Silchester: Changing Visions of a Roman Town: Integrating Geophysics and Archaeology: the Results of the Silchester Mapping Project, 2005-10

Tags: Silchester, Germany, geophysical prospection, interpretation, geophysics, Alfred John, Augustus Henry Lane-Fox, excavation, William Henry, Town Wall, Locating Calleva, Dorset, London, Dinas Powys, France, Lullingstone villa, Society of Antiquaries, RIB, Linear Earthworks, mapping project, Roman Town, Calleva Atrebatum, Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies, Robert Fry, Archaeology Data Service, Urban infrastructure, John Creighton, Public Entertainment, Outer Defences, Changing Visions, empirical data, Michael Fulford
Content: Silchester: Changing Visions of a Roman Town: Integrating geophysics and archaeology: the results of the Silchester Mapping Project 2005-10 By John Creighton, with Robert Fry (2016) Hardcopy Report John Creighton with Robert Fry (2016) Silchester: Changing Visions of a Roman Town: Integrating geophysics and archaeology: the results of the Silchester mapping project 2005-10. Britannia Monograph Series 28, London, Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies ISBN 9780907764427 (a digital version is not presently available) Digital Archive John Creighton, Robert Fry (2016) Silchester Mapping Project 2005-10 [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor] https://doi.org/10.5284/1038434 The digital archive includes: 30 GIS files for the area, providing information on the landscape, aerial photography, fieldwalking, past excavation locations, geophysical prospection and interpretation. A digital version of the simplified fold-out plan provided in the above publication. A multi-layer PDF for those who are not used or able to manipulate the GIS files, to provide an easy visual way of turning layers on and off to see how the different datasets relate to each other. The line thicknesses are fairly thick when zoomed out, but are more appropriate when zoomed in on a particular area. The contents page, summary and index of the publication are on the following pages:
CONTENTS
List of Figures
vii
List of Tables
xiii
List of Digital Material archived on ADS
xiii
Acknowledgements
xv
Preface
xvii
INTRODUCTION
1. Scope, aims and objectives
1
PART I: PREVIOUS WORK
2. Locating Calleva
5
3. Past F ieldwork at Calleva
10
PART II: THE SILCHESTER MAPPING PROJECT
4. Methodology
37
5. Mapping the Interior
48
6. Mapping the Exterior
157
7. The Material Evidence from Silchester
267
PART III: DEFENCES: EVIDENCE AND INTERPRETATION
8. The Town Wall and Ditch
285
9. The Inner and Outer Earthworks
302
10. The Linear Earthworks
329
PART IV: INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION
11. Calleva's Origins
339
12. Military involvement
357
13. Cemeteries and Human Remains
369
14. Urban infrastructure
388
15. Trade and industry
406
16. Public Entertainment
424
17. Calleva: Historical and Archaeological Narratives
431
CONCLUSION
18. Concluding Remarks
447
Bibliography
449
Index
476
SUMMARY Silchester (Calleva Atrebatum) is a Roman town in Hampshire, in central southern Britain. Unlike many the site was abandoned in the post-Roman period leaving it as a largely green-field site now. The Amphitheatre, Town Wall and some Outer Defences all remain visible for the visitor to see. The town has been highly influential in the development of Romano-British Archaeology due to the large-scale excavation by the Society of Antiquaries in 1890-1908 developed an overall plan of the site. This volume draws together for the first time all the fieldwork known to have taken place from the earliest located trenches in the 1720s up until the modern campaigns of Michael Fulford (1974-present). The cut-off date is 2013. It integrates this work with a new geophysical survey of the interior and vicinity to provide a new overarching narrative for the town. The volume starts with a historiography of work on the city from earliest antiquarian investigations through to recent campaigns; and this sense of historiography and changing interpretations of the site permeates the later discussion, showing how new discoveries have transformed understandings. The core of the volume contains the empirical data. Work has taken place digitising all the past excavation plans, and combining this with other datasets including: two major fieldwalking campaigns, the aerial photographic plots, landscape analysis from earlier maps from the Ordnance Survey and earlier sources, LiDAR, other mapping data, and finally with 217 ha of new geophysical prospection in and around the town. An atlas has been created which shows these data in a variety of formats, together with a detailed text outlining all the past interventions within each sheet, and providing a summary of the discoveries together with references to their later reinterpretation where relevant. The final sections provide essays in interpretation, with thematic reviews of: the defences and linear earthworks; the development of the oppidum; the interpretation of Roman military metalwork; an interpretation of the evidence for the mortuary landscape of the town; discussions of urban infrastructure, trade, industry and pubic entertainment. Finally a narrative overview is provided seeing how the town's remains have been interpreted within an historical setting. There are methodological innovations differentiating the signal strength of features in the fluxgate gradiometry data to map `hotspots' representing possible cremations pyre areas, middens, and industrial activities to develop our understanding of the mortuary landscape and also that of shops and workshops within the towns; these techniques could readily be applied to other large-scale surveys of Roman cities which have already been undertaken. The work provides the first overall synthesis of the city since Boon (1974). The new work includes a significantly revised impression of the development and chronology of the earthworks surrounding the town; mapping of all the Later Iron Age finds and evidence for the development of the street grid from both excavation data and geophysics; it has discovered several new cemetery areas including a series of large Later Iron Age or early Roman burial enclosures. Features are found which may represent elusive evidence for large-scale tanning operations near the town; and there are traces on the gravel terrace edge of a series of parallel lines which may be indicative of a circus, though ground-truthing is required to test that. The overall urban assessment and synthesis enables Silchester to be seen alongside the other recent comprehensive reviews of major cities in south-east Britain, such as Verulamium (Niblett and Thompson 2005) and Colchester (Radford et al. 2013).
INDEX The index is sub-divided into 10 sections: 1. Historical individuals 2. Literary sources 3. Deities 4. Antiquarians and Archaeologists 5. Gens and Civitates 6. Insulae 7. Land Parcels 8. Features, buildings and locations 9. General index 10. Other sites mentioned in the text Entries to some of the more common subjects are highly selective (e.g. Society of Antiquaries, Town Wall) . 1. HISTORICAL INDIVIDUALS Addedomaros 341 Adminius 366 Agricola 141, 366, 388, 436-7 Allectus 337, 440 Arthur, King of Britain 5, 8, 431, 441 Arvirargus 366 Asclepiodotus 337, 338, 440 Augustine of Canterbury 443 Augustus 381 Aulus Plautius 358 Bluet, Ralph 262, 444-5 Boudica 299, 304, 318, 328, 359, 366, 389, 411, 414, 425, 435-7 Caesar 9, 14, 341, 365-6, 413, 424, 431 Calgacus 366 Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus 413 Caratacus 106, 304, 431-3, 435 Carausius 337 Carausius II 272 Cassivellaunus 5, 425, 431 Claudius 365, 413, 434 Clodius Albinus 270, 299, 438 Cogidubnus 303-4, 310, 344, 359-60, 365-8, 381-2, 389, 394, 407, 411-2, 414,424-5,434-6 hypothetical palace 100, 360, 389, 392, 397-8, 435-7, 439 Commius 302, 337, 354-5, 366-8, 381, 400, 426, 431-4 Constantine 5, 8, 11, 431, 441 Constantine III 5, 8 Constantius 5, 8, 10, 431, 440-1 Cunobelin 272, 297, 366-7, 431-4 Cynric and Ceawlin 441 Drusus 413 Epaticcus 106, 272, 304, 330, 355, 367-8, 431-4 Eppillus 9, 304, 330, 367, 431-4 Flavia Victorina 11, 277, 369 Hadrian 388 John, king of England 10, 445 Juba II of Mauretania 381 Marc Antony 366, 431 Mortimer, family 444 Nero 435 Olennius 413 Ostorius Scapula 366 Pope Gregory 443 Pope Sixtus II 443 Septimius Severus 70, 254, 273, 299, 438 Stephen and Matilda 445 Tasciovanus 9, 272, 337, 355, 367, 434 Tebicatos 441, 443 Tiberius 413
Tincomarus 303-4, 330-4 Verica 304, 330, 366-7, 431-5 Vitellius 366 2. LITERARY SOURCES Antonine Itineraries 5-9, 12, 289, 399, 403, 431 Augustus, Res Gestae 433 Caesar, BC 365 Caesar, BG 5-6, 12, 353, 425, 431 Cassius Dio 355, 367, 413, 425, 433 Cicero, In Pisonem 413 Eusebius, Life of Constantine 441 Geoffrey of Monmouth 5, 8 Gildas, de Excidio 443 Henry of Huntingdon 5 Juvenal 366, 423 Martial 366 Nennius 5, 8, 441 Ovid, Met., 427 Pliny, NH, 365, 381, 417, 422-3, 427 Pope Gregory, Obsecratio 443 Ptolemy 5, 366, 433, 438 Ravenna Cosmography 5, 431 Richard of Cirencester 6, 276 Suetonius, Gaius 366, 434 Strabo, Geog. 337, 354, 413, 425 Tacitus, Agric. 366, 423, 425, 434, 437 Tacitus, Ann. 365-6, 413, 425, 436 Varro, De lingua latina 394 3. DEITIES Abraxas 66 Arethusa 86 Bacchus 72, 125, 276 Hercules 6, 8, 14, 72, 104, 134, 276 Jupiter 274 Latona 100 Lar Compitalis 275 Lares 86, 116, 130 Lucina 100 Mars 141, 274, 277 Mercury 274 Pax 141, 274, 277 Serapis 134, 274 Venus 61, 100, 117, 124, 275-6 Victory 141, 274, 277 4. ANTIQUARIANS & ARCHAEOLOGISTS Aubrey, John 11, 295 Bertram, Charles 6, 276 Betham, The Revd. Robert 12, 31 Bolingbroke Woodward, Bernard, 7 Camden, William 5-7, 10-1, 14, 274, 276-7, 369, 400 Chandler, Samuel 12, 14-6, 31, 276 Clarke, Amanda 28, 31 Coles, The Revd. John 16, 19-20, 31, 80, 147-8, 152, 271, 371, 441 Collet, John 104 Collis, John 28 Cotton, Molly Aylwin 27, 31, 388 Cotton, Sir Robert 369 Colt Hoare, Sir Richard, 8, 16-7, 252, 322, 341, 375, 401 Corney, Mark 30 Darwin, Charles 20, 268 Ellis, Sir Henry 8, 400 Fitz-Glanvil 8 Fox, George Edward 22, 26, 447 Frere, Sheppard 28, 31, 108-9
Fulford, Michael 28-9, 31 Halley, Edmond 6 Haverfield, Francis 1, 77, 109, 141, 270, 282, 357, 388-9, 441 Hearne, Thomas 6, 11-2, 31, 147, 271 Hilton Price, Frederick George 16, 22-3, 26, 31, 71, 80, 98, 110, 130, 147-8, 385,448 Hodge, Henry 22, 25-7, 35, 38-9, 42-3, 46, 385, 446, 448 Horsley, John 6, 7, 8, 277, 329, 357, 369 Jefferson, The Revd. Joseph 15 Joyce, The Revd. James 8, 20-1, 23, 31, 39, 51 Karslake, Lt.-Colonel John 27, 31, 134, 230, 234-6, 240, 274, 288, 302, 308, 314, 317, 320-1, 329-30, 374, 401, 420 Kempe, Alfred John 8, 14, 18-9, 31, 147-8, 271, 285, 302, 441 Langshaw The Revd. Thomas 22, 31, 39, 51, 130, 134, 147-8, 448 Leland, John 10-1 Maclauchlan, Henry 8, 19-20, 31, 97, 148, 206, 234, 248, 270, 285-6, 288, 302, 315-7, 320, 329, 388, 400, 402-4 Mayor, John 7 Monro, The Revd. Horace 22, 31, 39, 51, 130, 134, 147-8, 448 Morris, William 422 Napper, H.F. 8 Narrien, John 8, 400, 404 Paris, The Revd. John 12 Pitt Rivers, General (Augustus Henry Lane-Fox) 23, 25, 27 Powys, The Revd. Thomas 15 Richmond, Sir Ian 28-9, 31, 99, 108-9, 267, 271, 274, 358, 444 St John Hope, William Henry 22-3, 447 St Joseph, Keith 28, 32, 302, 307-8, 362 Stair, John 12, 14, 31, 39, 104, 388 Stephenson, Mill 23, 27, 31, 386 Strutt, Joseph 14 Stukeley, William 1, 4, 6, 12-3, 19, 216, 220, 276, 329, 357, 400, 403, 448 Taylor, Isaac 14-6, 19 Thomson, James 27 Ward, John 6, 14-5, 31, 97-8, 104, 116, 253, 270, 273, 276, 283 Wellington, Dukes of 16, 20, 22-3, 27, 80, 104, 148, 283, 285 Wheeler, Sir Robert Eric Mortimer 27-8, 302 Wright, John 14 5. GENS AND CIVITATES Allobroges 365 Atrebates 5-9, 272, 336, 366-7, 431, 433, 435-6 Belgae 7, 273, 302, 367 Bibrici 7 Britanni 366 Brittones 366 Catuvellauni 304, 310, 336, 355, 432-4 Cimbrians 366 Dobunni 272, 336-7, 355 Frisii 413 Iceni 366, 436 Nervii 333 Regni 367 Segontiaci 5-9, 72, 104, 134, 276 6. INSULAE For each Insula the core pages they are described are listed in bold. Additional specific references are then only given to
other mentions of the Insulae, Houses, Block and Pits outside this range. Insula I 21, 24, 71-6, 79-80, 107, 271, 370, 373, 397, 442 House I.1, 84 House I.2, 396 Pit I.A, 51 Insula II 41, 98-103, 272, 351, 397 House II.2, 408 Insula III 28, 31, 97, 98-103, 234, 271, 276, 288, 351, 3968, 410, 435, 442-3 Insula IV 35, 98-110, 271, 370-1, 373, 397 See also: Forum; Basilica site; Temples, Insula IV `church'. Insula V 110-1, 113-5, 117, 274, 398, 408 Block V.1, 422 Block V.I, 409 Insula VI 110-5, 117, 362, 371, 373, 398 House VI.1, 371, 412 Block VI.I, 409, 412 Insula VII 35, 36, 130-5, 280, 398 House VII.2, 422 Houses VII.3 & 4, 408 Insula VIII 21, 80, 134, 147-52, 271, 371, 398, 408 House VIII.1, 11 See also: Mansio; Hospitium. Insula IX 2, 21, 24, 28, 31, 36, 40-1, 45, 47, 51-2, 70, 71, 73-80, 267-70, 272, 274, 276-84, 339, 342-4, 346, 349, 351-3, 358, 360, 362-4, 370, 373, 38990, 392-3, 396-7, 399, 406, 410, 413, 422, 433-6, 439, 441-2, 447 House IX.1, 278 Insula X 66- 71, 389, 421-2 Insula XI 66-71, 421-2 Insula XII 52-56, 422 Pit XII.B, 351 Insula XIII 91-5, 98, 393, 422 House XIII.1, 351, 408 Block XIII.II, 422 Pit XIII.10, 351 Pit XIII.D, 351 Insula XIV 91-6, 98, 146, 411 House XIV.1, 278, 396, 408 House XIV.2, 84 Insula XV 91, 93-98, 100, 393, 396, 422 House XV.2, 396 Block XV.III, 344 Insula XVI 91, 93-5, 97-8, 415 House XVI.2, 344 House XVI.3, 15, 396 Block XVI.IV, 422 Pit XVI.LL, 396 Insula XVII 130-5 House XVII.1, 51 House XVII.3, 344 Block XVII.II, 422 Insula XVIII 126, 135, 142-6, 282, 393 House XVIII.3, 279, 344, 408 Insula XIX 125-9, 371, 383, 389 House XIX.2, 396, 415 Block XIX.II, 371 Insula XX 125-9, 393 Insula XXI 21, 34, 80-5, 373 Pit XXI.9, 351 Insula XXII 38, 61-6, 307 House XXII.4, 38 Pit XXII.VIII 282 Insula XXIII 21, 56-61, 282, 351, 373, 442
House XXIII.2, 344 Block XXIII.III, 51 Pit XXIII.24, 351 Pit XXIII.31, 351 Pit XXIII.32, 351 Pit XXIII.35, 351 Insula XXIV 56-61 House XXIV.2, 52 Insula XXV 52-5, 61, 274 Pit XXXV.9, 351 Insula XXVI 21, 52-6, 61, 349 Insula XXVII 34, 80-3, 85-6, 393 House XXVII.2, 96 Block XXVII.III, 96 Pit XXVII.VI, 282 Insula XXVIII 110-6, 370, 373 Block XXVIII.II, 397 Insula XXIX 34, 110, 113-21, 124, 393, 417 House XXIX.1, 118 Block XXIX.III, 410 Insula XXX 106, 117-23, 281, 381, 383-4 See also: Temples, Insula XXX. Insula XXXI 110, 113-7, 119-21, 123-4, 389 Insula XXXII 117, 119-21, 123-4, 417 Insula XXXIII 34, 35, 135-41, 152-6, 308, 370 House XXXIII.4, 344 House XXXIII.5, 344 Block XXXIII.III, 423 See also: Public Baths. Insula XXXIV 110-1, 113, 116-7, 21, House XXXIV.1, 21, 341, 350, 415 Insula XXXV 8, 34, 45, 107, 135-9, 141-2, 277, 370, 389 Insula XXXVI 34-5, 86-90, 270, 362, 382-3, 393 House XXXVI.1, 412 Block XXXVI.I, 382 Insula XXXVII 24, 86-90, 117, 119-122, 350 7. LAND PARCELS The index to Land parcels outside the Town Walls is on pp 158-9, giving the reference to where each package of land is discussed in the Exterior section of the Atlas. The references below are additional references to these parcels elsewhere in the text. LP 0001 39, 352 LP 0004 316 LP 0068 321, 352, 376, 386 LP 0069 384 LP 0085 316, 385 LP 0685 351 LP 1100 321, 322, 384-6 LP 2088 316, 385-6 LP 2671 349 LP 2673 421 LP 2900 317, 416, 441 LP 3000 321, 424 LP 3540 314-5 LP 3700 363, 425-8 LP 3862 420 LP 3950 352, 381 LP 4167 291 LP 4172 34, 314-5, 327, 375 LP 4426 321, 383 LP 4600 444 LP 4758 445 LP 5333 314, 317, 352 LP 5567 314 LP 5673 248, 262, 416 LP 5859 314
LP 6200 LP 6346 LP 6472 LP 6530 LP 6666 LP 6667 LP 6805 LP 7468 LP 8024 LP 8100
363, 425-7 321, 376, 383, 386, 445 39, 391 321-2, 383 266 348, 381, 388, 391 272, 318, 352 321, 333, 416 385-6 429
8. FEATURES, BUILDINGS AND LOCATIONS Amphitheatre 12, 27-9, 31, 42, 90, 202, 216, 220, 267, 269- 70, 272, 277, 279-84, 291, 311-3, 316, 321, 3245, 332, 359, 363, 378, 382, 388, 391, 404, 420, 423-4, 436, 439, 444, 445 Aqueducts 396 Basilica 104, 110, 135, 272, 274-7, 282, 439-40 Fulford's excavations 28-9, 31, 98-9, 105, 267, 26970, 272, 277-84, 332, 341, 344, 349-51, 359, 3634, 368, 371, 389, 406, 416, 420 Periods 1-3 Iron Age 105-6, 198, 268-9, 273, 277, 279, 320, 335, 342-4, 346, 348-9, 352-3, 355, 360, 370-3, 391, 397, 425, 432, 434 Period 4 Timber buildings 106, 108, 346, 358-63, 368, 370, 390-1, 410-1, 435 Period 5 Timber Basilica 106, 280, 368, 410, 438-9 Period 6 Masonry Forum 99, 104, 107-8, 277, 398, 410, 439 Period 7 Late Occupation 108, 441-3 Bathhouses 16, 19, 31, 92, 98, 100, 116, 141-2, 147-8, 152, 271, 287, 308, 371, 395-6, 398, 410, 441 Beeches copse 31, 236, 240, 320-1 Bentley Green Copse 333 Barrows 11, 290, 339-40, 356, 381, 400, 414 Boon's excavations Trench A 210, 284, 308, 326 Trench B 56, 61-2, 284, 307-8, 310, 325, 351-2, 3723, 391 Trench C 210, 315 Trench D 315 Trench E 192, 291, 295 Trench F 210, 235, 313-5 Trench G 315 Trench H 39, 248, 287, 298, 310, 389, 391 Trench J 248, 287-8, 291, 298, 310-1, 342, 344, 3523 Trench K 307, 389, 391, 393, 398-9, 426 Trench L 353 Bramley Frith Wood enclosure 332, 334 Bridle's Copse earthwork 332 Bullsdow n Camp 334, 341 Byes Lane Dyke 331-3, 335 Cattle bone deposit 112 Chitty Farm 31, 176, 196 Church Lane Farm 31, 39, 340 Churchlane Copse 258, 321 Circus 424-7, 429-30, 438, 448 Clay-pits 164, 234-5, 321 Clad Gully 316, 320, 327, 384, 439 Clapper's Farm 226, 445 Collis' trenches 28, 31, 248, 267, 272, 291, 297-301, 352 Corney's trenches 210 Cotton, multiple trenches in LP 6667, 192, 210 Site A 216, 296, 352, 383 Site B 61, 216, 296, 352, 383, 393 Site C 61, 284, 296, 352, 383, 391 Site E 61, 296, 352, 383
Site F 216, 391 Site G 216, 296 Site H 192, 313-4 Site J 192, 210, 214, 313-4 Site K 192, 210, 214, 313-4 Site L 244, 248, 252, 317-8 Dicker's Farm Dyke 304, 330-2, 335, 432 Drainage 100, 108, 116, 140, 164, 188, 202, 220, 234, 287- 8, 290, 308, 355, 388, 394, 397-9, 405, 425, 4445, 447 Flex Ditch 303, 322-3, 330, 334, 337, 340, 343, 432 Forum 6, 14-5, 19, 21-3, 28, 31, 35-6, 40, 42, 48, 72, 76-7, 80, 84, 98-100, 104, 106-8, 110-2, 122, 134, 142, 268, 271-2, 274, 276, 282-3, 286, 288, 346, 359, 362, 370, 372-3, 388, 392, 394-5, 398, 400, 4056, 408-13, 423, 435-8, 442-3 Fountain 109, 116, 216 Frith, the 31, 168, 303, 318, 322-4, 330, 337, 340-1, 350, 432 Froglane Farm 333 Fulford's excavations Trench 1 61, 192, 197, 296, 314, 316 Trench 2 197, 296, 316 Trench 3 210, 216, 236, 295, 320-1 Trench 4 236, 240, 320 Trench 5 240, 320 Trench 6 236, 320-1 Trench 7 240, 320-2 Trench 8 254, 314, 320-1 Trench 9 254, 314, 320-1 Trench 10 210, 313-4, 327 Trench 11 248, 252, 314, 317-8 See also: Basilica, Tow n Wall, North Gate, Water main and Insulae III, IX and XXX. Great Scrub Copse 266 Grim's Bank 37, 269, 321, 329, 330, 332, 336-7, 436, 441, 447 Haines Farm 401 Hall's Farm 164 Hospitium 22, 49, 152 Inner Earthwork 28, 32-6, 52, 56, 61-2, 66, 80, 85, 90, 112, 116, 124, 136, 141, 152, 156, 196, 210, 214, 230, 234, 248, 252, 272, 284, 287-8, 294-5, 297-8, 302-12, 322, 325, 339-40, 342-4, 348-9, 352-4, 356, 358-60, 363, 370, 372-3, 381-3, 391-3, 395, 397-9, 403, 412, 426,432-6,438-9,448 Iron Age lanes 79, 198, 325, 343-9, 353, 355-6, 371, 389, 394, 437 Iron Age street grid, 344, 346 Joyce, Monro and Langshaw's excavations Block I 21, 80 Block II 21, 71-2 Block III 21, 56 Block IV 21, 52, 56 Block V 21, 98, see Forum Block VI 21, 110, 116 Block VII 21, 130 Block VIII 21, see Mansio Block IX 21, 147 Kilns 2, 26, 31, 39, 197-8, 202, 220, 244, 321, 377, 416, 419-23 King's Hogsty Copse 333 Latchmere Green 30-1, 282, 333-4, 337, 400-1 Linear earthworks 2, 37, 285, 303-5, 329-8, 340, 354, 4001, 403-4, 447 Little Heath 172 Little London 27, 31, 332-3, 420-1, 435 Little London Road, 31, 332, 334, 337, 343
Lovegrove's Farm 164 Manor Farm 28, 31, 269, 284, 286, 321, 325 Mansio 11, 16, 19, 22, 31, 49, 80, 147-8, 152, 271, 287, 308, 368, 371, 395, 399, 408, 441 Mausolea 221-2, 377, 385-6 Medieval Park Pale 236, 240, 262, 316, 321-2, 419, 445 Mosaics 11, 21, 56, 60-1, 72, 77, 80, 84-5, 90, 92, 96-7, 100- 2, 116, 123, 125-6, 130, 134-5, 140, 146-8, 278, 426-7 Nymphaeum 216, 291 North-East Extension/Annex 124, 136, 141, 198, 220, 305, 311-3, 316, 323, 325, 327, 363, 439 North-West Annex 188, 206, 210, 215, 235, 305, 315, 3223, 327, 439 Old Manor House 117, 400 Oldhouse Lane Dyke 258, 262, 304, 330-3, 335, 338, 432 Outer Earthworks 11, 27-8, 176, 197, 210, 214, 240, 3026, 311-28, 369, 374, 384 Paddocks 33, 152, 176, 180, 314, 327, 386, 403, 425, 429 Pasture 2, 30, 43, 168, 180, 197, 252, 269, 309, 331-2, 3423, 377, 427 Pond Farm 168, 350; for earthwork see: the Frith Portway 244, 401, 403 Praetorium 19, 152 Principia 106, 358-64, 368, 410, 435 Proto-Forum 106, 346, 358, 360, 410, 435 Public Baths 116, 136, 140, 269, 272, 280, 287, 308, 322-5, 341, 344, 351, 370-1, 382, 390-5, 399, 411, 420, 436, 439, 444 Rampier Copse 16, 27, 31, 230, 234-5, 244, 248, 252, 2712, 293, 298, 302-5, 308-9, 311, 313-22, 324-5, 327, 330, 335, 337, 340, 343, 348, 354, 374-5, 377, 386, 388, 392-3,403, 416,432 Rickyard 86, 90 Roads to Chichester 30, 266, 334, 400-1, 407 to Cirencester 206, 215 to Dorchester-on-Thames 164, 176, 180, 196-7, 214, 290, 329, 404, 407, 425 to London 8, 122, 184, 197, 221-2, 253, 258, 286, 376, 378, 383, 386-7, 400, 403-5 to Old Sarum 33, 230, 234-5, 248, 288, 317, 359, 386, 397, 401-2, 404-5, 407 to Spinis 33, 289, 327, 403, 405 to St. Albans 335, 400, 404 to Winchester 30, 37, 248, 252, 266, 288, 329, 359, 376, 391, 400-1, 407 Roundhouses 56, 79, 342, 346, 429 Rye Cottage 31, 192, 196, 348, 386 Rye House 31, 192, 391 Sandy's Lands Outer Earthwork 192, 196, 210, 214-5, 235, 304-5, 313-7, 320-1, 323, 327, 388, 438-9 Shops 76, 91-2, 100, 104, 107, 112, 116, 358, 360, 406-12, 423, 435 Silchester Brook 37, 226, 445 Silver Hill 14-5, 271 South-East Enclosure 254, 258, 262, 305, 320-2, 338 St Mary the Virgin, Silchester church 16, 28, 31, 122-4, 382, 412, 443, 445 Stony Hill 172, 176 Stratfield Saye 12, 16, 20-3, 116, 272, 340 Street grid, 33, 47, 49, 56, 86, 97, 111-2, 116, 125-6, 136, 1401, 146-7, 192, 196, 198, 214, 286, 307, 314-5, 320, 325-7, 344, 346, 358, 381-2, 387-94, 404-5, 407, 436-9, 447-8 Strip-buildings 406-9, 411 Swinley Forest 8, 400 Tabernae 92, 99, 406-7, 409-10
Temenos 118, 122, 124, 130, 381-2, 411 Temples 412-3, 433 Insula IV `church' 23, 29, 31, 99, 100, 104, 108-9, 271-2, 282, 351 Insula VII 35, 130, 134, 280, 411 Block XXI.VI 84 Insula XXV 274 Insula XXX 106, 118, 122, 281, 298, 312, 324, 341, 344, 346, 381-2, 387,395, 400,412-3,436, 438 Insula XXXV 45, 141, 277, 344, 407 Block XXXVI.I 86, 382, 387, 393, 438 Temporary agricultural buildings 37, 39, 90, 216, 236 Theatres 424-5 Three Ashes 334, 337, 350 Tilery 27, 31, 198, 220, 377, 389, 406, 416, 420-1, 423, 435, 448 Town Gates 286-91, 439 East Gate 16, 31, 33, 118, 122, 146, 281, 286, 289, 291, 324, 341, 350, 358, 377-8, 388, 408 Lesser West Gate 230, 234-5, 244, 248, 285, 288, 291, 294, 359, 396, 401-2, 408 North-East `Amphitheatre' Gate 31, 216 North Gate 26-7, 31, 192, 196, 198, 267-8, 272, 277- 8, 280, 289-90, 295-6, 300-1, 308, 325, 329, 340, 372-3, 377, 386, 389, 392, 398, 399, 404, 408, 412, 419 South-East `Sluice' Gate 253, 269, 277, 287, 299, 373, 399, 442, 445 South Gate 11, 26, 31, 39, 142, 146-7, 234, 248, 252, 277, 279, 284, 288-9, 291-2, 297-8, 309-11, 350, 352-3, 391, 399, 401-4, 408, 432, 444-5 West Gate 23, 26, 70, 91, 206, 210, 234, 272, 286, 289, 294-5, 308, 344, 351, 373, 381, 388 Town Rampart 252, 269, 291-301, 308, 327, 371, 384, 391, 439 Town Rampart Ditch 272, 285, 288, 291-301, 309, 325, 396-8 Town Wall 12, 38, 285-301, 327, 439 Town Wall Ditch 252, 288, 291-301, 322, 372 Water main 31, 160, 188, 192, 196-8, 216, 220, 301, 311, 322, 349, 363, 386, 392, 421, 429 Water pipe 97, 99, 291, 333, 396-8 West End Brook 37, 164 Wells 25, 44, 47, 60-1, 66, 77, 80, 84, 86, 92, 98, 104, 105, 108-9, 112, 124, 135, 146, 269, 288, 342-3, 351, 370, 373, 388, 394-7,405, 413,415, 422,442 9. GENERAL INDEX Aerial photography 32-3, 37, 39 Alabaster 14, 134, 274, 280 Amber 279 Amulets 281 Arable 43, 146, 168, 269, 332, 408 Auxilia 364-5, 368, 414 Berkshire Archaeological Services 29, 31, 192, 197, 334 Botanical remains 268-70 Alder 9, 269, 287, 316, 343 Apple 269 Belladonna 269 Birch 126, 287 Box hedge 269 Brassicas 269 Cherry 117, 269 Charcoal 124, 198, 220, 270, 311, 318, 352-3, 374, 416, 421 Coal 270 Corncockle 353 Crabapple 295, 300
Dill 269 Fems 66, 86, 98, 279-80 Grassland, 268, 343, 416 Hay meadows 33, 269, 342-3, 368, 416 Hazel 287, 316, 331, 343 Heathland, 269, 332, 339 Hemlock 269 Holly 269 Hawthorn 285 Medlar 269 Mulberry 417 Oak 10, 270, 285, 287, 297, 316, 395, 413-4, 416 Opium poppy 269 Pine cones 268 Plum 117, 269 Pollen 269, 330-2, 336, 343, 349, 368, 416-7, 447 Poplar 287 Silver fir 395 Willow 287 Bronze Age 168, 266, 323, 336, 339-40, 404, 417 Brooches 61, 66, 71, 98, 110, 124, 126, 146, 196, 280-1, 284, 294, 307, 311, 340, 374, 383, 444 Calleva Atrebatum, placename 431, 443 Ceramics, general 273 African red-slipped ware 442 Amphorae 125, 310, 342-4, 364, 379, 416, 442 Arretine 76, 123, 297, 342-3, 350-2 Briquetage 273, 354 Butt-beaker 252, 288, 295, 297, 310, 318, 342, 344, 351-2, 391 Grog-tempered coarseware 220, 310, 313, 342-4, 375 Saucepan pot 288, 336 Silchester ware 160, 196, 252-3, 288, 294, 310, 313, 334, 342, 376, 391 Terracotta 146, 445 Terracotta lamps 61, 100, 123 Terra nigra 196, 310, 342-3, 351-2, 432 Terra rubra 221, 310, 342-3, 352, 432 Terra sigillata/samian 85, 96, 112, 196, 220, 252, 262, 273, 285, 288, 294-5, 297-8, 300, 307, 309-10, 342, 352-3, 376, 391,410-1,425 See also: Tiles, Tilery and Kilns Cesspits 44, 66, 141-2, 268-9, 307, 399 Chariots 337, 424-7, 429 Coins 9, 11-2, 14-5, 19, 22, 31, 60, 70, 72, 76, 86, 90, 97, 100, 107, 123-4, 134, 168, 206, 214-5, 234-6, 240, 248, 253-4, 270-2, 283-4, 286, 290, 297, 302, 304, 323-5, 333, 341, 350, 352-3, 355, 364, 369, 383, 391, 412, 431-4, 441, 445 hoards 11, 28, 31, 70, 72, 79, 100, 118, 124, 148, 230, 235, 270-1, 290, 323, 325, 341, 371, 441 Cursus publicus 152 Duumviri 72 Dyeing 70, 84, 91-2, 111, 135-6, 140, 406, 409, 415, 421-3 Eagle bronze 275 Eagle bronze roundel 79 Eagle iron 15, 275 Eagle miniature 110 Eagle staff head, 146 Eagle 'the Silchester Eagle', 21, 274-5, 440 Eagles Legionary 362 electrical resistance tomography 41-2 Fabrica 362, 368 Faunal remains 267-8 Antlers 66, 104, 284, 412 Birds 267 Butchery 267-8, 293, 412-5, 423 Deer 16, 66, 79, 267, 286, 412, 419
Dogs 76, 100, 107-8, 148, 267-8, 276, 281, 290, 309, 441 Cats 66 Cattle 43, 62, 90, 96, 108, 112, 124, 196, 220, 267, 293, 337, 353, 362, 412-4, 416, 419 Fish 86, 267-8, 280 Goats 125, 414 Horses 43, 66, 110, 117, 124, 176, 282-3, 287, 295, 309, 368, 413, 424-5,427, 429 Invertebrates 268, 417 Oysters 79, 80, 104, 106, 268, 309, 353, 410-2, 423 Pigs 60, 108, 267, 309, 353 Sheep 43, 97, 108, 124-5, 267, 309, 414, 416, 427 Worked bone 284 Field-systems 176, 215, 262, 266, 334, 336 Fieldwalking 30, 32, 37, 40, 157, 160 Figurines 61, 79, 275 Fulling 415-6, 422 Geographical information systems 2, 37, 40, 43 Geophysics 33-4, 37, 40 Caesium vapour magnetometry 36 Gamma-ray detection 36, 40-1 Glass 66, 76, 85-6, 96, 98, 117, 216, 262, 280, 290, 294, 441-3 Gold (not coins), 61, 72, 117, 126, 142, 146, 282, 295, 410 GPS, 35, 38 Ground Penetrating Radar 35-6, 40-2, 172, 311-2, 318-20, 322, 346, 383 Hampshire County Council 28, 104 Hillforts 19, 302, 323, 334, 336-7, 354, 371 Hipposandal 126 Hobnails 80, 317, 374, 414 Human remains 11, 79, 85, 110, 112, 148, 196, 268, 289- 90, 307, 334, 340, 343, 369-87, 415, 442 Burial enclosures 90, 176, 180, 210, 214, 295, 298, 325, 327, 354, 369, 375, 378, 380, 386-7, 391, 393, 438, 447 Burials in earthworks 188 Cemeteries 2, 10, 26-7, 36, 44, 184, 196-7, 210, 214, 236, 252-3, 258, 314-5, 326-7, 337, 339, 369-70, 374-7, 383-7, 404, 419, 429, 438, 445, 447 Cremations 2, 126, 197, 210, 214, 236, 252-3, 262, 314, 317, 322, 326-7, 336, 341, 343, 352-4, 369, 371, 373-9, 384, 386-7, 447 Infant burials 79, 96, 370 Inhumations 2, 11, 44, 184, 197, 222, 236, 240, 253, 258, 369, 371, 374-5, 378, 383-4, 386-7, 419,447 Intaglios 70, 279, 412 Iron, general 124, 283 Objects 80, 86, 97-8, 123, 126, 196, 276, 283, 288-9, 294, 315, 340, 396-7, 445 Hoards 60-1, 76, 279, 283, 416, 442 Jet 279 Jewellery 282 Keys 71, 98, 110, 124, 126 Kimmeridge shale 66, 117, 124, 279, 307 Knives 72, 80, 281, 373, 444-5 Lamps 98, 282 Lead 98, 147-8, 271, 283, 294, 396, 422 curse tablets, 283 seals, 92, 110 weights, 66, 98, 126, 142, 283 Leather 112, 353, 413, 414, 415, 416, 417 Legionary amphitheatres 424 Legionary Fortress at Silchester 12, 357 LiDAR, 2, 33, 37, 49, 160 Lions 220, 274 Lithics 32, 124, 206, 210, 222, 226, 248, 340
London clay 300, 313, 394, 416-7, 420 Marble 2, 14, 66, 72, 76-7, 99, 107, 112, 117, 274, 276-7, 294, 411 Metalling 105, 196, 286, 288-91, 310, 314, 346, 349, 391-4, 439 military equipment 61, 282, 358, 363-5 Millstones 76, 124, 135, 146, 279 Miniatures 110, 281 Axes 110, 124, 281, 286, 341 Mirrors 28, 30, 282 Montefortino-type helmet 290, 340 Ogham 8, 71, 77, 282, 431, 441-2 Onion, the giant 11, 31, 253 Oppida 1, 2, 269, 281, 302, 304, 334, 336, 339-56, 358, 360, 364-5, 368, 373, 382,388, 394,431-2,447 Ordo 107 Pedes Drusiani 389 Pellet moulds 100, 252, 272, 295, 350-1, 432 Peregrini 5, 8, 277 Pes monetalis 389 Pewter 66, 71, 77, 86, 110, 126, 282 Purbeck Marble 66, 77, 100, 104, 108, 110, 123-4, 141, 276- 89, 407, 411 Pyres 374, 377-8, 381, 407 Quernstones 70, 77, 100, 124, 126, 146, 236, 240, 248, 254, 271, 279, 398 Reading Museum 20-1, 27-8, 56, 61, 85, 96, 125, 168, 268, 272-3, 279, 280-1, 313, 318, 340, 349, 351, 358, 363-4, 375, 432, 439 research agendas 2, 3, 447 Inscriptions CIL 6.920 434 RIB 67 6, 14, 72, 98, 104, 134, 276 RIB 68 289-90, 295, 300 RIB 69 141, 274, 277, 407, 411, 431 RIB 70 5, 8, 141, 274, 277, 407 RIB 71 141, 274, 277, 407 RIB 76 100 RIB 81 124 RIB 87 11, 277, 369 RIB 88 368 RIB 91 366, 411 RIB 127 427 RIB 235 368 RIB 932 426 RIB 2221 403 RIB II 2417.31 282 RIB II 2422.14, 25 & 42 282 RIB II 2440.70 & 97 284 RIB II 2441.7 426 Royal Archaeological Institute 8, 19, 302 Royal Society 6, 14 Sarcophagus 176, 369, 385-6 Saxons 32, 148, 254, 258, 316, 322, 329, 367, 371, 441-5 Seal-boxes 61, 90, 281 Silchester placename 443 Silver (not coins) 70-1, 77, 106, 124, 126, 147-8, 281, 283, 379, 410, 423, 445 Silver-working 70, 148 Slag 206, 214-5, 222, 234, 283-4, 307 Slates 278 Society of Antiquaries 22-7, 38, 369, 447 Southampton city council Archaeological Unit 29, 31 Southern Archaeological Services 29, 31 Spurs 281 Statues 14, 134, 141, 274, 276, 279, 365 Statuettes 100, 110, 117, 275 Steelyards, 126, 146, 281
Styli 98, 126, 282 Surgical instruments 281, 295 Tanning 117, 125, 234-5, 244, 262, 268, 363, 399, 406, 413- 7, 421-3, 448 Thames Valley Archaeological Services 29, 31, 176, 192, 216, 236, 323, 332, 334, 404 Tiles, general 198, 277-8, 420 Flue tiles 86, 116, 420-1 Imprint/inscribed 80, 135 Legionary 21, 107, 357 Neronian stamped, 100, 141-2, 278, 389, 398, 420, 435 Relief-patterned, 278 Voussoir tiles 116 Toilet sets 281 Urine 234, 399, 414, 416-7 Vindolanda tablets 414 water supply 76, 148, 234, 394, 397, 422 Whetstones 279, 410 10. OTHER SITES MENTIONED IN THE TEXT Alcester (Warwicks.) 370, 415 Aldborough (N. Yorks.) 2 Aldermaston (Berks.) 12, 14, 329 Atw orth villa (Wilts.) 442 Augusta Raurica (Switz.) 415 Aulnut (France) 354 Autun (France) 122 Ave Ditch (Oxon.) 336 Avenches (Switz.) 365 Baldock (Herts.) 373-4, 377, 379 Barton Court Farm (Oxon.) 370 Basel (Switz.) 354, 364 Bath (Somerset) 140 Bath Gate Cemetery, Cirencester (Gloucs.) 383 Bedford Purlieus (Northants.) 426 Bersted (W. Sussex) 340 Bibracte (Berks. sic.) 7 Bibracte (France) 354 Bigbury Camp (Kent) 9 Bokerley Dyke (Dorset) 336 Box villa (Wilts.) 140, 442 Boxmoor villa (Herts.) 60 Bremenium (Northumb.) 79 Butt Road, Colchester (Essex) 383 Cadbury-Congresbury (Somerset) 442 Caerleon (Gwent) 364, 399, 412, 424 Caernarfon (Gwyneddm) 5 Caer Segont 5, 8-9, 276, 441 Caerwent (Gwent) 108, 134, 152, 280, 359 Caistor St Edmund (Norf.) 2-3, 42, 359, 412 Canterbury (Kent) 3, 9, 339-40, 354-5, 394 Carlisle (Cumb.) 438 Chedworth (Gloucs.) 216, 426 Chedworth villa (Gloucs.) 422 Chester (Cheshire) 11, 23, 424, 444 Chichester (W. Sussex) 12, 220, 329, 336, 337, 354-5, 374, 377, 399-400, 403, 411 Chilcomb (Hants.) 330 Cirencester (Gloucs.) 3, 108, 140, 215, 220, 299, 383, 400, 403, 408 Clemency (Lux.) 381 Clйry-sur-Somme (France) 343 Colchester (Essex) 1-3, 112, 329, 336-7, 354-5, 358, 363, 367, 374, 383, 387, 426-7, 435-6, 438 Colerne (Wilts.) 426 Colijnsplaat (Netherlands) 276 Condй-sur-Suippe (France) 355 Corsham (Wilts.) 140
Coventina's Well (Northumb.) 216 Danebury (Hants.) 374 Dinas Powys (Vale of Glam..) 442 Ditchley villa (Oxon.) 60, 77, 96, 147 Dorchester (Dorset) 370, 383, 424 Dorchester-on-Thames (Oxon.) 355, 368, 375 Eastern Cemetery (London) 377, 383 Exeter (Devon) 3, 399 Farnham (Surrey) 5-6 Farningham villa (Kent) 77, 96, 147 Fendoch (Tayside) 361-2 Fishbourne (W. Sussex) 92, 107, 277, 281, 337, 366, 398, 419, 435, 438 Folly Lane, St Albans (Herts.) 2, 86, 337, 341, 380-2, 387, 414 Gergovie (France) 354 Gloucester (Gloucs.) 3, 399 Gorhambury villa (Herts.) 419 Gosbecks, Colchester (Essex) 2, 86, 325, 380, 383, 387 Gussage All Saints (Dorset) 341, 370, 425 Hadrian's Wall 19, 79, 369, 439 Haltern (Germany) 360-1 Hambleden (Bucks.) 370 Hannington (Hants.) 401-2 Heathrow (Middlesex) 374 Henley (Oxon.) 5, 11 Heronbridge (Cheshire) 408 Hod Hill (Dorset) 248, 360-1 Hofheim (Germany) 360-1 Horkstow villa (Lincs.) 426 Ilchester (Somerset) 438 Inchtuthil (Perth.) 362 Isle of Thanet (Kent) 419 Kair Segent 5 Kempten (Germany) 377 Kingsholm (Gloucs.) 363 Lankhills Winchester (Hants.) 383 Lantwit Major villa(Glam.) 60 Leicester (Leic.) 3, 23, 415 Levroux (France) 354 Lexden, Colchester (Essex) 2, 374, 380, 383, 414 Lincoln (Lincs.) 3, 23, 408, 426 Little & Great Woodbury (Wilts.) 341 London 8, 22, 66, 220, 277, 281, 294, 355, 371-2, 399, 410- 1, 414-5, 417, 419, 424, 436, 438, 440 Longthorpe (Cambs.) 361-2 Lowbury Hill Temple (Oxon.) 420 Lullingstone villa (Kent) 415 Lunt (Warwick.) 176, 424, 429 Maidenhead (Berks.) 404 Mainz-Weisenau (Germany) 377 Marktbreit (Germany) 361 Maumbury Rings (Dorset) 220 Mildenhall (Wilts.) 403 Mortimer (Berks.) 11, 19, 38, 282, 330, 335, 339 Nanstallon (Corn.) 361 North Leigh (Oxon.) 336 North Oxfordshire Grim's Ditch (Oxon.) 336 Oberaden (Germany) 361 Oberwinterthur (Switz.) 365 Old Sarum (Wilts.) 27, 369 Ostia (Italy) 386, 406 Owslebury (Hants.) 370, 374 Padw orth (Berks.) 329 Pamber Forest (Hants.) 401-3 Pangbourne (Berks.) 404 Pen Llystyn (Gwyn.) 361 Pompeii (Italy) 386, 406, 410, 415, 422, 425
Pommiers (France) 354 Poundbury, Dorchester (Dorset) 370, 383 Reading (Berks.) 5, 7-8 Reichenhall (Germany) 377 Richborough (Kent) 141 Rivenhall villa (Essex) 112 Rome (Italy) 365-7, 386, 406, 410, 413, 424-5, 432-4 Rudston villa (E. Yorks.) 426 Salisbury Plain (Wilts.) 336 Salzburg (Austria) 377 Segontium 5, 8, 441 Seebruck (Germany) 377 Sources de l'Yonne (France) 354-5 Southern Oxfordshire Grim's Ditch (Oxon.) 336 Southwark (London) 370 St Albans (Herts.) 1-3, 328, 334-7, 352, 354-5, 358-9, 363, 374, 382, 386, 394, 400, 404, 411-2, 418-9, 436 St Stephen's cemetery, St Albans (Herts.) 377 Staines (Surrey) 8 Stanway Colchester (Essex) 2, 295, 380-1, 383, 414 Tadley (Hants.) 403 Thatcham (Berks.) 404 Tintagel (Corn.) 442 Titelberg (Lux.) 364 Tongeren (Belgium) 377, 415 Trentholme Drive, York (Yorks.) 377 Trier (Germany) 134, 280 Ufton (Berks.) 329 Uley (Gloucs.) 442 Valkenburg (Neth.) 361 Villeneuve-Saint-Germain (France) 354-5 Vindomis 5-8, 13, 21 Vindonissa (Switz.) 360, 364 Vitudurum (Switz.) 415 Waldgirmes (Germany) 340, 356, 365 Wallingford (Oxon.) 5 Wanborough (Wilts.) 403 Wargrave (Berks.) 404 Wederath (Germany) 377 Wessex 1, 11, 71, 336, 341, 441, 443 Welw yn Garden City (Herts.) 379 Westhampnett (W. Sussex) 373-6 Winchester (Hants.) 6, 7, 10, 281, 328, 330, 339, 355, 368, 374-5, 383, 400, 403, 443 Windsor Great Park (Berks.) 400 Winnall Down (Hants.) 341 Wroxeter (Shrop.) 2-3, 23, 35, 42-3, 140, 301, 358-9, 370- 1, 390, 408, 410, 412, 416-7,423, 442 Xanten (Germany) 107 York (Yorks.) 3, 377, 417, 426

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