Rice and Beans as an Adequate Diet

Tags: cod-liver oil, rickets, Kidney beans, boiled rice, Porto Rico, protein supply, bean protein, food imports, adequate supply, growth curves, RICE AND BEANS
Content: RICE AND BEANS AS AN adequate diet D. II. COOK 1Il1d TRINITA RI\·EJU. From the School of Tropical Medieine of the University of Porto Rico under the auspices of CoI~mbia University. From the study of th e food imports of Porto Rico we find that rice and beans make up about fifty per cent of the total energy of imports. (1) This fa ct has led us to it udy th e adequacy of a ricebean diet to support growth in th e rat. A prelimina ry report on the- growth curves of rats receiving a standa rd la boratory diet compared to that pro duced by feeding rice an d beans alone was published last fall. ( 2) The experiments were incomplete at that time and it is now possible to present further information on the qualities of the above diet. To be adequate for the demands of normal life, a food must per... form four functions : 1. It must furnish sufficient energy. 2. Furn ish sufficient protein of the right kind. 3. Provide an adequate supply of all the miner al elements re- quired by the organ ism. 4. Furnish sufficient amounts of all the vitamins. In how fa r can th e ric-e-bean diet qualify for these four requirement 1 Of cours e in this case J. ' 0 . 1 can be eliminated since t he an imals were fed ad libitum, The protein of rice is low and apt to he deficient in 'some of the essential amino acids required for tiss ue building, when the hulled or polished var iety is used, as is the case here. Ho pki ns (3) states " . . . Rice may serve the r aces which rely upon it as an almost exclusive sour ce of protein, while wheat is only suitable for race's that take a much more varied dietary." Meflollum an d Simmondsf") believe that "Rice proteins like those of maize and wheat are of relatively low biological value. Osborn and Mendel (il) state that the proteins of brown rice are adequate for nutrition in growth bu t that hulled rice might be deficient . Navy bean protein is adequate for growth provided the amino acid cystine is added. (8_1) No direct reference has been found to the adequacy of kidney bean prot ein but it is quite probable th at thi s latter would be deficient in the same amino acids. With this knowledge of the quality of th e pr oteins of rice and beans it is possible the mixture of the two would lJe deficient, in its protein supply, either due to t}le low intake of protein or its quality. 16
Approximately GO p er cent by weight of boiled rice and 40 pe r cent by weight of boiled beans wer e fed in thes e exp er iments. Th e usb. analyses of th is d iet is approx ima tely : 0.018 per cent Ca. 0.074 per cent P. While the stun dard laboratory di et runs about: 0.35 per cent Ca . 0.50 per cent P. O!' 30 times as mu ch Ca. and 7 tim es a's much P. This is a point. to consider ill the growth of the skeleton and would lead 11' to sus pect that t he diet migh t fai l from the mineral standpoint, either because of a lac k of calcium or because the ratio of calc ium to p hosphor us is abnormal. · herman and Pap ponheimerf") have shown that it is possi ble to cause ri ckets by la ck of phosphorus ill th e di et an d .ur e 1he anim als by th e addition of sodium pho sp hat e, Sher man (") .tat es, " R iel,et's eun be produced experimentally h.' d iets of fa ulty mineral content i but usuall y onl y when th ere is al 0 a rela tiv e deflcieney of th e regu lat ing Iactors-antirachitic vitamin and u ltra viol et li ght." With regard to vitamins we would ex pect th e di et to be deficient sine pol ishe d r ic has proved to be low or lacking in th e antineuritic f'act oi- a nd also in vitamin. .\ and D. Kidney beans are believed to contain 11 sma ll amoun t f 1'. an d a fa ir supply of vitamin B. F rom t he theoreti cal con side ra t ions the d iet would probably be la cking in kind or all ount of p rot ein , in th e mineral elements cal cium and P iospho r u: or at least in t hei r proper ratio, and in vi ta min D , and probably A and B. lIow do expe rimenta l results cheek with this prophecy ? First, let us ex' mine the deta ils of th e expe ri ment . even groups of rats. four weeks old, w er e placed in individual cages . These wer e all fed the basal ration of 60 p er cent boiled ric and 40 per cent · boiled beans ad libii Illi . The r ice and beans wer e pureha red each day from a restal/ran t ill Puer ta de Tierra a ' it 'was felt that in th is manncr cond it ions met with in th e coun try dis tricts could be more nearly duplicat ed th an by cooking th e foods in the laboratory. The stewed beans alv avs contain mal l amounts of oth er vegetables as is cust oma ry in Porto Rico , and though these add both vitamins and mineral salts, still that is the way people prepare the food an d t he experiment was lIe. igued to test th e food under living cond it ion as they exist here. One of th e seven group . of animals received no further supplements or treatments and became the control group.
Later in the preliminary work we dis covered th at not only did th e an imals fa il to grow well but it was not iced that all ra ts on thi diet developed definite Tmptoms of ric kets, having an overgrowth of 08teoid tissue at t he ends of t he long bones and showing characteristic bead ing of t he rib junctions. This fact led to a trial of cod-liver oil and su nlight on two grou ps of animals, a ' su pplements to the basal ration of rice and beans. The first g roup re ceived four drops dail y of cod-liver oil IODr---,.--.--,-,---.---r---.----... SfCltf\rek-tod. O,el-
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find the oth er group was pl aced in sunshine for two hours daily from ] 1 :00 A. :'IL to 1 :00 P. ill. when th e sun was nearest the vert icle. Neither of these two groups developed rickets and they grew at mu ch greate r rate's th an those who did not r eeeive thi s treatment, It is thus probable that Vitamin D is the first lim iting factor in th e d iet. W ishing to find orne home-grown fr uit or vegetable that migh t supplement and enrich t he ri ce-and-bean ration the following exper iment was t r ied.
RI CE AXD BEA:-.rl' .U; .\X .\OEQ 'AT E DIET
One of the r ema ining four grou ps of an imals was placed on th e basal r at ion of rice and beans plus 20 per cent by weight of boiled white !lalit/a. Anoth er r eceived 20 pCI' cent boiled yellow yautl a and a third received 20 per cent boiled gree n plM all o an d t he fourth 20 per cent hoile d r ip!' plli/ano, Th e chart shows the cu rves of growth of t he seven groups of experim cntal an imals com pared t o a grou p on un adequate di et, It can be seen fr0 111 t his th a t th e cod-liver-oil g roup gre w almost at the same rat e as the nnrm al animals, while t he sunlight O'rou p grew at about half rat e. This is in t er pre t ed as d u e to the fa ct th a t the cod-liver oil con tained vit amin A also. sin ce the effect of sunlight i~ ItS far as we know simp ly to activate cer ta in sterols in th c skin to produce vit am in D. 'I'h er efor e, t he superi or growth of the cod-liver oil group can on ly be attribut ed t o th e presenc e of SOUle other factor than vitamin D whi ch is in this case most probably vitamin .\. 'r hus the fi rst limiting fa cto r in th e deficien t ri ce and bean diet is th e antirachit ic vitamin D, th en vit ami n A. The white and yellow yC11I tfa cur ves show lig ht imp r ovemen t over those of pl /itano. But since the actual food in ta ke was very ne arly th e same in each ca. c th e slig-htly hot te r growth is very pr oba bly due to th e actual di fference in V it amin D content and not to va ri atio nsi n th e an imal s. The gro u ps on ?J" lCtla and r ipe pUI[CI1l0 show no d efinite evidences of rickets Oil gro . examination . The micr oscop ic exa mina tio n of the rib sect ions r eveals the f act t hat th e yello w uau i la. and r ipe plota no exert a slight preventive ef· fect ill spite of th e fa ct frUi t t he animals on th e, c su p plemena r v d iets grew more th an on th e ric e and bean's aIOlH': . till the exa mination shows three nor mal and th r ee sl igh t rickets among these g roups, Th e whit e ,l/Cl ut iu grou p had more marked r ickets t.han any ot har , probab ly because th ey mad e hotter gains and th er e W IIS too li t tle vit ami n D to he effect ive in pr eventing th e onset of the di sease. The better growth in the se foul' grou ps over that made by Hie ri co-and-beans gr oup is not attributable to greater food in ta ke, since in the case of the last four groups On th e ch ar t t he fooel in t ake per animal per week is ap proxima tely the sa me, bei ng 1:l4 gr. for t he yellow YClutla, 135 gr. for the whit e yalltla, 12 gr. fo r t he ri pc plcifall fl, 127 gr. for t he green p16tallo. whi le t he ric e-and-beans g r ou p consu med 105 gr. p er animal per week. It is to be rem embered that ri ckets becomes most. prominent. during r apid growth and m ay not be gr ossly evident in th ose ani maJ.9 that hav e failed t o make good /?uins in weight. In th e control gr ou p . however, t he al most ent ire lack of the Vitamin Caused ufficien t change
20 PORTO RICO Journal of Public Health AJ.'ID THOP, lIEDICo."E in t he bones to be evident on au topsy. Evident ly nei ther t he ya utla$ 110r the r ipe or green puiian o can be considered as adequa te supplements of the deficiencies of r ice an d beans unless some oth er food containing vitamin D is added to the di et, or su nlight is all owed to act on the individual. BIBLI OGR.\ P HY (1 ) Cook, D. H.: (1927) P. R. Review -of P ub. H ealth & Trop. Med.· 3 : 59. (2 ) Cook, D. H., Rivera, Trinita: (1927) Ibid, 4: 253. (3 ) Hopkins, F. G.: '(1917) Analyst, 31 : 395. (4) McCollum, E. V. and Simmonds , N. G.: (1917) J. Biol, Chem., 32: 361. (5 ) Osborn, '1'. B. and )Iendel, L . B. : (1919) J. BioI. Ohem., 84: 521. (6) McColl um, E . V., Simmonds, N. G. and P itz, W .: (1917) J. BioI. Chem., 29: 521. (7 ) Johns, C. O. and F ink, A. J .: (1921) J . BioI. Chern., 34 : 189. (S) Sherman , H. C. and Pappenhcimcr, A. W.: (1921) J . BioI. Ohcm., 34: 189. (9) Sherm an . II. . : Chemistry of food and nutrition, 3rd. ed.· pp. 477.

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Title: Rice and Beans as an Adequate Diet
Author: D. H. Cook and Trinita Rivera
Published: Fri Aug 28 15:52:02 2009
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