Schumann, B Perrey

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Content: Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-78950-9 - The Cambridge Companion to Schumann Edited by Beate Perrey Frontmatter More information The Cambridge Companion to Schumann This Companion is an accessible, up-to-date introduction to Schumann: his time, his temperament, his style and his oeuvre. An international team of scholars explores the cultural context, musical and poetic fabric, sources of inspiration, and interpretative reach of key works from the Schumann repertoire, ranging from his famous Lieder and piano pieces to chamber, orchestral and dramatic works. Additional chapters address Schumann's presence in nineteenth- and twentieth-century composition, and the fascinating reception history of his late works. Tables, illustrations, a detailed chronology and advice on further reading make it an ideally informative handbook for both the Schumann connoisseur and the music-lover. An excellent textbook for the university student of courses on key composers of nineteenth-century Western classical music, it is an invaluable guide for all who are interested in the thought, aesthetics and affective power of one of the most intriguing figures of a culturally rich and formative period.
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-78950-9 - The Cambridge Companion to Schumann Edited by Beate Perrey Frontmatter More information The Cambridge Companion to SCHUMANN ............ edited by Beate Perrey University of Liverpool
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-78950-9 - The Cambridge Companion to Schumann Edited by Beate Perrey Frontmatter More information cambridge university press Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sa~o Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521789509 C Cambridge University Press 2007 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2007 Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN 978-0-521-78341-5 hardback ISBN 978-0-521-78950-9 paperback
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Contents
List of illustrations [page vi] Notes on the contributors [vii] Preface [ix] Acknowledgements [x] Chronology [xi] Part I r Contexts 1 Schumann's lives, and afterlives: an introduction Beate Perrey [3] 2 Life and literature, poetry and philosophy: Robert Schumann's aesthetics of music Ulrich Tadday [38] 3 Schumann's heroes: Schubert, Beethoven, Bach Nicholas Marston [48] Part II r Works 4 Piano works I: a world of images John Daverio [65] 5 Piano works II: afterimages Laura Tunbridge [86] 6 Why sing? Lieder and song cycles Jonathan Dunsby [102] 7 The chamber music Linda Correll Roesner [123] 8 Novel symphonies and dramatic overtures Scott Burnham [148] 9 The concertos Joseph Kerman [173] 10 Dramatic stage and choral works Elizabeth Paley [195] Part III r Reception 11 Schumann in his time and since Reinhard Kapp [223] 12 The compositional reception of Schumann's music since 1950 JoЁrn Peter Hiekel [252] 13 Songs of dawn and dusk: coming to terms with the late music John Daverio [268] Select bibliography [292] Index [295]
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-78950-9 - The Cambridge Companion to Schumann Edited by Beate Perrey Frontmatter More information Illustrations 1.1 Schumann's travel notebook. Reproduced with kind permission of the Robert-Schumann-Haus Zwickau, archive-nr. 12336-B3. [9] 1.2 Logier's `Chiroplast' (lithograph after a sketch by Emile Beau from L'anatomie de la main (Paris, 1846)). [12] 1.3 Robert Schumann (lithograph by Joseph Kriehuber, Vienna, 1839). Reproduced with kind permission of the Robert-Schumann-Haus Zwickau, archive-nr. 96.65-B2. [15] 1.4 Clara Wieck, 1838 (lithograph by Andres Staub Vienna, 1838). Reproduced with kind permission of the Robert-Schumann-Haus Zwickau, archive-nr. 10054-B2. [17] 1.5 Robert and Clara Schumann's children, 1854. Reproduced with kind permission of the Robert-Schumann-Haus Zwickau, archive-nr. 2713-B2. [20] 1.6 Robert Schumann, 1850 (daguerreotype by Anton VoЁllner). Reproduced with kind permission of the Robert-Schumann-Haus Zwickau, archive-nr. 12526-B2. [29] 1.7 Johannes Brahms (photograph, c. 1855). Reproduced with kind permission of the Robert-Schumann-Haus Zwickau, without archive-nr. [32]
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-78950-9 - The Cambridge Companion to Schumann Edited by Beate Perrey Frontmatter More information
Notes on the contributors
Scott Burnham Professor of Music and Chair of the Music Department at Princeton
University, is the author of Beethoven Hero (Princeton, 1995); translator of A. B.
Marx, Musical Form in the Age of Beethoven (Cambridge, 1997); and co-editor of
Beethoven and His World (Princeton, 2000). Other writings include `Schubert and
the sound of memory' (Musical Quarterly, 2001), `On the beautiful in Mozart'
(Music and the Aesthetics of Modernity, ed. K. Berger and A. Newcomb (Harvard,
2005)) and `Haydn and humour' (The Cambridge Companion to Haydn, ed. C.
Clark (Cambridge, 2005)).
John Daverio was Professor of Music, Chairman of the Musicology Department and
Director ad interim of the School of Music at Boston University. A renowned
specialist in German Romantic music and Schumann in particular, he is the author
of Crossing Paths: Schubert, Schumann, and Brahms (New York, 2002), Robert
Schumann: Herald of a `New Poetic Age' (New York, 1997), Nineteenth-Century
Music and the German Romantic Ideology (New York, 1993) and many articles,
including the comprehensive article on the life and works of Robert Schumann
in the second edition of the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. John
Daverio died in 2003.
Jonathan Dunsby is Slee Professor of Music Theory at SUNY Buffalo, a prize-winning
pianist and an experienced professional accompanist. He was founding editor of
the International Journal Music Analysis and has published numerous articles on
the music of recent decades. He is author of Performing Music: Shared Concerns
(Oxford, 1995). In 2004, two books appeared: his translation from the French
for Oxford University Press of Jean-Jacques Nattiez's The Battle of Chronos and
Orpheus: Essays in Applied Musical Semiology (Oxford, 2004), and his own study
Making Words Sing: Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Song (Cambridge, 2004).
JoЁrn Peter Hiekel's writings have focussed on the music of the twentieth and twenty-
first centuries. Before joining the Hochschule fuЁr Musik Carl Maria von Weber
in Dresden, he was editor for the music publisher Breitkopf & HaЁrtel, and has
been director of the composers' seminars at the DarmstaЁdter Ferienkurse since
2002 as well as co-director of the Institut fuЁr Neue Musik und Musikerziehung in
Darmstadt. He is author of Bernd Alois Zimmermanns `Requiem fuЁr einen jungen
Dichter' (Stuttgart, 1995), and editor of Hans Zender, Die Sinne denken. Schriften
zur Musik 1965­2003 (Wiesbaden, 2004) and of forthcoming books on Helmut
Lachenmann, Wilfried KraЁtzschmar, and Schumann's `Welten' (Dresden, 2006).
Reinhard Kapp is Professor of Music at the Vienna Hochschule fuЁr Musik und
Darstellende KuЁnste. He formerly taught at the Freie UniversitaЁt Berlin and the
Gesamthochschule Kassel, and has worked for the Richard Wagner Gesamtaus-
gabe. He is author of Studien zum SpaЁtwerk Robert Schumanns (Tutzing, 1984)
[vii]
and co-editor of Darmstadt-GespraЁche: Die Internationalen Ferienkurse fuЁr Neue
Musik in Wien (1998), as well as Die Lehre von der Musikalischen AuffuЁhrung in
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-78950-9 - The Cambridge Companion to Schumann Edited by Beate Perrey Frontmatter More information viii Notes on the contributors der Wiener Schule (2002). His main interests are Schumann, Wagner, the Second Viennese School and the history and theory of performance. Joseph Kerman is a Professor Emeritus at the University of California at Berkeley. He has written on the concertos of Mozart and Beethoven and on the genre as a whole, in Concerto Conversations (1998). He is not an expert on Schumann, but gained broad knowledge of his and other music of his time as editor of the influential journal nineteenth century Music from 1977 to 1986. Nicholas Marston is University Reader in Music Theory and Analysis in the University of Cambridge, and concurrently Fellow and Director of Studies in Music at King's College. He has published widely on the music of Beethoven and Schumann, including the Cambridge Music Handbook on Schumann's Fantasie, Op. 17 (Cambridge, 1992). He chairs the Editorial Board of Music Analysis, and takes up the position of Editor-in-Chief of Beethoven Forum in 2006. His next book will be on Heinrich Schenker and Beethoven's Hammerklavier Sonata. Elizabeth Paley earned a doctorate in music theory from the University of WisconsinMadison and is currently an organist, pianist and freelance writer living in Durham, North Carolina. She has served on the faculty at the University of Kansas and Duke University, where her research focussed on music narratology, feminist theory, and intersections of music and the supernatural in melodrama. Her publications have appeared in Nineteenth Century Music, South Atlantic Quarterly and (under a pseudonym) The Chronicle for Higher Education. Beate Perrey is Senior Lecturer in Critical Musicology and Analysis at the University of Liverpool and co-director of the research project New Languages for Criticism: Cross-Currents and Resistances at the Centre for Research in the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities (CRASSH) at the University of Cambridge. She studied at Munich, Harvard and Cambridge where she held research fellowships at Trinity and Christ's Colleges, and was visiting professor in musicology at the Ecole Normale Supeґrieure in Paris during 2003­4. She is author of Schumann's `Dichterliebe' and Early Romantic Poetics: Fragmentation of Desire (Cambridge, 2002). Linda Correll Roesner's writings have focussed on the sources for the music of Schumann and Brahms. She is the editor of Schumann's Symphony No. 3 in E flat major, Op. 97 (Robert Schumann: Neue Ausgabe saЁmtlicher Werke (Mainz, 1995)) and co-editor of Brahms's Violin Concerto in D Major, Op. 77 (Johannes Brahms: Neue Ausgabe saЁmtlicher Werke (Munich, 2004)), and has also prepared miniaturescore editions of the four Schumann symphonies (London, 1986­97). In 1998 she was awarded the Robert Schumann Preis der Stadt Zwickau. Ulrich Tadday, Professor of Music History and Chair of the Music Department at the University of Bremen in Germany, is the author of Das SchoЁne Unendliche, AЁsthetik, Kritik, Geschichte der romantischen Musikanschauung (Stuttgart­Weimar, 1999). He is the editor of Musik-Konzepte (Neue Folge) and has written extensively on the history and aesthetics of music in the eighteenth to twentieth centuries. Laura Tunbridge is Lecturer in Music Analysis and Critical Theory at the University of Manchester, having previously taught at the University of Reading. She studied at Oxford, Nottingham and Princeton. Her publications include `Schumann's Manfred in the mental theatre' (Cambridge Opera Journal, 2003). She is completing a book about Schumann's late style.
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-78950-9 - The Cambridge Companion to Schumann Edited by Beate Perrey Frontmatter More information Preface The Cambridge Companion to Schumann is an accessible, up-to-date introduction to Schumann's music, life and times. It provides information for the general listener ­ the music-lover who, while having an aural familiarity with the canonical works, may want to explore the historical background and cultural context of the works ­ as well as the specialist. It can also be used as an introductory textbook for university students, providing them with sound information about the Schumann repertoire as well as historical and aesthetic issues necessary for understanding Schumann's oeuvre. A team of top international scholars explores the contemporary cultural context, the musical and poetic fabric, and the multiple sources of inspiration and interpretative reach of masterpieces from the Schumann repertoire. Contributors include both firstrank Schumann specialists such as John Daverio, Reinhard Kapp, Nicolas Marston, Laura Tunbridge, Linda Roesner and Ulrich Tadday, as well as scholars who, while not Schumann specialists, are high-calibre scholars in their own fields, including Scott Burnham, Jonathan Dunsby, JoЁrn Peter Hiekel and Joseph Kerman. These `nonspecialists' have been recruited in the belief that they will be able to contribute to those chapters that address the essential, broad themes, without getting bogged down in the detailed problems that can sometimes beset Schumann scholarship. As can be seen in this volume, they have new and perceptive things to say precisely because the perspective from which to view Schumann's work is different from the set of values within which Schumann studies may sometimes have found themselves enclosed. Part I of the Companion explores Schumann's personality, his time and temperament, as well as the literary, philosophical and compositional influences on the composer. Part II explores the various different genres of Schumann's compositional output, ranging from his famous Lieder and piano works to chamber, orchestral and dramatic repertoire. In addition, Part III offers chapters discussing Schumann's influence on works of some of today's leading composers, and the problem of Schumann's late works. Tables and illustrations, and guidance on further reading in the English language, make this volume an ideally informative handbook for both the Schumann connoisseur and the music-lover. It is an invaluable guide for all who are interested in the thought, aesthetics and affective power of the most intriguing figure of a culturally rich and formative period.
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-78950-9 - The Cambridge Companion to Schumann Edited by Beate Perrey Frontmatter More information Acknowledgements Thanks go above all to the contributors to this volume for their enthusiasm, unfailing cooperation and patience throughout the long process of bringing the project to fruition. Further I should like to thank the curators and experts who granted permission to reproduce material housed in their archives, as well as for many other acts of kindness and assistance during the preparation of this book: Anette MuЁller and Gerd Nauhaus of the Robert-Schumann-Haus in Zwickau; the staff of the libraries at the University of Cambridge, the British Library in London, the Ecole Normale Supeґrieure, the Bibliothe`que Nationale in Paris, and the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Munich. At Cambridge University Press, my thanks go to Penny Souster and Vicki Cooper, my editors; and Rebecca Jones, assistant editor, for providing help whenever needed. Thanks also go to three anonymous readers for their encouraging and perceptive comments; to Richard Cornell at Boston University and Mario Lorenzo, Paris, for expertly preparing musical examples; to Mary Whittall for translating Chapters 2 and 11, and to Andrew Brown, Nicolas Cox and Jonathan Dunsby for their kind assistance in tricky cases of translation. The index has been prepared by Margaret Christie. Two institutions deserve special thanks: Christ's College, Cambridge, where this volume was first conceived during my time there as a research fellow, and the University of Liverpool for granting me research leave to take up a visiting professorship at the Ecole Normale Supeґrieure in Paris, during which period this book was beginning to take its final shape. Finally, I owe gratitude to those friends and colleagues whose willingness to read and discuss parts of the manuscript and share their ideas has been a source of inspiration: Gillian Beer, Esteban Buch, Jonathan Dunsby, Martin Kaltenecker and Donald Lee. Our colleague, the great Schumann expert John Daverio, was not to live to see this book come into being. It is dedicated to his memory.
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-78950-9 - The Cambridge Companion to Schumann Edited by Beate Perrey Frontmatter More information
Chronology
Note: unless specified otherwise, selected musical works are dated according to completion of composition, rather than of publication. Literary works appear according to year of publication. Opus, WoO (works without opus number) and Anhang numbers throughout correspond to Margit L. McCorkle, Thematisch-bibliographisches Werkverzeichnis (Munich, 2003).
Developments in music, literature and philosophy
Schumann's life and selected compositions
1810 Chopin born
Robert Schumann born 8 June in Zwickau
1811 Liszt and Ferdinand Hiller born; premie`re of Beethoven's Fifth Piano Concerto; Schubert writes his first Lieder
1812 Sigismond Thalberg born
1813 Verdi and Wagner born
1815 Schubert: ErlkoЁnig
1816 William Sterndale Bennett born
Schubert: Fifth Symphony
Beethoven: An die ferne Geliebte
1817 Niels Gade born; Weber appointed Kapellmeister in Dresden; E. T. A. Hoffmann: NachtstuЁcke
Enters primary school in Zwickau; first piano lessons with local organist J. G. Kuntzsch
1818 Beethoven: Hammerklavier Sonata
1819 Clara Wieck born Jacques Offenbach born
Hears the piAno VIrtuoso Ignaz Moscheles play
Schubert: Trout Quintet; Louis Spohr: Faust
E. T. A. Hoffmann: Die SerapionsbruЁder Goethe: West-OЁ stlicher Divan
1820 Pianos with metal frames produced Enters secondary school in Zwickau (cont.) [xi]
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-78950-9 - The Cambridge Companion to Schumann Edited by Beate Perrey Frontmatter More information xii Chronology
Developments in music, literature and philosophy
Schumann's life and selected compositions
1821 Weber: Der FreischuЁtz
Beethoven: Piano Sonatas, Opp. 110­11
E. T. A. Hoffmann: Lebensansichten des Katers Murr (The life and opinions of the Tomcat Murr)
Wilhelm MuЁller: Die schoЁne MuЁllerin
1822 E. T. A. Hoffmann dies
Ceґsar Franck born
Joseph Wasielewski, Schumann's first biographer, born
1823 Beethoven completes Diabelli Variations and begins work on his last String Quartets
1824 Lord Byron dies; Bruckner and Smetana born Premie`res of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony and Missa Solemnis
Le Psaume cent cinquanti`eme [Psalm 150] for choir, piano and orchestra, Op. 1, begun 1821/22 (Anhang I10)
Wilhelm MuЁller: Die Winterreise
Schubert: Die schoЁne MuЁllerin
1825 Eduard Hanslick born; Jean Paul dies Founds a student literary club
Schubert: `Great' C major Symphony His sister Emilie commits suicide
1826 Weber dies Premie`re of Weber's Oberon
Schumann's father dies of a `nervous condition'
1827 Beethoven dies; Schubert: Winterreise First songs, literary pieces and diaries and two piano trios; Heine: Buch der Lieder and Reisebilder
1828 Schubert: String Quartet in C and last Graduates and travels to Bayreuth, three piano sonatas; dies in Vienna Nuremberg, Augsburg and Munich; meets Heinrich Heine
Moves to Leipzig, matriculates as a law student and takes piano lessons with Friedrich Wieck; meets Wieck's daughter Clara
1829 Anton Rubinstein born; Friedrich Schlegel dies
Transfers to Heidelberg to attend lectures by the aesthetician A. F. J. Thibaut
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-78950-9 - The Cambridge Companion to Schumann Edited by Beate Perrey Frontmatter More information xiii Chronology
Developments in music, literature and philosophy
Schumann's life and selected compositions
Felix Mendelssohn conducts the first Trip to Switzerland and Northern performance of Bach's St Matthew Italy where he hears Rossini's La gazza Passion since Bach's death and begins ladra at La Scala in Milan composition of Lieder ohne Worte (finished 1845); Chopin: Piano Concerto in F minor, Op. 21; Clara Wieck (Schumann's future wife) begins her first composition, Quatre Polonaises, for four-hand piano, Op. 1, published 1831­3
1830 Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique
Hears Niccolo` Paganini play, moves
Felix Mendelssohn: Reformation
back to Leipzig into Wieck's house,
Symphony; Chopin: Piano Concerto and commits himself to becoming a
in E minor, Op. 11; piano virtuoso concert pianist under Wieck's
Thalberg begins composition of
guidance; begins experimenting with
virtuosic piano `fantasias' on
the Chiroplast, a hand-training
melodies by Weber, Rossini,
apparatus; onset of paralysis of the
Meyerbeer, Bellini, Donizetti, Mozart right hand
and Verdi; piano virtuoso Hiller
Finishes Abegg-Variationen, Op. 1
begins writing piano pieces
(begun 1829)
1831 Hegel dies; Achim von Arnim, co-author (together with Clemens Brentano) of Des Knaben Wunderhorn, dies; Joseph Joachim born
Intensive piano studies with Wieck, composition with Heinrich Dorn (until 1832)
Liszt begins composition of Bravourstudien for piano after Paganini's Caprices for violin, (first version published 1838)
Goethe completes Faust II
1832 Goethe dies
Paralysis of his right hand persists; gives up on the idea of a career as a performer and begins composing in earnest
Papillons, Op. 2; Studien fuЁr das Pianoforte nach Capricen von Paganini, Op. 3; Intermezzi, Op. 4; Impromptus sur une romance de Clara Wieck, Op. 5
Works on G minor Symphony (cont.)
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-78950-9 - The Cambridge Companion to Schumann Edited by Beate Perrey Frontmatter More information xiv Chronology
Developments in music, literature and philosophy
Schumann's life and selected compositions
1833 Brahms born; Borodin born
Founds the semi-fictional
Mendelssohn: `Italian' Symphony DavidsbuЁndler league
Mendelssohn takes up post of Music Increase in compositional activity
Director in DuЁsseldorf
Brother Julius dies
Schumann's sister-in-law, Rosalie, dies
Close friendship with Ludwig Schunke
Toccata in C major, Op. 7
1834 Liszt composes Harmonies poґetiques Ludwig Schunke dies
et rґeligieuses and begins Annґees de Pґelerinage (parts I and II published 1858); Berlioz: Harold in Italy
Liaison with and secret engagement to Ernestine von Fricken
Symphony
First issue of Neue Zeitschrift fuЁr Musik (NZfM) published
1835 Saint-SaeЁns born; Bellini dies
Engagement to Ernestine von Fricken
Donizetti: Lucia di Lammermoor
dissolved
Mendelssohn appointed conductor of Growing liaison with and secret
the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra engagement to Clara Wieck, end of
Chopin: Polonaises, Op. 26, the first 1835
Scherzo, Op. 20 and the first Ballade, Meets Mendelssohn, Chopin and
Op. 23
Moscheles
Becomes editor of the NZfM
Carnaval, Op. 9; Sonata in F sharp minor, Op. 11
Critical essay on Berlioz' Symphonie fantastique
1836 Meyerbeer: Les Huguenots
Schumann's mother dies; eighteen months of separation from Clara
Meets Sterndale Bennett
Concert sans orchestre, or Sonata in F minor, Op. 14
1837 Field and Hummel die; Balakirev born
Engagement to Clara Wieck without her father's consent
Liszt: 12 Grandes Etudes Chopin: 12 Etudes, Op. 25 (begun 1835); begins B flat minor Sonata, Op. 35
DavidsbuЁndlertaЁnze, Op. 6; FantasiestuЁcke, Op. 12; premie`re of Etudes symphoniques, Op. 13, by Clara Wieck in the Gewandhaus Leipzig
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-78950-9 - The Cambridge Companion to Schumann Edited by Beate Perrey Frontmatter More information xv Chronology
Developments in music, literature and philosophy
Schumann's life and selected compositions
1838 Bizet and Bruch born
Visits Vienna for eight months to
Jeanne Louise Farrenc: piano quintets explore possibilities of settling there
(finished 1839), Opp. 30 and 31
with Clara
Eduard MoЁrike: Gedichte
Visits Schubert's brother and discovers a number of Schubert
manuscripts including the `Great'
C major Symphony
Kinderszenen, Op. 15; C major Phantasie, Op. 17; Kreisleriana, Op. 16; Novelletten, Op. 21; G minor Sonata, Op. 22
1839 Musorgsky born
Brother Eduard dies
Berlioz: Romґeo et Juliette Symphony Returns to Leipzig
Spohr: Historische Symphonie, Op. 39 Chopin finishes the remaining three movements of the B flat minor Sonata, Op. 35; Mazurkas, Op. 41, 24 Prґeludes, Op. 28 (begun 1838); Carl Czerny, publication of his Complete Theoretico-practical School for the Pianoforte, Op.500
Takes legal action against Clara's father, Friedrich Wieck, to gain right to marry Clara Schumann's sponsor Henriette Voigt dies Arabeske, Op. 18; BlumenstuЁck, Op. 19; Humoreske, Op. 20; Drei Romanzen, Op. 28
1840 Tchaikovsky born; Paganini dies
Receives honorary doctorate from the University of Jena for his services as composer and music critic
Wins court case against Clara's father and marries Clara in September
`Year of Song': Heine Liederkreis, Op. 24; Myrthen, Op. 25; ZwoЁlf Gedichte von Justinus Kerner, Op. 35; Eichendorff Liederkreis, Op. 39; Frauenliebe und -leben, Op. 42; Dichterliebe, Op. 48; for solo piano: NachtstuЁcke, Op. 23; Faschingsschwank aus Wien, Op. 26
Meets Liszt
1841 Dvoraґk born
First daughter Marie born in September (cont.)
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-78950-9 - The Cambridge Companion to Schumann Edited by Beate Perrey Frontmatter More information xvi Chronology
Developments in music, literature and philosophy
Schumann's life and selected compositions
Felix Mendelssohn: Variations
First Symphony (`Spring') in B flat,
sґerieuses, Op. 54
Op.38; begins Second Symphony in D
Chopin: Nocturnes, Op. 48, Ballade in minor, Op. 120 (revised 1851 as no. 4);
A flat major, Op. 47 and the F minor Ouverture, Scherzo und Finale, Op. 52;
Fantasy, Op. 49
Phantasie for piano and orchestra in
A minor (first movement of Piano
Concerto in A minor, Op. 54)
1842 Massenet and Sullivan born; Clemens Accompanies Clara on a tour to
Brentano dies
Bremen, Oldenburg and Hamburg
Wagner: Rienzi; Verdi: Nabucco; Mendelssohn: Scottish Symphony; Niels Gade: First Symphony Chopin: Mazurkas, Op. 50; A major Polonaise, Op. 53; F minor Ballade, Op. 52; and the E major Scherzo, Op. 54
Study of quartets by Mozart, Haydn and Beethoven Three String Quartets, Op. 41; Piano Quintet, Op. 44; Piano Quartet, Op. 47; PhantasiestuЁcke for piano trio, Op. 88
1843 Grieg born; HoЁlderlin dies
Second daughter Elise born
Brahms' first public piano recitals Nominated by Mendelssohn as piano
Wagner: Der fliegende HollaЁnder
and composition teacher at the
Opening of the Leipzig Conservatoire Leipzig Conservatoire
under Mendelssohn's leadership
Meets Berlioz
Mendelssohn's Overture A Midsummer Night's Dream
Das Paradies und die Peri, Op. 50, of which he conducts the premie`re
1844 Nikolaus Lenau dies; Nietzsche, Rimsky-Korsakov born;
Accompanies Clara on five-month tour to Russia; bad health
Mendelssohn: Violin Concerto
Retires as editor of his journal, the NZfM
Begins work on Szenen aus Goethes Faust (WoO3)
The Schumanns move to Dresden
1845 Faureґ born; August Wilhelm Schlegel Third daughter Julie born
dies; Wagner: TannhaЁuser
Health deteriorates
Romanzen und Balladen, Op. 53 (begun 1840, resumed 1843); Piano Concerto in A minor, Op. 54 (begun 1841, resumed 1843); Sechs Studien, Op. 56 and Vier Skizzen, Op. 58, both for pedal piano; Vier Fugen, Op. 72
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-78950-9 - The Cambridge Companion to Schumann Edited by Beate Perrey Frontmatter More information xvii Chronology
Developments in music, literature and philosophy
Schumann's life and selected compositions
1846 Berlioz: The Damnation of Faust; Mendelssohn: Elijah; Fanny Mendelssohn: Piano Trio, Op. 11
First son (fourth child) Emil born Concert tour to Vienna and visit to Berlin
Second Symphony in C, Op. 61
1847 Fanny and Felix Mendelssohn die Emil dies
Becomes conductor of the Dresden choral association Liedertafel
Lieder und GesaЁnge, Op. 27; First Piano Trio in D minor, Op. 63; Romanzen und Balladen, Op. 64 (begun 1841)
1848 Donizetti dies; Duparc born
Second son (fifth child) Ludwig born
Revolution: uprisings all over Europe, all suppressed except in Paris; abdication of Ferdinand I, succeeded by Franz Joseph
Founds the Verein fuЁr Chorgesang in Dresden Bilder aus dem Osten for four-hand piano, Op. 66; Album fuЁr die Jugend for solo piano, Op. 68; opera Genoveva, Op. 81; Manfred, Op. 115
Schumann's last brother Karl dies
1849 Chopin, Kalkbrenner, Nicolai, Johann Strauss the elder die
Third son (sixth child) Ferdinand born
Collects, revises and puts in order much of his compositional output
1849 Revolution, uprisings all over Europe His, in Schumann's own words, `most
Berlioz: Te Deum; Bruckner: Requiem fruitful year' includes numerous
in D Minor
vocal works such as Opp. 51, 67, 69,
71, 75, 91, 98a/b; PhantasiestuЁcke for
clarinet (violin or cello) and piano,
Op. 73; Spanisches Liederspiel, Op. 74;
Lieder-Album fuЁr die Jugend, Op. 79;
Second Piano Trio no. 2 in F Major,
Op. 80; ConcertstuЁck for four horns
and orchestra in F Major, Op. 86;
Introduction und Allegro appassionato
for piano and orchestra, Op. 92; Drei
Romanzen for oboe (clarinet or
violin) and piano, Op. 94; FuЁnf StuЁcke
im Volkston for cello (violin) and
piano, Op. 102.
(cont.)
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-78950-9 - The Cambridge Companion to Schumann Edited by Beate Perrey Frontmatter More information xviii Chronology
Developments in music, literature and philosophy
Schumann's life and selected compositions
1850 Lenau dies; Wagner: Lohengrin; Liszt: First Symphonic Poem Brahms' first chamber music compositions
Premiere of Genoveva Moves to DuЁsseldorf to take up post of Music Director Lieder und GesaЁnge, Op. 77 (begun 1840); Waldszenen, Op. 82 (begun 1848); Sechs Gedichte von N. Lenau und Requiem, Op. 90; Lieder und GesaЁnge, Op. 96; Third Symphony (`Rhenish') in E flat major, Op. 97; Cello Concerto in A minor, Op. 129; numerous other vocal works.
1851 D'Indy born, Liszt's first Hungarian Fourth daughter (seventh child)
Rhapsodies begin to appear
Eugenie born
Verdi: Rigoletto; Wagner completes Travels up the Rhine, Heidelberg, into Opera and Drama; Breitkopf & HaЁrtel Switzerland, Brussels and Antwerp
and the Leipzig Bach Gesellschaft Increasingly conflictual relations
embark on the first complete Bach between Schumann as Music Director
edition (completed 1899) and
and his DuЁsseldorf colleagues
publish its first volume
Compositions include MaЁdchenlieder
and Sieben Lieder after poems by
Elisabeth Kulmann, Opp. 103 and
104; First Violin Sonata in A minor,
Op. 105; Third Piano Trio in G
minor, Op. 110; Drei FantasiestuЁcke,
Op. 111; Der Rose Pilgerfahrt,
Op. 112; MaЁrchenbilder, for viola
(violin) and piano, Op. 113; Fourth
Symphony in D minor, Op. 120
(begun 1841); and numerous
additional vocal works
1852 London's New Philharmonic Society Trip to Leipzig for performance of
founded
Der Rose Pilgerfahrt
Brahms composes his First Sonata in C major and Second Sonata in F sharp minor
Serious health problems; others stand in for Schumann to conduct; first attempts to persuade Schumann to resign from his post in DuЁsseldorf
Second version of the Etudes Symphoniques, Op. 13; Second Violin Sonata in D minor, Op. 121 (begun 1851); Gedichte der KoЁnigin
© Cambridge University Press
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-78950-9 - The Cambridge Companion to Schumann Edited by Beate Perrey Frontmatter More information xix Chronology
Developments in music, literature and philosophy
Schumann's life and selected compositions
Maria Stuart, Op. 135; Overture for Hermann and Dorothea, Op. 136; and numerous vocal works including the Requiem in D flat major, Op. 148
1853 Ludwig Tieck dies; Liszt: B minor Further deterioration of his health;
Piano Sonata dedicated to
meets Brahms, followed by intense
Schumann; premie`re of Verdi's La compositional activity; resigns from
Traviata; Clara Schumann composes his post in October; accompanies
her last works, Variationen uЁber eine Clara on her tour to the Netherlands
Thema von Robert Schumann, Op. 20, Drei Romanzen, Op. 21, both for piano, and Drei Romanzen for piano and violin, Op. 22; Wagner begins Der Ring des Nibelungen; Brahms composes his Third Sonata in F minor
Compositions include, besides many vocal works, Piano Sonata in F minor, Op. 14 (second version of Concert sans orchestre, 1836); Drei Klaviersonaten fuЁr die Jugend, Op. 118; Sieben KlavierstuЁcke in Fughettenform, Op. 126; Violin
Concerto in D minor (WoO1) and
Phantasie for violin and orchestra,
Op. 131; Vier MaЁrchenerzaЁhlungen for
clarinet (violin), viola and piano,
Op. 132; GesaЁnge der FruЁhe for solo
piano, Op. 133; Konzert-Allegro mit
Introduction for piano and orchestra,
Op. 134; Third Violin Sonata in A
minor (WoO2); Szenen aus GoЁthe's
Faust (WoO3); piano accompaniment
for J. S. Bach's Violin Sonatas and
Partitas BWV 1001­6 (WoO8) and
for the Suites for unaccompanied
cello BWV 1007­12 (all lost except
for no. 3, Anhang O2), and for
Paganini's 24 Capricen for solo violin
Op. 1, continued into 1855
(Anhang O8)
1854 Humperdinck and Janaґcek born;
The Schumanns' last joint trip to
Friedrich Wilhelm Schelling dies; visit Joseph Joachim in Hanover;
Hanslick: Vom Musikalisch-SchoЁnen; 27 February: Schumann attempts
Liszt: Faust Symphony; Wagner: Das suicide, is rescued and admitted to
Rheingold; Berlioz: L'Enfance du
the mental institution in Endenich
Christ (1850­4)
near Bonn
(cont.)
© Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-78950-9 - The Cambridge Companion to Schumann Edited by Beate Perrey Frontmatter More information xx Chronology
Developments in music, literature and philosophy
Schumann's life and selected compositions
Brahms travels to DuЁsseldorf to stay with Clara Schumann until July 1856
Fourth son (eighth child) Felix born
Composition of Variationen uЁber ein eigenes Thema in E flat major, the so-called `Ghost Variations' for piano (Anhang F39)
1855 Chausson born
From Endenich, correspondence with
Eduard MoЁrike: Mozart auf der Reise Clara, Brahms and other colleagues
nach Prag
Finishes piano accompaniment for
Paganini's 24 Capricen for solo violin,
begun 1853 (Anhang O8)
1856 Heine dies; Sigmund Freud born
Schumann dies 29 July
Liszt: Dante Symphony; Wagner; Die WalkuЁre
First Steinway grand piano produced
1858 First Schumann biography by Wasielewski appears
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