Garrett Hardin, Birth Control, Population, David Brower, Kenneth E. Boulding, THOMAS ROBERT MALTHUS, Raymond B. Cowles, Charles Scribner's Sons, Marston Bates, Copyright, Santa Barbara, Raymond F. Dasmann, Paul Paddock, Gerald F. Winfield, William Morrow, Optimum Population, Harrison Brown, social implications, population literature, readings, Population Policy, University of California, Professor Hardin, William Petersen, Freedom Population and Freedom Elimination, The Johns Hopkins Press, Garrett Hardin University of California, Nigel Calder, ARTHUR H. NETHERCOT, WILLIAM PETERSEN Marx, Population Problem, Population Growth, Scientific American, CHARLES DARWIN, National Catholic Reporter, Population Studies, WILLIAM FORSTER LLOYD, Population Bulletin, GARRETT HARDIN Malthus, CHARLES DARWIN Autobiography, CHARLES KINGSLEY, FREDERICK E. FLYNN, ARTHUR O. LOVEJOY, NORMAN ST. JOHN-STEVAS, THOMAS A. WASSMER, THOMAS HENRY HUXLEY, Geological Knot, History of Contraception, WILLIAM PALEY Natural Theology, THOMAS ROBERT MALTHUS Maud, DANIEL S. GREENBERG Catholic Opinion, WILLIAM L. LANGER, Francis Place
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A SERIES OF BOOKS IN BIOLOGY Editors Ralph Emerson Donald Kennedy Roderic B. Park George W. Beadle (1946-1961) Douglas M. Whitaker (1946-1966)
SECOND EDITION Population Evolution and Birth Control A COLLAGE OF CONTROVERSIAL IDEAS Assembled by Garrett Hardin UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA BARBARA W. H. Freeman and Company San Francisco
08 AGO 2006
Copyright © 1964, 1969 by W. H. Freeman and Company No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use without written permission of the publisher.
Printed in the United States of America Library of Congress
Catalog Card Number: 69-16921 7167 0670-9
Grateful acknowledgment is made to the authors and publishers of the selections listed below and identified by number: 17. Reprinted with the permission of Charles Scribner's Sons and Russell & Volkening, Inc., from The Prevalence of People, pp. 150-152, by Marston Bates. Copyright © 1955 Marston Bates. 22. From Deserts on the March by Paul B. Sears. University of Oklahoma Press. Copyright © 1935. 23. From a chapter by Lee Merriman Talbot in Wildlands in our Civilization, David Brower, editor, Sierra Club. Copyright © 1964. 24. Reprinted with permission of The Macmillan Company from The Last Horizon by Raymond F. Dasmann. Copyright © by Raymond F. Dasmann 1963. 26. From The Challenge of Man's Future by Harrison Brown. Copyright © 1954 by Harrison Brown. Reprinted by permission of The Viking Press, Inc., and McIntosh and Otis, Inc. 30. From The Politics of Population by William Petersen. Copyright © 1964 by William Petersen. Reprinted by permission of Doubleday & Company
, Inc., and Victor Gollancz Ltd. 31. From Freedom and Control in Modern Society, M. Berger, T. Abel, and C. H. Page, editors. D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc. Copyright © 1954. 32. From The Ethical Basis of medical practice
by Willard L. Sperry. Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc. Copyright © 1950. 36. From China: The Land and the People by Gerald F. Winfield. Copyright © 1948 by Gerald F. Winfield by permission of William Morrow
and Company, Inc. 37. From The Image by Kenneth E. Boulding. University of Michigan Press. Copyright © 1956. 39. From Hungry Nations by William and Paul Paddock, by permission of Little, Brown
and Co. Copyright © 1964, by William and Paul Paddock. 42. From Where Winter Never Comes by Marston Bates. Charles Scribner's Sons. Copyright © 1952. 43. From Eden Was No Garden by Nigel Calder. Copyright © 1967 by Nigel Calder. Reprinted by permission of Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., and Martin Seeker & Warburg Limited. 44. From remarks by Raymond B. Cowles in The Meaning of Wilderness to Science, David Brower, editor, Sierra Club. Copyright © 1960. 45. From Ulendo by Archie Carr. Alfred A. Knopf
, Inc. Copyright © 1964. 47. From "Population Density and Social Pathology" by John B. Calhoun. Copyright © 1962 by Scientific American, Inc. All rights reserved. 53. From an article by Kenneth E. Boulding in Environmental Quality in a Growing Economy, Henry Jarrett, editor. The Johns Hopkins
Press. Resources for the Future, Inc. Copyright © 1966. 55. From The Human Use of human beings
by Norbert Wiener. Houghton Mifflin Company. Copyright © 1950. 56. From Famine-1975! by William and Paul Paddock, by permission of Little, Brown and Co. and Weidenfeld & Nicolson. Copyright © 1967, by William and Paul Paddock. 79. From Nature and Man's Fate by Garrett Hardin. Copyright © 1959 by Garrett Hardin. Reprinted by permission of Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. 82. From Essays in the History of Ideas by Arthur O. Lovejoy. The Johns Hopkins Press. Copyright © 1948. 88. From The First Five Lives of Annie Besant by Arthur H. Nethercot. The University of Chicago Press.
Copyright © 1960. 89. From The Birth Controllers by Peter Fryer. Martin Secker & Warburg Limited. Copyright © 1965. 90. Quoted, by permission, from An Autobiography, by Margaret Sanger. Copyright © 1938 by Margaret Sanger. All rights reserved. 93. From Birth Control and Catholic Doctrine by Alvah W. Sulloway. Beacon Press. Copyright © 1959. 96. From `Birth Control: Catholic Opinion Varies Widely on Rock's New Book" by Daniel S. Greenberg. Science, 140:791-792. 17 May 1963. Copyright © 1963 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 103. From The Right to Life by Norman St. John-Stevas. Copyright © 1963, 1964 by Norman St. John-Stevas. Reprinted by permission of Hodder and Stoughton Limited and Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. 108. From Studies in Population edited by G. F. Mair. Princeton University
Press. Copyright © 1949. 109. From Life, Death and the Law by Norman St. John-Stevas. Indiana University
Press and Eyre & Spottiswoode (Publishers) Ltd. Copyright © 1961. 116. From Modern Science and the Human Fertility Problem by Richard L. Meier. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Copyright © 1959. 117. From Complete Poems of Robert Frost
. Copyright © 1916 by Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. Copyright © 1944 by Robert Frost. Reprinted by permission of Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., and Laurence Pollinger Limited. 118. From "Raising Per Capita Income Through Fewer Births" by Stephen Enke. General Electric-TEMPO. Publication 68 TMP-9. March 1968. 119. From remarks by Raymond B. Cowles in The Meaning of Wilderness to Science, David Brower, editor, Sierra Club. Copyright © 1960. 120. From pp. 135-6 The Meaning of the 20th century
by Kenneth E. Boulding. (Harper & Row, 1964). 121. "Population Policy: Will Current Programs Succeed?" by Kingsley Davis. Science, 158:730-739. 10 November 1967. Copyright © 1967 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 122. From The Population Bomb by Dr. Paul R. Ehrlich, published by Ballantine Books, Inc. Copyright © 1968 by Paul R. Ehrlich. 123. "The Tragedy of the Commons" by Garrett Hardin. Science, 162:1243-1248. 13 December 1968. Copyright © 1968 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Grateful acknowledgment is made to the living authors of the selections listed below for their permission to reprint. The editors of the following journals gave their permission to reprint several selections, which are indicated by number: ASA Newsletter, 101; The Catholic Messenger, 97; The Catholic World, 104; Journal of Heredity, 52; Journal of Marriage and the Family, 105; Nature, 35, 50, 70; National Catholic Reporter, 99; New Scientist, 27, 57; Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 40, 98; Population Bulletin, 19, 20, I00; Population Review, 4454; Population Studies, 91; Science, 4I, 94, 96, 121, 123; Scientific American, 47; Thought, 38.
Contents I. Population 1. GARRETT HARDIN Malthus Starts the Argument 3 2. Thomas Robert Malthus
An Essay on the Principle of Population 4 3. GARRETT HARDIN Doubling Times and population growth
17 4. HAN FEI-TZU Fecundity and Prosperity 18 5. TERTULLIAN The Blessings of Catastrophes 18 6. THOMAS MORE Utopia 19 7. MARTIN LUTHER Trust in God 19 8. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind 20 9. Robert Wall
ACE Various Prospects of Mankind, Nature, and Providence 21 10. GARRETT HARDIN Is Charity Compatible with Stability? 23 ix
11. JOSEPH TOWNSEND A Dissertation on the Poor Laws 24 12. GARRETT HARDIN What if the World Be an Island and We Have No Dogs? 27 13. WILLIAM FORSTER LLOYD The Checks to Population 28 14. GARRETT HARDIN Malthus Under Attack 32 15. THOMAS ROWE EDMONDS An Enquiry into the Principles of Population 34 16. THOMAS DOUBLEDAY The True Law of Population 35 17. MARSTON BATES The Prevalence of People 37 18. GARRETT HARDIN Cassandra Gets a Hearing 39 19. GLENN D. EVERETT One Man's Family 41 20. ANNABELLE DESMOND How Many People Have Ever Lived on Earth? 44 21. GARRETT HARDIN Denial and the Gift of History 46 22. PAUL B. SEARS Deserts on the March 49 23. LEE MERRIMAN TALBOT The Wail of Kashmir 50 24. RAYMOND F. DASMANN Can Egypt Survive Progress? 52 25. SIR JOHN BOYD ORR Nothing to Worry About 56 26. HARRISON BROWN The Challenge of Man's Future 57 27. J. H. FREMLIN How Many People Can the World Support? 59 X
28. SOME NOBLE LORDS The Value of Life--An Additive Function? 66 29. P. K. WHELPTON What Is the Optimum Population? 67 30. WILLIAM PETERSEN Marx versus Malthus 67 31. KINGSLEY DAVIS The Demographic Foundations of National Power 71 32. WILLARD L. SPERRY A Prerequisite to Sensitivity 75 33. THE PANCHATANTRA Inescapable Materialism 75 34. THE BIBLE The Necessity of Choice 76 35. A. V. HILL The Ethical Dilemma of Science 77 36. GERALD F. WINFIELD Response to Misery 78 37. KENNETH E. BOULDING The Utterly Dismal Theorem 81 38. CHARLES G. WILBER To Feed the Hungry 82 39. WILLIAM AND PAUL PADDOCK Hungry Nations 84 40. GARRETT HARDIN In Memory of Malthus' Tragic Feast 87 41. ALAN GREGG A Medical Aspect of the Population Problem 89 42. MARSTON BATES The First Fatal Steps toward Civilization 93 43. NIGEL CALDER Eden Was No Garden 94 44. RAYMOND B. COWLES Wilderness and the Camel's Nose 96 xi
45. ARCHIE CARR Has Hunting a Future? 98 46. GARRETT HARDIN Should We Treat the Symptoms or the Disease? 100 47. JOHN B. CALHOUN Population Density and Social Pathology 101 48. GEORGE KURIYAN Migration as a Solution 105 49. EMMA LAZARUS The Demographic Open Door Policy 106 50. COLIN CLARK World Population 107 51. GARRETT HARDIN Population, Reality, and Escapist Literature 109 52. GARRETT HARDIN Interstellar Migration and the Population Problem 110 53. KENNETH E. BOULDING The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth 115 54. JOSEPH J. SPENGLER Population and Freedom 120 55. NORBERT WIENER The Vulnerability of Civilization 122 56. WILLIAM AND PAUL PADDOCK Famine-1975! 123 57. PAUL R. EHRLICH Paying the Piper 127 II. Evolution 58. GARRETT HARDIN The Unwelcoming of Natural Selection 133 59. ARISTOTLE The Economy of Nature 136 xii
60. LUCRETIUS Elimination of the Unfit 136 61. THOMAS ROBERT MALTHUS Maud, the Eugenic Milkmaid 137 62. WILLIAM PALEY Natural Theology 139 63. ALFRED TENNYSON In Memoriam 141 64. GARRETT HARDIN Did Adam Have a Navel? 142 65. PHILIP HENRY GOSSE Omphalos: An Attempt to Untie the Geological Knot 144 66. CHARLES KINGSLEY Omphalos Scorned 145 67. Charles Darwin
Autobiography 146 68. CHARLES DARWIN Letter to Asa Gray 150 69. CHARLES DARWIN The Origin of Species 153 70. Thomas Henry Huxley
The Huxley-Wilberforce Debate 155 71. CHARLES KINGSLEY An Alternative to Paley 156 72. GARRETT HARDIN The Art of Publishing Obscurely 157 73. CHARLES DARWIN On the Importance of Words 159 74. ANONYMOUS Darwin Refuted 160 75. MATTHEW ARNOLD Dover Beach 161 76. FRANCIS GALTON Liberation from Paley 162 77. FREDERICK ALBERT LANGE The History of Materialism 163
78. ALVAR ELLEGARD The Darwinian Theory and the Argument from Design 165 79. GARRETT HARDIN In Praise of Waste 167 III. Birth Control 80. GARRETT HARDIN The Ancient and Honorable History of Contraception 179 81. THE BIBLE Be Fruitful and Multiply 180 82. ARTHUR O. LOVEJOY "Nature" as Norm in Tertullian 181 83. THOMAS ROBERT MALTHUS On Sex, Love, and Contraception 186 84. GARRETT HARDIN Conscience and Courage: The Life of Francis Place 188 85. FRANCIS PLACE To the Married of Both Sexes of the Working People 192 86. WILLIAM L. LANGER Disguised Infanticide 194 87. THE REV. WILLIAM JOHN KNOX LITTLE On Woman's Place in Nature 197 88. ARTHUR H. NETHERCOT The First Five Lives of Annie Besant 198 89. PETER FRYER Fighters Against Comstockery 204 90. MARGARET SANGER An Autobiography 209 91. FLANN CAMPBELL Birth Control and the Christian Church
es 211 xiv
92. GARRETT HARDIN Resistance to Birth Control Within the Medical Profession 232 93. ALVAH W. SULLOWAY Birth Control and Catholic Doctrine 235 94. VARIOUS Birth Control and Dogma 239 95. GARRETT HARDIN How Good Is the Rhythm Method? 247 96. DANIEL S. GREENBERG Catholic Opinion of Rock's Book 250 97. FREDERICK E. FLYNN Natural Law 253 98. GARRETT HARDIN The Ghost of Authority 255 99. VATICAN PAPERS Anguish After John 263 100. DAVID CUSHMAN COYLE Japan's Population 269 101. NEWS REPORTS Abortion Reform Spreads in U.S. 272 102. GARRETT HARDIN Abortion in Anthropological Perspective 278 103. NORMAN ST. JOHN-STEVAS The Right to Life 283 104. THOMAS A. WASSMER, S.J. The Crucial Question About Abortion 285 105. GARRETT HARDIN Abortion--Or Compulsory Pregnancy? 293 106. NEWS REPORTS Sterilization in India 304 107. LORD JUSTICE DENNING Sterilization Degrading 306 108. CLARENCE SENIOR Sterilization in Puerto Rico 307 xv
109. NORMAN ST. JOHN-STEVAS Some Religious Scruples 308 110. GARRETT HARDIN Technical Characteristics of Sterilization 310 111. GARRETT HARDIN Dick and Jane: What Is Pornography? 312 112. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN Advice on the Choice of a Mistress 314 113. JOHN HUMPHREY NOYES A Theory of Sexual Sharing 316 114. ELY VAN DE WARKER, M.D. A Gynecological Study of the Oneida Community 320 115. GARRETT HARDIN Judge Lindsey and the Companionate Marriage 327 116. RICHARD L. MEIER Companionship Tailored to Occupation 328 117. ROBERT FROST The Road Not Taken 332 118. STEPHEN ENKE Raising Per Capita Income Through Fewer Births 333 119. RAYMOND B. COWLES The Non-Baby Bonus 339 120. KENNETH E. BOULDING Marketable Licenses for Babies 340 121. KINGSLEY DAVIS Population Policy: Will Current Programs Succeed? 341 122. PAUL R. EHRLICH How to Save the Ship 366 123. GARRETT HARDIN The Tragedy of the Commons 367 INDEX OF NAMES 383 xvi
SECOND EDITION Population, Evolution, and Birth Control A COLLAGE OF CONTROVERSIAL IDEAS Assembled by Garrett Hardin University of California. Santa Barbara "The emerging history of population is a story of disaster and denial--disaster foreseen. but disaster psycnologically denied in our innermost being . How can one believe in something--particularly an unpleasant something - that has never happened before?" With these words Garrett Hardin introduces the reader to an engrossing collection of articles. reviews. and criticisms reflecting all shades of opinion on what is perhaps the most important social problem besetting mankind. Professor Hardin has centered his interests on the social implications of biology for the past twenty-five years. and he has drawn together here what he considers the most effective published statements that have been made on all sides of the questions at issue. The readings are arranged to show the historical development of major ideas and to clarify the points of controversy. Editorial comment. sometimes extensive. is included. Among the more than one hundred selections are writings ranging in age from Old Testament passages to current news reports. They include excerpts from the first essay by Malthus. from the autobiography of Margaret Sanger. and from the book Famine -1975! by William and Paul Paddock. which. despite its Startling and unpop- ular conclusions. may prove to be a turning point in population literature. Other important readings include J. H. Fremlin's "How Many People Can the World Support?." Paul Ehrlich's "Paying the Piper." Kingsley Davis' "Population Policy: Will Current Programs Succeed?." and Garrett Hardin's 'The Tragedy of the Commons." The book provides excellent readings for any course dealing with the social impact of science--whether taught in departments of biology. anthropology. economics. sociology. geography. or others. GARRETT HARDIN. Professor of Biology at the University of California. Santa Barbara. has taught evolution and ecology for the past twenty years. He is the author of several books. including Biology: Its Principles and Implications (Second Edition. W. H. Freeman and Company. 1966). and Nature and Man's Fate. He has also written introductions for a book of readings from SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN entitled 39 Steps to Biology (W. H. Freeman and Company. 1968). Is ni W. H. FREEMAN AND COMPANY 660 Market Street. San Francisco. California 94104 Warner House. Folkestone. Kent. England