The art of electronics

Tags: Circuit ideas, Self-explanatory, Parallel communication, PC board, Direct memory access, Data communications concepts, noise generation, Bus signals, PC boards, Programming, Power switching, Frequency standards, Ground reference, Appendix, precision measurements, Power sources, shift register sequences, linear design example, Spectrum analysis, Micropower, voltage measurement, Active filter circuits, regulator circuits, Relaxation oscillators, Schmitt trigger, Feedback amplifier, Logarithmic amplifier, LC oscillators, transistor amplifiers, amplifiers, op-amp circuits, Discrete circuits, noise source, ACTIVE FILTERS, Noise measurements, Sequential functions, CMOS, Sequential logic, noise sources
Content: , LLE,CT~ _~C~~i.~ uC Paul Horowitz Harvard University Winffield H ill ROWLAND INSTITUTE FOR SCIENCE, CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS ~_~ CAMBRIDGE ", ~' UNIVERSITY PRESS
CONTENTS
List of tables xvi Preface xix Preface to first edition xxi CHAPTER1 FOUNDATIONS 1 Introduction 1 Voltage, current, and resistance 2 1 .01 Voltage and current 2 1 .02 Relationship between voltage and current: resistors 4 1 .03 Voltage dividers 8 1 .04 Voltage and current sources 9 1 .05 Th6venin's equivalent circuit 11 1 .06 Small-signal resistance 13 Signals 15 1 .07 Sinusoidal signals 15 1 .08 Signal amplitudes and decibels 16 1 .09 Other signals 17 1 .10 Logic levels 19 1 .11 Signal sources 19 Capacitors and ac circuits 20 1 .12 Capacitors 20 1 .13 RC circuits : V and I versus time 23 1 .14 Difi'erentiators 25 1 .15 Integrators 26 Inductors and transformers 28 1 .16 Inductors 28 1 .17 Transformers 28 Impedance and reactance 29
1 .18 Frequency analysis of reactive circuits 30 1 .19 RC filters 35 1 .20 Phasor diagrams 39 1 .21 "Poles" and decibels per octave 40 1 .22 Resonant circuits and active filters 41 1 .23 Other capacitor applications 42 1 .24 Th6venin's theorem generalized 44 Diodes and diode circuits 44 1 .25 Diodes 44 1 .26 Rectification 44 1 .27 Power-supply filtering 45 1 .28 Rectifier configurations for power supplies 46 1 .29 Regulators 48 1 .30 Circuit applications of diodes 48 1 .31 Inductive loads and diode protection 52 Other passive components 53 1 .32 Electromechanical devices 53 1 .33 Indicators 57 1 .34 Variable components 57 Additional exercises 58 CHAPTER 2 TRANSISTORS 61 Introduction 61 2.01 First transistor model: current amplifier 62 Some basic transistor circuits 63 2.02 Transistor switch 63 2.03 Emitter follower 65
Viii CONTENTS
2.04 Emitter followers as voltage regulators 68 2.05 Emitter follower biasing 69 2.06 Transistor current source 72 2.07 Common-emitter amplifier 76 2.08 Unity-gain phase splitter 77 2.09 Transconductance 78 Ebers-Moll model applied to basic transistor circuits 79 2.10 Improved transistor model: transconductance amplifier 79 2.11 The emitter follower revisited 81 2.12 The common-emitter amplifier revisited 82 2.13 Biasing the common-emitter amplifier 84 2 .14 Current mirrors 88 Some amplifier building blocks 91 2 .15 Push-pull output stages 91 2 .16 Darlington connection 94 2 .17 Bootstrapping 96 2 .18 Differential amplifiers 98 2 .19 Capacitance and Miller effect 102 2 .20 Field-effect transistors 104 Some typical transistor circuits 104 2 .21 Regulated power supply 104 2.22 Temperature controller 105 2.23 Simple logic with transistors and diodes 107 Self-explanatory circuits 107 2.24 Good circuits 107 2 .25 Bad circuits 107 Additional exercises 107 CHAPTER 3 FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS 113 Introduction 113 3.01 FET characteristics 114 3.02 FET types 117 3.03 Universal FET characteristics 119 3.04 FET drain characteristics 121 3.05 Manufacturing spread of FET characteristics 122
Basic FET circuits 124 3.06 JFET current sources 125 3.07 FET amplifiers 129 3.08 Source followers 133 3,09 FET gate current 135 3,10 FETs as variable resistors 138 FET switches 140 3.11 FET analog switches 141 3.12 Limitations of FET switches 144 3.13 Some FET analog switch examples 151 3.14 MOSFET logic and power switches 153 3.15 MOSFET handling precautions 169 Self-explanatory circuits 171 3.16 Circuit ideas 171 3.17 Bad circuits 171 vskip6pt CHAPTER 4 FEEDBACK AND OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS 175 Introduction 175 4.01 Introduction to feedback 175 4,02 Operational amplifiers 176 4.03 The golden rules 177 Basic op-amp circuits 177 4,04 Inverting amplifier 177 4.05 Noninverting amplifier 178 4.06 Follower 179 4.07 Current sources 180 4.08 Basic cautions for op-amp circuits 182 An op-amp smorgasbord 183 4.09 Linear circuits 183 4.10 Nonlinear circuits 187 A detailed look at op-amp behavior 188 4.11 Departure from ideal op-amp performance 189 4.12 Effects of op-amp limitations on circuit behavior 193 4.13 Low-power and programmable op-amps 210
CONTENTS
ix
A detailed look at selected op-amp circuits 213 4.14 Logarithmic amplifier 213 4.15 Active peak detector 217 4.16 Sample-and-hold 220 4.17 Active clamp 221 4.18 Absolute-value circuit 221 4.19 Integrators 222 4.20 Differentiators 224 Op-amp operation with a single power supply 224 4.21 Biasing single-supply ac amplifiers 225 4.22 Single-supply op-amps 225 Comparators and Schmitt trigger 229 4.23 Comparators 229 4.24 Schmitt trigger 231 Feedback with finite-gain amplifiers 232 4.25 Gain equation 232 4.26 Effects of feedback on amplifier circuits 233 4.27 Two examples of transistor amplifiers with feedback 236 Some typical op-amp circuits 238 4.28 General-purpose lab amplifier 238 4.29 Voltage-controlled oscillator 240 4.30 JFET linear switch with RON compensation 241 4.31 TTL zero-crossing detector 242 4.32 Load-current-sensing circuit 242 Feedback amplifier frequency compensation 242 4.33 Gain and phase shift versus frequency 243 4.34 Amplifier compensation methods 245 4.35 Frequency response of the feedback network 247 Self-explanatory circuits 250 4.36 Circuit ideas 250
4.37 Bad circuits 250 Additional exercises 251 CHAPTER 5 ACTIVE FILTERS AND OSCILLATORS 263 Active filters 263 5 .01 Frequency response with RC filters 263 5 .02 Ideal performance with LC filters 265 5 .03 Enter active filters: an overview 266 S .Q4 Key filter performance criteria 267 5 .05 Filter types 268 Active filter circuits 272 5.06 VCVS circuits 273 5.07 VCVS filter design using our simplified table 274 5.08 State-variable filters 276 5.09 Twin-T notch filters 279 5.10 Gyrator filter realizations 281 5.11 Switched-capacitor filters 281 Oscillators 284 5.12 Introduction to oscillators 284 5 .13 Relaxation oscillators 284 5 .14 The classic timer chip: the 555 286 5.15 Voltage-controlled oscillators 291 5.16 Quadrature oscillators 291 5.17 Wien bridge and LC oscillators 296 5.18 LC oscillators 297 5.19 Quartz-crystal oscillators 300 Self-explanatory circuits 303 5.20 Circuit ideas 303 Additional exercises 303 CHAPTER 6 VOLTAGE REGULATORS AND power circuits 307 Basic regulator circuits with the classic 723 307
x CONTENTS
6.01 The 723 regulator 307 6.02 Positive regulator 309 6.03 High-current regulator 311
CHAPTER 7 PRECISION CIRCUITS AND LOW-NOISE TECHNIQUES 391
Heat and power design 312 6.04 Power transistors and heat sinking 312 6.05 Foldback current limiting 316 6 .06 Overvoltage crowbars 317 6 .07 Further considerations in high- current power-supply design 320 6.08 Program mable supplies 321 6.09 Power-supply circuit example 323 6. 10 Other regulator 1Cs 325 The unregulated supply 325 6.11 ac line components 326 6.12 Transformer 328 6.13 do components 329
Precision op-amp design techniques 391 7.01 Precision versus dynamic range 391 7.02 Error budget 392 7.03 Example circuit: precision amplifier with automatic null offset 392 7,04 A precision-design error budget 394 7, 05oCn omepnt errors 395 7.06 Amplifier input errors 396 7.07 Amplifier output errors 403 7.08 Auto-zeroing (chopper-stabilized) amplifiers 415
Voltage references 331
Differential and Instrumentation
6.14 Zener diodes 332
amplifiers 42'1
6.15 Bandgap (VaE) reference 335
7.09 Differencing amplifier 421
Trhergeuela-ttoerrsmin3 al and four-4 rteminal 17o .10 Sintsatnrduan mrednttahtriee-oapm-plaimfpier 425
6,16 Three-terminal regulators 341 6.17 Three-terminal adjustable regulators 344 6.18 Additional comments about
Amplifier noise 428 7.11 Origins and kinds of noise 430 7.12 Signal-to-noise ratio and noise figure 433
3-terminal regulators 345 6.19 Switching regulators and dc-dc converters 355
7 .13 Transistor amplifier voltage and current noise 436 7 .14 Low-noise design with
Special-purpose power-supply circuits 368
6.20 High-voltage regulators 368
6. 21 -Lo, wnooisw e l-driftsulppies 374
6.22 Micropower regulators 376
6.23 Flying-capacitor (charge pump)
voltage converters 377
6.24 Constant-current supplies 6.25 Commercial power-supply
379
modules 382
transistors 438
7,15 FET noise 443
7.16 7.17
Selecting low-noise transistors 445 Noise in differential and feedback
amplifiers 445
Noise measurements and noise sources 449
7.18 Measurement without a noise source 449 7 .19 Measurement with noise
Self-explanatory circuits 384 6.26 Circuit ideas 384 6.27 Bad circuits 384 Additional exercises 384
source 450
7.20 7.21
Noise and signal sources 452 Bandwidth limiting and rms voltage
measurement 453
7.22 Noise potpourri 454
CONTENTS xi
Interference : shielding and grounding 455 7.23 Interference 455 7.24 Signal grounds 457 7.25 Grounding between instruments 457 Self-explanatory circuits 466 7.26 Circuit ideas 466 Additional exercises 466 CHAPTER 8 DIGITAL ELECTRONICS 471 Basic logic concepts 471 8.01 Digital versus analog 471 8.02 Logic states 472 8.03 Number codes 473 8.04 Gates and truth tables 478 8.05 Discrete circuits for gates 480 8.06 Gate circuit example 481 8.07 Assertion-level logic notation 482 TTL and CMOS 484 8.08 Catalog of common gates 484 8.09 IC gate circuits 485 8.10 TTL and CMOS characteristics 486 8.11 Three-state and open-collector devices 487 Combinational logic 490 8.12 Logic identities 491 8.13 Minimization and Karnaugh maps 492 8.14 Combinational functions available as ICs 493 8 .15 Implementing arbitrary truth tables 500 sequential logic 504 8.16 Devices with memory : flipflops 504 8.17 Clocked flip-flops 507 8.18 Combining memory and gates: sequential logic 512 8.19 Synchronizer 515
Monostable multivibrators 517 8.20 One-shot characteristics 517 8.21 Monostable circuit example 519 8.22 Cautionary notes about monostables 519 8.23 Timing with counters 522 Sequential functions available as ICs 523 8.24 Latches and registers 523 8.25 Counters 524 8.26 Shift registers 525 8.27 Sequential PALS 527 8.28 Miscellaneous sequential functions 541 Some typical digital circuits 544 8.29 Modulo-n counter: a timing example 544 8.30 Multiplexed LED digital display 546 8.31 Sidereal telescope drive 548 8.32 An n-pulse generator 548 Logic pathology 551 8.33 do problems 551 8.34 Switching problems 552 8.35 Congenital weaknesses of TTL and CMOS 554 Self-explanatory circuits 556 8.36 Circuit ideas 556 8.37 Bad circuits 556 Additional exercises 556 CHAPTER 9 DIGITAL MEETS ANALOG 565 CMOS and TTL logic interfacing 565 9.01 Logic family chronology 565 9.02 input and output characteristics 570 9.03 Interfacing between logic families 572 9.04 Driving CMOS amd TTL inputs 575 9.05 Driving digital logic from comparators and op-amps 577
xii CONTENTS
9 .06 Some comments about logic inputs 579 9.07 Comparators 580 9.08 Driving external digital loads from CMOS and TTL 582 9.09 NMOS LSI interfacing 588 9.10 Opto-electronics 590
Digital signals and long wires 599
9.11 On-board interconnections 599 9.12 Intercard connections 601 9.13 Data buses 602 9 .14 Driving cables 603
Analog/digital conversion 612
9 .15 Introduction to AID conversion 612 9.16 Digital-to-analog converters (DACs) 614 9.17 Time-domain (averaging) DACs 618 9 .18 Multiplying DACs 619 9 .19 Choosing a DAC 619 9.20 Analog-to-digital converters 621 9.21 Charge-balancing techniques 626 9.22 Some unusual AID and DIA converters 630 9.23 Choosing an ADC 631
Some AID conversion examples 636 9.24 16-Channel AID data-acquisition system d36 9.25 32-Digit voltmeter 638 9.26 Coulomb meter 640
Phase-locked loops 641
9.27 Introduction to phase-locked loops 641 9.28 PLL design 646 9.29 Design example: frequency multiplier 647 9 .30 PLL capture and lock 651 9.31 Some PLL applications 652
Pseudo-random bit generation 655
sequences
and
noise
9.32 Digital noise generation 655
9 .33 Feedback shift register sequences 655 9 .34 Analog noise generation from maximal-length sequences 658 9 .35 Power spectrum of shift register sequences 658 9 .36 Low-pass filtering 660 9 .37 Wrap-up 661 9 .38 digital filters 664 Self-explanatory circuits 667 9.39 Circuit ideas 667 9.40 Bad circuits 668 Additional exercises 668 Chapter 10 MICROCOMPUTERS 673 Minicomputers, microcomputers, and microprocessors 673 10.0 1 Computer architecture 674 A computer instruction set 678 10.02 assembly language and machine language 678 10.03 Simplified 808618 instruction set 679 10.04 A programming example 683 Bus signals and Interfacing 684 10 .05 Fundamental bus signals: data, address, strobe 684 10.06 Programmed 110: data out 685 10 .07 Programmed 110: data in 689 10 .08 Programmed 110: status registers 690 10 .09 Interrupts 693 10 .10 Interrupt handling 695 10 .11 Interrupts in general 697 10 .12 Direct memory access 701 10.13 Summary of the IBM PC's bus signals 704 10.14 Synchronous versus aysnhcronous bus communication 707 10 .15 Other microcomputer buses 708 10 .16 Connecting peripherals to the computer 711
CONTENTS xiii
Software system concepts 714 10.17 Programming 714 10.18 Operating systems, files, and use of memory 716 data communications concepts 719 10.19 Serial communication and ASCII 720 10.20 Parallel communication: Centronics, SCSI, IPI, GPIB (488) 730 10.21 Local Area Networks 734 10.22 Interface example: hardware data packing 736 10.23 Number formats 738 CHAPTER 11 MICROPROCESSORS 743 A detailed look at the 68008 744 11 .01 Registers, memory, and IIO 744 11 .02 Instruction set and addressing 745 11 .03 Machine-language representation 750 11 .04 Bus signals 753 A complete design example: analog signal averager 760 11 .05 Circuit design 760 11 .06 Programming: defining the task 774 11 .07 Programming: details 777 11 .08 Performance 796 11 .09 Some afterthoughts 797 Microprocessor support chips 799 11 .10 Medium-scale integration 800 11 .11 Peripheral LSI chips 802 11 .12 Memory 812 11 .13 Other microprocessors 820 11 .14 Emulators, development systems, logic analyzers, and evaluation boards 821
Chapter 12 ELECTRONIC CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES 827 Prototyping methods 827 12.01 Breadboards 827 12 .02 PC prototyping boards 828 12 .03 Wire-Wrap panels 828 Printed circuits 830 12 .04 PC board fabrication 830 12 .05 PC board design 835 12 .06 Stuffing PC boards 838 12 .07 Some further thoughts on PC boards 840 12 .08 Advanced techniques 841 Instrument construction 852 12 .09 Housing circuit boards in an instrument 852 12 .10 Cabinets 854 12 .11 Construction hints 855 12 .12 Cooling 855 12 .13 Some electrical hints 858 12 .14 Where to get components 860 CHAPTER13 HIGH-FREQUENCY AND HIGH-SPEED TECHNIQUES 863 High-frequency amplifiers 863 13.01 Transistor amplifiers at high frequencies: first look 863 13.02 High-frequency amplifiers : the ac model 864 13.03 A high-frequency calculation example 866 13.04 High-frequency amplifier configurations 868 13.05 A wideband design example 869 13.06 Some refinements to the ac model 872 13.07 The shunt-series pair 872 13.08 Modular amplifiers 873 Radiofrequency circuit elements 879 13 .09 Transmission lines 879
xiv CONTENTS
13 .10 Stubs, baluns, and transformers 881 13.11 Tuned amplifiers 882 13.12 Radiofrequency circuit elements 884 13.13 Measuring amplitude or power 888 Radiofrequency communications : AM 892 13.14 Some communications concepts 892 13.15 Amplitude modulation 894 13 .16 Superheterodyne receiver 895 Advanced modulation methods 897 13.17 Single sideband 897 13.18 Frequency modulation 898 13.19 Frequency-shift keying 900 13.20 Pulse-modulation schemes 900 Radiofrequency circuit tricks 902 13.21 Special Construction techniques 902 13.22 Exotic RF amplifiers and devices 903 High-speed switching 904 13.23 Transistor model and equations 905 13.24 Analog modeling tools 908 Some switching-speed examples 909 13 .25 High-voltage driver 909 13 .26 Open-collector bus driver 910 13 .27 Example: photomultiplier preamp 911 Self-explanatory circuits 913 13.28 Circuit ideas 913 Additional exercises 913 CHAPTER 14 LOW-POWER DESIGN 917 Introduction 917 14.01 Low-power applications 918
Power sources 920 14.02 Battery types 920 14,03 Wall-plug-in units 931 14,04 solar cells 932 14.05 Signal contents 933 Power switching and micropower regulators 938 14.06 Power switching 938 14.07 Micropower regulators 941 14.08 Ground reference 944 14.09 Micropower voltage references and temperature sensors 948 Linear micropower design techniques 948 14,10 Problems of micropower linear design 950 14.11 Discrete linear design example 950 14 .12 Micropower operational amplifiers 951 14 .13 Micropower comparators 965 14.14 Micropower timers and oscillators 965 Micropower digital design 969 14.15 CMOS families 969 14.16 Keeping CMOS low power 970 14.17 Micropower microprocessors and peripherals 974 14.18 Microprocessor design example: degree-day logger 978 Self-explanatory circuits 985 14 .19 Circuit ideas 9$5 Chapter 15 MEASUREMENTS AND signal processing , 987 Overview 987 Measurement transducers 988 15 .01 Temperature 988 15 .02 Light level 996 15 .03 Strain and displacement 1001
CONTENTS xv
15.04 Acceleration, pressure, force, velocity 1004 15.05 magnetic field 1007 15 .06 Vacuum gauges 1007 15 .07 Particle detectors 1008 15 .08 Biological and chemical voltage probes 1012 Precision standards and precision measurements 1016 15 .09 Frequency standards 1016 15 .10 Frequency, period, and time- interval measurements 1019 15.11 Voltage and resistance standards and measurements 1025 Bandwidth-narrowing techniques 1026 15.12 The problem of signal-to-noise ratio 1026 15.13 Signal averaging and multichannel averaging 1026 15 .14 Making a signal periodic 1030 15 .15 Lock-in detection 1031 15.16 Pulse-height analysis 1034 15.17 Time-to-amplitude converters 1035 Spectrum analysis and Fourier transforms 1035 15.18 Spectrum analyzers 1035 15.19 Off-line spectrum analysis 1038 Self-explanatory circuits 1038 15.20 Circuit ideas 1038
APPENDIXES 1043 Appendix A The oscilloscope 1045 Appendix B Math review 1050 Appendix C The 5% resistor color code 1053 Appendix D 1% Precision resistors 1054 Appendix E How to draw Schematic diagrams 1056 Appendix F Load lines ].059 Appendix G Ransistor saturation 1062 Appendix H LC Butterworth filters 1064 Appendix )( Electronics magazines and journals 1068 Appendix J IC prefixes 1069 Appendix K Data sheets 1072 2N4400-1 NPN transistor 1073 LF411-12 JFET operational amplifier 1078 LM317 3-terminal adjustable regulator 1086 Bibliography 1095 Index 1101

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