Swedes and the Internet

Tags: Internet Year 2003, Swedes, World Internet Project, Internet statistics, Internet connection, broadband connections, broadband connection, The difference between men and women, Internet access, access, Sweden
Content: Swedes and the Internet Year 2003 Olle Findahl Presented at the World Internet Project Tokyo Meeting 13-15 July 2004 www.worldinternetinstitute.org
Swedes and the Internet Year 2003
2
Internet statistics in different ways
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 tried Internet
access to internet
access to
used
internet at internet at
home
home
used internet yesterday
2003 2002 2000
There are several ways to measure access and use of Internet. There are different measures to choose among and the sample used as the base for the statistics can vary. In comparison with traditional media statistics with of all agreed upon measures for newspaper reading and TVwatching, that is not the case for Internet statistics. The age groups included in the samples can be different like the time span that the measure for time refers to. As young people use Internet more than older people it is of great importance if the sample used as a base for the statistics is 18-85 years or restricted to 18-60 years. The younger the sample the higher the measure for access and use. It is not uncommon in international Internet statistics that elderly people are excluded. It is also important to make a distinction between access and use. Access is always higher than use as some people with access to Internet do not use it. Access can also be divided between access to Internet at home, at work, or anywhere. In Sweden, access to Internet at home, has always been high in an international perspective, as many Swedes have access to a computer at home. When it comes to the measure of use and users the time span is important. Is it enough that someone sometime has tested Internet to be counted as a Internet user, or has one to have use it during last year, or last month, last week or yesterday. The longer time interval the more users you will find. In this report and in a lot of international statistics like in World Internet Project, the week is used as the measure. But if you want to make a comparison with newspaper reading and TV-watching you should use a daily measure like use in an average day or yesterday. Whatever measure you use, however, access and Internet use have increased between year 2000 and 2003. (See diagram at the top). The highest figure, 80%, we get if we use the measure "access to Internet anywhere" in a restricted sample 18-64 years. The more official figure, used in international comparisons, is 65% related to access to Internet at home among Swedes-85 years.
Swedes and the Internet Year 2003
3
If we consider that figure, Internet at home, the Swedes will be at the top of the international Internet statistics. The diagram below is measured in a different way and includes those who have used Internet somewhere during a week and included are the countries that belong to the World Internet Project. There are still big differences between countries, but the distance between countries like Sweden and USA and many Other Countries have decreased as the spread of Internet has stagnated in USA and Sweden. The digital divide between rich and poor countries has, however, not vanished and seems to remain for many years to come.
% of population
% 80 71,1 70 66,1 60 50 40 30 20
60,9
59,2
50,4
Percent of Users 49 45,9 40,8 36,4
32,9 31,2
24,2 17,5
10
0 USA
Sweden
Korea
World Internet Institute dec 2003
5,3
UK
Japan Hongkong Germany Singapore
Spain
Macao
Italy
Taiwan Hungary
China
The penetration of Internet has slowed down but still continuous If we follow the diffusion curve (below) during the years we can notice the rapid increase during the last years of the 90-ties. Year 2000, when 50% of the Swedes had access to Internet, there is was a trend change and the diffusion curve starts to level out.
Access to computer and internet at home
100% Population
90
80 Computer 70
60
50
Internet
40
30
20
10
0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
Swedes and the Internet Year 2003
4
At that moment, year 2000, the development could have stopped and the Swedish population remained divided in two halves of about the same side; those with and those without Internet. In that case Internet would have been a technique only for some like computers were for many years. But the diffusion of Internet has continued and new persons are getting connected even if there are also some dropouts, and still there are many Swedes without access. If we look closer at what has happened during the last four years (diagram below) we can find a gradually increase of access to Internet at home in all age groups, except among the oldest. The development is very similar in all groups even among the youngest of the retired. The largest increase we can find among those 25-34 years old. Even if the access among those in the Middle Ages is above 80% there is no sign of ceiling effects.
Access to internet at home 2000, 2002, 2003
% of the population 100
90
80
70
70
60 60 54 50
81 69 58
40
30
20
10
0 18-24
25-34
84 76 69
81 72 64
62 56 48
35-44
45-54 2000 2002 2003
55-64
31 24 17 65-74
10 11 12 75- age
Swedes and the Internet Year 2003
5
The difference between men and women has decreased During the last years also the difference between men and women, when it comes to access to Internet has decreased. Among those middle-aged the difference has vanished but it is still to be found among the oldest and the youngest. Especially the difference between young men and women is noticeable. In an international perspective the difference between men and women is small in Sweden like in USA and in Taiwan, contrary to the situation in South Europe countries like Italy and Spain.
Percentage of men and women with access to internet
100
90 Men 80
70 Women 60
50
40
30
20
10
0 18-24
25-34
35-44
men women
45-54
55-64
65-74
age 75-
Access to Internet at home among women, year 2000, 2002, 2003 100
90
80 2003 70 2002 60 2000 50 40
2002
2003
30 2000 20
10
0
18-24
25-34
35-44
45-54
55-64
65-74
75-
Swedes and the Internet Year 2003
6
There are more Swedes with access to Internet at home than at work There are far from all occupations where there is access to Internet. It is twice as common among white-collar occupations compared to blue-collar occupations. Among the middleaged many have access to Internet both at home and at work while among the young and old ones it is mostly at home.
Acces to internet at home and at work
1 0 0 % population
90
80
70
at home
60 at work 50
40
30
20
10
0
18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74
75-
Swedes and the Internet Year 2003
7
Those without access to Internet?
% population 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 32 30 20 10 0 18-24
23 25-34
25 35-44
37 45-54
51 55-64
76 65-74
93 75-
Who do not have access to Internet? The majority of the old people do not have access to Internet but there are also 25-30 % without access in other age groups even among the youngest. If we make an estimation and calculate the number of people behind the figures we find that there are 750 000 Swedes more than 75 years old and 560 000 retired between 65 and 75 years without access. There are also 1 million young people and more than 1 million middle-aged without access. That means, if we sum up, that there are more than 3 millions of Swedes without access to the new information society.
More than 3 million Swedes do not have access to Internet estimated number 800000 700000
737297
600000
500000
400000 300000
335754
271483
312817
442117
570844
563162
200000
100000
0 15-24
25-34
35-44
45-54
55-64
65-74
75+ age
antal
Swedes and the Internet Year 2003
8
Percentage of different income-education groups with access to Internet
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
S5
high
S4
S3
education
S2 S1 low
high 5 3 income 1 low
The digital divide If we combine 5 groups of education, from Primary education to university exam, and 5 groups of income, from low to high, we come up with 25 combinations. We can than calculate the percent of those in every group with access to Internet (se the diagram above). In the back corner we can find the group with the highest education and the highest income and in the corner in the front we can find those with low education and low income (mostly old people). There is an increase in access with higher education and higher income. Among the groups in front there are 25-30% with access to Internet and among the groups in the back 90% or more have Internet. In spite of these differences, the equality in Sweden is better than in most other countries. Even if there is a digital divide in Sweden there is a larger divide in other countries (see diagram below). In Sweden most of the well educated and wealthy have access to Internet. The situation is the same in most rich countries around the world like USA, Korea and UK, but also in Spain, Japan, Germany and Italy. But contrary to many other countries the Internet in Sweden has spread widely to all occupation groups, and the young ones are not dominating. In the diagram below with data, gathered in the World Internet Project, we can see that the access to Internet in Sweden is the highest among the rich and also the highest among the poor.
Swedes and the Internet Year 2003
9
% 100 93 90
80 74 70
60
50
49
46
40
30
20
10
0 Sweden
Korea
Internet use among those with high and low income
25% with the highest income
25% with the lowest income
90 81
66 63 43 33 28
68 63 55 43
24
22
18
18
12
USA
Japan Germany
UK
Singapore Spain
Taiwan Macao
60
24
11
2
Italy
Hungary
Access to Broadband is more evenly spread As broadband connections in Sweden has been installed in many housing estates in the cities where many people live, the diffusion has not so clearly followed the socio-economic conditions as was seen earlier. However this is only the beginning of a development where economy will be important as many people thinks that broadband connections are too expensive.
Percentage of different income-education groups with broadband
100
90
80
70
46
60
48
47
50
4324 39
50
26
40
35
24
22
21 19
28
23
35 30 25
28
24
20
20
12 2012
19 17
10
17
14
0
high 5 4
education
3
5 7
2
6 2
6 high
5
4
3
income
low 1
1 low
Swedes and the Internet Year 2003
10
Why do not people get a computer and the Internet? As we have seen there are more than 3 millions of Swedes that are not connected to the Internet. Why? Are there economical or practical reasons? Is it too expensive or too complicated? Are people afraid or not at all interested? In the diagram below we can see that among the Swedes, 18 years or older, there are 26% without access to a computer at home. Still 10% more have a computer but are not connected and further 8% have access to Internet but do not use it. Left is 56% of the population as we can count as Internet users even if some of them use Internet very little. 23% of the population, 40% of the users, have got a broadband connection and 33% have Internet but not broadband Access to computer and internet 2003
internet and broadband 23%
no computer 26%
internet but not broadband 33%
computer but not internet 10% internet but no use 8%
What are then the reasons not to use Internet? Let us start with those without computer and Internet (See the first diagram on the next page). Most of them, around a million, say that they are not interested. Internet is not their cup of tea. Than there is a group (350 000) who gives practical explanations: they have just moved, are divorced etc. A smaller number, 13% of those without computer and Internet, gives economical reasons. There is though primarily the interest and a driving force to get Internet that is lacking. There can of course be different reasons behind that. The next group are those with a computer but without Internet. Also here is the reason primarily a lack of interest, but at the second place comes economy. It is too expensive to get an Internet connection and it is too expensive to be online. Together with economical problems are also practical problems, like a too old computer, a broken modem, or that they simply never succeeded to make a connection. There are also those who say that they do not want their children to be online. We also asked those with Internet but without a broadband connection if they wanted one and why they had not got one? They were all interested but it was too expensive. There are also those living in areas where a broadband connection is not possible of practical reasons.
Swedes and the Internet Year 2003
11
% of the population 18 16 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 not interested
Why not computer and Internet?
5,2 3,4
too expensive
practical problems
1,2 other obstacles
% of population 18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
3,2
2
0 not interested
Computer but why not Internet?
1,6 too expensive
0,8 practical problems
0,5 not possible
% of population 18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
1,6
0 not interested
Internet but why not broadband?
7,8
too expensive
1,9 practical problems
0,7 not possible
Swedes and the Internet Year 2003
12
Make a distinction between access and use and between use and use Not everyone with access to Internet use Internet. The reason can be lack of interest or lack of time or that someone else in the family is online all the time. answering the question: Who is using the Internet most? Many women answer; the children or the man. But also the use varies. Some people use Internet daily, other are much more restricted in their use and some use Internet only at special occasions. If we divide the Swedes according to their access and use we will get six groups: those who do not have a computer, those who have a computer but no Internet connection, those who are online rarely, those who use Internet a few times a week, and at last the daily users. 24% of the Swedes are daily users at home and they are the "real" Internet users. If we add those who use Internet daily at work (diagram at the bottom) but not at home we sum up to 35% of daily Internet users.
Internet use among Swedes at home and at work
no internet use 41% seldom at home or at work 7%
internet dagligen hemma 15% internet dagligen bеde hemma och arbetet 8% daily at work 12% few times a week at home or at work 17%
Swedes and the Internet Year 2003
13
Young men spend most time online As we seen before access to Internet was most common among the middle-aged, but when it comes to use at home young people devote most time online. Men use Internet more than women and this difference recurs in nearly all use of Internet. It does not matter if we measure time in minutes or as a frequency (daily, weekly, monthly). At work however the middle-aged use Internet the most and here the difference is smaller between men and women than at home.
Percent of men and women of different ages who are online daily
men
women
100
90
80 71 70
60
50
44
40
30
20
10
0 18-24
Men
50
Women
35
28
26
25-34
35-44
34 20 45-54
33 17 55-64
10 10
10
65-74 age
0 75-
A broadband connection belonged before only to the real Internet enthusiasts, but today when many family houses have broadband installed that is more common. As longer you have had Internet the longer time you will spend online and that is especially true for broadband users.
Time use of Internet according to experience Hours/week 18
16
15,5
14
Broadband
12 Telephone modem 10 8,5 8
6
5
4
3,15
2,5
3
2
0 <1,5 years
1,5-4 years
>4 years Internet experience
Swedes and the Internet Year 2003
14
Also the frequency of use is affected of the kind of connection you have. Two of three with a broadband connection use Internet daily compared to 19 % of the modem users. Most common for modem users are to be online a few time a week, while one of three use Internet less.
Frequency going online modem vs broadband
70
66
60
50
40
30
20
17
10
6
0 never
Broadband 43
Telephone modem
6 3 a few times a year
21 14
4
a few times a month
a few times a week
19 daily
E-mail still the most popular activity Nearly everyone going online use the possibility to send and receive e-mail. Then follows activities that have to do with personal interests and hobbies. Surfing and banking is also popular. If we compare broadband and modem users (see diagrams next page) we can see that those going online with broadband are more active and especially when it comes to music, contact searching, e-commerce and entertainment. This is a reflection of the way young heavy users goes online but it can also be a consequence of that a broadband connection opens up for more entertainment activities, compared to the more restricted practical use focused at usefulness characterising the modem user. But that is not the whole story. If we look more closely at other not so common activities we can see that even here a broadband connection makes a difference. It is not only music and contact searching that broadband users are devoted to. They go online even for other activities and they spend twice as much time to get information from the community and local authorities and about culture and politics.
Swedes and the Internet Year 2003
15
Online activities: A comparison between broadband and telephone modem users
Percent of broadband and modem users who are doing different activities on the net?
100
90
80
surfing 70 newspaper reading
60
entertainment
50
music
40
culture e-commerce
contact seeking
30
gaming
radio
20
10
0
e-maihlobbiebsankingsurfingnatnrteaiowvnesalplanpeewrsreadloincgaelnnitneewtretsarninanmtaioteinnoatnlanleawutshoritcieloosmccaumlltuaujunrteihtyoriintifeohsremaeal-ttchiooanmnmd emrecdeical ginofvtmerraundsmiincegnst/tpoacrkilamentgamisneageukcitniogncsontactspwoolirtkicast home radrioelationsreligion porno
tv
min/week average time among users 160 140
Time devoted to different activities on the net contact seeking
120 music
100
surfing
80
nespaper reading
60
games
radio
40
Broadband users
20 Telephone modem users 0 e-mailhobbiessnuartfiionngal news musicbankliosncegaekl ninneegwwcssopnatpacetrsreading trianvteerlnartaiodnioaelnnteewrtsainmentgaminmgecduincltaautlrioe&nhael aaluththoer-itcieolosmcmalearcucetohmotrrmaitdiueinnsigtysgtionovfceokrrmm.a/tpiaornliamentpoliticasuctionrselationsreligion
tv porno
Swedes and the Internet Year 2003
16
average min/week 25,0
Time as modem and broadband users spend at different activities
20,0
19,7
broadband 15,0
10,0 5,0 5,0 0,0 culture
7,9 modem 4,2
5,4 4,0
9,4 3,7
6,5 3,4
5,1 2,6
3,0 1,6
medical info
national authority
e-commerce
local authority
community info goverment/parliament
6,9 1,5 politics
Percentage of Internet users who inform themselves on special websites, 2002 and 2003
% 35
30 26 25
20 20
15 15
14
10
6
7
11 7
5 modem broadb 22000022 2003 2003
0 politics and political parties government and parlament
10 modem broadb 2002 2003 2003 the local community
31 21 15 local authorithies
30 27 16 modem broadb 2002 2003 2003 National authorities
Swedes and the Internet Year 2003
17
Television still the most important source of information Answering the question what medium that is the most important source of information and knowledge? Most people answer: Television, newspapers, radio and books as first alternatives and Internet as the last. That was the case year 2000 and so is also the case, even more clearly, year 2003. Most Swedes still consider Internet as a complement to other media.
5-point scale 5 4,5 4 3,6 3,6 3,5 3 2,5 2 1,5 1 0,5 0 TV
How important as source of information and knowledge?
3,7 3,5
3,5 3,2
3,8 3,3
3,2 3,2
Morning newspaper
Radio
Books
Journals
3 2,3 Internet
2000 2003
Two of three Swedes visit foreign websites In most countries, especially in the big countries, the Internet use is focused on websites in their own language from the home country. Even in a small country like Sweden dominates the national websites written in Swedish, but 63% of the Swedish internet users visit, at least sometimes, foreign websites.
How often do you buy goods from the net?
% of internet users 40 35 30 25 20 15 10% 10 5 0 2000
26% 2002
34% regularly some time 2003
Swedes and the Internet Year 2003
18
% of users 70
60
59 58
Common problems using Internet
50
48
40 40 36
30
23
23 23
20 16
19
19 18
10
0 The computer use to hang To surf is to wait and wait
Virus problems
telephone modem
Print problems Broadband
First time a a lot of problems
Problems with e-mail
worrying with data virus worrying with increasing controle possibilities personal information is not protected credit card fraud children have access to a lot of inappropriate material 0
Worrying
2003
2000
53
2000 55 2003 45 60 49
71 59
85 82
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Swedes and the Internet Year 2003
19
Do you feel involved in the new information society? % of population 70
60 60 No 50 40 35 Yes 30
56 No 42 Ё Yes
54 No 43 Yes
20
10
0 2000
2002
2003
no, not at all or only a little
Yes, fully or to a great extent
Swedes and the Internet Year 2003
20
Music and Internet
% of population 100 90
86 82 79
80
71
71
70 56 60
46
50
41
66 49
40
35
32
30 20 14 10 0 1
20
16 12
12 8
2 3 4 age
21
6 2 5
7
listen to music (week)
able to download music
1
listen to music online
0
buy music online
6
Swedes and the Internet Year 2003
21
100 moblle 90 80 computer 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 18-24
Access to different media technologies in different ages
internet
broadband
mobile
DVD
25-34
35-44
45-54
55-64
65-74
75-
% 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
Access to different media technologies at families with and without children
93 80
94 families with children 86
65 55
no children 32 20
34 19
mobile
computer
internet
broadband
dvd
Swedes and the Internet Year 2003
22
% of population 90
80 80
78
70
The Swedes access to new technology 74
60
50
40 34 30
20
10
0 video
mobile computer CDburner
22
9 6
DVD
network GPRSmobile
4 PDA
4 GPS
2
0,2
camera- 3G-mobile mobile

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