Primate and human evolution

Tags: Cambridge University Press, Human Evolution, Rutgers University, Human Biology, Koobi Fora Field School, Human Growth, Nina G. Jablonski, Pennsylvania State University, modern human variation, Alan C. Swedlund, behavioral traits, Rutgers Center for Human Evolutionary Studies, Kenneth M. Weiss, Patterns of Human Growth, Michael H. Crawford, Charles M. FitzGerald, Past Robert D. Hoppa, Maria C. Bortolini, information Cambridge Studies, Comparative Primate Socioecology, Linda D. Wolfe, University of Cambridge, Roland C. Hauspie, adaptive significance, American Populations, Robert A. Foley, James W. Vaupel, Andrew J. Nelson, Evolutionary Anthropology, Andrea B. Taylor, Michele L. Goldsmith, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Jennifer L. Thompson, Gail E. Krovitz, Kelly J. Stewart, Dentition Daris R. Swindler, non-human primate anatomy, Robert J. Blumenschine, John W. K. Harris, Matt Sponheimer, Carmel Schrire, Ronald J. Clarke, Center for Human Evolutionary Studies, University of Colorado at Boulder, nonhuman primate, primate behavioral ecology, nonhuman primates, human behavior, behavioral ecology, species richness, human sociality, Francis Thackeray, Phillip V. Tobias, hominid origins, Natural history, body size, fossil species, Susan Cachel, intelligence, social cognition, hominid intelligence, fossil human, Ryne Palombit, University of the Witwatersrand Medical School, Katherine Kuman, artificial intelligence, northern Kenya, human social behavior
Content: Cambridge University Press 0521829429 - Primate and Human Evolution Susan Cachel Frontmatter More information Primate and Human Evolution Primate and Human Evolution provides a synthesis of the evolution and adaptive significance of human anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits. Using paleontology and modern human variation and biology, it compares hominid traits to those of other catarrhine primates both living and extinct, presenting a new hominization model that does not depend solely on global climate change, but on predictable trends observed in catarrhines. Dealing with the origins of hominid tool use and tool manufacture, it compares tool behavior in other animals and incorporates information from the earliest archeological record. Examining the use of non-human primates and other mammals in modeling the origins of early human social behavior, Susan Cachel argues that human intelligence does not arise from complex social interactions, but from attentiveness to the natural world. This book will be a rich source of inspiration for all those interested in the evolution of all primates, including ourselves. S U S A N C AC H E L is Associate Professor of Physical Anthropology at Rutgers University. She is a member of the Rutgers Center for Human Evolutionary Studies, and is an instructor and researcher at the Koobi Fora Field School in Kenya.
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Cambridge University Press 0521829429 - Primate and Human Evolution Susan Cachel Frontmatter More information Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology Series editors Human Ecology C. G. Nicholas Mascie-Taylor, University of Cambridge Michael A. Little, State University of New York, Binghamton GENETICS Kenneth M. Weiss, Pennsylvania State University HUMAN EVOLUTION Robert A. Foley, University of Cambridge Nina G. Jablonski, California Academy of Science PRIMATOLOGY Karen B. Strier, University of Wisconsin, Madison Also available in the series 21 Bioarchaeology Clark S. Larsen 0 521 65834 9 (paperback) 22 Comparative Primate Socioecology P. C. Lee (ed.) 0 521 59336 0 23 Patterns of Human Growth, second edition Barry Bogin 0 521 56438 7 (paperback) 24 Migration and Colonisation in Human Microevolution Alan Fix 0 521 59206 2 25 Human Growth in the Past Robert D. Hoppa & Charles M. FitzGerald (eds.) 0 521 63153 X 26 Human Paleobiology Robert B. Eckhardt 0 521 45160 4 27 Mountain Gorillas Martha M. Robbins, Pascale Sicotte & Kelly J. Stewart (eds.) 0 521 76004 7 28 Evolution and Genetics of Latin American Populations Francisco M. Salzano & Maria C. Bortolini 0 521 65275 8 29 Primates Face to Face Agustґin Fuentes & Linda D. Wolfe (eds.) 0 521 79109 X 30 Human Biology of Pastoral Populations William R. Leonard & Michael H. Crawford (eds.) 0 521 78016 0 31 Paleodemography Robert D. Hoppa & James W. Vaupel (eds.) 0 521 80063 3 32 Primate Dentition Daris R. Swindler 0 521 65289 8 33 The Primate Fossil Record Walter C. Hartwig (ed.) 0 521 66315 6 34 Gorilla Biology Andrea B. Taylor & Michele L. Goldsmith (eds.) 0 521 79281 9 35 Human Biologists in the Archives D. Ann Herring & Alan C. Swedlund (eds.) 0 521 80104 4
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Cambridge University Press 0521829429 - Primate and Human Evolution Susan Cachel Frontmatter More information 36 Human Senescence ­ Evolutionary and Biocultural Perspectives Douglas E. Crews 0 521 57173 1 37 Patterns of Growth and Development in the Genus Homo. Jennifer L. Thompson, Gail E. Krovitz & Andrew J. Nelson (eds.) 0 521 82272 6 38 Neanderthals and Modern Humans ­ An Ecological and Evolutionary Perspective Clive Finlayson 0 521 82087 1 39 Methods in Human Growth Research Roland C. Hauspie, Noel Cameron & Luciano Molinari (eds.) 0 521 82050 2 40 Shaping Primate Evolution Fred Anapol, Rebecca L. German & Nina G. Jablonski (eds.) 0 521 81107 4 41 Macaque Societies ­ A Model for the Study of Social Organization Bernard Thierry, Mewa Singh & Werner Kaumanns (eds.) 0 521 81847 8 42 Simulating Human Origins and Evolution Ken Wessen 0 521 84399 5 43 Bioarchaeology of Southeast Asia Marc Oxenham and Nancy Tayles (eds.) 0 521 82580 6 44 Seasonality in Primates Diane K. Brockman and Carel P. van Schaik 0 521 82069 3 45 Human Biology of Afro-Caribbean Populations Lorena Madrigal 0 521 81931 8
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Cambridge University Press 0521829429 - Primate and Human Evolution Susan Cachel Frontmatter More information Primate and Human Evolution Susan Cachel Department of Anthropology Rutgers University
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Cambridge University Press 0521829429 - Primate and Human Evolution Susan Cachel Frontmatter More information CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sa~o Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521829427 C Cambridge University Press 2006 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2006 Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN-13 978-0-521-82942-7 hardback ISBN-10 0-521-82942-9 hardback
Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.
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Cambridge University Press 0521829429 - Primate and Human Evolution Susan Cachel Frontmatter More information I dedicate this book to my parents, Henry Cachel and Leokadia Piotrowska Cachel.
vii © Cambridge University Press
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Cambridge University Press 0521829429 - Primate and Human Evolution Susan Cachel Frontmatter More information
Contents
Preface Acknowledgments
page xv xvii
1. Introduction
1
The primate order
1
Ape and monkey bias
11
Evolution before natural selection
13
1858­1859: The advent of natural selection theory
15
Essentialism versus population-thinking
20
1863: Thomas Henry Huxley and the place of humans
in nature
22
2. A brief history of primatology and human evolution
26
Introduction
26
Antiquity and the Middle Ages
30
The Renaissance to the late eighteenth century
32
The nineteenth century
36
The early twentieth century
37
The "new" physical anthropology
43
1959 ­ annus mirabilis
44
The baboon renaissance
50
Sociobiology and behavioral ecology
53
3. The catarrhine fossil record
56
The geological time scale
56
Major features of primate evolution
56
The shape and pattern of primate evolution
57
The early catarrhine primates
62
Hominoid systematics
64
The Miocene hominoid radiation
65
Community structure and competition between
primate species
70
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Cambridge University Press 0521829429 - Primate and Human Evolution Susan Cachel Frontmatter More information
x
Contents
The end of the hominoid radiation and the rise
of the cercopithecoids
73
Climate change in the late Miocene and the first
hominids
76
4. Primate speciation and extinction
81
Primate speciation and extinction in the geological past
81
Speciation in modern primates
86
Extinction in modern primates
94
5. Anatomical primatology
107
Introduction
107
Phylogeny and cladistic methodology
107
Adaptation and the "adaptationist program"
115
Studying adaptation
117
The functional morphology of fossil species
119
Ontogeny and anatomical genomics
124
Phenotypic variability
126
6. Captive studies of non-human primates
128
Introduction
128
The influence of captivity on behavior
128
Harry Harlow's research
130
An inventory of abnormal captive behaviors
130
Biomedical primatology
137
7. What can non-human primate anatomy, physiology,
and development reveal about human evolution?
141
The catarrhine substrate
141
8. Natural history intelligence and human evolution
146
Introduction
146
Ideas on the origins of hominid intelligence
150
Hominid attention to natural history
155
Animal behavior and artificial intelligence
157
Natural history intelligence
159
Problems with the social cognition model
163
Further primatological evidence against social
cognition as a generator of intelligence
167
Brain mechanisms underlying natural history
intelligence
171
Other tests of the social cognition theory
179
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Cambridge University Press 0521829429 - Primate and Human Evolution Susan Cachel Frontmatter More information
Contents
xi
Natural history intelligence over the course
of human evolution
180
Conclusions
182
9. Why be social? ­ the advantages and disadvantages of
social life
185
Why be social?
185
How to become social
188
Explanations of primate social complexity
194
What is the catarrhine substrate for sociality?
194
10. Evolution and behavior
196
Proximate and ultimate factors in behavioral evolution
196
Factors limiting population size
197
Diet and foraging behavior
198
cultural traditions
199
Phylogenetic inertia and phylogenetic constraint
201
11. The implications of body size for evolutionary ecology
203
Introduction
203
Measuring body size in fossil species
208
Body size and paleocommunity reconstructions
209
Body size and behavior
213
The all-too-familiar use of sexual dimorphism to infer
sociality in fossil species
215
Reversible body size changes in individuals
218
Size and shape changes: adaptation and plasticity
220
Population-level differences in body size
231
What can be inferred from body size in fossil species?
236
The sweating response, body shape, and heat adaptation
239
The evolution of body size in primates
245
Conclusions
248
12. The nature of the fossil record
252
Does the fossil record faithfully record past events?
252
Decimation and recovery from extinction
259
Rates of evolutionary change
262
Time-averaging
265
Taphonomy and experimental studies
266
13. The bipedal breakthrough
271
Introduction
271
Ape models for bipedal origins
271
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Cambridge University Press 0521829429 - Primate and Human Evolution Susan Cachel Frontmatter More information
xii Contents
Behavior and morphology
276
Bipedal efficiency
277
Paleoenvironment
280
Bipedal origins
280
Lessons from Oreopithecus
288
A mixture of morphologies
290
14. The hominid radiation
292
The earliest hominids
292
Plio-Pleistocene hominids
293
The single-species hypothesis
293
Sympatry and multiple hominid niches
298
Sexual dimorphism and niche structure
303
The origin of genus Homo
305
Hominid dispersion from sub-Saharan Africa
306
Asian ape-men: Early ideas about hominid origins
in Asia
306
The origins of anatomically modern humans
308
genetic variation in modern humans
310
15. Modeling human evolution
311
Baboon models
311
Referential and conceptual models
313
A "composite mammal" model
314
16. Archeological evidence and models of human evolution
317
Human antiquity
317
Recognition that the archeological record is not coeval
with the human paleontological record
321
Bone modification and inferences of hominid behavior
329
Climatic events and the archeological record
331
"Man the Hunter" and the new physical anthropology
333
Food, food-sharing, and division of labor
336
Pair-bonding
340
Taphonomy and the nature of "sites"
343
The hominization process
344
17. What does evolutionary anthropology reveal about
human evolution?
351
Phenotypic change and "contemporary evolution"
351
Body size and shape changes
353
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Cambridge University Press 0521829429 - Primate and Human Evolution Susan Cachel Frontmatter More information
Contents
xiii
What factors are responsible for the origin of
generalized species?
361
Tool behavior and technology
366
Language
369
Early hominid sociality
371
18. Final thoughts on primate and human evolution
382
Speciation, extinction, and other evolutionary processes
382
Terrestrial life and bipedality
384
Tool behavior
385
Intelligence
386
Complex sociality
387
References
389
Index
452
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Cambridge University Press 0521829429 - Primate and Human Evolution Susan Cachel Frontmatter More information
Preface
This book is not intended to be an introductory textbook in physical anthropology, although it addresses most of the topics found in such texts. Many of the ideas developed here were originally presented to Rutgers University students in advanced undergraduate or graduate courses or in colloquia in the Rutgers Department of Anthropology or in the Rutgers graduate interdepartmental Quaternary Studies Seminar. The focus of this book is the fundamental relationship between humans and other Old World higher primates. Many books have been written about primate behavioral ecology, and a mountain of books have been written about human evolution. However, fewer volumes deal with both human and nonhuman primates, and those that do so tend to emphasize the behavioral continuity between human and non-human. I will take a different approach here, because I will emphasize profound discontinuity between human and nonhuman primate cognition and sociality. I will also introduce evidence from Plio-Pleistocene archeology. Archeology is the description and interpretation of human behavior gleaned from the material residues of that behavior, and the spatial and temporal context of these residues. Thus, archeology contributes a line of evidence about the behavioral component of the human phenotype that is independent from inferences of behavior based on human paleontology and functional anatomy. The strong evolutionary relationship that unites all Old World higher primates is reflected in the existence of the taxonomic category Catarrhini, which includes humans, Old World monkeys, lesser apes, and great apes. In this book I emphasize that an understanding of the strong evolutionary coherence of catarrhine primates can illuminate a number of problems in human evolutionary history, such as the advent of bipedalism, factors affected by body size or sexual dimorphism, speciation, species richness, and extinction. However, while emphasizing the anatomical and physiological coherence of catarrhine primates, I also emphasize the behavioral distinctiveness of living and fossil humans. In particular, I will argue that the behavioral ecology of living nonhuman primates yields no special insight into the origins of human intelligence, tool behavior, or sociality. In this sense, I am an apostate from primatology.
xv
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Cambridge University Press 0521829429 - Primate and Human Evolution Susan Cachel Frontmatter More information xvi Preface Yet, how can one study the origins of intelligence, tool behavior, or sociality without invoking the evidence of the behavior and ecology of living nonhuman primates? The earliest archeological record reveals important clues about human attentiveness to the natural world and human ability to manipulate the natural world. I introduce a new model of hominization, with a distinctive type of attentiveness to the natural world being a major trigger for hominization. climatic change is usually invoked as an important or crucial factor in human evolution, but here I downplay environmental change as a major factor in hominization. Attentiveness to the natural world influences higher cognitive functions. Rudiments of this change in cognition already appear at the beginning of the hominization process, rather than being a late arrival that culminates with the appearance of modern humans. The origins of human sociality can be inferred from a broad comparative base of mammalian social organization, creating a "composite mammal" model, rather than one relying solely on the behavioral ecology of the living chimpanzee species. Studying the forces of natural selection that mold differences in sociality among mammals allows one to speculate about selection pressures that molded early hominid sociality.
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Cambridge University Press 0521829429 - Primate and Human Evolution Susan Cachel Frontmatter More information Acknowledgments Several colleagues read drafts of this book, and commented on portions of it. These are Drs. John W. K. Harris (Rutgers University), Ryne Palombit (Rutgers University), Carmel Schrire (Rutgers University), and Matt Sponheimer (University of Colorado at Boulder). Any errors that remain are my own. Dr. Robert J. Blumenschine, Director of the Center for Human Evolutionary Studies in the Department of Anthropology, Rutgers University, provided funds for manuscript preparation and wrangled up new computer hardware when technical difficulties arose. Dr. Emma Mbua, Head of the Division of Paleontology, National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, granted me access to fossil human and non-human primate material. Drs. Phillip V. Tobias and Ronald J. Clarke, University of the Witwatersrand Medical School, Johannesburg, and Dr. Francis Thackeray, Transvaal Museum, Pretoria, granted me access to fossil human material, and Ron Clarke and Dr. Katherine Kuman invited me to explore several of the major South African sites. Ms. Purity Kiura (Rutgers University) provided me with photos taken during her thesis research on living humans in northern Kenya. During the course of our routine work together teaching in the Koobi Fora Field School, John (Jack) Harris also took me to all of the major and many of the minor paleoanthropological sites in the Koobi Fora region, east of Lake Turkana in northern Kenya. Because Jack was involved with many of the original excavations, and because his students continue to locate and excavate sites in this area, he is a fount of information about the discovery, analysis, and interpretation of Plio-Pleistocene paleoanthropological material in the Turkana Basin.
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