr. Dre). 1812 Overture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86, 89 2 Live Crew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 2pacalypse Now . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196, 199 A Hard Rain's A-Gonna Fall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 A Life for the Czar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77, 78 A London Symphony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 A Night on Bald Mountain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Abd-ar-Rahman al-Ashmawi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Abraham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77, 81, 82, 221 Afeni Shakur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Africa Bamtaataa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Al Gore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Al Qaeda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216, 218 Alan Jackson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Albйniz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91, 92 Alberich . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42-44, 46-52 Alfred Hays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 alienation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 49 Alonzo Westbrook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 American nationalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Amnesty International . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 anarchist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40, 41, 45, 52, 59 anarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50, 55 Andre Young . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Andy Morahan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 anticlerical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 antisemitism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 anti-Semitism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192, 224 anti-war . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 9, 103, 129, 148, 181 Antoine Carraby . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Appalachian Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Arabian Prince . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Arabic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Arendt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48, 221
230 POLITICS AND MUSIC aristocracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 22, 106 Arlo Guthrie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132, 135, 149, 150 Arnold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 12, 23, 221 associational . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 5, 7, 16, 17, 23 associational music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Atlantic Charter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Attila . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73-75 Attila the Hun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73-75 Augusto Pinochet Ugarte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Ayatollah Khomeni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Babylon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35, 36, 38, 39, 46, 49-52, 54-56, 58, 59 Babylonian Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Bakhturin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Bakunin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45, 54 Balakirev . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76, 78-80, 83-86 Ballantine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 221 Bangladesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159, 160, 162, 164-166 Barbarossa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71, 75 Barenboim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26, 40 Baroque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Barry Goldwater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Bartуk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Bastille . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Battle of Victoria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Beastie Boys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Beatles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135, 151, 160 Becker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147, 221 Beethoven . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 4, 9, 1, 5, 7, 11-16, 18-27, 40, 146, 209, 223, 224, 226 Beggar's Banquet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Berelson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 221 Berger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40, 66, 73, 222 Berlin Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Berloiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Billy Bragg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111, 123, 133 Billy Joel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175, 180 Billy the Kid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Bismarck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 18 black nihilism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Black Panther Party . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Blau . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 222 Bloody Sunday . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Bob Dylan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132, 135, 151-154, 158, 159
Index 231 Bohemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Bokina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 40, 61, 222 Bomb Squad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Bonn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 226 Bono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172, 181, 229 Boogie Down Productions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Boris Godunov . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81, 82, 93 Borodin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76, 79, 81, 83, 221 Boulanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Bourbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 break beats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Brett Sokol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Brown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5, 20, 21, 27, 81, 222 Brьnnhilde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44-46, 51-54, 56, 58 Budden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71, 222 b-boying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184, 185 Calvin Broadus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Cambodia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Campbell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 184, 222 Cancionero Musical Popular Espaсol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Cantos de Espaсa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Carl Rux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Carl Ryder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Carlton Ridenhour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Casey Jones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120, 121 Catholics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21, 37, 170, 171 censors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71-74 Cerulo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 222, 223 Charles Kaiser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Charles Shaar Murray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Child . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38, 51, 63, 93, 103, 112, 115, 158, 178, 202-206 Chile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63, 64, 136, 166-169 Chopin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Chuck D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Civil Rights Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 63, 135, 142 civilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35, 42, 45, 46, 52, 53, 55, 209 Clarence Darrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 classical music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Classical Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 8, 11, 12 Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Clive Campbell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Cold War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152, 173, 175 Conservatoire Amйricain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
232 POLITICS AND MUSIC Converse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 222 Cooper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 223 Copland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96, 97, 226 Cornell West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184, 187, 188, 195, 197, 207, 228 corruption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 52, 54, 58, 73, 108, 139, 141 country music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 33, 69, 98-101, 225 Criminal Minded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Crusades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Cui . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76, 79, 81 culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 21, 23, 26, 36, 67-69, 89, 99, 103, 178, 183, 185- 188, 191, 206, 207 Czechoslovakia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Daddy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188, 198, 203 Daniel Ellsberg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Darryl Worley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 David Allan Coe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214, 217 David Rohde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Daz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 De La Soul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Death Row Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Democratic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 25, 140 Dennis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-16, 18, 19, 21-25, 27, 40, 63, 223 Devon Sawa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Dido . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Dien Bien Phu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 DiMaggio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 225 DJ Kay Slay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 DJ Kool Herc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 DJ Scott LaRock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Don Giovani . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Donington . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44, 56, 223 Downs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 61, 82, 223 Dr. Dre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188, 195, 196, 203, 229 draft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141, 181 Dvorбk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Dylan Thomas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 East Pakistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Eazy E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Ed Madden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Ed Sullivan Show . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Edith Fowke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Eduardo Frei Montalva . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Eisenhower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Index 233 El Amor Brujo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 El Corregidor y la Molinera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 elections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 20, 108, 137-139, 159, 198 Elizabeth Gurley Flynn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115, 119 Elizabethan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Eminem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188, 195, 200, 201, 203-206 Emperor Nicolas II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 En Saga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 England . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92, 95, 224 environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x, 4, 13, 48, 75, 117, 179-181 Erda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44, 50 Eric (Vietnam) Sadler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Eric Clapton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Eric Wright . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Ernani . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72, 73 Eroica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 22 Eugene Onegin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11, 67, 69-71, 90, 92, 94, 106, 135, 141, 174, 214 European nation-building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 explicit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 4, 5, 17-19, 31, 34, 39, 40, 46, 72, 74, 107, 110, 170, 197, 212, 219 Falla . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91, 92 Fantasia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82, 93 Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 fascist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 25, 40, 214, 215 Fascist Experimental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Fear of a Black Planet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Feuerbach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46, 47 Fidelio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 15, 24, 61 Finland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87-91 Finlandia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Finnish nationalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87, 88 First String Quartet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Flavor Fav . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Ford . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 223 Foscolo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Foster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Four Legends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Fox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 210, 223 Francis Scott Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Franklin Delano Roosevelt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Frederick I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Frederick William II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
234 POLITICS AND MUSIC Free Music School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 freedom . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39, 49, 53, 57, 73, 74, 85, 101, 118, 119, 123, 124, 126, 164, 169, 199, 223, 226 Frei . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166, 167 French Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 61, 105 French Revolutionary Wars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 From the New World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 From the Salvation Army . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Fugue in Four Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Furious Five . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184, 187, 189-191, 193, 194 gangsta rap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142, 188-190, 194-200 Gene Autry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 George Harrison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135, 158-160, 162, 163, 165 German . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 17-21, 23-27, 40, 46, 63, 71, 75, 80, 85, 92, 95, 104, 202, 223 Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11, 12, 17, 20, 21, 23, 25, 26, 80, 104 ghazal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 ghetto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 187, 189, 190, 193-199, 205-207 Gibbs M. Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Glaser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117, 118 Glazunov . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Glinka . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76-79, 82, 85 Glorious Moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Gospel Oak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Gottschalk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 graffiti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184-186 Granados . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Grand Wizard Theodore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Grandmaster Flash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184, 187, 189, 191, 193, 194 Great Britain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92, 104, 127, 227 Great Depression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34, 131, 155 Great Five . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76-82, 85 Greece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Greg Tate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184, 226 Gulf of Tonkin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138, 139 Gypsy Songs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Hammerfest 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Hank Shocklee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Hapsburg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Hapsburgs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Harriman and Illinois Central Railroad System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Harry Davis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 hate music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214-217
Index 235 Hayden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Heffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93, 224 Helen Keller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Hetherington . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 224 Hindi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 hip-hop . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 1, 3, 9, 183-190, 192, 193, 195-201, 206, 207, 218, 225 Hispaniae Schola Musica Sacra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Hitler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24, 40, 63 Ho Chi Minh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Holocaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Holy Roman Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Huckfeldt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 224 Huey Long . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113, 155 Hugh the Drover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Hugo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72, 73 Hungary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69, 87 hyperrealism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188, 190, 195 I Dreamed I Saw Joe Hill Last Night . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130, 131 I lombardi alla prima crociata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 I.W.W. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113-117, 119, 122, 127, 128, 132 Iberia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Ice Cube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Illuminati . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Imagine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150, 191, 196 Imperial Court Theater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Indochina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137, 138, 141 Industrial Worker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Industrial Workers of the World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113, 119 Intelligence Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214, 216 Inti-Illimani . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63, 168 IRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Iran . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Iraq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 101, 102, 105, 139, 181 Ireland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166, 170-173 Irving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84, 122 Israel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40, 108 It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Italian nationalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70-72, 74 Ives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94, 95, 227 J. Fred Helf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
236 POLITICS AND MUSIC Jacobins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Jahd Adonihah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Janet Jackson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Jara . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63, 168, 169 jazz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 99, 186, 221 Jerusalem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40, 72, 102, 103, 211, 212 Jerusalem album . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102, 103 Jesus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61, 118, 164, 176, 178 Jimi Hendrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105, 135, 143, 144 Jimi Hendrix's . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142, 144, 146, 148 Joan Baez . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130, 135 Joe Hill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 111-126, 128-133, 226 Joe Pytka . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 John Birch Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 John Lennon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135, 150, 151 John Stafford Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 John Walker Lindh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Jon Pareles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Joplin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Jose Feliciano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Joseph Haydn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Joseph II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Joseph Ogidi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Joseph Saddler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Kaiser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63, 142, 224 Kalevala . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88, 89 Kant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Kдrntnertor Theater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Kathy Dougherty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Katz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40, 224 Keith Richards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Keith Shocklee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Ken Verdoia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Kennedy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Kenneth Gibson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Khrushchev . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Knight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16, 224 Kriss Kross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 KRS-One . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Ku Klux Klan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Kukolnik . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Kullervo Symphony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 La battaglia di Legnano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70, 75
Index 237 La Marseillaise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105-107 La Scala . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 labor music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 111, 130 Laos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Lauryn Hill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Lawrence Krisna Parker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Lazarsfeld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 221 Lee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65, 101, 192, 224 Leningrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Leo Friedman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Leon Russell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Leonard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26, 77-79, 82-84, 175, 224 Leopold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 82, 106 Leopold II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Leppert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 224 Leviathan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Lewis E. Jones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 liberation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26, 39, 57, 61, 64, 71 Lieutenant Kij? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Like a Rolling Stone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Lil' Kim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Lincoln Portrait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Liszt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69, 70, 80 Little Red Songbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114, 117 Live from Rattle and Hum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Lobkowitz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Loge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43, 45 Lola Ogunnaike . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Lombard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Lцnnrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Lorenzo Patterson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Los Pirineos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Louis Farrakhan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Louis XVI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106, 107 Louis XVIII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 love and revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Luonnotar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Lyndon Baines Johnson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 lyrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 4, 34, 36, 46, 50, 71, 98, 99, 101-104, 107-110, 117, 130, 148, 151, 153, 154, 158, 168, 170, 172-175, 180, 187, 190-193, 198, 200, 202, 212 M.C. Hammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Madonna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97, 98, 175-178, 229
238 POLITICS AND MUSIC Magee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 40, 47, 50, 55, 225 Maharishi Mahesh Yogi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 MajiMaji . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Malcolm X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 manifesto music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 8, 29-33, 41 Marley . . . . . . . . . . . . x, xi, 7, 8, 29-34, 36, 38, 39, 46, 48-50, 52-61, 63-66, 164, 165, 228 Marshall Bruce Mathers III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Martin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 61, 147, 176, 201, 223, 225, 227 Marx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35, 54 Mary J. Blige . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Mary Lambert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Mase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188, 198 Mattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64, 167-169, 225 Maximilian Franz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 MC Ren . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 McClary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 224 McPhee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 221 Mead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147, 225 Melle Mel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190, 191 Melvin Glover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190, 191 Mendelssohn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Micetrap Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Michael . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45, 54, 179, 190 Michael Jackson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Mick Jagger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Middle Ages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Mik Lezan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Milan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Miller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 222 Mime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43, 45, 51 Mondino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Moscow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76, 80, 85, 86, 174 Moscow Conservatory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80, 85 movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . x, 1, 9, 16, 23, 63, 70, 81, 83, 89, 92, 96, 111-113, 119, 130, 135-137, 142, 159, 173, 179-181, 183, 216 Mozart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11, 84 Mozart and Salieri . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Murray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183, 201, 207, 225 musicology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 40, 181 Mussorgsky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76, 78, 79, 81, 85, 92 N.R. Kleinfield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188, 200 N.W.A (Niggaz With Attitude) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Index 239 Nabucco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Napoleon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 15, 17, 22, 70, 71, 86, 107, 153, 227 Napoleon Bonaparte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 107 Napoleon III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 71, 107 Napoleonic Wars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15, 16 Nation of Islam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 national anthem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 71, 104, 105, 107-109, 142, 144-146 national anthems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 104, 105, 107, 108 National Constituent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105-107 national development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68, 104 National Socialist Black Metal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 nationalist . . . . . . . . . . . . x, 7, 8, 18, 22, 67-70, 73-81, 83, 85-89, 91, 92, 95- 99, 101, 104, 109, 110, 137 nationalist hybrids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Nature . . . . . . . . . . . . 26, 30, 32, 33, 35-38, 42, 45-53, 55-59, 64, 70, 89, 97- 99, 102, 106, 141, 163, 167, 180, 191, 197, 212 Nazi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 20, 21, 23-25, 27, 63, 202, 215, 222 Neal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183, 207, 225 Nebuchadnezzar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Neil Strauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187, 214 neo-fascist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Newman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41, 225 Ngo Dinh Diem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Nicholas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77, 80, 88, 89 Nick Brandt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Nietzsche . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Nixon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138, 140, 141, 174 Noches en los Jardines de Espaсa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 non-movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x, 9, 173 Norfolk Rhapsodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Norman Lee Rogers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 North Vietnam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103, 138, 139, 141 Northern Ireland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166, 170-173 Northern Republican Army . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Notorious B.I.G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Notorius B.I.G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Oklahoma City Federal Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 opera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-15, 24, 46, 56, 61, 71-78, 81, 82, 90, 91, 93, 222, 223 Orthodox Church . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Osama bin Laden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 O'Shea Jackson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 P. Diddy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188, 198
240 POLITICS AND MUSIC Pakistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159, 162 Palestine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Panzerfaust Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Parra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Patrick Leonard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 patriotic . . . . . . . . . . . . . x, 1, 7, 8, 13, 19, 67-69, 71, 74, 80, 86, 89, 98-106, 109, 110, 132, 145, 180, 210, 215, 219 patriotism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103, 109, 142, 145 Paul Greengrass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Paul Krugman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Paul McCartney . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135, 151 Paul Roberts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Paul Robeson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Pearl Harbor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 peasants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21, 82, 106 Pedrell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91, 92 Pentagon Papers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Pepsi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175, 176 Peter S. Green . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Petersburg Conservatory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80, 83 Peterson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 225 Phillip Atwell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Pictures from an Exhibition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Pinochet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63, 169, 170 Plato . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 225 playas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Pohjola's Daughter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191, 202 Polish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77, 128, 191 political change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29, 59, 64, 65, 182, 211 political control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 political information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 9, 10, 209, 210, 213, 224 political manifesto music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 8, 29-33, 41 political messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 13, 29, 34, 64, 72, 108, 183, 187, 212, 217-219 political musicology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40, 181 political parties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 10, 20-23, 227 political science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 2, 27, 222, 224 political transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 10 Pollack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96, 226 Pope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70, 74 Por Nuestra Mъsica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Prince Igor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Index 241 Professor Griff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 protest . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 5, 9, 72, 113, 117, 132, 135-137, 141, 142, 145, 148- 151, 153, 158, 166, 168-173, 180-182, 209, 211, 223 protest music . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 9, 72, 117, 132, 135-137, 141, 142, 145, 148, 151, 153, 158, 166, 170, 173, 209, 211 Protestants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170, 171 Proudhon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 44, 103, 109 Public Enemy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187, 192, 193 Puffy Daddy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Pulitzer Prize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Pushkin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76, 77, 82 Queen Latifah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Quilapayъn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63, 168 Racist Country . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Ragtime Dances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 rap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142, 183, 186-191, 194-201, 207, 218, 228 rap music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183, 188, 189, 191, 194, 201, 218 rapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 183-185 Rastafarian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33-38, 49, 53 Rastafarianism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34, 36, 37, 53 Ravel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Reagan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173-175 Realism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82, 85, 93, 145 Renaissance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11, 218 Renshaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113, 226 representational . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 7, 13, 16, 99, 101 republican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 15, 22, 61, 70, 71, 146, 171 Resistance Radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Resistance record label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 14, 15, 33, 46, 50, 52, 54-57, 59-61, 64, 65, 69, 71, 105, 106, 151, 156, 172, 212, 214, 224 Richard Griffin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Richard Nixon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140, 174 Richard Robbins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Riders to the Sea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Rigoletto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73, 222 Rimsky-Korsakov . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41-46, 51-53, 73, 224 Ringo Starr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Risorgimento . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Robert S. McNamara . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 rock and roll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
242 POLITICS AND MUSIC Rodeo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Roeckel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48, 52, 56, 227 Roman Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 73 Romantic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 8, 11, 61, 64, 67, 84, 89, 92, 95, 96, 98, 135 Romeo and Juliet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Rosselli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70, 226 Rosser Reeves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Rousseau . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 14 Rubinstein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79, 80 Ruslan and Ludmila . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76-78 Russia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76, 78, 80, 81, 84, 86, 88, 89, 92, 171 Russian Easter Festival . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Russian Musical Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Russians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Saddam Hussein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102, 180 Sadko . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Salt-n-Pepa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 San Martin de Porres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 satire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120, 148-150 Scheherazade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Schneider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Schoolly D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Schrцder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24, 226 Schumann . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Scott . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 93, 95, 104, 194, 226 Scott of the Antarctic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Scott Sterling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Sean Combs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188, 198 Second Reich . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 16-18 segregation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100, 135 Serov . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79, 80 Servilia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Shah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Shaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41, 43, 45, 59-61, 66, 226 Shelby Darnell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Shestakova . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78, 79 Shirkov . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Should I Ever Be a Soldier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Sibelius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 87-91 Siegfried . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41, 45, 46, 50-54, 56, 58, 59, 155 Sieglinde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44, 45 Siegmund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44, 53 Sinead O'Connor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Index 243 Sinfonia Antarctica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Slavonic Dances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Smetana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Smothers Brothers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Snoop Dog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Snow Maiden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 social dislocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 sociological musicology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 sociology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 222, 225 Solomon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-16, 226, 227 Sousa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 221 South Vietnam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137, 139, 140 Southern Pacific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Soviet Union . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107, 159, 173, 174 Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 72, 91, 92, 128 Spanish nationalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Sprague . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 224 Springsteen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 St. Petersburg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76, 171, 175 Stan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203-205 Star Spangled Banner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101, 104 Stasov . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Steve Earle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Steve Gill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Sting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169, 173-175 Stokes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 222 Stokowski . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Straight Outta Compton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Stung Right . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Suite Espaсola . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Swafford . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94, 227 Sweden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88, 112 Swiss Guards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Sylvia Plath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202, 204, 205, 207 Sylvia Robinson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Symphony for Organ and Orchestra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Synge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Tango in D Major . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Tchaikovsky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76, 80, 85, 86 Ted Hughes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202, 203 Terminator X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Tet Offensive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
244 POLITICS AND MUSIC The Alhambra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 The Chronic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 The Dream of the Blue Turtles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 The English and Scottish Popular Ballads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 The Golden Cockerel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 The International . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitezh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 The Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39, 63, 64, 109, 110, 148, 187, 207 The New York Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 34, 40, 63, 90, 108, 109, 139, 148, 158, 180, 186-188, 191, 200, 206, 209, 210, 214, 218, 225 The Oprichnik . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 The Police . . . . . . . . . . . 16, 42, 114, 119, 149, 169, 176, 177, 195, 196, 212 The Rebel Girl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119, 120 The Rolling Stones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 111, 132, 135 The Swan of Tuonela . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 The Tale of Tsar Saltan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 The Three-Cornered Hat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 The Tsar's Bride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 The Turner Diaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 The Voyevoda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 The Wizard of Oz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Three Places in New England . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Timothy McVeigh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Tony Schwartz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Transcendental Meditation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 4, 9, 10, 50, 97, 127, 135, 155, 156, 189, 200, 209 Treaty of Versailles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 22 Trinh Cong Son . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Troubles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38, 47, 75, 144, 199, 204 Truman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Tudor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Tupac Shakur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187, 188, 196, 199 U.S. Congress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104, 138, 141, 154 U.S. Maddox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 U2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170, 172, 173 underground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211-215 Unger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135, 138, 227 United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 8, 63, 68, 86, 87, 96, 98-101, 103, 111, 113, 127, 135, 136, 138, 139, 141, 152, 159, 166, 167, 173, 176, 180, 183, 209, 214-216, 226 Urdu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Index 245 Ursula Vaughan Williams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Va, pensiero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Vakula the Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Valhalla . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43, 44, 46, 52, 54 Variations on "America" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Vedic philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35, 164 Verdi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 70-73, 75, 222, 226 Victor Jara . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63, 168, 169 Vienna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11, 14-17, 67, 70 Viet Cong . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139, 141 Viet Minh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137, 138 Vietnam War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 5, 9, 63, 68, 103, 132, 135, 137, 139, 141, 142, 149-151, 154, 158, 159, 181 Violent . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 54, 55, 107, 115, 119, 171, 187, 188, 190, 193-196, 216 Voltaire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Wagner . . . . . . . . . . . . . x, xi, 1, 7, 8, 18, 23, 29-33, 35, 39-41, 46-51, 53-56, 58-61, 64-66, 75, 79, 80, 146, 221-223, 225, 227 Wah-Wah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 war . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 5, 6, 8, 9, 12, 15, 17, 19, 20, 25, 47, 48, 63, 68, 88, 94, 97, 101, 103-106, 127-129, 132, 135, 137-142, 145, 148-154, 156, 158, 159, 170, 172, 173, 175, 180, 181, 196, 198, 218, 219, 221 War of 1812 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Watergate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Waterloo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Wattenberg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 227 Waylon Jennings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 99 Weimar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 20-23, 104 Weimar Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 20, 21, 104 West Pakistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Western . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 6, 19, 36, 62, 77, 80, 81, 97, 98, 115, 174 Western Federation of Miners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 White . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 34, 37, 39, 63, 66, 74, 98, 100, 101, 126, 151, 176, 177, 187-189, 191, 193, 195, 198-201, 205-207, 215, 226, 228 White Album . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 white rebellion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189, 200 Whitney Houston . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Wilhelm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 William D. Haywood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 William Drayton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 William J. Obanhein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
246 POLITICS AND MUSIC William Pierce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Williams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 92, 93, 223, 224, 228 Willie Nelson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 99 Winfield. S. Weeden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Wobblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113, 115, 226 Woodrow Wilson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 116, 127 Woodstock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105, 130, 144 Woody Guthrie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 131, 132, 151, 152 Workers of the World, Awaken . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125, 126 World War I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 19, 20, 127, 128 World War II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 20, 25, 63, 97, 101, 127, 132, 137, 170 Wotan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42-51, 53, 54, 58, 155 Wu-Tang Clan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Yella . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

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