The Churchill Center

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Content: ST HOUR Autumn 1997 · Number 96 furchill Center and International Churchill Societies
THE CHURCHILL CENTER THE INTERNATIONAL CHURCHILL SOCIETIES AUSTRALIA · CANADA · United Kingdom · UNITED STATES PATRON: THE LADY SOAMES, D. B. E. The Churchill Center is an international non-profit organization which encourages study of the life and thought of Winston S. Churchill; fosters research about his speeches, writings and deeds; advances knowledge of his example as a statesman; and, by pro- grammes of teaching and publishing, imparts that learning to men, women and young people around the world. The Center also sponsors Finest Hour, special publications, international conferences and tours. The Center was created by the International Churchill Societies, founded in 1968 to preserve interest in and knowledge of the life, philosophy and heritage of the Rt. Hon. Sir Winston S. Churchill, which are independent affiliates of the Center. Website:
The Churchill Center, continued
ICS Canada, continued
A non-profit corporation, IRS No. 02-0482584
TRUSTEES The Hon. Celia Sandys,
MEMBERSHIP SECRETARY Derek Brownleader, 1847 Stonewood Dr., Baton Rouge LA 70816. Tel. (504) 752-3313
John G. Plumpton, Executive Secretary 130 Collingsbrook Blvd, Agincourt Ont. M1W 1M7
Fred Farrow, George A. Lewis, Ambassador Paul H. Robinson, Jr., The Hon. Caspar W. Weinberger
DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE Garnet R. Barber, Colin D. Clark,
Tel. (416) 497-5349 Fax. (416) 395-4587 Email: [email protected]
BOARD OF GOVERNORS (1996-1997) William C. Ives, Richard M. Langworth,
Max L. Kleinman, James F. Lane, Richard M. Langworth, Parker H. Lee III, Michael W. Michelson, Alex M. Worth, Jr. Consultant: Anthony Gilles
Jeanette Webber, Membership Secretary 3256 Rymal Road, Mississauga Ont. L4Y 3C1 Tel. (905) 279-5169
Parker H. Lee III, Dr. John H. Mather, Dr. Cyril Mazansky, James W. Muller, John G. Plumpton, Douglas S. Russell,
l.C.S. REPRESENTATIVES Garnet R. Barber, ICS Canada
Bill Milligan, Treasurer 54 Sir Galahad Place, Markham Ont. L3P 3S5
Jacqueline Dean Witter
Nigel Knocker, ICS United Kingdom
The Other Club of Ontario
OFFICERS Richard M. Langworth, President
Bernard Webber, President 3256 Rymal Rd., Mississauga, Ont. L4Y 3C1
181 Burrage Road, Hopkinton NH 03229 Tel. (603) 746-4433, Fax. (603) 746-4260 Email: [email protected] William C. Ives, Vice President 77 W. Wacker Dr., 43rd fir., Chicago IL 60601 Tel. (312) 845-5798, Fax. (312) 845-5828
Listserv: [email protected] John Plumpton, Editor, [email protected] Moderator: [email protected] Books and FH: [email protected] Associates: Bev Carr, [email protected], Ian Langworth, [email protected] INVESTMENT COMMITTEE
Churchill Society of Vancouver (Affiliated) Leslie A. Strike, President 701-1565 Esquimalt Av., W.Vancouver BC V7V 1R4 ICS UNITED KINGDOM Charity Registered in England No. 800030
Parker H. Lee, III, Executive Director 117 Hance Road, Fair Haven NJ 07704 Tel. (888) WSC-1874, Fax. (908) 758-9350 Email: [email protected]
John H. Mather, Douglas S. Russell, Parker H. Lee, III CHURCHILL STORES
Nigel Knocker, Chairman PO Box 1267, Melksham, Wilts. SN12 6GQ Tel. & Fax. (01380) 828609
(Back Issues and Sales Department)
ACADEMIC ADVISORS Professor James W. Muller, Chairman University of Alaska, Anchorage
Gail Greenly PO Box 96, Contoocook NH 03229 Tel. (603) 746-3452 Fax (603) 746-6963
The Hon. Celia Sandys (Chairman); The Duke of Marlborough, JP, DL; David Boler; David J. Porter;
1518 Airport Hts. Dr., Anchorage AK 99508 Email: [email protected]
Richard G. G. Haslam-Hopwood;
Tel. (907) 786-4740 Fax. (907) 786-4647
Geoffrey Wheeler
Email: [email protected]
Prof. Paul Addison, University of Edinburgh Dr. Larry P. Arnn, President,
Ambassador Paul H. Robinson, Jr., Chairman 208 S. LaSalle St., Chicago IL 60604 Tel. (800) 621-1917, Fax. (312) 726-9474
Paul H. Courteney, John Glanvill Smith, Joan Harris, Timothy Hicks, Michael Kelion, Nigel Knocker, Fred Lockwood,
The Claremont Institute
Dominic Walters, Wylma Wayne
Prof. Kirk Emmert, Kenyon College
Prof. Barry M. Gough,
Subscriptions and renewals: Robin Linke,
Wilfrid Laurier University
181 Jersey Street, Wembley, WA 6014
A non-profit corporation, IRS No. 02-0365444
Prof. Warren F. Kimball, Rutgers University
Prof. Patrick J.C. Powers,
ACT Representative: David Widdowson
Ambassador Paul H. Robinson, Jr.
Southern New England School of Law
167 Chuculba Crescent, Giralang, ACT 2617 Chairman of the Board of Trustees
Prof. Paul A. Rahe, University ofTulsa Prof. John A. Ramsden,
208 South LaSalle Street, Chicago IL 60604 Tel. (800) 621-1917
Queen Mary &Westfield College, Univ. of LondoRnevenue Canada No. 0732701-21-13
Sir Martin Gilbert, Merton College, Oxford
Ambassador Kenneth W. Taylor, Hon. Chairman TRUSTEES
Dr. Jeffrey Wallin, President,
The American Academy for Liberal Education Garnet R. Barber, President
Prof. Manfred Weidhorn,
4 Snowshoe Cres., Thornhill, Ont. L3T 4M6
Yeshiva University
Tel. (905) 881-8550
Richard M. Langworth; George A. LewisWendy Russell Reves; The Hon. Celia ' Sandys; The Lady Soames, DBE; The Hon. Caspar W. Weinberger
Autumn 1997
Journal of The Churchill Center and Societies
Number 96
5 Winston Churchill's Life of Marlborough Fifteen scholars from Britain, Canada and the United States convene at Blenheim to consider what Leo Strauss called "the greatest historical work written in our century" in the Third Churchill Center Symposium
28 Churchill and Music No musician and nearly tone-deaf, the Great Man nevertheless had his preferences: the simple songs were best, and the old songs were best of all by Jill Kendall
14 The Dream in Ontario Fourteenth International Churchill Conference Niagara Falls and Toronto, 15-19 October 1997 by John G. Plumpton, photographs by Jonah Triebwasser 19 Your Invitation to the Ninth Churchill Tour An assortment of Churchill associations: Blenheim, the Lake District, Edinburgh; and Robert Hardy's Yorkshire: May 14th-26th, 1998 21 The Winston Churchill Memorial Trust A unique living memorial to Sir Winston by Sir Henry Beverley 24 From the Canon: "Man Overboard!" by Winston S. Churchill, 1899 26 The Memoirs of U. S. Grant and W. S. Churchill Did Churchill Read Grant's Memoirs? by Manfred Weidhorn
BOOKS, ARTS & CURIOSITIES: 34 Two of the best specialized Churchill studies have just been published, says Richard M. Langworth: Martin Gilbert's Churchill-Reves Correspondence and David Stafford's Churchill and Secret Service.... Woods Corner asks: What do readers think are the best books about Churchill? Thirty nominees are considered ... Alexander Justice appreciates A. P. Herbert's classic, Independent Member.... Douglas Hall takes the Churchill Commemoratives Calendar into the 1965 Memorials. 41 The Royal Air Force Battle of Britain Memorial Flight Vintage Aircraft Commemorate "The Few" by Douglas J. Hall 47 Moments in Time A chance photograph leads us to the recollection of a powerful Churchill speech from 1936 photo courtesy Dorothy Jones
4 Amid These Storms 7 International Datelines 13 Riddles, Mysteries, Enigmas 20 23 Wit & Wisdom 32 Action This Day 37 Woods Corner 42 Churchill in Stamps 44 Despatch Box 45 Recipes From No. 10 46 Churchilltrivia 47 Ampersand 48 Immortal Words
Cover: A portrait of Winston Churchill circa 1942, given by the artist, Adrian Hill, to an auction in aid of the Red Cross. Born in 1895, Adrian Hill was official war artist on the Western Front 1917-19 and published many books on art including The Pleasures of Painting (1952). He lived for some years in Midhurst, Sussex. Published by kind permission of Peter Johnson, a Churchill Center founding member. The original may be viewed at Ackermann & Johnson Ltd., 27 Lowndes Street, London SW1X 9HY, telephone (0171) 235-6464.
FINEST HOUR ISSN 0882-3715 Barbara F. Langworth, Publisher Richard M Langworth, Editor Post Office Box 385 Hopkinton, New Hampshire 03229 USA Tel. (603) 746-4433 Email: [email protected] Senior Editors John G. Plumpton 130 Collingsbrook Blvd. Agincourt, Ontario M1W 1M7 Canada Email: [email protected] Ron Cynewulf Robbins 198 St. Charles St. Victoria, BC, V8S 3M7 Canada News Editor John Frost 8 Monks Ave, New Barnet, Herts. EN5 1D8 England Features Editor Douglas J. Hall 183A Somerby Hill, Grantham Lines. NG31 7HA England Editorial Assistant Gail Greenly Contributors Sir Martin Gilbert, United Kingdom George Richard, Australia James W. Muller, United States David Boler, United Kingdom Wm. John Shepherd, United States Curt Zoller, United States Dr. John Mather, United States FINEST HOUR is published quarterly for The Churchill Center and the International Churchill Societies, which offer several levels of support in their respective currencies. Membership applications and changes of address should be sent to the appropriate national offices on page 2. Permission to mail at non-profit rates in the USA granted by the US Postal Service, Concord, NH, Permit no. 1524. Copyright 1997. All rights reserved. Designed and produced for The Churchill Center by Dragonwyck Publishing Inc. Production by New England Foil Stamping Inc. Printed by Reprographics Inc. Made in U.S.A.
I've recently heard some "terminological inexactitudes" about the Churchill Societies versus The Churchill Center which I'd like to allay in my space here. The most amazing was a remark at the Conference in Toronto, while we were explaining the purposes of The Churchill Center: "This is the end of the Churchill Societies." No, this is the salvation of the Churchill Societies. After the 1995 Boston conference an ICS director, Cyril Mazansky, brought us down to earth by demanding "strategic planning." Many resisted. We had just held our greatest conference ever; membership was at record levels; who needed strategic planning? He kept at us, however, and eventually, a meeting was devoted to the subject. We asked each director what he or she saw for ICS ten or twenty years on. With only one exception, each predicted a winding down of membership and activities, as those who remember Churchill from their own lives pass on. Now we could have said, "So what?" We could have gone on enjoying ourselves with no thought of the future, never addressing the question as to whether there is something about our movement worth leaving for those who come after us. We did not. We rejected that course as short-sighted and, ultimately, fatal. What then could we do--we in ICS--to "keep the memory green and the record accurate," not just in our time, but for all time? The answer was The Churchill Center, which focuses on young people. Who else do you focus on, if you want an idea to live? It only takes a few to keep the flame alive. Look at ICS. It was soon clear that The Churchill Center idea had incredible appeal. Many look upon ICS as a source of pleasure and knowledge, a spawner of friendships. But none think of it as something with which to impress Winston Churchill's legacy indelibly on the twenty-first century. People previously content to pay only their modest annual ICS subscription were suddenly stirred up--inspired--by an opportunity to share in Churchill's immortality. In 1995,1 thought we'd be lucky to secure 200 Founding Members; we secured 600. In 1997,1 had doubts about our endowment campaign; with the help of just twenty people before it even formally started, we were halfway toward our first million dollars. The traditional package of publications and activities the Societies have always provided are here to stay. With the help of The Churchill Center, all the things you have come to enjoy in ICS are guaranteed to last forever. Finest Hour is not "going to disappear"; as the Center's journal as well as the Society's, it will probably get larger. Though we have found some interesting professors to advise and speak to us, our Board remains a layman's Board. We are not going to spend oodles of time fund-raising; if anything, we will be doing less of it because once endowed, we won't be so desperate to make ends meet. International Churchill Conferences are not going to change, but let me tell you something: the people able to run them on a volunteer basis are disappearing. John Plumpton, Barbara Langworth, David Boler and Randy Barber, who with their friends ran the 199497 conferences we so enjoyed, are declared retired. If we want to hold a conference in Phoenix, or Miami, or Edinburgh, or Seattle, or Quebec, ICS does not have the volunteer infrastructure to do it. Amply endowed, The Churchill Center will have staff members to help in this area. That is why I am so excited about The Churchill Center--why I and others, and maybe you already, have backed it by becoming Churchill Center Associates. It would be inconceivable that I, having founded ICS and enjoyed its activities and camaraderie for thirty years, could now wish to destroy it. More than anything else we've done, The Churchill Center offers us the opportunity to build on what we enjoy about ICS--to ensure that it never dies. I plan to be around The Churchill Center and International Churchill Societies for quite awhile before I shuffle off. I expect most reading these words have the same intentions. Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties. Let us thank God that we have the opportunity to play such a role in perpetuating the legacy of that unique spirit; and to be able to do so with all the conviviality and fun we have come to expect from the International Churchill Societies. RICHARD M. LANGWORTH
The Churchill Center Report: Autumn-Winter 199? The Churchill Center was founded by the International Churchill Societies to encourage study of the life and thought of Sir Winston Churchill; to foster research about his speeches, writings and deeds; to advance knowledge of his example as a states- man; and, by programs of teaching and publishing, to impart that learning to men, women and young people around the world. Programs include courses, symposia, libraries, an annual Churchill Lecture, visiting professorships, seminars, publishing subventions, fellowships, internet website and ICS activities including Finest Hour and other ICS events.
"Winston Churchill s Lire or Maryborough" Third Churchill Symposium, Blenheim, May 14-17th
Our third and most ambitious academic symposium takes as its subject Winston Churchill's life of John Churchill, First Duke of Marlborough, the man he considered the paramount founder of modern Britain. Churchill's preference for political and military history, written from the standpoint of biography, over economic and social history, is out of fashion. Although often called Churchill's most impressive work, Marlborough has fallen into neglect among both academic and general readers and is not currently in print. Scholarly opinions are mixed, ranging from Leo Strauss's claim that the book is "the greatest historical work written in our century, an inexhaustible mine of political wisdom and understanding," to the view that it is no more than hagiography or special pleading. We aim to rescue Marlborough from oblivion by bringing together academic experts on many aspects of this monumental work, from Britain's relations with its allies in the age of Marlborough to the originality of Marlborough's military art, from Churchill's treatment of Macaulay and other historians to what he learned from reflecting on his distinguished forebear about how to defeat Hitler, from Marlborough's part in the Glorious Revolution and the making of modern Britain to his deft but not unerring management of parliamentary politics in the age of Queen Anne. Our concern is both John Churchill and Winston Churchill, rather than either one to the exclusion of the other. Given the magnitude of the subject, and to produce a comprehensive book, we have invited fifteen scholars to write papers, several more than for previous symposia. The Duke of Marlborough has made the facilities available, and our Patron Lady Soames will be present.
Presiding as Symposiarch is Dr. Piers Brendon, Keeper, Churchill Archives Centre, Churchill College, Cambridge. Symposiasts include Robert Eden (Hillsdale College, Michigan), Kirk Emmert (Kenyon College, Ohio), Morton J. Frisch (Northern Illinois University, Illinois), Sir Martin Gilbert (Merton College, Oxford), J. R. Jones (University of East Anglia, Norwich), John H. Mather, MD (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine), James W. Muller (University of Alaska Anchorage), Paul A. Rahe (University of Tulsa), W. A. Speck (University of Leeds), David Stafford (University of Edinburgh), Geoffrey Treasure (Herefordshire), Stephen Saunders Webb (Syracuse University), Melissa Lane (King's College, Oxford) and Barry Gough (Wilfrid Laurier University). Symposiasts will arrive at Wroxton College, where they will be accommodated, for an orientation meeting followed by a participants' dinner on May 14th. Actual sessions will occur at the SpencerChurchill Conference Room at Blenheim in the morning and afternoon on May 15th and 16th. A dinner to mark the occasion occurs at the Orangery, Blenheim, on the 16th, attended by Lady Soames and other members of the Churchill family. The papers produced will later be published as a book, made available to scholars, and be represented in abstract on the Churchill Center website. Because of limited capacity at both the Conference Room and the Orangery, British founding members of The Churchill Center are being invited to the Friday sessions and members of the 9th Churchill Tour to Saturday sessions and the Blenheim dinner; tickets to the dinner will also be available to Britons through Nigel Knocker, chairman, ICS United Kingdom. address on page 2 >>
DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE, GOVERNORS, UK & CANADA REPRESENTATIVES MEET The Churchill Center Governors' Annual General Meeting at the Army & Navy Club, Washington on 1415 November, was augmented for the first time by representatives of the International Churchill Societies of Canada (Randy Barber) and the UK (Nigel Knocker). Paul Robinson, chairman of Trustees of ICS United States, also attended. The Center is most grateful to the directors of ICS Canada and UK for sending their President and Chairman respectively to our meetings and hope that they will continue to lend their counsel and advice, which were instrumental in discussing the international programs and activities of the Center and ICS. At this meeting, The Churchill Center set its 1998 budget (about $400,000), re-elected William Ives and John Plumpton as Governors for 1998-2000, appointed a nominating committee to fill open seats, appointed three British scholars, Sir Martin Gilbert, Paul Addison and John A. Ramsden, to the Academic Advisory Board, discussed 1998-99 ICS and CC activities, set dates for board meetings (see below), readopted scholarships for an" American and Canadian student at the Centre for Second World War Studies, University of Edinburgh; adopted · guidelines for Center Trustees and Center publishing activities, and distributed project proposals by Glynne Jenkins, Michael McRobbie and John H. Mather for consideration in the Spring.
ENDOWMENT CAMPAIGN BEGINS Meeting on November 13-14th the Development Committee and Governors formally launched the Endowment Campaign, which is in full flood as you read this. Intrinsic to this effort are the Gregory Peck video and a fascinating new Prospectus on Giving, listing the many ways in which you can benefit yourself and your heirs while aiding the Center and becoming a Churchill Center Associate. If you are interested in the Associates Program, and have not yet been contacted by one of our Governors or committee members, please telephone Parker H. Lee III, toll-free at 888-WSC-1874. CHURCHILL AS PEACEMAKER LAUNCHED In Washington August 29th, the Center launched its first book developed out of a symposium, which is now available through the New Book Service. Churchill as Peacemaker, edited by James W Muller, challenges the conventional view of Churchill as a Man of War, bringing together ten readable essays by scholars from Britain, South Africa and the United States, most of them based on papers delivered at the First Churchill Symposium in 1994. Covering conflict from Queen Victoria's "little wars" to the Cold War, the book provides a fascinating, hitherto unavailable examination of Churchill's successes and failures as a peacemaker. Churchill as Peacemaker is available for $50 (+$5 shipping), a $10 discount, from the New Book Service, c/o the Editor, Finest Hour.
THE CHURCHILL CALENDAR Local event organizers are welcome to send entries for this calendar; owing to our quarterly schedule, however, we need copy at least three months in advance. 1998 5 January: "Painting as a Pastime" reception with David Coombs hosted by ICS, UK, Sotheby's, 34-35 New Bond St., London 5-17 January: "Painting as a Pastime" Exhibition of Churchill Paintings, Sotheby's, 34-35 New Bond Street, London 6-7 March: Churchill Center Board of Governors Spring Meeting, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 26 April: ICS United Kingdom Annual General Meeting, RAF Museum, Hendon 10 May (tentative): Launch of A Connoisseur's Guide to the Books of Winston Churchill, Brassey's (UK) Ltd. 14-17 May: Third Churchill Center Symposium, "Winston Churchill's Life of Marlboro ugh," Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire 14-26 May: Ninth International Churchill Tour: Blenheim, Lake District, Edinburgh, Scottish Lowlands, Yorkshire 15 June: International Churchill Society Thirtieth Anniversary (founded at Camp Hill, Pennsylvania, 1968) 2 September: Battle of Omdurman Centenary Dinner, Boston, Massachusetts September (tentative): Churchill Center Panel, American Political Science Convention, Boston, Massachusetts 25-26 September: Churchill Center Board of Governors Annual General Meeting, Washington, D.C. 5-8 November: 15th International Churchill Conference & First Annual Churchill Lecture, Colonial Williamsburg, Virginia 30 November: Sir Winston Churchill's 124th Birthday
Sprine- Student Seminar . Summer or Autumn: Sixteenth International Churchill Conference ... South Africa Tour
V h'
14-17 September: Seventeenth International Churchill Conference, Anchorage, Alaska
14 February- Centenary of Churchill's Entry into Parliament Autumn: Eighteenth International Churchill Conference
Twentieth International Churchill Conference and 50th Anniversary of the Bermuda Conference, Hamilton, Bermuda
QUOTE OF THE SEASON "Everyone will agree [on] the importance of keeping pledges and not turning back from a course upon which you have embarked....There are a great many districts and municipalities in Palestine at the present time where the Arabs have been quite incapable of affording elements out of which local institutions could be made. Why cannot you continue your educative process a little longer?....When you have come to the point of Arab municipalities conducting their affairs with anything like the progressive vigour that is shown by the Jewish community, and when you have come to the point of the whole principle of local government having been implemented by the good will and activities of the population, your case will be enormously stronger for a forward movement." CHURCHILL, HOUSE OV COMMONS, 24 MARCH 1936
Ataturk's supporters (who have their own home page) are said to be stuffing Time's ballot box. We doubt it. Anybody smart enough to run a sophisticated website can create a program that repeatedly dials-in Time's "top 100" ballot and Votes Kemal. It will be fun to see how Time handles the snafu. Meanwhile, keep voting! Every time you're on the web, visit Time's page ( and vote "Winston Churchill" in the "warriors and statesmen" category. Remember, even though your Texas grandfather died in 1906, he voted for Lyndon Johnson for Congress in 1948.
A LATE ISSUE Readers will remark the lateness of this issue, caused by a tremendous press of work occasioned by unexpected administrative matters over the last eight months and The Churchill Center's endowment campaign, which has now begun in earnest. Despite the delay, readers with Internet access have been able to access most departments and some feature articles weeks ago on our website (www.winstonchurchill. org). To regain schedule, we will turn out three issues between now and May, and somehow work in the 1994-95 Proceedings, which are equally, and sorely, behind schedule. Our apologies for these delays. --RML LONDON PAINTINGS EXHIBIT JANUARY 5-ITTH, 1998-- The 50th anniversary of Churchill's election as an Honorary Academician Extraordinary by the Royal Academy, and the book publication of Painting as a Pastime, will be commemorated by an exhibition at Sotheby's, 34-35 New Bond Street, London W1A 2AA (tel. 0171-493-8080). The dates are to be confirmed. For the first time, Churchill's pictures will be hung with those of artists he admired, such as Manet, Monet, Cezanne, Matisse and in particular Sargent, whose work he copied; and those of his artist friends and mentors such as Sir John Lavery, Walter Sickert, Sir William Nicholson, Paul Maze and the sculptor Oscar Nemon. Containing more than 100 pictures,
the exhibition has the support of Lady Soames, who with other members of the Churchill family will lend examples of his work. The National Trust is loaning pictures and other items from the Studio at Chartwell. Lady Soames will be writing the Foreword to the catalogue and at her request the exhibition is in aid of the Churchill Graves Trust at Bladon, now undergoing restoration. The exhibit is the idea of its organiser, Sotheby's director Hugo Swire. David Coombs, author of Churchill: His Paintings, is the exhibition's consultant. This preliminary information comes from Mr. Coombs at The Red House, Portsmouth Road, Milford, Godalming, Surrey GU8 5HJ. (See also "Local and National" news for the ICS/UK reception at this event.) VOTE EARLY AND OFTEN NEW YORK, NOVEMBER 19TH--Time magazine is running a poll for great people, hyper-linked off its internet home page ( As of today there is a near-dead heat for "warriors and statesmen" between Mustafa Kemal Atarurk 710,640^39%) and Winston Churchill 660,193 (36%). Nobody else is over 5%. Curiouser and curiouser: the founder of modern Turkey also leads in every other category! Ataturk is first among "entertainers and artists," "scientists and healers," "builders and titans" and "heroes and adventurers." Clearly, Ataturkites have jiggered Time's attempt to let the world decide the Man/Person/Humanoid of the Century.
TOP EUROPEAN, ANYWAY LONDON, JULY 17TH-- Ataturk notwithstanding, an international panel of intellectuals has voted Churchill the most outstanding European of the 20th Century in a survey for the first edition of Europe Quarterly, a new social and cultural magazine. Churchill bested politicians, scientists and artists from twentyfour countries. Second in the voting was Albert Einstein, followed by Drs. Francis Crick and James Watson, who discovered the structure of DNA. -From the Chicago Tribune courtesy Joe Just. PRIDE OF PLACE PARIS, SEPTEMBER 21ST-- France will honour Sir Winston with a statue on its most famous and prestigious avenue. An imposing three-metre bronze of WSC in wartime naval attire by Jean Cardot, president of the French art institution, the Academie des Beaux Arts, will be unveiled next spring, looking across to the Arc de Triomphe at the head of the Champs Elysees. Hundreds of tourists go there each day to pay tribute to fallen heroes at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. It will not be France's first memorial to Churchill. In the Riviera town of Mougins stands a huge bronze hand raised in a V-sign. CONTINUED OVERLEAF >»
Notable Churchillians: Randy Barber
W ill the real Randy Barber or Winston
Churchill please stand up?
This is the teasing question
Garnet R. (Randy) Barber is
asked when he poses beside a
picture or sculpture of his
hero, Winston Churchill.
Randy himself jokes that nei-
ther he nor WSC ever met a
carbohydrate they didn't like!
Randy honours the Churchill legacy the same way he does everything else: with
great energy. He is the President oflCS Canada and chaired the recent conference in
Toronto; he is active in the Other Club of Ontario and represents ICS Canada at board
meetings of The Churchill Center. He will play a key role in the Churchill Center fund-
raising campaign in Canada.
Like Churchill, Randy's interests are eclectic. Naturally, like all Churchillians, he
collects and reads books, books, books; but he also has an astonishing collection of barber
memorabilia (no pun intended): razors, shaving mugs, strops, etc. One of his prize pos-
sessions is an 1875 solid oak barber's chair which sits prominently in his living room. He
also has an abiding interest in Arthur Conan Doyle and Doyle's fictional creation, Sher-
lock Holmes.
He shares Churchill's fondness for scotch and, typical of Randy, he organizes annual
nosings of single malts with friends. Although he has Churchill's affection for brandy, he
indulges in another specialty, liqueurs from around the world, the more unusual the bet-
ter. The contents of his liquor cabinet, which sit proudly with his barber's chair, must be
unique in the world. He has also been known to smoke a cigar after dinner.
Although he is a proud Canadian of English stock (his grandfather fought in the
same area of South Africa as Churchill) Randy is a student of the American Civil War
and eagerly seeks out aficionados to learn of their interests. His professional background
is just as varied. Many years ago he was manager of the rock group "Ocean," whose hit,
"Put Your Hand in the Hand" was a million-seller. He worked with band booking agen-
cies and, at one time, booked entertainment for Holiday Inns across Canada. One singer
he booked was the Norwegian Nightingale, now his wife Solveig. Many of us saw her
unforgettable performances at Banff and Toronto.
When Randy is not indulging his hobbies he spends twenty-five hours a day with
another love of his life, politics. He is a former Vice-President of the Ontario Progressive
Conservative (Tory) Party, active in his local constituency and a City Councillor in
Markham, Ontario, just outside Toronto. He combines a political life with a strong social
commitment in support of many charities including Diabetes and Arthritis Associations,
and many cultural groups including community theatres and museums. He is an active
fund-raiser for his political and charitable organizations.
He is presently Vice-Chairman of the Ontario Alcohol and Gaming Commission,
which licenses all establishments and organizations regarding alcohol and gambling.
Randy's loyalties would have been sorely tested by Winston and Randolph Churchill
when they visited Ontario in 1929, and circumvented our prohibition laws by carrying
their refreshment around in hidden flasks. The real Randy would be pleased to stand up: if you can catch up to him!
--John Plumpton (primary sources provided by Solveig Barber)
UNSORDID CORRECTION WASHINGTON, JUNE 8TH-- Geneva Over- holster reports in The Washington Post that Churchill Center member and 1995 Conference speaker Professor Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. has struck a blow for accuracy. In a letter to The New York Times, Schlesinger reminds us that what Churchill called "the most unsordid act in the history of any nation" was LendLease, not the Marshall Plan. Nevertheless, reports Overholster, the Marshall Plan non-quote "ricocheted back and forth across the Atlantic, appearing in The Daily Telegraph, The Scotsman, the Associated Press, Reuters, Agence France Press, CNN, ABC and NPR." Her own paper used it on May 25th, the Times on the 27th. Times editorial writer Karl Meyer tracked the error down, and found it had come from Sketches from Life, a 1960 book by former Secretary of State Dean Acheson. (The exact quote, from WSC's 17 April 1945 Commons speech on the death of Roosevelt, was: "...the extraordinary measure of assistance called Lend-Lease, which will stand forth as the most unselfish and unsordid financial act of any country in all history.") TWIN PEAKS NEW YORK, SEPTEMBER 9TH-- In t h e 7 5 t h anniversary issue of Foreign Affairs various luminaries, including Francis Fukuyama and Eliot Cohen, are asked to list the finest books of the last seventy-five years. Fukuyama mentions Churchill's The Second World War; Eliot Cohen mentions Marlborough: His Life and Times; and Stanley Hoffmann lamely defends his preference for De Gaulle's War Memoirs over the Churchill option. Has anybody ever got all the way through De Gaulle's memoirs? Fukuyama (author of The End of History and The Last Man) wrote the review: "Although it produced many more casualties than the First World War, World War II retained a moral meaning as a titanic struggle of good against evil. And in the struggle, no figure was grander or more heroic than Churchill. His personal account of the interwar years, when he braved ridicule and isolation for standing up to the conciliatory consensus seeking to appease
Twin Peaks, continued...
him, to his embarrassment, as if he ing, who never sought advantage
Germany, makes edifying reading for had been Isaiah."
from his family background. He was
any contemporary politician who is
A great light has been extin- deeply loyal to his friends, abhorred
tempted to look first to opinion polls guished in the world of academia. We gossip or prurient interest. He was
for guidance on serious matters of are all the poorer for it.
passionate about flying, and lately
foreign policy. Like other great mem- -Rafal Heydel-Mankoo, Ottawa, Ontario computers, learning to write his own
oir writers, Churchill has a fine eye
programmes. He also loved poetry,
for details of character among the JULIAN SANDYS, R.I.P.
especially Kipling and Milton.
giants (and numerous dwarves) with SHACKLEFORD, SURREY, SEPTEMBER 19TH--
Julian Sandys will be remem-
whom he dealt."
The father of four and brother to bered for the good humour and
--Paul Rahe, John Plumpton Edwina and Celia Sandys has died cheerfulness he brought to life, even
aged 60. The three primary strands of throughout his illness, behaving
his life were politics, law and family. always with stoical decorum. He saw
LONDON, NOVEMBER 5TH-- Sir Isaiah That he should have been keenly his struggle in military terms, telling
Berlin, the renowned philosopher and interested in politics was inevitable, a friend, "I regard this as a war, not a
historian, has died at 88. Born in given the fact that he was the son of nice scientific experiment." Apart
Latvia, Sir Isaiah moved to Britain Lord Duncan-Sandys and grandson from the continuing love and support
with his family in 1919. A lecturer, of Sir Winston Churchill. At the age of his family, he was sustained by his
professor and college president at of eight he stood at his grandfather's firmly held Christian convictions
Oxford, he is credited with establish- side while WSC addressed the crowd which meant a great deal to him. He
ing the academic disciplines of intel- on VE-Day. Sandys also named the is survived by his children and his
lectual history and political theory. It locomotive "Winston Churchill" wife, Elizabeth Martin.
is no hackneyed trope of speech to which would later carry his grandfa-
say that he was one of the greatest ther to his final resting place.
thinkers of our time. A notable ad-
Educated at Sunningdale and WASHINGTON, AUGUST 7TH-- K a y H a l l e ,
mirer of Churchill, Berlin wrote Mr. Eton, Sandys remained with the 4th who has died aged 93, was a glam-
Churchill in 1940, published as a book Hussars as a territorial army reservist orous Cleveland department store
in 1964 and regarded by some as the his entire life. He even tried to sign heiress who cut a swath through the
finest essay on Churchill.
up for the Falklands War and was 20th century, befriending and be-
Berlin's admiration was repaid by disappointed to be deemed too old.
witching luminaries and serving as a
WSC. In The Fringes of Power, Sir John
Following a year at the Univer- perceptive gadfly in politics, society
Colville recounts an amusing incident sity of Melbourne, Sandys completed and the arts. During a remarkable life
in 1944: "Lunched at No. 10 with the his Bar examinations and contested in newspaper reporting and radio
PM and Mrs. Churchill. The other unsuccessfully the rock solid Labour interviewing, she formed enduring
guests [included] Mr. Irving Berlin constituency of Ashfield at the 1959 relationships with George Gershwin,
(the American song writer and pro- General Election. He was then called Randolph Churchill, Averell Harri-
ducer)....After lunch the PM fore- to the Bar as a member of the Inner man, Joseph P. Kennedy, Walter
stalled Irving Berlin asking leading Temple, and was appointed Queen's Lippmann, Buckminster Fuller and
questions by himself addressing them Counsel in 1982. In recent years he scores of other diverse figures. Miss
to his potential interlocutor (e.g. became involved in a number of Halle demonstrated such a flair for
"When do you think the war will end, diverse business ventures, but most friendship and a knack for bringing
Mr. Berlin?" This I thought was inge- important to him was his family, to people together that it is a wonder
nious technique It later transpired which he was devoted.
she found time for anything else.
that the reason why Mr. Irving Berlin had been bidden to lunch was a comic misunderstanding. There are sprightly, if somewhat over vivid, political summaries telegraphed home every week from the Washington Embassy. The PM, inquiring who wrote them, had been told by me, 'Mr. Isaiah Berlin, Fellow of All Souls and Tutor of New College.' When Irving Berlin came over here to entertain the troops with his songs, the PM
In everything he did, Sandys's whole approach was notable for its careful preparation and thoroughness. While at Eton, Churchill wrote to him urging that he keep an eye on history, "because a knowledge of the past is the only way of helping us make guesses at the future." It was advice Sandys took to heart and he was frequently to be found in conversation drawing attention to the value of the long term perspective.
A tall, slender, blonde beauty who kept her youthful good looks well beyond middle age, she had a list of sixty-four men who proposed to her, including Randolph Churchill, who fell in love with her on a 1931 lecture tour and remained devoted to her for life. One of the few people to have been a close personal friend of both Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill, she visited Chartwell often. Keeping her journalistic instincts
confused him with Isaiah and invited
Throughout his life he was essen- sharp, she made notes of what she
him to lunch--and conversed with tially a private person, shy and car-
heard, and ultimately published the outstanding quote reference Irrepressible Churchill (1966), followed by a more scholarly work, Winston Churchill on America and Britain (1970). She was also instrumental in behind-the-scenes efforts that brought Sir Winston his honorary American citizenship, awarded by President Kennedy in 1963. Halle (pronounced "Hal'-ee") was the daughter of a wealthy German Jewish merchant and an Irish-Catholic working girl, whose father co-founded Halle Brothers department store in Cleveland. She grew up in an ecumenical, intellectually charged atmosphere that left her without prejudice or pretension and with an eclectic range of interests. After one boring year at Smith she took New York by storm, captivating Gershwin and making her apartment a mecca of the Roaring Twenties. The Churchill Societies hoped to bring Miss Halle to one of their Washington events and made strong efforts to have her as a guest at the 1993 conference. But age and frailty had taken their toll and common friends advised us to desist. We missed a chance to honor a kind and great lady, who played a minor but not insignificant role in the Churchill saga. -Adapted from an obituary by Robert McG. Thomas, Jr. in The New York Times DOUBLE TAKE LONDON-- American sculptor Lawrence Holofcener's double statue of Roosevelt and Churchill in New Bond Street has become a favourite photo opportunity since it was unveiled by HRH Princess Margaret on 2 May 1995. The life-size bronze figures are seated at either end of an ordinary park bench with sufficient space between for passers-by to pause for a rest and, as likely as not, have their photos taken. The patina has already been rubbed from the adjacent
knees of both statues by folk eager to be pictured with the great. The manager of the watchmaker's shop overlooking the scene reports that, while American visitors are well to the fore, they appear to be outnumbered by Japanese! -DJH PORTRAIT OF CHURCHILL "Churchill at Four," the earliest known portrait of Sir Winston (cover, Finest Hour 88) is for sale. The portrait is from the estate of the niece of Thomas Walden, valet to both WSC and his father. Friend of The Churchill Center Jeanette Gabriel (see her article in FH 95) has been commissioned as agent for the sale of this painting, and offers to donate half of her commission to The Churchill Center. Anyone interested should contact Mrs. Gabriel in California at (213) 272-4547, fax (310) 271-1854. NOTHING NEW LONDON, MAY 25TH-- The sale of the Robert Hastings Churchill collection produced a minor uproar over a letter in the collection attacking Churchill for deserting his mates by escaping singlehandedly from the Pretoria prison camp in 1900. Various academics were brought forth by The Times to cluck softly over this latest manifestation of feet of clay. James Muller, Churchill Center Academic Chairman, writes: "The charges that Churchill acted dishonorably are old chestnuts that were well aired in the press early in this century, provoked various libel suits, all of which Churchill won, and have been carefully investigated and disposed of both by the official biographer and others. But it is interesting that they should have been turned into news again in the late 1990s, and that professors should have been found to take them as seriously as if they were fresh new allegations. I guess there is nothing new under the sun." BIG TOBACCO LONDON, JULY 17TH-- For only Ј4830 ($7700) a Sotheby's buyer claimed a cigar case which Churchill carried to the trenches in France during the First World War, inscribed "Lt. Col. W. S. Churchill" on one side and "61 R. S. Fusiliers 1916" on the other, notes the July issue of Cigar Insider, courtesy of Joe
ERRATA & CORRIGENDA, FH 95 Page 6: Douglas Russell notes that we misquoted Churchill: the correct quote is "We shape our buildings and afterwards our buildings shape us." (Complete Speeches, Vol. VII, p6869). Page 14: Our notice regarding "a series of summer dinner proposals" incorrectly credits them to the Other Club of Toronto. In fact, these summer dinners were an initiative of the Churchill Society for the Advancement of Parliamentary Democracy and had no connection with the Other Club or ICS, Canada. Our apologies to the CSAPD. Page 40: In Chris Bell's review of the Churchill-Conover Correspondence appears the sentence: "There remains a vast amount of material written by Churchill which has never before been published, and still more which has been published and is now all but forgotten, none of which is viable for commercial publishers." Mr. Bell wishes us to stipulate that words beginning with "none" were the editor's and do not represent his opinion. 1 confess I thought this statement so universally accepted as to be axiomatic. I only wish there were publishers ready and willing to publish the many Churchill works we have been laboring to interest them in for years. If there were, our job would be much easier. --Editor Just: "Churchill's smoking accessories pop up at auctions with regularity ... and high prices. In 1995, a signed wooden cigar box with one of Churchill's cigars sold for Ј3400 ($8300) and in March 1996 an 18 karat gold cigar case with two cigars fetched Ј3795 ($8500)." Finest Hour's Utter Excess Award goes to the buyer of seven Churchill letters "devoid of blood, sweat, tears or much interest at all," according to reporter Laura Stewart, at an average of Ј1728 each. Miss Stewart adds: "This raises a maths problem. How much should the nation have paid for the 1,500,000 letters and speeches it got from Churchill's heirs in 1995? At this price, Ј2.59 billion. A reminder: the nation (via Lord Rothschild's Heritage Lottery Fund) gave Ј12.5 million. Screams at this outrageous sum were heard loud and wide. It looks rather good now." Yep.
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 1 0
Local and National Events
ICS, U.K. The 1997 Annual General Meeting held at Chartwell on 6th July elected a new Committee and a new chairman, Nigel Knocker; in order to comply with the Charities Act 1993, Nigel and Tim Hicks are also Trustees (ex-officio). All details on this plus a change in calling for subs on a standing order/direct debit basis have been circulated. In London on January 5th, ICS/ UK hosts a reception at Sotheby's, 34/ 35 New Bond Street, between 6.30 and 8.30 PM in conjunction with the exhibition "Painting as a Pastime" (see page 7). The speaker will be David Coombs, author of Churchill: His Paintings. Details had been circulated to UK members by the time this appears. The 1998 Annual General Meeting will be held at the RAF Museum, Hendon, on 26 April. Cost per person, to include entrance to museum, a guided tour and coffee, is Ј10 per head. Further details will be circulated to ICS/UK members nearer the time. British Founding Members of The Churchill Center are being invited to the Blenheim symposium on Friday May 15th and the dinner at the Orangery, Blenheim on Saturday evening May 16th. Cost for the symposium, including lunch, is Ј35 and the dinner Ј95. BLADON, OXON. OCT 15TH -- Trustees of the Churchill Grave Trust, established in 1995 by members of Sir Winston's family, have commenced a major programme of restoration of the Churchill gravesites in Bladon Churchyard, to be complete by the end of April. The graves will be closed to the public during the winter months.
The object is to address the problems that have arisen in the years since Sir Winston's death. First, it is necessary to stabilise the ground around the graves, since they are slowly but perceptibly moving down the slight incline where they rest. The ground is to be terraced to prevent further movement. When Churchill took the decision to be buried at Bladon, none could foresee the extent to which the grave would become a place of pilgrimage. Not only has this given rise to traffic and parking problems, but, especially when two or three coachloads of visitors arrive simultaneously, the narrow concrete path to the graves is sorely inadequate. This has led in recent years to the whole area having an unkempt and unloved appearance, especially in wet weather. The eminent architect William Bertram has produced a design that deals with these problems and which will greatly enhance the appearance of Sir Winston and Lady Churchill's grave and those immediately adjacent, while making it possible for visitors to walk round the graves on broad stone paths, on which will be set some stone and wooden benches. Bertram's design received the approval of Bladon Parish Council and members of the Churchill family and former staff. The necessary Faculty from the Diocese of Oxford, required before works could commence, has also been obtained. A contract has recently been agreed with Joslins, the Royal Warrantholder stonemasons, in the sum of Ј350,000, which includes replacing the concrete path running through the churchyard with a wider one (suitable for wheelchairs) of York Stone. The funding is being provided by members of Sir Winston's immediate family, and family friends who wish to be associated with the project. The long-term purpose of the Trust is to ensure that the Churchill grave, its immediate surroundings, and the Bladon churchyard as a whole are maintained to a suitably high standard in perpetuity. Plans may be viewed at the Church Room, Bladon, by prior
arrangement with The Revd. Roger Humphreys, telephone (01993) 811415. Further information about the plans is available from William Bertram, telephone (01761) 471100. DETROIT APRIL 23RD--Detroit members have met regularly thanks the enthusiastic efforts of Gary and Bev Bonine. On St. George's day last April they gathered at the Dearborn Inn, where Dr. Robert Eden and his wife Anne joined us from Hillsdale College, where he is Professor of History and Political Science. Eden's topic was Churchill's The Second World War, and how much of it applies to us today. "These books by Churchill guided the Allies and provided a framework in dealing with the Communist expansion during 1945-48," he said. "The old conservative helped New Deal liberals become Cold War liberals with a clear conscience.... Churchill crafted his volume to be read on several levels, where he intentionally and precisely raised questions that revisionists say he tried to suppress." Gary Bonine commented: "Churchill was the only primary leader of World War II to write of those momentous times. Thus there was great public interest in what he wrote. His thoughts didn't end with VE or VJ Day. Instead, he used this unique opportunity to shape public opinion on postwar issues. These volumes are his most important writing in the postwar era. He made them readable, for he had a great deal to say." AUGUST 21ST-- Detroiters met again to welcome John Plumpton, Finest Hour senior editor and a governor of The Churchill Center, to speak about the then-upcoming Toronto Conference and Churchill in Canada. John accompanied us to Windsor to a Boer War monument, mentioning that there are many of these all over Canada. It is hoped that a joint Michigan-Ontario event will come off in the future. Readers in or near Detroit are urged to contact Gary Bonine for news of upcoming meetings at 9000 E. Jefferson, Apt. 28-6, Detroit Ml 48214 (tel. 313823-2951).
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 1 1
WASHINGTON JULY 27TH-- The Washington Society for Churchill held its fourth annual picnic at the home of Craig and Lorraine Horn in nearby Laurel, Maryland. A warm but bright and sunny summer afternoon enhanced the gracious hospitality of the hosts. The evening program featured Dr. Steven Hayward, author of Churchill on Leadership (reviewed in FH 95). As Vice President for Research at the Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy, a San Francisco think tank, he has written on a wide range of public policy, economic, and legal topics. Dr. Hayward came to write his book when he realized that Churchill, along with Lincoln, was often quoted or featured in management seminars. Lincoln was the subject of a book on leadership but Hayward was surprised to find no comparable volume on Churchill. He emphasized Churchill's ability to make decisions, believing that even a wrong decision, in a time of crisis, was better than no decision at all. He added that Churchill, for all his famous meddling in the trivia of government, placed great emphasis on finding the right person and giving that person authority to accomplish the task. Dr. John Mather reported on progress of The Churchill Center. The entourage completed the evening with coffee and dessert around the Horn's vintage 1948 Wurlitzer and remarkable Civil War collection. --Ron Helgemo The Washington Society meets regularly. Contact director Ron Helgemo at 12009 Taliesin Ct., Apt 13, Reston VA 20190 (tel. 703-476-4693). DALLAS SEPTEMBER 28TH-- Forty were present at a dinner meeting at the City Cafe, Dallas, with Larry Arnn, President of the Claremont Institute as guest speaker. His topic was "Churchill on How to Organize the World." Arnn held the audience's attention with his presentation, which included statements such as: "The three most important men of the last three centuries
were George Washington, Abraham Lincoln and Winston Churchill. ...The three most important sources of law were Magna Carta, the Declaration of Independence and English Common Law. ...Although a monarchist, Churchill admired the democratic society which resulted from the Declaration of Independence." Dr. Arnn recommended that his audience read selected chapters of Marlborough which focus on John Churchill's skill and prowess as a general. He made reference to Winston Churchill's enlightened attitude towards native soldiers during the Boer War, and traced back, through several Churchill speeches from 1916 onwards, WSC's belief in America's greatness. Sir Winston held this belief until his death and never failed to consider America's position when dealing with world powers. Present was Tom West, Professor of Politics at the University of Dallas, who had proposed Dr. Arnn as a speaker and is author of Vindicating the Founders: Race, Sex, Class, and Justice in the Origins of America. Dinner arrangements for the September 28 meeting were made by Barbara Willette. The City Cafe, noted for its cuisine and fine wines, proved an agreeable setting. Several potential members were introduced; an opportunity for current and potential members to get to know each other was provided in the social hour which preceded the dinner. NOVEMBER 30TH-- As this issue goes to press, Wendy Russell Reves, a Texas native, was guest of honor at a special reception to celebrate Sir Winston Churchill's 123rd Birthday. Mrs. Reves, who with her late husband Emery often hosted Sir Winston at their South of France villa after his retirement as Prime Minister. Wendy planned to recall her warm and vivid memories of the Great Man and the close attachment between him and Emery Reves. We were able also to provide copies of the Churchill-Reves Correspondence, just published by the University of Texas (review in this issue) for guests to purchase and Mrs.
Reves to inscribe. Richard Langworth, President of The Churchill Center, was present to! introduce Wendy and to brief members on the Churchill Associates program with its accompanying endowment campaign. For latest Hews on North Texas activities please contact Nathan or Selma Hughes, 1117 Shady glen Circle, Richardson TX 75081-3720 (tel. 214-2353208). CLEVELAND OCTOBER 20TH-- Former Secretary of Defense Caspar W. Weinberger addressed members of ICS, The Churchill Center and friends of Forbes Magazine at a special dinner held just after the International Churchill Conference at Toronto. Secretary Weinberger gave his views of current world affairs and spoke warmly of Sir Winston, The Churchill Center and International Churchill Societies. This combined dinner was organized by the magazine's Christopher Forbes and the co-directors of ICS/Ohio, Messrs. Donald Jakeway and Michael McMenamin. A generous contribution to The Churchill Center's Endowment Campaign also resulted, including $5000 from Forbes and a donation of $50 for each of their clients attending by Michael McMenamin's law firm, Walter & Haverfield. (Photos and a further account are forthcoming-) SEPTEMBER 16TH-- Northern Ohio Friends of ICS met at the Greenbrier Suite in Terminal Tower for a slide presentation, "Winston Churchill and His Paintings," by Carol Breckenridge. NOVEMBER 18TH-- Yet again at the same venue, Kevin Callahan discussed "The Less Widely Known Examples of Churchill's Wit and Humor." For details on Ohio activities contact the nearest of the following: Michael McMenamin, 1300 Terminal Tower, Cleveland 44113 (tel. 216-781-1212); Donald jakeway, Ohio Department of Development, 77 S. High Street, Columbus OH 43216 (tel. 614-644-0247).
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 1 2
his army uniform; the cover of FH #87 Send your questions (and answers) to the Editor is the proof for Chandor's painting.
Riddles, Mysteries, Enigmas QI recently purchased a book called Richard Carvel, by Winston
Acddenda: k.Cats:
berlain (1938), Attlee (1948), Macmillan (1962), Wilson (1963), Thatcher (1983).
Churchill, published by The Macmillan Company 1899.1 noticed that it wasn't on
Anent the
-Alan Kucia, Churchill Archives Centre,
your list. Was there another such writer?
question on
Churchill's cats, this space last issue, sev-
Q Various wartime films show Churchill wearing a variety of military uni-
AThe American novelist Winston Churchill, a distant relation, was so prominent around the turn of the
eral readers
forms. Which were he entitled to wear and century that Winston Spencer Churchill
have reminded why? -Bill Casey, Host of ILink Military
introduced himself and promised to
us of "Nelson,"
use his middle name to distinguish
a small black
himself from the better-known Ameri-
cat at the Admiralty.
AChurchill in WW2 commonly wore several uniforms: 1) Hon-
can. The amusing correspondence between them ("Mr. Winston Churchill
Gen. Spears in orary Air Commodore, RAF (as in the to Mr. Winston Churchill") appears in
Assignment to painting by Douglas Chandor, now at the English Churchill's autobiography,
the Natl Portrait Gallery, Washington); My Early Life. Churchill the American
(London:1954, 2) Honorary Colonel, Fifth (Cinque
was a minor politician who once held a
Vol. H, Chapter Ports) Battalion (Territorial Army),
seat in the New Hampshire legislature,
8) wrote that
Royal Sussex Regiment; 3) Elder Broth- causing the English Churchill, who
Nelson "con- er of Trinity House (naval uniform:
"planned to become Prime Minister," to
stantly focused Winston's indulgent
double-breasted, brass buttoned jacket muse on the droll possibility of the
attention by its outrageously feline
and military cap with a small round
American becoming President of the
behaviour, as a very spoilt cat will....I, insignia, worn at his meeting with Roo- United States at the same time. The two
who had begun by thinking a good ter- sevelt at Argentia, August 1941).
met in Boston during the English
rier would have been a welcome addi-
The last mentioned is the "undress" Churchill's lecture tour in 1901, where
tion to the party, ended by feeling quite uniform of an elder brother of Trinity the American threw a dinner for him.
kindly towards Nelson."
House, which exercises general authori- Great camaraderie prevailed and both
We didn't include Nelson because
ty over lighthouses, lightships and aids agreed there would be no more confu-
he was on the Admiralty staff, not part to navigation, controls pilotage in Eng- sion, but the English Churchill got the
of Churchill's personal entourage. The land, Wales and the Channel Islands,
bill. ...The American published numer-
PM once remarked that Nelson was
and is advisory to Scotland and Ireland ous novels: Richard Carvel, The Crisis,
doing more for the war effort than
in these matters. Its origins are lost in
The Inside of the Cup, A Modern Chronicle,
some humans, "by serving as a Prime antiquity but certainly go back to King The Crossing, Coniston, Mr. Crewe's
Ministerial hot water bottle, thus help- Alfred. Henry VIII gave Trinity House Career, and a non-fiction work, A Travel-
ing to conserve fuel and power." RML its first charter. Membership is divided er in Wartime. Winston Spencer Chur-
into "Younger" (master mariners) and chill published only one novel, Savrola.
\A member of The Churchill Center is "Elder" brothers. Elders are divided into
writing a book and wishes attribution of mis Churchill quote: "The truth cannot be seen, perceived, understood, and not be
"actives" (Masters of long experience, usually employees of Trinity House) and "honoraries" (invariably members
QWhen was the last time a British regiment went into battle wearing kilts?
believed." If anyone can confirm, please con- of royalty or very distinguished polititact the editor or Mr. George Cowburn 439 cians; Churchill was one of the latter).
AThe kilt was taken out of battle service in 1940, considered unsuit-
Plaza Dr 3-36, Vestal NY 13850-3661.
As a Privy Councillor from 1907, he able for mechanized warfare, and sus-
was also entitled to appropriate court
pended from service dress until after
QWhen was Churchill elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS)?
dress uniform, and another uniform of that ilk after being appointed Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports in Septem-
the war, exceptions being pipers and drummers. However, Churchill gave permission for the Liverpool Scottish to
AIn 1941. This was not exceptional; a quick trawl through Who's Who
ber 1941. After April 1953, of course, he was also entitled to the elaborate court
readopt the Forbes tartan and they were the last British unit to go into bat-
shows that several serving Prime Min- plumage of a Knight of the Garter,
tle kilted, as part of a raiding force on St
isters were honoured including Bald-
which he wore at the Coronation.The
Nazaire in March 1942. -Frazer Keith,
win (1927), MacDonald (1930), Cham- cover of Finest Hour #84 shows WSC in Cleethorpes, Lines, via John Frost
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 1 3
Nia R
15-19 OctoW 1997
ALTHOUGH Winston Churchill did not visit Toronto often, his two visits were not without fanfare. In 1900 he threatened to quit his lecture series across Canada and the United States because of a dispute with his agent, Major Pond, whom he called "a vulgar Yankee impresario." His Toronto lecture, at historic Massey Hall, was so popular that it was repeated a week later and he gave complimentary tickets to all veterans of the Boer War (saving each of them 25 cents). In 1929 he spoke in the newly-opened Royal York Hotel (in the very room of our Friday evening dinner), drawing a lunch-time audience of over 3,000 people. The ICS Conference in Toronto drew equal publicity. The Toronto Star featured the story of Churchill the Artist: "Blood, toil, tears...and art." Two Canadian TV networks, CBC Newsworld and Global TV, featured the conference and CBC Radio One's "This Morning," which covers all of Canada, featured interviews with organizers, presenters and a number of students who attended, thanks to the sponsorship of Churchill Center and Society members. Toronto, Ontario is now the financial, cultural, and some would say the real political capital, of Canada. It has the relationship to Ottawa that New York City has to Washington. This was not always the case. In the early years of the 20th century it was a provincial, staid Anglo-Saxon city with little influence beyond its own immediate area. That is perhaps why it was not often visited by Winston Churchill, who usually came to Ottawa and, twice during the war, to Quebec City. Toronto has, however, been a growing influence within the International Churchill Societies, particularly ICS Canada. Its metropolitan area is the home of Randy and Solveig Barber, (Randy is President of ICS Canada); Bernie and Jeanette Webber (Bernie is
President of the Other Club of Ontario); this writer, a former President, now Executive Secretary and a Governor of the Churchill Center; and his wife Ruth. We six, along with Glynne Jenkins, another Torontonian when not in England, and his wife Bev, organized the 1994 Conference in Calgary and Banff. The Barbers, Webbers and Plumptons brought Churchill Society and Center members to their home city with the aid of Henry Rodrigues, Charles Anderson, John Hewson, Bill and Marjorie Williams, Brian Winter, David Harlton, Peter Smith, Bill Milligan, and and our editor, Richard Langworth, President of The Churchill Center. Together we hosted over 200 Churchillians from Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom at the Fourteenth International Churchill Conference. They comprised, in Randy Barber's words, "The Dream Team," because Churchill's short story, The Dream, was the theme of our gathering on the shores of Lake Ontario. We also wish to thank Gail Greenly and her daughter, who drove all the way from New Hampshire, bringing with them a wide assortment of "Churchill Stores." The weather was spectacular as Canadians showed off their beautiful city and its environs. The Conference began with a journey to the neighbouring city of Waterloo, Ontario, and the first Canadian Churchill Lecture, sponsored by Wilfrid Laurier University. Professor Barry Gough, a Churchill Center Academic Advisor and Professor of History at Wilfrid Laurier University, introduced Professor David Stafford of the University of Edinburgh, who presented the fascinating story on which he elaborates in his new book, Churchill and Secret Service. It was a homecoming for Professor Stafford,who had lived in Canada twenty-three years before returning home to Great Britain. continued on page 16...
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 1 4
Left: Celia Sandys gave an admirable reading of her grandfather's The Dream. Centre: President Randy Barber of ICS, Canada was Conference Chairman. Right: Floral tribute at the Nemon statue in Toronto City Hall Park by Nigel Knocker (Chairman, ICS UK), Richard Langworth (President, Churchill Center), Celia Sandys, Randy Barber and Paul Robinson (Chairman, ICS USA). Above left: The Blenheim Award goes to George Lewis for seventeen years' faithful service as ICS/USA treasurer, dating back to the time when we had $389.64 in the treasury and a printer's bill coming in for $517.90. Above right: Friday night was ultraformal, with the head table piped in to dinner. Below left: Beverly Carr, the real person behind our website, aka [email protected], demonstrates the Churchill Home Page. Below right: some of our sponsored student delegates. FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 1 5
The next day, after an opportunity to explore the city on our own, two busloads set out to follow Churchill's paths through the "Golden Horseshoe" to Niagara Falls. He had visited the Falls in 1900, 1929 and 1943, pointing out on one of his later trips, "the principle remains the same: the water keeps flowing over." We saw it flow in daylight, and in glorious colour illuminated by giant spotlights at night from our dining room in the Skylon Tower. On Friday, David Stafford again spoke on the forthcoming (2001) Oxford Companion to Winston Churchill, which he is co-producing with his colleague, Paul Addison. Professor Addison had accepted our invitation to join us at the Conference but ill-health prevented his attendance. He was honoured, in absentia, for his contributions to Churchill scholarship with the Third Farrow Award for Excellence in Churchill Studies, joining previous recipients James Muller and Sir Martin Gilbert. Next, Professor John Ramsden explored Sir Winston's honorary United States Citizenship, research undertaken with the help of the Kennedy Library, one of our calls at the 1995 Boston Conference. The Library had recently obtained the papers of Kay Halle, the lady who spearheaded this honour for Churchill. Ramsden's lecture was so riveting that many present asked that we consider publishing it as a pamphlet; one way or the other, we will get it into print! Hugh Segal, former chief of staff to Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, after much good-natured bantering with ICS Canada President Barber, presented a Canadian perspective on "Churchill as a Moderate Conservative." Hugh is used to the ready quips by political wags, and one of his countrymen commented, "In Canada, we call them Red Tories but it may not sell elsewhere." The editor of Finest Hour, one of the six people in New Jersey to vote for Barry Goldwater in 1964, thought Hugh made a good case for the proposition that extremism in the pursuit of moderation is no vice.... Each Conference presents an academic panel discussion on a Churchill book. This year the focus was on India, a collection of speeches published in 1931 and never reprinted until the 1990s. These speeches are often cited as equal or greater in oratorical quality than the ones Churchill uttered in the Second World War,
although the message was more debatable. Chaired by James Muller, the participants were Professors Kirk Emmert, Cliff Orwin and Barry Gough. After the panel we introduced James Muller as the editor of a collection of papers from The Churchill Center's first symposium: Churchill as Peacemaker, just published by Cambridge University Press (and available through the Finest Hour New Book Service). Our Friday evening black-tie dinner, hosted by Henry Rodrigues of ICS Canada, featured a poignant reading by Celia Sandys of her grandfather's short, sad story The Dream, with Sal Asaro's painting projected on a large screen behind her. (For those who don't have it, The Dream is available for US $15 from Churchill Stores.) Celia's reading enthralled and moved her audience, who gave her a standing ovation. Honorary member Robert Hardy, the acclaimed British actor who has so memorably portrayed Churchill in stage and screen, had been scheduled to perform the reading, but a health problem prevented his attendance. He sent an audio introduction of his good friend Celia, providing us with a humourous account of his battle with his health--and his doctor. When deserved, the Blenheim Award is presented for notable service to the Churchill Societies and/or the Memory of Sir Winston. This year it was presented to retiring ICS/USA treasurer George Lewis by retiring ICS/USA president Richard Langworth: "$389.64--that was the level of our exchequer when George Lewis took over upon the death of Dalton Newfield in 1982. Although it has grown somewhat since, what has never changed is George's dedication to the cause, his steadfast loyalty through good times and bad, his sharing in our many triumphs, his shrugging off our few tragedies. Nobody deserves it more." On Saturday, Richard and Parker Lee presented current plans for the Churchill Center, Washington, DC including the new Associates program, which will be in full swing by the time you read this, and answered questions from the audience. They were particularly grateful for a solid expression of support by Janet Daniels, part of the record British delegation, from Middlesex, England: "I think you all deserve our thanks and a round of applause for this brilliant concept." Thank-you, Janet. This was followed by three excellent visual concluded on page 18...
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 1 6
Above left: David Stafford, autographing Churchill and Secret Service, is now working on the Oxford Companion to Winston Churchill. Above right: Dr. John Mather on WSC's granitic constitution. Below left: John Ramsden, introduced by Paul Robinson (right) gave a brilliant account of Churchill's honorary U.S. citizenship. Below centre: "Oyez, Oyez, Oyez,"a magnificent set of lungs, Saturday night. Below right: India discussants James Muller & Kirk Emmert (standing), Cliff Orwin and Barry Gough (sitting). Below left: Hizzoner Brian Winter supervises the auction of a Pan painting print, which was won by John Mather. Held by many to be the ideal portrait of the wartime Prime Minister, this painting was issued in limited edition and is now very collectible. Below right: Gail Greenly (right) toted her Churchill Stores all the way from New Hampshire, and didn't bring enough! FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 1 7
presentations: Celia Sandys gave an illustrated lecture on Churchill's paintings, using slides she had prepared for a Japanese exhibition. Dr. John Mather, an authority on Churchill's health, told the inspiring story of how a remarkable man overcame many health problems. (He is working on a book on the subject.) Glynne Jenkins, of ICS Canada and ICS/UK, displayed his remarkable knowledge of "Churchill and the Movies": how WSC was portrayed, and how important films were to him. Glynne's presentation was interrupted by a video breakdown but the next morning he presented an outstanding and little-known interview with Martin Gilbert, made by TV Ontario.
Canadian Churchillians remember that
Churchill saw Canada as "the linchpin of the
English-speaking world." That linchpin is no
longer needed, but Canada still stands as a
proud partner in "keeping the memory green
and the record accurate."
--5B6 -LI
Those who attended the 1994 Conference in Calgary will recall the memorable performance by Solveig Barber on songs of World War II. This time we saw the entire show, "Hits of the Blitz," in the historic Imperial Room of the Royal York Hotel. It was a great reenactment of a WW2 radio show (but we saw them in full uniform as if they were on TV). The audience's favourite performer was Norway's gift to Canada, our own Solveig, particularly her rendition of "When the Lights Go on Again, All Over the World." At the closing breakfast Sunday morning Richard Langworth and I presented a crystal paperweight to Beverly Carr in recognition for her work on the Churchill Home Page ( The night before, Randy Barber had paid particular thanks to Jeanette Webber for her efforts as Membership Secretary and as the Registrar and Treasurer of the Conference. They, like George Lewis, represent the many unsung Heroes and heroines of our Societies who are so critical to their success. The Conference closed on Sunday morning when we were all piped to Toronto City Hall for the laying of a floral tribute at the Oscar Nemon statue of Sir Winston by ICS Canada President Randy Barber, Churchill Center President Richard Langworth, ICS/UK Chairman Nigel Knocker, and Churchill Center Trustees Celia Sandys and Paul Robinson. Our hosts were Bernie Webber and Charles Anderson of the Other Club of Toronto, who then passed the torch to our American cousins and invited everyone to join us in Williamsburg, Virginia on November 5-8th, 1998. Another memorable Churchill Conference was history.
Above: John Plumpton digs out John Mather's name for the drawing; Celia Sandys, Bernie Webber at the podium. Below: Fred Farrow and family were the largest single delegation. Word to the Wise: Book Williamsburg Now! Excellent rates are available for the 1998 Churchill Conference at Colonial Williamsburg, 5-8 November (you need to stay the nights of the 5th-7th minimum). The best rooms go fast, so we advise you to call now-- you can always cancel later. These low rates also apply three days before and after our conference, if you wish more time to explore and enjoy the unique restored Colonial Capital and surrounding area. Standard Rooms: Williamsburg Lodge Main/East/South Wing $147 Tazewell/West Wing $183 Luxury Rooms: Williamsburg Inn Main Building $325, Providence Wing $220 Economy Rooms: The Woodlands, Williamsburg Guest Room $95, Suite $105 For all rerservations call 1-800-HJSTORY
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 1 8
You are Invited to Join The Ninth Churchill Tour A memorable assortment of Churchill associations in Blenheim, The Cotswolds, The Lake District, Edinburgh and Scottish Lowlands; and Touring Yorkshire with Robert Hardy Thursday May 14th-Tuesday May 26th, 1998
Recent Churchill Tours have been fully subscribed months before departure, and we already have some twenty bookings from members of past tours who wish to come. Capacity is 55, so please let us hear from you so that we may send Registration materials. Telephone (603) 746-4433, Fax (603) 746-4260. Email: [email protected]
The Itinerary (subject to alteration) · Thurs 14 May: We gather at the White House Hotel, London for a welcoming dinner and overnight. · Fri 15 May: Oxford via Bladon, for a flower-laying at the newly restored Churchill gravesites and a meandering through Cotswold lanes and villages in the Heart of England. · Sat 16 May: You have an option of attending the sessions of the Marlborough Symposium (see page 5); visiting Blenheim and Woodstock; and /or an Oxford walkabout with a city guide. Dinner with symposiasts and Lady Soames at the Orangery, Blenheim Palace. (What, another Blenheim dinner?!) · Sun 17 through Tues 19 May: England's Lake District; overnights at the 16th century Swan Hotel, Grasmere, a short walk from Wordsworth's cottage. Enroute we will visit Oldham, WSC's first constituency. In the Lake District we will visit Sedbergh, Brendan Bracken's public school with its many Churchill associations; Ayra Force, the beautiful waterfall near Ullswater; enjoy a boat cruise on one of the lakes; and hear two speakers at dinners: Robert Somervell, grandson of the man who taught Churchill English at Harrow; and Charles Lysacht, biographer of
The Old Library, University of Edinburgh, where Churchill received his honorary degree, part of our environs on 21 May. Brendan Bracken. There will also be free time for personal enjoyment of this unique and charming area. · Weds 20 May: To Edinburgh, stopping enroute at Dalmeny House, where Churchill often visited his friend Lord Rosebery. A traditional Scottish banquet in the evening. · Thurs 21 May: A free day in Edinburgh to explore historic sites along the Royal Mile and to shop on Prince's Street. The evening is very special: Robert Hardy will redeliver Churchill's Rectorial Address of 1931 (appropriately on Scottish devolution!) in McEwan Hall, where it was originally given, followed by a suitable dinner in University precincts. · Fri 22 May: Leaving Edinburgh with Robert Hardy aboard, we visit two important houses: Archerfield, where Asquith offered Churchill the
Admiralty in 1911; and Lennoxlove, home of the Duke of Hamilton, where Rudolf Hess landed in May 1941 in a vain attempt to do a deal with Britain. · Sat/Sun 23-24 May: Robert Hardy is our guide as we motor slowly through Yorkshire, stopping frequently at the places he grew to love while playing Siegfried Farnon in the famous series, "All Creatures Great and Small." We end this two-day tour in York, where we will finish at the famous Minster and a banquet for our friend and guide. · Monday 25 May: Return and overnight at the White House Hotel, London, with a departure banquet and a well-known guest. · Tuesday 26 May: The tour ends after breakfast. The Price and What It Includes Cost is $3485 per person (single occupancy surcharge $700) including all transportation, hotels, gratuities, entry fees, and all meals (full English breakfasts, wine at banquets) except a few lunches where the party is not together: expertise of tour leaders (Barbara and Richard Langworth, Garry Clark), local guides, speakers and Mr. Hardy's services. Also included are a welcome packet, tour bulletins, reading lists and maps. What is Not Included: Passport fees, beverage bills (excluding wine at banquets), room and valet service, any expenses we incur in making individual arrangements, and other items not specifically included. Airfare to London and airport transfers are also not included. This allows you to fly from anywhere, capitalize on frequent flyer mileage or to extend your visit. There is little cost penalty since group flight discounts are now insignificant. Reserve Now... We hate to repeat ourselves, but please book your seats now. In 1996 we were sold out with a waiting list 15-deep. Contact Barbara Langworth, 181 Burrage Road, Hopkinton NH 03229 USA, tel. (603) 746-4433. M>
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 1 9
http: // CHURCHILL ONLINE The Churchill Home Page and Listserv Idinston
THE CHURCHILL WEBSITE: Aim your web browser at the above www address and the Churchill Page should appear. Click on any of the red buttons to be led to the latest Churchill Center - Churchill Society information. The "Finest Hour" button produces the earliest publication of the next issue. If you experience any difficulty please email John Plumpton: [email protected]
LISTSERV "WINSTON": Subscribe free to the Churchill Internet community: send the E-mail message "SUBSCRIBE WINSTON" to: Listserv® --you'll receive confirmation and may then send and receive all messages to the Churchill Online community by Emailing to: [email protected] edu. In case of problems, E-mail [email protected]
OUR PATRON SURFS LONDON, NOVEMBER 9TH-- A delegation bearing computer gear paid a visit to our Patron today. John Plumpton, David Boler and Mark Weber were there to show Lady Soames what we have wrought on the Churchill Home Page. Mark writes: "When we arrived, she thought we were bringing in a TV. In about ten minutes she figured it out. She thought the Churchill Home Page was very good and quickly grasped the idea of links and other uses. She was soon exploring the Royal Family site and the list of Churchill-related charities on the Charities Commission site. It didn't take her long to catch on!" We are delighted to have been able to demonstrate the joys of the Internet to our Patron. CHURCHILLTRIVIA ONLINE From: [email protected] (John Plumpton) As impressed as I am by the knowledge of our listserv subscribers, we now have something online which may test the best of you. In FH #58 Barbara Langworth began the column "Churchilltrivia." Now continued by Curt Zoller, it contains about 800 questions divided into six subjects: Contemporaries, Literary, Personal, Statesmanship, War and Miscellaneous. Test yourself, test your friends! Just visit Select FAQ's and then Churchilltrivia. You can choose any category--questions are at the top, scroll down for the answers. But no cheating--have fun! WWW .WINSTONCHURCHILL.ORG Of all the publications of The Churchill Center and Societies, the most current and the most comprehensive is our internet website, the "Winston Churchill Home Page," The accompanying
photo of our website main page
shows a "button" for each of the
twelve main areas of our site and
there are many, many sub-areas with-
in each main one. In addition, we
"usenet" which provides electronic communication
between everyone on the internet (see e-mail messages
in "Despatch Box"). The purpose of this column is to
keep readers apprised of the constant changes taking
place in our cyberspace address. In each issue we will
visit a "button" or two.
· CHURCHILL CENTER - As well as outlining the
purposes of The Churchill Center, this section provides
the latest information on CC events and lists of the
names of our invaluable supporters (what a great way
to have your support of Churchill announced to the
world). All details on Churchill Center and Society cal-
endars are posted and changed as plans evolve. Find
out what happened at our most recent events and what
is upcoming. We also keep all the back reports online so
you can check out any event ever held by CC or ICS.
· FAQ's - Do you have questions about Churchill?
Send them to us and if we think they are of general
interest they, and the answers, may be posted under
FAQ's (Frequently Asked Questions). If we don't know
the answer we will send it to our knowledgeable mem-
bers on Winston Listserv, who are seldom stumped!
Pay us a visit--or as we say in cyberspace, hit us.
Next issue we will tell you where some of our "hits" are
coming from (ending with a preposition-- up with
which you shall have to put).
-John Plumpton, Website Editor, ([email protected]);
Beverly Can, Associate ([email protected]);
Ian Langworth, Assistant ([email protected]);
Jonah Triebwasser, ([email protected]);
Richard Langworth, FH Editor([email protected]).
FINEST HOUR 9 7 / 2 0
The Winston Churchill Memorial Trust
Every year, one hundred Churchill Fellows from the United Kingdom spend, on average, eight weeks studying or researching their Fellowship projects from Greenland to New Zealand to Central Asia, up to forty of them in the United States, through this living memorial to Sir Winston Churchill. By Sir Henry Beverley
In the United Kingdom, in addition to the statue in Parliament Square, Winston Churchill has two national memorials: Churchill College Cambridge and the Winston Churchill Memorial Trust. To say this, of course, is to neglect his wonderful writing, his paintings, his recorded oratory and above all these his immeasurable contribution to the survival of freedom. On his death in 1965, steps were being taken to raise funds for a national memorial to Sir Winston. Field Marshal Alexander headed the appeal, the objectives of which were much debated. Lord Alexander and his supporters rested their case on the visit to Sir Winston in 1958 by Edward Houghton, Jr., the then President of the English Speaking Union of the United States, who first suggested a memorial foundation with an educational theme. Others wanted a monument of a more physical nature--but these abounded, and the creation of a living memorial won the day. To quote Field Marshal The Earl Alexander of Tunis on launching the national appeal: "The awards will be available to any man or woman in any walk of life and will not be confined to students or scholars in accredited institutions but will be open equally to those whose contribution to the community, and also to their trade, industry, profession, business or calling would be increased through personal overseas travel and study." There was an immediate and generous response to the appeal from a nation grateful for Sir Winston's inspiration and leadership. Thus the fund, raised by subscription but augmented by a generous Government donation at the instigation of the then-Prime Minster, Harold Wilson, was created to enable British Citizens to conduct projects overseas and, in the process, learn about the life,
Tom Brock is head of Special Initiatives for British "Waterways. He spent six weeks studying waterway regeneration in the eastern United States on a Churchill Fellowship. Jenny Turtill visited artists and designers in America for her Fellowship. She is a jeweller and tutor in multi-media 3D design courses. Nick Danziger followed the Old Silk Route to Central Asia, writing about his journey in Danziger's Travels.
work and people of other countries. Norman Brook, the former Secretary of the Cabinet, a staunch friend of Sir Winston and a much-respected servant of the country, established the Board of Trustees. Viscount de LTsle and Dudley (one of only two people to be made a Knight of the Garter and receive the Victoria Cross) was also co-opted to set up the Council, who would administer the scheme. Today, under the chairmanship of Lady Soames, the Trustees mainly concern themselves with the financial well-being of the Trust and safeguarding the ethos. The Trustees include: Lord Carrington, Winston S. Churchill, Caspar W. Weinberger and Sir Winston's private secretary over the last thirteen years of his life, Anthony Montague Browne. The Council of the Trust which is chaired by Ian Beer CBE, a distinguished educationalist and international sportsman, consists of men and women representing a balance of expertise across the spectrum of occupations and interests. Since 1966 when the first awards were made, there have been 3200 Fellowships awarded from about 90,000 applicants; the Trust aims to award 100 Fellowships a year after a stringent selection process, including interviews. Each year the Council of the Trust selects different categories within which applicants may propose specific study projects of their own choice. The broad groupings from which the annual categories are chosen by the Council are: Agriculture and Horticulture; Animal Welfare; Business, Industry and Commerce; Arts and Crafts; Conservation and the Environment; Education and Training; the Professions and Public Services; Medical and Health; Sport; Recreation and Adventure; Open and General Subjects; the Citizen and Society and Science and Technology, as well as certain Designated Awards.
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 2 1
Churchill Memorial Trust, continued... In the choice of the annual categories and in the final selection of Fellows, the Council is alert to the original intentions of the Trust that awards should be made to men and women from all walks of life. A certain priority will always be accorded to those to whom an award represents "The Chance of a Lifetime/' and who have the requisite character, enterprise, and personality, especially with regard to their worth as "ambassadors" representing their country and travelling in the name of Sir Winston. On average, Fellowships last eight weeks and the average grant is currently Ј5550 ($8800). For the 1997 awards, the average age was 38, and the balance between men and women was equal. To illustrate some of this year's projects in the United States alone:
"Think for a moment of Sir Winston's own early travels; think of the immeasurable value his enlarged experience was to him and, later, to us. I can imagine no memorial more suitable than the gift of similar opportunities to those of a like spirit; opportunities which they will enjoy and use in the name of Winston Churchill." --THE EARL ALEXANDER OF TUNIS
· Sam Eastop (38), from London, is studying strategies for managing Internet technology changes within educational workplaces. · Harriet Festing (31), from Kent, is visiting Farmers Markets to learn about their role in small-scale rural businesses. · Juliet Grace (29), from South Yorkshire, visits various National Parks to appreciate the legislative implications of countryside access for disabled people. · Peter French (41), a police officer from Essex, is interested in the inter-agency approach to coping with Drug Abuse and young offenders. Fellows are expected to disseminate the results of their projects and, to concentrate minds, the Trust insists (as part of the initial "contract") on a written report on each Fellowship, to be submitted within six months of return from overseas. Submission of the report is an essential requirement for the award of the silver Churchill Medallion--and, thus, attendance at the biennial Medallion Ceremony in London's prestigious Guildhall. Fellows are encouraged to distribute their reports to interested parties, and to give talks or lectures, write articles and/or, in some cases, publish books. Not widely known is the fact that Fellows of the Memorial Trust have twice linked up with Members of the International Churchill Society. This occurred on on two of the biannual Churchill Tours, once in Australia in 1991, and again in England in 1992. Whilst one might think at first that members of the Churchill Center and Societies would have little in common with the varied disciplines represented by Churchill Fellows, such was anything but the case! Churchill Center and Society members are widely read and tend have broad interests, and the relationship is very natural.
During the 1992 tour, the ICS party met with Churchill Fellows for a lunch at the Marlborough Arms in Woodstock. Many present re-
member a young thatcher, whose Fellowship took him
to the United States to teach and describe his ancient
craft. It transpired that he had appeared on public tele-
vision in a programme which many present had seen. It
was fascinating to meet a man who knew so much
about the traditional English skill of thatching and had
studied the Seminole Indian techniques.
Likewise in 1991, the Australian branch of the
Memorial Trust brought the visiting ICS members
together with Fellows who talked about their experi-
ences to an enthralled audience. One of these was a
physicist who had studied the radiocarbon dating tech-
niques used on the famous Shroud of Turin. Another
Fellow was headed for the United States, to learn the
marketing of dairy products, which he hoped to apply
in Japan, where dairy products are a relatively
unknown commodity. In all these cases the mutual link
was, of course, Sir Winston Churchill.
The Trust seeks to keep Fellows in close touch
with the Trust after their Fellowships--not least,
because they represent the very best form of publicity:
the satisfied customer! There are fifteen regional
Associations of Churchill Fellows, who organise meet-
ings and social functions as well as publicising the
Trust in their localities. The Trust actively supports the
Associations, and provides some annual financial sup-
port. To keep all Fellows in touch with the Trust,
whether active in an Association or not, a Newsletter is
produced "in house" twice a year.
Further information about current programmes of
the Winston Churchill Memorial Trust is available from
its offices at 15 Queen's Gate Terrace, London SW7 5PR,
telephone (0171) 584-9315, Fax (0171) 581-0410, or e-
mail to [email protected]
Sir Henry Beverley is Director General of the Winston Churchill Memorial Trust.
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 2 2
a company engaged
in laying tarmac
paths. On several
occasions Churchill
would walk down
from the house to see
how the work was
progressing, and
doubtless sometimes
to give advice! He
always brought with
him a glass of whisky
and after a chat
would frequently
leave his unfinished
drink on a nearby
wall. Denis, never
appreciating waste,
would always drain
the glass. On a later
LITERALLY LOUSY In 1947 the Minister of Fuel and Power, Hugh Gaitskell, later Attlee's successor as Labour Party leader, advocated saving energy by taking fewer baths: "Personally, I have never
occasion, Churchill paid a routine visit to overlook the work, but this time he wasn't carrying his usual drink. No doubt with a twinkle in his eye, he said to Denis, "Have you seen our glass?"
had a great many baths myself, and I --L. L. Thomas, Emsworth, Hants., UK
can assure those who are in the habit
of having a great many that it does
not make a great difference to their
"A crafty, cold-
health if they have less...."
blooded, black-heart-
Churchill, a renowned bather,
ed Italian who sought
responded: "When Ministers of the
to gain an Empire on
Crown speak like this on behalf of
the cheap by stabbing
HM Government, the Prime Minister
France in the back."
and his friends have no need to won-
* sf *
der why they are getting increasingly "This whipped jackal, Mussolini, who
into bad odour. I have even asked
to save his skin has made Italy a vas-
myself, when meditating upon these sal state of Hitler's empire, goes frisk-
points, whether you, Mr. Speaker,
ing up to the side of the German tiger
would admit the word 'lousy' as a
with yelps not only of appetite--that
Parliamentary expression in referring could be understood--but even of tri-
to the Administration, provided, of umph...This absurd imposter!"
course, it was not intended in a con- --London, 27 April 1941
temptuous sense but purely as one of
factual narration."
"The organ-grinder has got a pretty
-House of Commons, 28Oct47, firm hold of the monkey's collar."
Debate on the Address, published in
Europe Unite (London:Cassell, Boston:
"The Italian miscalculator
HM Co., 1950), page 179.
thought he saw his chance of a cheap
and easy triumph and rich plunder
COMBINED LIBATION Dennis Horsfield, a neighbour here in Emsworth, Hampshire,
for no fighting. He struck at the back of a dying France and at what he believed was a doomed Britain."
worked at Chartwell after the war, for
"...On deaf ears and a stony heart fell the wise, far-seeing appeals of the American Press. The hyena in his nature broke all bounds of decency. Today his empire is gone." Editor's note: This collection appeared in Lilliput, a Reader's Digest-h'fce monthly published by Pocket Publications Ltd., London, Volume 12 No. 3 for March 1943. Alongside were ranged some quotes by Mussolini on himself ("I shall die a natural death..! recognise no one superior to myself.") We have attributed one of the Churchill quotes and would appreciate help in attributing the others. FAVORITE QUOTES From Listserv Winston (see p20) My favorite quote compresses an incredible amount of thought into amazingly few words, something I feel Churchill was very good at doing. In commenting in Parliament about the wartime excesses of the British Army in Africa, he said, "I am afraid that long after we have gone, they will have forgotten our proverbs, but will remember our maxims." --Chuck Duffy, Portland, Oregon What about: "Nothing is more exhilarating than to be shot at without result." This truly reflects Churchill's ability to "go on to the end." --Kevin A. Kelly, East Lansing, Mich. My favorite is one I use at the end of my E-mail messages, helping to promote Churchill awareness in my business associates: "Live dangerously, dread naught, all will be well." This has been a byword for me, having survived fourteen years of rampant and ruthless corporate downsizing; I still anticipate the "all will be well" part! I have used the quote for years, and although I have a pretty complete collection of Churchill's writings, I cannot find where I originally got it. Does anybody recognize the source? --Gregory B. Smith, Phoenix, Ariz. $
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 2 3
sing the first verse of "The Rowdy Dowdy Boys." The measured pulsations of the screw were a subdued but additional accompaniment. The man knew the song. It had been the rage at all the music halls when he had started for India seven years be-
IT was a little after half-past nine when the man fell overboard. The mail steamer was hurrying through the Red Sea in the hope of making up the time which the currents of the Indian Ocean had stolen. The night was clear, though the moon was hidden behind clouds. The warm air was laden with moisture. The still surface of the waters was only broken by the movement of the great ship, from whose quarter the long, slanting undulations struck out, like the feathers from an arrow shaft, and in whose wake the froth and air bubbles churned up by the propeller trailed in a narrowing line to the darkness of the horizon. There was a concert on board. All the passengers were glad to break the monotony of the voyage, and gathered around the piano in the companion-house. The decks were deserted. The man had been listening to the music and joining in the songs. But the room was hot, and he came out to smoke a cigarette and enjoy a breath of the wind which the speedy passage of the liner created, it was the only wind in the Red Sea that night. The accommodation-ladder had not been unshipped since leaving Aden, and the man walked out on to the platform, as on to a balcony. He leaned his back against the rail and blew a puff of smoke into the air reflectively. The piano struck up a lively tune, and a voice began to ©Winston S. Churchill; reprinted by kind permission.
fore. It reminded him of the biilliant and busy streets he had not seen for so long, but was soon to see again. He was just going to join in the chorus, when the railing, which had been insecurely fastened, gave way suddenly with a snap, and he fell backwards into the warm water of the sea amid a great splash. FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 2 4
FOR a moment he was physically too much astonished to think. Then he realised that he must shout. He began to do this even before he rose to the surface. He achieved a hoarse, inarticulate, half-choked scream. A startled brain suggested the word "Help!" and he bawled this out lustily and with frantic effort six or seven times without stopping. Then he listened. "Hi! hi! clear the way For the Rowdy Dowdy Boys." The chorus floated back to him across the smooth water, for the ship had already passed completely by. And as he heard the music a long stab of terror drove through his heart. The possibility that he would not be picked up dawned for the first time on his consciousness. The chorus started again -- "Then -- I --say -- boys, Who's for a jolly spree? Rum -- turn -- tiddley -- um. Who'll have a drink with me?" "Help! help! help!" shrieked the man, in desperate fear. "Fond of a glass now and then Fond of a row or noise: Hi! hi! clear the way For the Rowdy Dowdy Boys!" The last words drawled out faint and fainter. The vessel was steaming fast. The beginning of the second verse was confused and broken by the ever-growing distance. The dark outline of the great hull was getting blurred. The stern light dwindled. Then he set out to swim after it with furious energy, pausing every dozen strokes to shout long wild shouts. The disturbed waters of the sea began to settle again to their rest. The widening undulations became ripples. The aerated confusion of the screw fizzed itself upwards and out. The noise of motion, the sounds of life and music died away. The liner was but a single fading light on the blackness of the waters and a dark shadow against the paler sky.
.. the stern light be-
** · - ·
length full
realisation came
to the man, and he stopped swim-
ming. He was alone -- abandoned.
With the understanding his brain
reeled. He began again to swim,
only now instead of shouting he
prayed -- mad, incoherent prayers,
the words stumbling into one
Suddenly a distant light seemed
to flicker and brighten. A surge of
joy and hope rushed through his
mind. They were going to stop -- to
turn the ship and come back. And
with the hope came gratitude. His
prayer was answered. Broken words
of thanksgiving rose to his lips. He
stopped and stared after the light --
his soul in his eyes. As he watched
it, it grew gradually but steadily
smaller. Then the man knew that his
fate was certain. Despair succeeded
hope. Gratitude gave place to
curses. Beating the water with his
arms, he raved impotently. Foul
oaths burst from him, as broken as
his prayers -- and as unheeded.
The fit of passion passed, hurried
by increasing fatigue. He became
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 2 5
silent -- silent as was the sea, for even the ripples were subsiding into the glassy smoothness of the surface. He swam on mechanically along the track of the ship, sobbing quietly to himself, in the misery of fear. And the stern light became a tiny speck, yellower but scarcely bigger than some of the stars, which here and there shone between the clouds. Nearly twenty minutes passed, and the man's fatigue began to change to exhaustion. The overpowering sense of the inevitable pressed upon him. With the weariness came a strange comfort. He need not swim all the long way to Suez. There was another course. He would die. He would resign his existence since he was thus abandoned. He threw up his hands impulsively and sank. Down, down he went through the warm water. The physical death took hold of him and he began to drown. The pain of that savage grip recalled his anger. He fought with it furiously. Striking out with arms and legs he sought to get back to the air. it was a hard struggle, but he escaped victorious and gasping to the surface. Despair awaited him. Feebly splashing with his hands he moaned in bitter misery -- "I can't -- I must. O God! let me die." The moon, then in her third quarter, pushed out from behind the concealing clouds and shed a pale, soft glitter upon the sea. Upright in the water, fifty yards away, was a black triangular object. It was a fin. It approached him slowly. His last appeal had been heard. $
Notes on the Memoirs of U. S. Grant and W. S. Churchill
Separated by several wars and decades, shared experiences produced remarkable similarities in the writings of two men. Did Churchill, an aficionado of the American Civil War, read Grant's Personal Memoirs?
AREADER of the Personal Memoirs of President Ulysses S. Grant periodically is haunted by a sense of deja vu. Certain sentences and ideas are all too familiar. It soon becomes apparent that the echoes one hears are of the utterances of more recent times, those of Winston S. Churchill. Both men, holding prominent positions during major wars, were tempted to give an overview of the war, even while scruples forced them to confess that, as mere mortals, they would only be giving one facet of the tale. Hence Grant says, "I am not pretending to give full details of all the battles fought but the portion that I saw),"1 and Churchill hangs the chronicle of great, events "upon the thread of the personal experience of an individual ... I am telling my own tale." Again: "I shall only summarize the course of the battle so far as may be necessary to explain my own experiences ... I propose to describe exactly what happened to me: what I saw and what I felt."2 As participants at high levels, they mainly did the fighting not from trenches or behind the barrels of guns but via letters and memoranda. These can be dramatic and revealing. Churchill's technique is to reprint lavishly those letters and memoranda which give a sense of the stresses of the period being described. Grant does so only occasionally (and, like Churchill, reprints mainly his own, rarely anyone else's), but he gives a Dr. Weidhorn is Guterman Professor of English Literature at Yeshiva University, New York, and an academic advisor to The Churchill Center.
Churchillian justification: "I quote this letter because it gives the reader a full knowledge of the events of that period." Or again: "I cannot tell the provision I had already made to cooperate with Sherman ... better than by giving my reply to this letter."3 Churchill's version is that his memoranda "composed ... under the stress of events and with the knowledge available at the moment will... give a current account of those tremendous events as they were viewed at the time" and "constitute a more authentic record and give ... a better impression of what happened and how it seemed at the time than any account which I could write now."4 Both men's varied experience of war gave them a curious God's eye view of things. In A Roving Commission, Churchill in effect speaks for both men when he comments on the change of perspective wrought by the passage of time. Battles and troop movements that seemed impressive and challenging at the time of occurrence turn, with the advent years later of a vastly larger war, insignificant. For Grant, the Mexican-American War came to seem child's play after the experience of the "most stupendous war ever known"5 -- the Civil War -- even as for Churchill, the Frontier Wars, especially the Boer War, underwent the same shrinkage next to World War I. So we hear Grant say, "In view of the immense bodies of men moved on the same day over narrow roads, through dense forests and across large streams, in our late war, it seems strange now that a body of less than three thousand men should have been broken into four columns, separated by a day's
march."6 Compare this with Churchill: Yet there was to come a day when a Cavalry Captain -- Haig by name -- who drilled with us in the Long Valley this spring was to feel himself stinted because in a most important battle, he could marshal no more than forty British Divisions together with the First American Army Corps -- in all a bare six hundred thousand men. ... But the South African War was to attain dimensions which fully satisfied the needs of our small army. And after that the deluge was still to come! ... Everything depends upon the scale of events. We young men who lay down to sleep that night within three miles of 60,000 well-armed Dervishes ... may be pardoned if we thought we were at grips with real war.7 In either case, a wry, ironic smile graces the lips of a narrator who looks back to the naivete of his earlier self. What wartime overseer eager for results has not found himself needing to prod generals who seem to be overly cautious -- or, to be fair, who have a better grasp of forbidding frontline conditions? Both men record the fact that they had to push reluctant generals into combat. Grant: "Attack Hood at once and wait no longer for a remnant of your cavalry. There is great danger of delay resulting in a campaign back to the Ohio River." Two days later: "Why not attack at once? ... Now is one of the finest opportunities ever presented of destroying one of the three armies of the enemy ... Use the means at your command, and you can do this and cause a rejoicing that will resound from one end of the land to the other."8 Churchill similarly had to push hard, especially Wavell and Auchinleck in North Africa: "It seems most desirable to chop the German advance against Cyrenaica. Any rebuff to the Germans would have farreaching prestige effects. ... If we do not use the lull accorded us by the German entanglement in Russia, ... the opportunity may never recur. ... By waiting until you have an extra brigade you may well find you have to face an extra division on."9 The charge of warmonger that haunted Churchill was generated in part by his oft iterated position that the quest for peace requires arming for war. Grant espoused a similar position, in similar words: "To maintain peace in the future it is necessary to be prepared for war."10 Compare Churchill before World War I: A powerful British Navy was "the one great balancing force which we can contribute to our own safety and the peace of the world." And after World War II: "Peace is our aim, and strength is the only way of getting it. We need not be deterred by the taunt that we are trying to have it both ways at once. Indeed it is only by having it both ways at once that we shall have a chance of getting anything at all.""
Sometimes wars, both men believed, are better than the alternative. Grant: "Wars are not always evils unmixed with some good." Churchill: "War, the hard- est of all teachers, is the only one to whom attention is paid."12 Grant's book contains two passages on how the American armies, consisting of citizens of a democracy, are fiercer than the old monarchical ones: Sherman had "sixty thousand as good soldiers as ever trod the earth; better than any European soldiers, because they not only worked like a machine but the machine thought. European armies know very little what they are fight- ing for, and care less." Again: European soldiers "are not very intelligent and have very little interest in the contest. ...Our armies were composed of men who were able to read, men who knew what they were fighting for."13 So too Churchill, in warning about the wide- spread feeling at the dawn of the century that there would be no more wars among Europeans, argued that the wars of the future would actually be worse because of the morale and motivation of the citizen soldiers: "Democracy is more vindictive than cabinets. The wars of the peoples will be more terrible than those of kings."14 How then does one account for these fascinating par- allels? Did Churchill read the Personal Memoirs which ex-President U.S. Grant published in 1885-86? As an aficionado of the American Civil War, was Churchill likely to have overlooked one of the best and best- known books written by a major participant in a major recent war, perhaps the first modern war? And was he then influenced by the book? On the other hand, one must beware of over-inter- preting. Different men in different times and places may independently arrive at similar thoughts in similar circumstances. END NOTES 1. U. S. Grant, Personal Memoirs (New York: Dover, 1995), p. 46. 2. W. S. Churchill, The World Crisis, 6 vols. (New York: Scribner's, 1923-31), 3:xi; 1:49; The Second World War, 6 vols. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1948-53), pp. l:iii; A Roving Commission: My Early Life (New York: Scribner's, 1930,1941), pp. 186,189. 3. Grant, pp. 384,397. 4. The Second World War, l:iii; 3:v. 5. Grant, p. 61. 6. Grant, p. 28. 7. A Roving Commission, pp. 66, 75,180-81. 8. Grant, pp. 388-89. 9. The Second World War, 3:204,403,414. 10. Grant, p. 460. 11. Gilbert Martin, Churchill: A Life (New York: Henry Holt, 1991), pp. 256,923. 12. Grant, p. 461; Manfred Weidhorn, A Harmony of Interests (Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1992.), p. 72. »
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 2 7
Weidhorn end notes, continued... 13. Grant, pp. 376,454. 14. W. S. Churchill, Mr. Brodrick's Army (London: Humphreys, 1903, rep. 1977), p. 23. Sometimes one even runs across a similar ironic observation. Take the case of a general leading a force into combat and having a view of the prospects that is at odds with the view held by the authorities on his own side or on the other side. Grant: "I, as well as the authorities in Washington, was still in a great state of anxiety for Burnside's safety. Burnside himself, I believe, was the only one who did not share in this anxiety" (249). Churchill: "Our
anxieties about the Italian invasion of Egypt were, it now appears, far surpassed by those of Marshal Graziani, who commanded it" (SWW 2:469). One also runs across in Grant a possible seedling of a famous phrase: "It indicated to them that they had passed through the 'beginning of the end' in the battle just fought."(314). There is even a curious tripartite connection involving Lee, Grant, and Churchill. In his History of the English Speaking Peoples, Churchill quoted the famous remark by Lee: "It is well that war is horrible -- we would grow too fond of it." Yet Grant made a similar observation on a battle scene: "The sight was magnificent, but terrible"(181).
Churchill and Music No musician and nearly tone-deaf, the Great Man nevertheless had his preferences: the simple songs were best, and the old songs were best of all. BY JILL KENDALL
AS a musician, I believe that there is music in every great life, and I have found that Winston Churchill was definitely no exception. There was music with him from his youth, during the wars, and still with him at the time of his death. His musical connection actually began before Winston was even thought of. Jenny Jerome's father started the New York Opera, and Jenny herself became a remarkable concert pianist. As a young boy, Winston's beloved nurse, Mrs. Everest, would teach him little songs which he learned very quickly. When he started at Harrow, he was ready to try his hand at something new. But, though his mother was a talented musician, he didn't inherit her gift, and his attempts to learn the violin and the piano were unsuccessful. He switched to
--by Illinjuiorth. Illingworth in The Daily Mail, 28 January 1942; the PM was facing a Vote of Confidence
singing and in a letter to his mother said, "I rank as one of the most prominent trebles and am in what is called the nucleus of the choir ... Of course I am so young that my voice has not yet broke and as trebles are rare I am one of the few." After a year or two, Lord Randolph told Winston that he thought singing was a waste of time, so, Winston left the choir and started drawing. A school event that made a big impression on young Winston was a lecture one Saturday about the phonograph, a predecessor to the tape recorder that made what were then called "talking records." Winston wrote, "it was very amusing, [the instructor] astonished all soberminded people by singing into the phonograph: FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 2 8
John Brown's Body lies-A Mouldering in the grave And his soul goes marching on Glory, glory, Hallelujah and the phonograph spoke it back in a voice that was clearly audible in the Speech Room." The aspect of school he remembered with the most pleasure were the Harrow songs: "They have an incomparable book of school songs," he wrote his parents. "At intervals we used to gather in the Speech Room or even in our own Houses, and sing these splendid and famous choruses." When Churchill entered Sandhurst he had less time for music, but it happened to be the inspiration for his first public speech. In 1894, a woman named Mrs. Ormiston Chant started a movement trying to
shut down London's Empire Music Hall. She believed they "catered to people who had a small proportion of brains." She was challenged by a young army cadet who would come up from Sandhurst twice a month to visit London music halls. Churchill soon joined a movement called The Entertainments Protection League, which, including himself, had two members. Mrs. Chant had caused authorities to erect a screen of canvas between the promenade and the bars. Soon after, Churchill and his friends visited the Empire and started poking their walking sticks through the canvas. Suddenly, the entire crowd of two or three hundred people tore the barricades down and marched around Leicester Square waving pieces of the screen. Winston then mounted the debris and made his first speech: "You have seen us tear down these barricades tonight. See that you pull down those who are responsible for them at the coming election!" Of course, we all know that Churchill was speaking entirely in defense of the wonderful music that was played at these halls! ... In Sarah Churchill's book, A Thread in the Tapestry, she recalled her father teaching her his favorite music hall songs, and, when they were alone, how she would coax him to sing I wanted to get married Like a lot of foolish men. Found a girl, got engaged, Got married there and then. But after it was over I'd got taken down a peg, Her hair, her eyes, her teeth Were false And she'd a wooden leg. But I can't change it, I can't change it, It was a great surprise to me Haifa woman and half a tree but I'll chop her up for firewood in the sweet by and by.
There were many other verses, but this was his favorite. Sarah also remembered him standing on the pavement waiting for his car to arrive, singing another music hall favorite to the doorman: I've been to the North Pole, I've been to the South Pole, The East Pole, the West Pole, And every other kind of pole, The Barber's Pole, The greasy Pole, And now I'm fairly up the Pole, Since I got the sack From the Hotel Metropole. Fresh out of Sandhurst Churchill went on to report about and fight in Britain's colonial wars. After his escape from a Boer prison in South Africa, public interest in him was overwhelming. Eleven Conservative constituencies wanted him for their candidate; he went straight to Oldham, where he received a warm welcome. A band played, "See the Conquering Hero Comes" as he entered the town. He addressed a full house at the Theater Royal, talking of his escape and hiding in a coal mine, where an Oldham man, Dan Dewsnap, secreted him from his pursuers. Mr. Dewsnap's wife happened to be in the gallery. She stood, took a bow, Winston bowed back and was cheered to the rafters. A chorus of mill girls stood and sang: You've heard of Winston Churchill; This is all I need to say-- He's the latest and the greatest Correspondent of the day I In 1910 when Churchill was Home Secretary, he proposed that lectures and concerts should be given in every prison. Most of his critics said that he was making prison life too comfortable. I didn't find many specific references to Churchill and music for the next thirty years, but in 1940, when his Secretary of State for India, a Governor of the Harrow School, told Churchill about the "anxiety of
the school" to see the Prime Minis-
ter, "even if for only half an hour or
so," he replied he would only go to
listen to the school songs, which he
said "stood by him throughout his
life." He especially requested
"When Raleigh Rose."
Churchill's private secretary,
John Colville, recalled an incident
soon afterward, when the PM re-
ceived a telegram from Roosevelt: "I
took it upstairs to the Prime Minis-
ter who was in his bath, with the
door wide open, and singing "St.
Joles" at the top of his voice. After
reading the telegram (still in the
bath) and giving instructions about
it, he continued cheerfully with "St.
Joles" and proceeded to tell me
what an inspiration the Harrow
songs had been to him throughout
his life."
When a date for the songs was fi-
nally decided upon Harrow's Head-
master had only one day's notice.
He asked the Director of Music to
compose an additional verse to "Stet
Fortuna Domus" in honor of the
visit. The songs took place in the
Speech Room. They began with
"Stet Fortuna Domus" with the ad-
dition of the new verse.
At his second visit to "Songs" in
1941, Churchill thought the words,
"No less we praise in darker days",
should be changed to "No less we
praise in sterner days." The new
phrase was immediately adopted,
and Churchill sang lustily, remem-
bering most of the words without
referring to the song book.
Before the singing of "Forty Years
On," which ultimately would con-
tain two verses especially added for
him, Churchill unexpectedly rose,
and after prolonged applause,
started to speak. He spoke about
how as a boy he was thrilled by the
Harrow songs. He felt they were one
of the school's greatest treasures,
passing from one generation to
another, and talked of his bright
hopes for the future.
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 2 9
Harrow Songs: The Churchill Verses
STET FORTUNA DOMUS Nor less we praise in sterner days The leader of our nation, And CHURCHILL'S name shall win acclaim From each new generation. While in this fight to guard the Right Our country you defend, Sir Here grim and gay we mean to stay, And stick it to the end, Sir
DONORUM DEI Churchill with flourish of sabre and brush and pen Rode gallantly forth on his way to be leader of men; The last of seven who lived on the Hill Waiting the call to serve the nation, And nursed by the dreams tlmt still Their ancient end fulfill-- Of God's good gifts the faithful dispensation.
Argentia, 10 August 1941: "I chose the hymns myself ... It was a great hour to live."
THE SILVER ARROW The flame that woke when Churchill spoke Blazes forth in the darkness still; We do not forget: they are needed yet-- Loyal spirit and strength and skill. But today will be heard no wavering word No cloud of care be seen: Each heart rejoice, ring out each voice In gladness, "God save the Queen!" FORTY YEARS ON Sixty years on, though in time growing older, Younger at heart you return to the Hill: You who in days of defeat ever bolder Led us to Victory, serve Britain still. Still there are bases to guard or beleaguer, Still must the battle for Freedom be won: Long may you fight, Sir, who fearless and eager Look back to-day more than sixty years on. Blazoned in honour! For each generation You kindled courage to stand and to stay; You lead our fathers to fight for the nation, Called "Follow up" and yourself showed the way We who were born in the calm after thunder Cherish our freedom to think and to do; If in our turn we forgetfully wonder, Yet we'll remember we owe it to you. He ended his speech by asking the School to sing two more of his favorites, "Giants" and "Boy." After the request for "Giants," Leo Amery, a Harrow old boy and a member of Churchill's Party, turned to someone and said, "Loathsome
song. I was always put on to sing it." Throughout most of the songs, and sometimes while singing, Churchill wept copiously. He returned for "Songs" almost every year until his health would no longer allow it. In 1941, Roosevelt and Churchill met at the Atlantic Conference aboard H.M.S. Prince of Wales. Later, Churchill wrote about a church service held on her quarterdeck: "I chose the hymns myself. 'For Those in Peril on the Sea' and 'Onward Christian soldiers.' We ended with 'O God, Our Help in Ages Past' which Macaulay reminds us the Ironsides had chanted as they bore John Hampden's body to the grave. Every word seemed to stir the heart. It was a great hour to live. Nearly half of those who sang were soon to die." The Prince of Wales was sunk by the Japanese shortly after JaPan Entered the war. During Churchill's visit to Moscow in 1944, he and Stalin spent an evening at the Bolshoi Theater. There was a composite program, including ballet and opera. The part Churchill liked the most was the singing and dancing of the Red Army Choir. As a powerful and persuasive
speaker, Churchill often used music to make a point or give an example. One of my favorite examples of this occurred in a speech after songs at Harrow in 1945: "When I entered the room, one thing struck me, and that was Where is the kettle-drum? which has a most keen fascination for me, and I have always felt it. I am not at all musically gifted; I cannot understand any music that hasn't got a tune. But I have always been very much attracted by the kettle-drum. Again and again I thought if I could only get hold of those sticks! I must have a go one of these fine evenings! However, there must have been some protesting interest which inspired the authorities in those days, and I was never allowed to have my opportunity. "So I gave up that ambition and transferred my aspirations to another part of the orchestra. I thought if I cannot have the kettle-drum I might try to be the conductor, there is a great deal in the gestures at any rate: they are those which occur most readily to a politician. At any rate it always seemed to me that that was the part in the orchestra I could play best, always excepting the kettle-drum.
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 3 0
"That could not be arranged either, while I was at Harrow, but eventually, and after a great deal of perseverance, I rose to be the conductor of quite a considerable band. It was a very large band, and it played with very strange and formidable instruments, and the roar and thunder of its music resounded throughout the world. We played all sorts of tunes, and we finished up the concert, Sir, with 'Rule Britannia' and 'God Save the King.'" Another instance of Churchill using music in his speeches was when he was Leader of the Opposition after World War II. The only thing more obnoxious to him than the Socialists' political planning was their jargon. The poor were called "lower income disadvantaged" and the word for "house" became "local accommodation unit." He said in the House of Commons: "Now we will have to change that old favourite song 'Home, Sweet, Home' to say 'Local Accommodation Unit, Sweet Local Accommodation Unit -- there's no place like Local Accommodation Unit.'" In 1953, when Churchill became a Knight of the Garter, his nephew Zel in 77K Daily Mirror, 11 October 1944, as Churchill and Stalin had an unusually cordial meeting in Moscow.
John Spencer-Churchill wrote a coronation march for the occasion. The song was written in the style of the Harrow songs, of which Churchill was always so fond. Sometimes a holiday would bring music into Churchill's life. After Christmas Dinner, it was time for the traditional Christmas SingAlong. Churchill supposedly "sang heartily, if not always in tune," and when a Viennese waltz was played he would "dance a remarkably frisky measure in the middle of the room." In fact, one of the best Christmas presents he ever received was a record set of the complete works of Gilbert and Sullivan from his daughter, Mary Soames. Many interesting stories about music in Churchill's life were shared with me by his former bodguard, the late Eddie Murray. For instance, Churchill could not stand anyone to be whistling near him. Also, sometimes after dinner, if he was alone, he would get his valet to put on records of Gilbert and Sullivan operettas, or songs from the First World War. Sometimes when approaching Hyde Park Gate, he would begin to sing songs like "We're here, because we're here, because we're here," and "We're soldiers of the Queen, my lads," One evening after dinner, Sir Winston was descending the staircase with his son-in-law Christopher Soames, singing a Gilbert and Sullivan tune, when he stopped, and said, "That's not right, I'll have to start again." He continued to sing until he reached
the bottom of the stairs. He then
turned to Eddie and said, "I
thought that was very good, my
dear Murray!"
In 1964, on Churchill's ninetieth
birthday, he watched a special pro-
gram on BBC television called
"Ninety Years On," introduced by
Noel Coward, which incorporated
many of his favorite music hall
songs. It is erroneously reported
that Churchill planned his own fu-
neral; however, he did make a few
requests. He wanted "as many
brass bands as possible."
Music cannot be said to have
been Churchill's chief love. But I be-
lieve a person as artistic, articulate,
and expressive as he was led a life
in which music had to play a part, if
only a small one. I have enjoyed the
search for information about music
in Churchill's life. Along the way, I
learned much about him that had
no connection to music.
Miss Kendall recently graduated from Portage (Michigan) Central High School with high honors, was awarded the John Philip Sousa National Music Award, and is majoring in Music History at Butler University in Indianapolis. She is the granddaughter of Fred Farrow, a Trustee of The Churchill Center. She wishes to thank those people who shared their memories or steered her to books she needed to read: Richard Langworth, Parker Lee, Dr. John Mather, Detective Sergeant Murray, Miss Grace Hamblin, Lady Soames, and her grandfather, Fred Farrow.
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 3 1
One hundred years ago: Autumn 1897 · Age 23 Malakand Field Force.... After rushing back to India, Churchill waited impatiently for word from Sir Bindon Blood that the commander of the Malakand Field Force would appoint him to his headquarters staff. On 22 August he received word that there was no room for him, but that he could join the expedition as a war correspondent: "Army Head Qrs make all appointments except personal staff and are very jealous of their patronage. I have hardly managed to get any of my pals on my staff--though I have asked for several. However if you were here I think I could and certainly would if I could, do a little jobbery on your account." From India Churchill wrote a series of unsigned telegrams and letters for the Pioneer Mail. To identify them, Frederick Woods compiled a schedule of Churchill's movements during the Malakand campaign. He notes that "the stylistic evidence in their favour is also tolerably strong." WSC did not, Woods however noted, write The Risings on the North-West Frontier. But Churchill did write The War in the Indian Highlands by a Young Officer. Personally he wanted to sign them because it would advance his political career. The first of fifteen articles was published in the Daily Telegraph on 6 October, the last on 6 December. They formed the basis for his first book, The Story of the Malakand Field Force. He was paid five pounds per column. Privately he wrote his mother about his ambitions and experiences. He warned her that he had to take risks so that his behaviour would be noted and get him attached to Blood's staff. "I mean to play this game out and if I lose it is obvious that I never could have won any other. The unpleasant contingency is one which could have permanent effects and would while leaving me life--deprive me of all that makes life worth living." About conditions, he wrote: "No ice--no soda--intense heat--but still a delightful experience."
Seventy-five years ago: Autumn 1922 · Age 48 No seat, no appendix... The Candidate, 1922 The Coalition Government of Lloyd George was coming apart. One critic said that it had "produced at the centre an atmosphere more like an oriental court at which favourites struggled unceasingly for position than anything seen in Britain for a century or more." Another commented, "I never heard principles or the welfare of the country mentioned." Tory leadership was severely divided on whether to continue supporting the Coalition. Austen Chamberlain and Lord Birkenhead were solid supporters; Andrew Bonar Law and Stanley Baldwin were not. Churchill's fellow Harrovian Leo Avery invited all Tory MPs to meet at the Carlton Club. He was responding to backbench concerns about their election prospects. Everyone was specifically watching the forthcoming by-election in Newport, where a Tory candidate was running against the Coalition. The Tory victory in the by-election swung the Carlton Club MPs against the Coalition. Lloyd George resigned and Bonar Law became Prime Minister upon his election as Tory leader. Parliament was quickly dissolved and a gen-
eral election was called, to be fought on party lines. Churchill, who would have been in the middle of all of this, missed much of it. He was undergoing surgery for appendicitis. Maurice Hankey's diary, as recorded by Martin Gilbert, tells this wonderful story: "On coming to from his anaesthetics Churchill immediately cried, 'Who has got in for Newport? Give me a newspaper.' The doctor told him he could not have it and must keep quiet. Shortly after, the doctor returned and found Winston unconscious again with four or five newspapers lying on the bed." As soon as he could, Churchill wrote his Dundee constituency saying he would stand as a Liberal and asked for their support against the Labour and Communist candidates, hoping that the Conservatives would stay with him. He would eventually have to face not only Conservatives but also an anti-Coalition Asquith Liberal candidate. Appendicitis was a much more serious illness than it is today and Churchill had to fight the election from his bed in a nursing home. To represent him in his constituency he sent his wife, who took her seven-week old daughter Mary with her. The local press, no friends of the Churchills, maliciously referred to Mary as Clementine's "unbaptised infant." Clementine spoke at six meetings and gallantly faced hostile crowds, even to the extent of having sneezing powder break up one meeting. Four days before the election, Churchill arrived at Dundee's Royal Hotel and prepared to address a friendly crowd at Caird Hall. Two days later he faced a much less friendly group at Drill Hall, which he described as follows: "I was struck by the looks of passionate hatred on the faces of some of the younger men and women. Indeed, but for my helpless condition, I am sure they would have attacked me." Clementine had earlier written her husband that he should not be seen with a bodyguard. "If you bring Sgt Thompson tell him to conceal himself, tactfully as it would not do if the populace thought you were afraid of them."
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 3 2
Churchill received less than fourteen percent of the total vote. He was out of Parliament for the first time in twenty-two years. He later told the King that he had always held Dundee by speeches and argument, which required three weeks campaigning. He could not do it in three days. (As he would later say to Roosevelt about Yalta, "Even the Almighty took seven.") Nationally, Bonar Law's Tories won a commanding majority in the Commons. Churchill did not believe that his political career was finished. When told that his activity of writing a book about the previous war was like "digging up a cemetery" he replied: "Yes, but with a resurrection." As the year ended, Churchill was, in his own words, "without an office, without a seat, without a party and without an appendix." Fifty years ago: Autumn 1947 · Age 77 "My dear Harry..." With Truman at Fulton, the year before. "My dear Harry" was the saluta- tion of Churchill's letter to U.S. President Harry Truman, thanking him for the Marshall Plan which was "saving the world from Famine and War." In his response, Truman made an interesting observation about the Soviet Union which "seem most ungrateful for the contribution which your great country and mine made to save them. I some-
times think perhaps we made a mistake--and then I remember Hitler. He had no heart at all. I believe that Joe Stalin has one but the Polit Bureau [sic] won't let him use it." Churchill shared Truman's concerns. In an address broadcast to America he said the Soviets were directing an "unceasing stream of abuse upon the Western World and they have accompanied this virulent propaganda by every action which could prevent the world settling down into a durable peace." To meet the world's challenges he called for a "fraternal association" between the British Empire and Commonwealth, the European Union and the United States, with Britain serving as "the vital link between them all." Looking towards India he reminded people of his warnings in the early 1930s: "We are of course only at the beginning of these horrors and butcheries, perpetrated upon one another, men, women and children, with the ferocity of cannibals, by races gifted with capacities for the highest culture and who had for generations dwelt side by side in general peace under the broad, tolerant and impartial rule of the British Crown and Parliament." In speaking to the Conservative Party Conference he forecast that "the consequences of Socialist spite, folly and blundering" would lead to a general election for which the Tories must prepare. At Chartwell he worked on his war memoirs. His draft was challenged by Henry Luce, who had agreed to publish excerpts in Life magazine. Luce felt that there were too many documents which "mar the architectural sense" and too little "analytical insight." Churchill agreed to make changes. In November the Churchills attended the wedding of Princess Elizabeth to Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten, R.N. at Westminster Abbey. Clementine made some interesting observations about other notables in attendance: "Smuts [Prime Minister of South Africa]...really cares for Winston and is a source of strength and encouragement for him. Mackenzie King [Prime Minister of Canada] is unchanging as a Chinese image, and General Marshall the hope of Mankind."
One evening in late November, Churchill was enjoying a quiet dinner with his family when his daughter Sarah pointed to an empty chair and asked: "If you had the power to put someone in that chair to join us now, whom would you choose?" Sarah later remembered that she expected her father to name one of his heroes--Caesar, Napoleon or Marlborough. He took only a moment to consider and then said simply, "Oh, my father of course." He had chosen his greatest hero of all. Churchill went on to describe the outline of an article which was to become The Dream. "It was not clear whether he was recalling a dream or elaborating on some fanciful idea that had struck him earlier," his son Randolph wrote, "but this was the genesis of the story." (The Dream is available from Churchill Stores).
Twenty-five years ago: Autumn 1972 Lady Churchill in Paris...
Mary Soames wrote that a "faithful
and constant friend" of her mother's last
years was Edward Heath, then Prime
Minister. The year before he had invited
her to see the changes he was making at
Chequers. She approved of them. A fall
broke Lady Spencer-Churchill's hip but
she recovered. Her daughter Sarah
reported that "though frail, mother
remains independent and as bright and
witty as ever." Her holidays had been
Mediterranean cruises, but now she
rested by visiting Mary and her family
in Paris.
In Finest Hour, editor Dalton New-
field put out a call for a new editor so
that he could concentrate on his other
role as President of ICS. He was also
increasingly occupied by his abiding
love of books, and was founding the
Churchilliana Company to deal in them.
Several editors tried and failed to take
Dai's place. His eventual successor
would be his predecessor, Richard
Chartwell, open only six years, had
quickly achieved popularity. It was the
second most visited National Trust
property in England.
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 3 3
Sales Department for the Production Chief
In the interest of full disclosure, this reviewer played a minor role in implementing publication of this book, for which he receives overgener-
Winston Churchill and Emery Reves:
1937-1964, edited by
Sir Martin Gilbert.
ous thanks from Martin Gilbert in the
Austin: University
L, of Texas Press, 398
I was pleased and touched to see
pages, illustrated,
this chronicle of collaboration and
$39.95. New Book
friendship appear, but I never expected
Service price $32
it would amount to much more than a
(shipping $5 first
useful research tool. I was wrong. I see
book, $1 each addi-
why Wendy Reves and Martin Gilbert tional) do the Editor.
were so keen to get it published.
The Churchill-Reves Correspondence readers in twenty-five languages. (I
is simply marvelous. For anyone inter- soon learned that Sapnis, the Churchill
ested in Churchill, it shows how an Society's 1995 translation of The Dream
unknown Hungarian came to be his lit- for President Ulmanis (FH 87, p27) was
erary "diffuser" (or as Reves put it, "the not the first Latvian translation--Emery
Sales Department" for Churchill the Reves was publishing Churchill articles
"Production Chief"); how skillfully he in Latvian as early as 1937.)
used Churchill's screed like a
Imre Revesz (his father had adapt-
palimpsest, spreading it to the far reach- ed the surname from Rosenbaum) was
es of Europe, the Empire and North born in Hungary in 1904, studied in
America; how gradually Reves's outlets Berlin and earned a degree in economics
closed as Hitler's power waxed and from Zurich University. In Berlin in the
neutral countries began to dread Ger- late Twenties he organized Cooperation
man anger; how Reves twice escaped Publishing, a unique organization. Its
the Nazis; how he earned Churchill mil- goal was to make the thought of leading
lions abroad for the war memoirs and European Statesmen available to people
History of the English Speaking Peoples; in other countries: Britons in Germany,
how Emery and Wendy became WSC's Frenchmen in Italy, and so on. Shun-
hosts when kindly breezes brought the ning Nazis, fascists and Communists,
aging statesman to the Riviera.
Reves promoted democrats. Drummed
Reves started on a shoestring, sell- out of Germany with the clothes on his
ing Winston Churchill's pieces (most of back in 1933, Reves reestablished Coop-
them readable today in Step by Step) for eration in Paris, representing Britain's
little more than a pound or two each to leading political writers, Churchill,
newspapers in poorer nations, gradual- Eden, Attlee and Herbert Samuel.
ly building an impressive business by
When France fell in 1940 he fled to
1939, producing Ј30,000 a year or so in London, losing his fortune and his busi-
today's money. Churchill, remember, ness, but not his determination. Angli-
was then politically very incorrect. cizing his name, he soon set up shop in
Reves got him on the front pages of thir- New York where, after the war, he was
ty newspapers, 750 different outlets per again instrumental in placing
year, with fifteen to twenty million Churchill's writings. Without Emery
Reves, the canon would today be much less widely known than it is. A tenacious salesman and negotiator, Reves was gentle and generous toward the British statesman he respected more than anyone in the world. In the Thirties he waived commissions to help Churchill place articles with foreign publishers WSC had contacted before Reves's own involvement. He was never put off by the gentleman/ player relationship that marked their early encounters, when Churchill kept him at arm's length despite his evident talents. During the war the Prime Minister refused to grant Reves several favors --probably it would have set bad precedent--and did not answer Reves's letters offering to help distribute Britain's message of defiance to neutral countries. Though he passed Reves's proposals to Duff Cooper at the Propaganda Ministry, WSC carefully noted that he was "not wedded" to them. In their letters he is "Mr. Churchill" and the Hungarian is "Reves"--Sir Winston didn't call him "Emery" until he began to holiday at Reves's villa in 1956. Yet in a 1946 meeting, when Reves told him how his mother had been cruelly murdered by the Nazis, Churchill wept in bitter grief. Their business relationship was of a style many around Churchill experienced. WSC expected his familiars to be on call constantly, convenient or not. They repaid him with devotion. The most dramatic account in this book, in fact, starts with a perplexed Reves trying desperately to meet Churchill's order, on one day's notice, that he drop everything and sail with Lord Camrose to America to negotiate book and serial rights to The Second World War. Emery Reves is in Paris when the command arrives, out of the blue: sail with Camrose from Southampton at 1PM tomorrow, and stop at Chartwell for a briefing. Le Bourget is fogged in-- no commercial flights. "Can't you get a private plane?" Churchill says impatiently. Emery finds a rickety two-seater where he sits in dread for twenty minutes, until the pilot is denied a take-off "because my motor gives off sparks." Tenaciously, he finally gets to Croydon
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 3 4
the next morning, too late to stop at Chartwell, but Churchill sends a car that speeds him to Southampton. He thinks he'll miss the boat--but like Phileas Fogg he gains an unexpected hour, because Britain has just set its clocks back! The old Churchill luck. Reves is the last passenger on the sold-out maiden voyage of the Queen Elizabeth, in a cabin Churchill has procured by importuning Cunard's chairman. He looks up Lord Camrose--who has no idea what Emery is there for! Reves cables Churchill to please explain. Churchill replies: "I am sure you will do an excellent job, but you must be very confidential and you must realize that you do not actually represent me." In other words: #X*[email protected]%!! Such confusing orders would flummox lesser men. But by the end of the voyage, Emery has made friends with Camrose and they split the workload: his Lordship will deal with newspapers, Emery ("unofficially") with magazines. Reves also acts as confidant, helping to steer negotiations away from the bad deals and toward the best one: Henry Luce of Life, whom Camrose doesn't want to see because Luce hasn't replied to his letter. Learning that Luce is in New York, Emery rings his friend, the redoubtable Claire, Luce's wife. "Harry" is in bed, exhausted after a two-night flight from China. Telling Claire his mission is urgent, Emery rushes to a cab, presents himself at the Waldorf Towers and asks her to Wake Harry. An angry Luce appears in dressing gown: "You are the fifth or sixth or seventh agent who comes to me saying he represents Churchill--now who is his representative?" Emery is under orders to be very confidential. "All I can tell you," he says, is that in forty-eight hours [the serialization of Churchill's war memoirs] will be decided. You can talk to me today or tomorrow, but after tomorrow you won't get it." Luce gets it--from Lord Camrose, whom the faithful Reves makes sign the contract as Churchill's official representative. Later Lord Camrose says, "They made a very good offer....$l,400,000 for the American serial and book rights."
Reves replies, "Lord Camrose--No! The American serial rights--yes--but not the book rights. You must stop it." Reves has friends at Houghton Mifflin--and they are good for a quarter million for the book rights in addition to Luce's $1.4 million. Breathlessly we follow this tale of derring-do, finally learning that neither Camrose nor Reves charge Churchill for his services, not even his expenses. "He did it to get the British rights for the Daily Telegraph and I did it to get the foreign rights for me," Emery recounts, "but we both acted on principle." Reves prospered on the usufruct he genuinely earned, but I suspect he would have done it all for next to nothing for his hero, the Chief of Production. One can learn a lot from this book, guided by the perceptive and sensitive Martin Gilbert, who always provides just the right supporting documents: Sarah Churchill's note, for example, when her father is beset by critics of his war memoirs, words many of us should heed, this writer included: "Darling Papa...Don't listen to too many critics-- Each critic criticises from a personal angle. The work is yours--from deep within you--and its success depends on it flowing from you in an uninterrupted stream." And from Emery himself, reacting eloquently to the sudden end of his brief intimacy with Churchill, comes a piece of sound advice to anyone who, lied about, is tempted to deal in lies: "During my long life I developed the capacity to end a big cry in laughter and today I can only smile at the past two years. How childish and unnecessary all those intrigues were, how easy it would have been to maintain our beautiful relationship and to add to it anything that might have attracted you....Should we not be able to defeat the intrigues that so unnecessarily separated us, then I am anxious to preserve the memories of our association during the years 1955-58. After all, what does one keep in life as time passes? A certain number of memories....I do not know what memories you have of those years, but mine are unforgettable." It is a tribute to this book, and those who saw it into print, that a memory of two unforgettable spirits is so eloquently presented.
An Antidote to Fairytales BY THE EDITOR Churchill and Secret Service, by David Stafford. Woodstock, New York: The Overlook Press. Hardbound, 400 pages, 23 illus., regular price $35. New Book Service price $30. Available from the Finest Hour New Book Ser- vice, do the Editor; add for shipping (see box on page 36). There are enough Winston Churchill spy books already in print--both fictional and allegedly factual--that readers may wonder why they need another one. The answer is quickly demonstrated by David Stafford's expert account of Churchill's involvement with secret intelligence, from the days of the 1914 Home Rule debate to his last years of power, when he sought unsuccessfully a modus vivendi with the Soviets. Stafford provides three things hitherto lacking: a complete account spanning Churchill's full career; a parade of facts, which are a good antidote to fairytales; and, most important, up-to-date research based on recently released secret papers that earlier chroniclers could not access. Stafford is too good an historian to offer either an uncritical paean or a vitriolic polemic, nor does he hitch his wagon to some preconceived, off-thewall thesis, like certain of his academic contemporaries. "Undeniably there was a darker side to Churchill's attraction for the clandestine powers of the state," he writes. "His exaggerated obsession with German spies before the First World War, fed by a xenophobic MI5, led him to adopt measures that needlessly damaged the innocent...His overreaction to Bolshevik intercepts after the Russian Revolution even saw him resort to MI5 in what amounted to a personal vendet- continued overleaf >»
The Finest Hour New Book Service is operated at cost for the benefit of readers. We buy books in bulk and pass the savings along. Order from the Editor or Churchillbooks, PO Box 385, Hopkinton NH 03229 USA. Shipping: add $5 for first book, $1 each additional. Secret Service, continued... ta against George Lansbury and to a dangerously close alliance with elements in the secret services and elsewhere that wildly talked the language of treason....His widely shared obsession with an internal Fifth Column, this time fuelled by unexpected German victories in Europe, and lingering fears and memories of Irish subversion at home, again saw him opt for a drastic curtailment of civil liberties unwarranted by the evidence." While recognizing Churchill's hope to "set Europe ablaze" with resistance movements through the Special Operations Executive, Stafford admits that SOE earned the enmity of intelligence chief Stewart Menzies, whom Churchill failed to consult when he made Hugh Dalton SOE's head. Yet Churchill had too much respect for the British constitution to pursue these paths to ugly conclusions, and we must remember, Professor Stafford says, that WSC's use of available secret service, seized upon like a life preserver with Britain's back to the wall, did hasten the end of the war. Churchill also "helped to create with Roosevelt the transatlantic intelligence alliance that formed a vital backbone of defence during the Cold War." Graduate Churchillians will welcome Stafford's crisp dismissals of the canards that continue to circulate around Churchill today. One of the most durable is the legend that the PM "let Coventry burn" so as not to give away Britain's Ultra intelligence decrypts. In fact, Ultra had wrongly concluded that the Coventry raid would be over the capital; Churchill actually interrupted a drive to safety in the country to await the London bombers that never came. Particularly satisfying is the refutation of considerable nonsense published recently about the Rudolf Hess mission in May 1941--fuelled, Stafford believes,
"by a delay in releasing the relevant British files and Hess's 1987 suicide in Berlin's Spandau Prison....The notion that it was not Hess at all who flew to Britain but a double belongs in the realm of fantasy. "Only slightly less fanciful is the theory that his flight was plotted with the active connivance of the Secret Intelligence Service and Stewart Menzies himself." Churchill refused either to see Hess or to bury news of his arrival--"a strategy that, had Hess been part of an Abwehr plot, would have badly backfired when leaked to the world." Little escapes the author's perceptive research, including Sidney Reilly, the alleged British agent made famous some years ago by a swashbuckling film called "Reilly, Ace of Spies." Reilly, like Savinkov, was tempted back into Russia by the Bolsheviks, who summarily shot him in 1925. He knew and apparently worshipped Churchill, whom he called "the irrepressible Marlborough," and they exchanged some secret letters. But Churchill's interest was clinical, not direct, and he quickly washed his hands of Reilly. Stafford suggests Churchill distanced himself so as to keep clear of controversy surrounding the notorious Zinoviev Letter, which may have influenced the 1924 election. Published by the Daily Mail, undoubtedly with Reilly's connivance, it called for a Marxist uprising in Britain led by the Communists and their Labour Party sympathizers. Churchill and the Tories made political hay out of the letter, which helped Labour lose and returned Churchill to power, but the idea that Churchill had been part of this plot is a fabrication. We are also given the facts about Desmond Morton's bitter estrangement from Churchill during the war. Morton had been one of WSC's chief informants about German rearmament in the Thirties, but once Churchill was in power, he inevitably began to deal with official intelligence agencies. Morton was increasingly left out when clandestine matters were discussed. Churchill continued to express affection toward Morton, Stafford writes, but by 1946, when WSC sent flowers to his hospitalized friend, the estrangement was complete: Morton thanked him by observing acidly, "Your intelligence service is clearly
working as efficiently as of old." Morton's irritation over being dropped surfaced again in the Sixties, when he was the chief primary source, and a somewhat misleading one, for R. W. Thompson's quartet of light revisionist books starting with The Yankee Marlborough. David Stafford concludes: "Nothing was perfect in this construction and Churchill revealed his personality flaws....Yet the breadth of his vision, the strength of his purpose, and the depth of his experience in the world of intelligence was extraordinary and decisive. Throughout his long political career he had exhibited consistent support for Britain's secret service. As Prime Minister in war and peace, he finally reaped the reward." Clementine: Another View STANLEY H. WINFIELD Clementine Churchill: The Private Life of a Public Figure, by Joan Hardwick. London: John Murray Publishers Ltd., 228pp, Mm., Ј22. This profile of the life of Clementine Churchill emphasizes the years of her marriage to Sir Winston. Much is made of the difficult relationship she had with her son, Randolph, and her dislike of so many of Winston's friends and colleagues, with whom he spent, in Clementine's view, far too much time. Clementine is portrayed as a victim not only of Churchill's legendary self-centredness, but also of her uncaring parents, Col. Henry and Lady Blanche Hozier, both of whom are said to have led scandalous lives, having little time for their children. Ms. Hardwick's admiration for Clementine's inner strength is apparent in those pages dealing with women's suffrage, which she championed, despite what Hardwick describes as Churchill's scorn for the movement. The agonies she felt during Churchill's deep depression following the disastrous Dardanelles campaign are dealt with
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 3 6
sensitively. The description of Clementine ex- citedly acquiring paints and oils for her husband the moment he evinced an interest in painting is one of many such lovely moments throughout the book, where the author strikes a balance
between sentimentality and the practi-
cality of Clementine's character, not
allowing herself "to be sucked into the
vortex of Winston's depression." It
might be argued powerfully, however,
that his periods of depression are over-
Illustrated Documentaries 1. A Churchill Family Album, Soames 2. Churchill Photographic Portrait, Gilbert 3. Churchill: His Life in Photographs, Randolph Churchill & Gernsheim 4. WSC, A Cartoon Biography, Urquhart 5. Life & Times ofW.C, Thomson
Critical Works
1. A Study in Failure, Rhodes James 2. The Yankee Marlborough, Thompson
3. Churchill's Grand Alliance, Charmley 4. Churchill: Struggle for Survival, Moran
MEMBER REVIEWS WANTED 5. The Tragedy ofW. Churchill, Germains and Churchill at the Colonial Office
T homas H. Fairchild writes: "As I add to my Churchill library, I wonder what others think of the many new and used Churchill books available. Would "member book reviews" be a valuable (and manageable) addition to Finest
(Macmillan: 1968) is by far the most detailed on that relationship, although alas rare. Sydenham of Combe, ed., The World Crisis: A Criticism (Hutchinson: 1928) captures most of the critiques, valid and otherwise, of The World Crisis Volume III.
Some new books might supersede some of the above, two reviewed herein: Churchill and Secret Service and the Churchill-Reves Correspondence; and one to be reviewed next issue, Churchill as Peacemaker (see page 6). Comments?
Hour and our website? The reviewers Gretton's Former Naval Person (Cassell INDEPENDENT MEMBER would not have to be "-professional" to be 1968) and Roskill's Churchill and the
helpful. On the contrary, I'd like to hear what other seasoned students think about the books in their collections. We think this would be very useful. An ICS publication,
Admirals (Collins 1977) are good juxtapositions when considering the pros and cons of WSC's stewardship of the Admiralty in two world wars. If readers care to send 500-word reviews of older titles, we will be glad
Here's a (short) example of the kind of member review we'd like to receive... Lve just finished reading Independent \Aember by A.P. Herbert. By vocation a novelist and humorist, Mr.
Churchill Bibliographic Data (available to publish them in Finest Hour.
Herbert served in the Parliaments of
for $10 from Churchill Stores, PO Box
'35 and '45 as a member for Oxford
96, Contoocook NH 03229), contains a THE THIRTY BEST (REVISED)
University. This book describes his
piece by the editor on the "thirty From Churchill Bibliographic Data, career as an MP before, during and
best" books about Churchill: five each with modifications for books pub- after the war. In addition to interest-
of full biographies, biographies for lished since, my current picks. -RML ing stories about the war as viewed
specific periods, specialized studies,
from the Thames, where the river-
books by associates, documentaries Full Biographies
loving Herbert served aboard his
and critical works. I will scan this and 1. Winston S. Churchill, Gilbert/Churchill own craft, he describes his mission to
put it up in the website books section. 2. The Last Lion (2 vols.), Manchester Newfoundland--the forgotten Dom-
Beyond that, however, there is a lot of untrod ground. Over 600 books about Churchill have been published,
3. Churchill: Unruly Giant, Rose 4. Churchill: A Life, Gilbert 5. Winston Churchill, Pelling
inion?--and has many fine anecdotes about Churchill, with whom he had a longstanding relationship.
and while many of them were pure
When Herbert volunteered for
hagiography or potboilers, there are Biographies of Specific Periods
the Navy in 1914, he found himself in
numerous gems worth your attention 1. Churchill 1874-1922, Birkenhead
the new units being formed by
--some of which still hold up in the 2. Young Man in a Hurry, Morgan
Churchill. He served in Antwerp and
light of what we know now, decades 3. The Age of Churchill, deMendelssohn in the Dardanelles, later defending
after they were published. Mary 4. Winston Churchill, "Ephesian"
WSC on the Dardanelles record at
Bromage's Churchill and Ireland (Univ. 5. Winston Spencer Churchill,
public meetings. His recollections of
of Notre Dame: 1964) is still, for
Maccallum-Scott (published 1905). Churchill, while not reaching the
example, the best study of that rela-
detail found in Harold Nicolson's
tionship outside the official biography. Seldon's Churchill's Indian Summer (Hodder & Stoughton: 1984) was, until Pelling's new book on the subject, the only specialized study of the second Premiership. Hyam's Elgin
Specialized Studies
memoirs, are generally more fun to
1. Sword and Pen, Weidhorn
read, and no less warm. This book
2. Churchill in America, Pilpel
was most enjoyable reading and I rec-
3. Churchill by his Contemporaries, Eade ommend it to anyone who is interest-
4. Churchill: His Life as a Painter, Soames ed in Churchill, Parliament or the
5. Churchill as Historian, Ashley
River Thames.--Alexander Justice M>
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 3 7
DOUGLAS HALL'S CHURCHILLIANA Churchill Commemoratives Calendar Part 6:1965
Churchill's death was marked by the production of three quite superb ceramic pieces. Usually wrongly described nowadays as urns or chalices, they were offered by manufacturers as covered vases. The finest is arguably the Spode covered vase in maroon, royal blue and white with elaborate raised gilding. Churchill's portrait is surrounded by the Garter and lions rampant with his birth and death dates and "In grateful remembrance" in raised gold beneath, his dates as Prime Minister and details of other offices inscribed around the foot. The Spode vase was issued in a limited edition of 125 at Ј125. A UK dealer offered one in 1989 at Ј1000, two more appeared in American catalogues in 1991-92 at $2750 and $2500. Thomas Goode marketed the Abbey dale covered vase, 11 inches tall, in cobalt blue, white, gold and raised gold with lion head handles. Churchill's portrait is surrounded by dates, family crests and details of his offices and awards. Goode's offered this vase in a limited edition of 250 at Ј75. Two examples were sold in the UK in 1992-93 at Ј475 and Ј600 but US catalogues during the same period listed $3000 and $2250. Coalport's memorial covered vase, the tallest of the three at 12 inches, was in a limited edition of 200 designed by Francis Sinclair. Predominantly white but with rich gilding, it had the Churchill Coat of Arms flanked by two small silhouette portraits on one side and a view of Blenheim on the other. Issued at Ј100, one was offered in the UK in 1992 at Ј550, a year earlier in the US at $1800. Other ceramic issues included a range from Wedgwood: a black basalt bust, a portrait medallion in black and white or blue and white, and a small round sweet dish in the same colourways. Also from Wedgwood came the not-too-successful Chartwell tankard in blue, green and black. Spode complemented their superb covered vase with a very different, but equally desirable and rather more
LEFT: The Spode covered vase, 125 issued, one of the most desirable large memorial pieces. RIGHT: The Abbeydale covered vase, erroneously described as a "chalice," had an edition of only 250. At its right is the first toby, 1927. LEFT: Royal Brierley's engraved crystal goblet, #140 of 500, has added date 24 January 1965; thus copies without that date are much scarcer. BELOW: Loewental's Victory medal with death date added; Spode's superb Nemon bisque bust, backstamped "First Edition"; a 4" Wedgwood jasper dish, which sold at Ј1.05!
affordable, white bisque porcelain bust of Churchill. Just 61/2 inches tall and signed by Oscar Nemon, it sold at 8 guineas (Ј8.40) and was recently seen on the UK secondary market at Ј225! Spode also reissued a small number of their 1941 standing figure, 9 inches tall, with colourway variations. The original figures are rare (UK Ј500) and I have never seen the reissue on the secondary market. Harleigh utilised the portrait transfer of Churchill, which had been commonplace on decorative tableware during the Fifties and early Sixties, in the centre of a 9-inch diameter white bone china plate, to which they added an intricate design of gold within a wide black rim as a modest but entirely appropriate tribute. Some of the best Churchill glassware appeared as memorial pieces. The finest was the engraved crystal goblet FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 3 8
from Royal Brierley. Six inches tall, in a limited edition of 500, it had in fact appeared in 1964 to celebrate Churchill's honorary citizenship of the USA, but only a few examples had been sold when he died. The engraver, Jon Jones, added a further line recording the death date and the goblet became a memorial piece. Sold originally at 30 guineas (Ј31.50), it was recently seen in the UK at Ј95-130 and in a US catalogue at $650. A boxed pair of wine glasses with Churchill's portrait etched in white and engraved with his name and dates were available at a more affordable 18s 6d (93p)! The Sail Training Association launched their 150-foot, 281-ton threemasted schooner Sir Winston Churchill and models of the ship, either in brass or as a glass ship-in-a-bottle, were available as more unusual memorial pieces. Another unusual tribute came from
Brough, Nicholson & Hall of Staffordshire in the form of a 4 1/2 x 3 1/2-inch black and white portrait of Churchill woven in silk. The portraits were sold mounted in a white card listing the key dates and events in Churchill's life. The most widely available 1965 commemorative was the Churchill Crown. Over 19 million were struck by the Royal Mint--the first and only British coin with the head of a subject on the same coin as that of the monarch. 39mm in diameter, weighing 28 grams, in cupro-nickel, the coin displayed a head of Churchill by Nemon, based on Nemon's bust at Windsor Castle, on the reverse. The coin was issued following a Royal Proclamation dated 3 August 1965. Lady Churchill started the coining press in September; she was presented with the first coin struck, and distribution to the public began on 11 October. Various special presentation packs were available from different banks, and there are many examples of local silversmiths plating the coins and mounting them into hallmarked silver souvenirs of all kinds. The government of Yemen issued a slightly smaller Riyal coin in silver, designed by Robert Cochet and struck by the French Mint in Paris. It is far less available than the British crown: fewer than 6500 were minted. The medallists were active. Engstrom's Medallic Portraits of Sir Winston Churchill mentions 98 memorial medals from Canada, Great Britain, Italy, the USA, Denmark, Switzerland, South Africa, Australia and (yes, even) Germany. Among the best was a 102 x 90mm bronze plaque designed by Dora de Pedery-Hunt in Canada, showing the famous seated rear view of the elderly Churchill contemplating the lake at Chartwell. Only eight were cast; one can be seen at Longleat in the Churchill collection of the Marquess of Bath. The 1965 British commemorative stamps were designed by David Gentleman in 4d and Is 3d denominations, but were not universally admired. They looked so much better as replicas on 41x25mm solid gold
LEFT: An oddity from Wedgwood was the "Chartwell" tankard in blue and green with a eulogy and description of Chartwell as an exceptionally long backstamp. RIGHT: A 9-inch diameter bone china plate. The portrait transfer had been extensively used by many potteries through the Fifties. Harleigh added an intricate lace-like decoration in gilt within a black border to produce a simple but effective memorial tribute. idssHdUiicdasn
LEFT: Memorial issue teaspoons; those at left and centre are silver plated; the example on the right is Birmingham hallmarked sterling silver with an enamelled portrait and an inscribed bowl. RIGHT: Brough, Nicholson & Hall of Staffordshire (at that time the centre of the British silkmaking industry) produced this 4 1/2 x 3 1/2-inch silk portrait mounted on an "In Memoriam" card listing Churchill's achievements.
ingots struck by Johnson Mathey. 5000 numbered sets were made at Ј44 the set. Weighing 40 grams, the pair have a 1994 bullion value of Ј352! Paul Vincze, who died in 1994, the refugee Hungarian who became a British subject in 1948, was generally recognised as one of the best medalmakers of the 20th century. He designed a Churchill memorial medal for the National Commemorative Society of Philadelphia. Three were cast in platinum; one was presented to Lady Churchill, one to the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, and one retained by the Society; another 5249 were issued in silver to Society members. A personal favorite among the medals is the reissue of Loewental's 1945 Victory medal with the additional inscription "OB 24 Jan 1965." This was struck by John Pinches in a
smaller size of 50mm, 700 in gold, 736
in silver and 1421 in bronze. The sil-
ver medals sold originally at Ј10 and
the bronze at Ј2--both have appreci-
ated considerably over the years.
From Birmingham came a hall-
marked sterling silver teaspoon with
a full colour enamel of Churchill on
the handle and the bowl inscribed
with his name and chief honours.
Silver-plated teaspoons in various
designs were also available. A 4 1 /2-
inch long silver-plated bookmark in a
profile of Churchill smoking a cigar
and grasping his lapels is marked
"Pattern 468300 Design 92817,"
maker unknown. Decca issued a
memorial LP record, "The Voice of
Winston Churchill," with extracts
from their 1964 12-LP boxed set; EMI,
in collaboration with the BBC, issued
the LP, "The State Funeral of Sir
Winston Churchill."
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 3 9
'.."· '"'«··,.<; ·.- >v " · · · -"-T*/^*-..: ^ ^ i S j j ^ & w Ј }
The Battle of Britain took place in the skies over southeast England between July and October 1940. The Roll of Honour in the Battle of Britain Memorial Chapel in Westminster Abbey lists the names of 1503 Royal Air Force and Fleet Air Arm personnel killed in the battle. German records are far from complete but authoritative estimates put the number of Luftwaffe airmen killed in excess of 2600. The RAF lost 1017 aircraft. Luftwaffe losses have been given as 1882 aircraft. After the end of World War II, the 15th of September 1945 was designated as the first "Battle of Britain Day." Three hundred RAF fighter aircraft took part in a fly-past over central London and ninety RAF stations were opened to the public (the first time there had been any public access since the 1939 Empire Air Day). Thereafter, both the fly-past--always led by the immortal Spitfire and Mr. Hall is FH's Features Editor
Hurricane--and the open days became an annual event although the number of participating aircraft and airfields was gradually reduced. In 1959 the Spitfire taking part in the flypast developed an engine fault and had to make a forced landing on a cricket ground in Bromley. There was an outcry with a vociferous public safety lobby demanding that all flights by "ancient" single-engined aircraft over densely populated areas should be banned, countered by an equally vehement group arguing that they should be continued. Nevertheless, after the September 1961 "Battle of Britain Day" fly-past, the regular ceremonial flight over central London was discontinued and the RAF withdrew its then only remaining airworthy Spitfire (PM 631) and Hurricane (LF 363) to form an Historic Aircraft Flight based at Horsham St. Faith in Norfolk. The two aircraft continued to make a limited number of appearances at RAF open days around the country but by 1963 the number of FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 4 0
these had dropped to just fifteen. Aware that it was custodian of priceless, and hugely popular, pieces of national heritage--and also aware that a single example of each aircraft type provided no cover at all against any kind of mishap--the RAF set about increasing its stock of airworthy examples. The cost of restoring historic aircraft featured high on the political agenda during a period when defence expenditure was constantly under scrutiny and the RAF were able to make only slow and limited progress towards their objective. By 1965, however, the Historic Aircraft Flight had been boosted to four Spitfires--but still only the single Hurricane--and was able to increase its participation in air displays throughout the summer months. A huge bonus arrived in 1968 when Harry Saltzmam and Ben Fisz decided to make their epic feature film, "Battle of Britain." The film company paid handsomely to hire the RAF's five airworthy aircraft and also
to restore several gate-guardian and museum examples to flying condition. As a result the Flight secured an additional Spitfire and the muchneeded second Hurricane. At around the same time, a much-modified Lancaster (PA 474), which had been used by the Cranfield College of Aeronautics, was withdrawn from service and earmarked for static exhibition at the Royal Air Force Museum at Hendon after restoration to a World War II configuration. PA 474 had in fact missed the war, having been built in mid-1945 and allocated for the Far East "Tiger Force,"not participating in hostilities before VJ-Day. The RAF argued that a more historic airframe--of which there were several doing gate guardian duty--
would be more appropriate for the RAF Museum and that PA 474 should be maintained in flying condition within the Historic Aircraft Flight. This was a hugely popular move amongst not only ex-members of Bomber Command but with the British public as a whole. Whilst losses of life and aircraft during the four months of the Battle of Britain had been sobering enough, they had formed only the "end of the beginning" in the context of 56,000 British and Commonwealth aircrew fatalities and around 600,000 German lives lost during the bomber offensive of the following four and one-half years. The Historic Aircraft Flight was renamed the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight in 1973, and moved
OPPOSITE: A Hurricane (top), the Lancaster and a Spitfire approaching Jersey Airport for the Flight's annual display over the Channel Islands. BELOW: P 7350, oldest airworthy Spitfire, entered service in August 1940 and fought with 266 and 603 Squadrons; she still carries patches over bullet holes sustained in combat. She was in the museum at RAF Colerne before being made airworthy for the film "Battle of Britain," after which she was presented to the BBMF. BOTTOM: Lancaster PA 474 flying over Lincoln Cathedral. The plane was adopted by Lincoln and has since worn the city's crest on the port side of the forward fuselage. During 1995-96, PA 474 was fitted with a brand new main spar which will extend her flying life well into the next millennium. Photographs in this article are by courtesy of Lincolnshire's Lancaster Association (Ltd.). A donation has been accepted by the Committee in lieu of copyright fees.
into a purpose-built hangar at its cur-
rent base, RAF Coningsby in
Lincolnshire, in 1976. Thus it cele-
brates this year twenty-one years of
settled existence. Its public esteem is
now surely such that it must be
untouchable by any politician seeking
to further reduce defence expenditure
for at least "a thousand years."
The present aircraft strength is
the Lancaster, four Spitfires, two
Hurricanes and a Dakota -- the latter
having been acquired in 1993 to rep-
resent the important role of that type
during the latter half of World War II.
The BBMF's Dakota (ZA 947) is a
most appropriate example, having
previously served with the United
States Air Force, the Royal Canadian
Air Force and the Royal Aircraft
Establishment before coming to
Aircrew doing a tour of duty
with the Battle of Britain Memorial
Flight are all volunteers -- and there
is a long waiting list of aspirants!
Pilots, now used only to flying mod-
ern aircraft with a tricycle undercar-
riage, have to do a course of training
to fly the historic "tail-draggers." A
venerable Chipmunk trainer is kept
by the Flight to provide "opposite
action" take-off and landing experi-
ence for the fighter pilots and the
Dakota serves in a similar role for the
Lancaster pilots. It simply would not
do for a "pilot-error" accident to
occur to any of these priceless air-
craft. A twenty-strong support and
maintenance groundcrew, also volun-
teers, keeps the aircraft in immaculate
order. BBMF aircraft participated in
over 500 events during 1995, includ-
ing the Lancaster dropping a million
poppies over The Mall on VJ-Day.
The Flight's hangar at Conings-
by is open to the public on every
weekday; more aircraft can usually be
seen during the winter months. The
Visitor Centre, operated jointly by the
RAF and Lincolnshire County
Council, has a small but interesting
exhibition and well-stocked souvenir
shop dominated by a large portrait of
Sir Winston Churchill, above the quo-
tation, "Never in the field of human
conflict was so much owed by so
many to so few."
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 4 1
Churchill in Stamps: Prime Minister Again BY RICHARD M. LANGWORTH Pages 247-252: A NEW ELIZABETHAN AGE Catalogue numbers are Scott (#) and Stanley Gibbons (sg). A slash mark (/) indicates a set with a common design from which any value is usable. Cams and Minkus catalogue numbers are sometimes used, and identified by name. We are nearing the end of our philatelic biography--but rest assured, there is still much to come in the way of appendices and addenda pages. Churchill commemorative stamps relating to the 247 postwar years are scarce, requiring the broad use of Churchill-related (CR) stamps to fill out a chronological biography. 247. To illustrate the postwar period I tried to select Churchill commemoratives showing an older Churchill, but only partly succeeded. Montserrat #312"(sg 345) shows a WW2 Churchill. But The Gambia #308 (sg 322) is ideal for this page, its c. 1950s illustration accompanied by the caption, "'Winston the Prime Minister Aged 79." Likewise, Cook Islands #418 (sg 507) uses a Karsh portrait from 1954 against a Parliamentary backdrop. Germany #574/7 (sg 928/31) and Australia #278 (sg 281) represent peace and international understanding. 248. Numerous Coronation Anniversaries have produced many stamps with this subject, but Tristan da Cunha #197 (sg 194) shows Churchill and Elizabeth II. Also appropriate is an Elizabeth stamp from Fujiera's 1970 British History series, and British Guiana #297/8 (sg 394/5), which juxtaposes WSC and the Queen, flanking St. George's Cathedral in now-Guyana, the tallest wooden building in the world. 249. More Churchill-Queen associations are represented by Belize #363 (sg 396), showing the coronation procession; Maldives 1977 Coronation Silver Jubilee commemoratives, and Seychelles #321 (sg 331) showing an approximate contemporary WSC. 250. Bermuda #164/5 (sg 152/3), documenting the Three Power Talks in 1953, has long been considered a Churchill "forerunner." USA #1383 (sg 1371) shows Eisenhower. Penrhyn Island #71 (sg) Churchill. 251. The first "stamp" to depict Eisenhower and Churchill together was, I think, Uram al Qiwain Minkus 63 (sg 62). Bhutan's 1972 Famous Men series included Ike (Minkus 473) as well as Churchill. Fujiera Minkus 73 (sg 73, pert' and imperf) shows the 248. 1950s PM walking with the young Nicholas Soames. 252. Germany #982-85 (Minkus 1459-62) is ideal for our purpose here, depicting Churchill with key United Europe statesmen: Italy's Alcide de Gasperi, France's Robert Schuman and Germany's Konrad Adenauer. Anguilla#193 (sg 181) has a photo of Churchill taken after his 1954 lunch with U.S. Secretary of State Dulles (WSC: "Dull, Duller, Dulles!"), who is depicted on USA #1172 (sg 1171). (To be continued)
PiilME XIKIS !·Ј·'. AGAIK, l^'II "'finally at 7 6 , Cnurchiil rtct'ivufj \hf ;Jei'Lni-.ive '.ccol.'s :e his career: He wau rocalltri tc h'.'j, nation1*, nigh^bt ciTics.; ·cimc of pcacu. Ytu his terr. in office niic: Ic be .inticlir-fic
"'There was no Buttle o:' Britain 'about to begin, ' only the dull and nagging cold war, which Churchill set himself tc mitigate. "'It seemed, during this time, as his wit crackle'i across the House of Commons, that Cnurchill would defy time. But not even he could do that.'1
* ·· r i
During much of this time in office, Jhurchill'c IT;-1 j or goal wzs international underhanding.
Vi.ien G e o r g e ~/Z JluC, in 1 . ^ 2 , C h u r c h i l l *ms n o a r t b r o k e n , an>] i'or a Urr.e ^ s a o c J a t r s tnoughl, him di.'TiJer.t -ibo^t E l i z a b e t h I I , '-.-.<· tir?t W,"i.en-Scvercign s i n c e V i c t o r i a . He s o c n v,arrr.t'd to h e r , t-nough, a n ] c a b i n e L ^icrr.oers b e g a n to n o t i c e that hio weekly ·^uJiences at Iiuckinglv-.T. Fjlt.ce were l o n g e r and l o n g e r . '.*,· o C", whe na J s u p p o r t e c enc lost cause of KdrtUrj VIII in 1936, siid In '" T.iarik God ·.vis wrong, Tnank God 1 wЈ& ·.-.rong. We coulJn1 t have get a better King, and ncv.1 we have this «ueen. Tnc Prime Minister ordered n large blsw-up of hi" favorite photo of Her MaJesty, and nung it -ibove his bed. ''lie may well have been Just slightly in lov" with her,1' ijn ctscrvur
VALEDICTION GOD SAVE THE QUEEN "In our island...we have found out a very good plan. Here it is: The Queen can do no wrong. Bad advisors can be changed as often as the people like to use their rights for that purpose, A great battle is won; crowds cheer the Queen. What goes wrong is carted away with the politicians responsible." -- a t Westminster Hall, May 1953 The Coronation coach
VALEDICTION CHURCHILL AND EISENHOWER... ...were veteran warriors, old colleagues and friends. WSC felt that he personally could make Ike understand his country's views when others failed, but WSC--who might have made the difference-had retired by the time the Suez Crisis occurred in 1956. Old comrades
" I , whose youth was passed in the august, unchallenged and tranquil glories of the Victorian era may well feel a thrill in invoicing once more, the prayer and anthem: "God Save the Queen." --June 1953
251. With his grandson, Arthur Nicholas Winston Soames, at the christening of Jeremy Soames, August 1952. At extreme left is F.M. Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, Jeremy1s godfather.
BERMUDA TALKS When his old friend Eisenhower became President in 1953, Churchill sought a new East-West dialogue and called for a summit meeting of the Big Pour powers. Stalin's death, French election.., find a stroke by Churchill prevented this. Instead WSC, Eisenhower, and new French Premier Joseph Laniel, met at Bermuda in December.
This was the first Allied heads of state meeting since the war. But since the USSR had called for a four-power meeting on Berlin and other problems, the Bermuda talks were of little consequence.
Eisenhower insisted that the Russians demonstrate their good intentions by 11 deeds, not words/
Churchill had proposed a Jnion br.twnori ^ritc 19^-0, and spoke vaguely and wisti'ully :>.' u.c States of Europe': after the war. Abov -11 i that We;, t Germany be defended, t:iut .·. - _ 1 _- .r
For that reason certainly it was appropriate for the Feder. .1 Republic to honor Churchill on a stamp, along with Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, de Gasperi o f Italy, and the reat \ French foreign minister nobert Schuman. But it was ironic that Germany should be the first nation on the continent of Europe to commemorate WSC.
After luncheon with United States Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, Downing Street,
ing that the sculptor himself had his doubts about the work. Roberts-Jones (obituary, Finest Hour 94 page 8) had nightmares of the
monolith coming to life and walking along
with its thundering footsteps echoing through-
I assume from your remarks ("Amid out Parliament Square. But the statue does
These Storms," FH 95) that you have not have some wonderful angles, especially from
I have recent- actually seen the programme "Frasier" behind with St. Stephen's Tower in the back-
ly read a note (not spelled "Fraser"). "Frasier" and ground--a very fine photo from this angle is
appearing on "Home Improvement" have little in com- coming up on a FH cover. Judge for yourself.
the Winston Listserv (Internet) about an mon other than that their characters speak
article regarding the pressure p u t by English--although the elitist Frasier him- WWW.WINSTONCHURCHILL.ORG
Churchill on the American government to self uses French and Latin phrases so fre-
As of last year I have been on the
suppress certain documents. W. J. Shep- quently that even this can be argued. In Internet. Our members would be sur-
herd states: "The disturbing thing in this fact, "Frasier" is witty, smart, and unfail- prised to see all there is in cyberspace
article is that virtually n o n e of the ingly funny, and you done him wrong-- about Sir Winston. The Churchill Center
Churchill memos cited appear to come even if he does make occasional mistakes. Home Page (
from Gilbert but rather from the Beaver- But no matter, I shall continue to look for- is frequently updated with new informa-
brook Papers, which begs the question as ward to FH every quarter. Keep up the tion and facts. Another fine service is
to whether Gilbert suppressed this in his good work.
"Listserv Winston," through which I
official biography."
CHRIS DUNFORD receive messages from the Finest Hour edi-
Since the very first day on which I began work on the Churchill biography in
tors, professors, students, critics and champions (see also page 20 -Ed.) One of
1961, alongside his son Randolph, I have never suppressed (nor did Randolph ever
the subscribers sends a message to an address ([email protected]) and it
suppress) a single document or fact. Indeed the whole enterprise, from the out-
me is automatically sent to all members of the
respectfully to service. I have received up to twenty mes-
set, was based on discovering documents and bringing them to the light of day.
disagree with sages a day. It is free, and supplies me John Gallagher's with all kinds of interesting Churchilliana.
In my Volume VHI of the biography I
assessment of Many times heated discussions erupt,
cited the documents from the Beaverbrook papers because that is where I found
the statue of Sir ranging from Churchill's opinions on the Winston in Par- Holocaust to his fantastic skills. Thanks!
them. If I had found more on this subject
liament Square
in the Churchill papers, or elsewhere, I
as "a monstrosi-
would have published it. One particular
ty... [which] does NEXT UP: FDR IN 1944
interest is that this episode links up with not conjure up the dynamics and viva-
During the writing of my book on
one about which I published material in ciousness of the great man, but instead Harry Hopkins I was concerned that I
Volume V and its Companion Volumes, shows [a] stooped, infirm old man leaning would be able to do him justice. Your gen-
Churchill's request that all potentially anti- on his cane." (FH 95, Despatch Box, p. 25). erous review in FH 93 makes it all worth-
American statements in The World Crisis On the three occasions w h e n I h a v e while. It also has given me encouragement
should be deleted in the serialisation by looked up, admiringly, at this great work to proceed with my next book, which will
The Times of London.
of art, it has spoken to me of "Churchill... focus on Franklin Roosevelt in 1944. There
As W. J. Shepherd states, "Churchill indomitable, even in old age!"
will be at least a chapter on the FDR-
the politician always superseded Churchill
JONAH TRIEBWASSER, RED HOOK, N.Y. Churchill relationship at a time when
the historian"--except of course when
Roosevelt was not at his best because of
Churchill was writing history!
Editor's response: John Gallagher actually weariness and serious health problems. I
SIR MARTIN GILBERT, LONDON said much more--he really despises the am most grateful for your kind words.
thing!--but we ran out of space. It is interest- MATT WILLS, COLORADO SPRINGS, COLO.
THANKS, CRAIG Please let me take this opportunity to express my admiration for the work you are doing to keep the legacy of Churchill alive. I was at the Washington Conference in 1993. At one discussion, a member of the audience made a comment that could have been construed as limiting the Churchill legacy to certain groups of people. You immediately stood up and politely reminded everyone that Churchill's work serves everyone. How very true! CRAIG DE BERNARDS, GLENSIDE, PENNA.
RIGHT: Anent Matt Wills's letter (righthand column), Douglas Hall offers us this charming little black and white mug backstamped "Ascot White Made in England," dating probably from 1941: "The mug shows little sign of use... I suspect it has spent most of its 50+ years locked away. Very rare."
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 4 4
RECIPES FROM NO. 10 Edited and Annotated for the Modern Kitchen by Barbara R Langworth
Churchill's attachment to the creatures who inhabited Chartwell and its farms was well known. The most famous example involves a goose which he refused to carve at a family dinner. Handing over the carving knife to his wife, Sir Winston exclaimed, "You carve him, Clemmie, he was a friend of mine." Feathered animals were especially appreciated, particularly Chartwell's famous black swans. Walter Graebner, Churchill's Life editor, reports the great man's distress on learning that one of them had fallen victim to a marauding fox. When his son-in-law, Christopher Soames, reported that the mother swan had died in defence of her cygnets, and had given the fox a fight he would long remember, Churchill declared, "I knew she would." The cygnets were removed that very day to the safety of Regent's Park Zoo, and Sir Winston commanded the construction of "a system of defence in depth" to protect the pond from attack. The master of Chartwell undoubtedly fancied his smaller birds too, but he was perhaps less unwilling to partake of the sumptuous meals involving them which his famous cook, Georgina Landemare, occasionally offered, such as... Coq au Vin For six people... 1 plump chicken cut into 6 pieces 1/2 lb. of bacon cut into thick cubes 12 small onions (peeled) 12 small mushrooms Butter for browning Seasoning (salt & pepper) 2 tablespoons brandy 10 ounces Burgundy Bouquet garni 3 tablespoons flour mixed with 2 tablespoons soft butter Slices of lemon and fleurons of pastry for garnishing
In a large skillet, brown the bacon and onions in the butter. When a golden colour, add the chicken, bouquet garni, mushrooms and seasoning. Cover the pan and cook quickly till all is brown. Remove lid, take off the fat and pour over the brandy. Flame the brandy, add the Burgundy, cover and simmer for 3/4 hour or until chicken is tender. Discard bouquet garni.
RECIPES FROM NO.10 GEORGINA 1. A N OEMARE With an Introduction by Lady Churchill
Remove chicken to a serving platter, keep warm. Add butter and flour mixture to the skillet, stir until dissolved and sauce thickens. Pour sauce over chicken; garnish with lemon and pastry. Bouquet garni - Flavoring spices of fresh or dried herbs. Make your own by tying one tablespoon of dried herbs in a double piece of cheese
cloth (this can also be found readymade), or tie fresh herbs together. I used the white part of a leek, tarragon, basil, thyme, parsley, and bay leaf tied between two pieces of celery.
Fleurons of pastry - Thaw one sheet
of puff pastry according to package
directions. Cut shapes with a cookie
(biscuit) cutter and bake at 350° for 15
minutes or until golden.
A staff benefit of this new Finest Hour department is serving as Official Taster of the delights of Chartwell's and Number 10's kitchen. In this case the Taster recommends Mrs. Landemare's Coq au Vin, washed down with a good sauvignon blanc, enjoyed in the company of Andrea and Don Feder.--RML
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 4 5
BY CURT ZOLLER 817. About which American Secretary of State did Churchill comment: "He is the only bull I know who carries his own china closet with him"? (C) 818. Who wrote of Churchill " he is brave, which is everything! Napoleonic in audacity, Cromwellian in thoroughness."? (L) 819. In 1882 Prime Minister Gladstone expressed a strong opinion about the Churchills. What was it? (M) 820. Churchill knew a cat named after a famous British hero. What was its name? (P) 821. What was one of Churchill's primary reasons for joining the Liberal Party in 1904? (S) 822. How did Churchill improve the firepower of the five dreadnoughts for the 1912 Naval program? (W) 823. Who replaced Lloyd George's second coalition Government as Prime Minister? (C) 824. According to Maurice Ashley, what was Churchill's opinion of American vs. British editions of his books? (L) 825. Who played Winston Churchill in the film "The Wilderness Years"? (M) 826. Who was the sculptor of the statue which stands at the British Embassy, Washington, D.C.? (P) 827. Churchill commented "...There is only one thing worse than fighting with Allies !" What is it? (S) 828. From 1901 to 1903 Churchill spoke out strongly against proposed Army reforms by Secretary of State for War St. John Brodrick. What was Churchill's reasoning? (W) 829. Who painted the Churchill picture which was hanging in Prime Minister Thatcher's office while she was Prime Minister? (C) 830. How long were the Churchills married? (C) 831. When and where did Sir Winston Churchill's parents first meet? (M) 832. What was the name of Churchill's last bodyguard? (P)
833. What were Churchill's comments about Neville Chamberlain? (S) 834. Who was the British scientist whom Churchill called "the man who broke the bloody Beam"? (W) 835. What is the location of the bronze statue of Churchill sculpted by Ivor Roberts-Jones ? (C) 836. Of whom did Churchill comment: "There for the grace of God goes God"? (C) 837. Who inspired Churchill to write the Life of Marlborough? (M) 838. Who said of Churchill: "When Winston is right he is unique. When he is wrong--Oh My God!"? (P) 839. What are the two main issues Churchill devoted his energies to in the final months as Prime Minister? (S) 840. When Gen. Eisenhower was under considerable pressure from Churchill to occupy Berlin before the Russians, he wrote to Gen. Marshall: " I am the first to admit that a war is waged in pursuance of ". Can you complete the quotation? (W) Answers to last issue's questions: (793) Churchill's comment "about compressing the largest amount of words into the smallest amount of thought" referred to Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald. (794) The Daily Graphic paid him five guineas for each letter written during the Cuban insurrection. (795) Charles Bedaux, a naturalized American citizen, was contacted by the Germans to contact the Duke of Windsor, but he declined because he was no longer friendly with the Windsors. (796) "Barbara Frietchie" by John Greenleaf Whittier was the poem Churchill recited on the way to ShangriLa. (797) In his speech on 6 December 1950, when dedicating the Asquith monument, Churchill said, " .... But I must say that the statesmen whom I saw in those days seemed to tower above the general level in a most impressive way. The tests were keener, the standards were higher, and those who surmounted them were men it was a treat and honour to meet." (798) Rear-Admiral John de Robeck was promoted to head the Naval
force at the Dardanelles when ViceAdmiral Carden collapsed under the strain. (799) Malcolm Muggeridge of the Daily Telegraph said that "Churchill is too rhetorical to be either a really great writer or orator." (800) President Roosevelt's letter introduced Wendell L. Willkie and included the Henry Wadsworth Longfellow poem: "...Sail on, O Ship of State, Sail on, O Union, strong and great!
(801) The painting, "The Olive Tree" was sold for Ј500. (802) Congress made Churchill an Honorary American Citizen in 1963. (803) Speaking at the Lord Mayor's Luncheon, Mansion House, London, on 10 November 1942, Churchill said: " I have not become the King's First Minister in order to preside over the liquidation of the British Empire."
(804) The Spanish Cross of the Order of Military Merit was granted to Churchill on 6 December 1895 by Gen. Valdez, Chief of the Spanish Army in Cuba. (805) Manfred Weidhorn commented on Churchill's Malakand Field Force in his book Sword and Pen.
(806) Churchill was working on The River War when he met the American, Miss Christine Lewis. (807) Bezique was Churchill's favorite card game. (808) A. J. Campbell Colquhoun owned Chartwell when Churchill bought it. (809) Churchill made the comment in his speech against the White Paper which stipulated an end to Jewish immigration to Palestine in five years by a majority decision of the population. (810) Edward R. Morrow coined the phrase, "to send the English language into battle."
(811) Churchill commented on American insistence on the invasion of Southern France in Triumph and Tragedy, 1953. (812) He urged his friends not to read Savrola, his only novel. (813) When Churchill saw his first American football game in early 1930 he said: "Actually it is somewhat like rugby. But why do you have all these committee meetings ?"
(814) John Winston Spencer Churchill,
7th Duke of Marlborough, was Winston
Churchill's paternal grandfather. (815)
"The high-roads of the future will be
clear" is part of the ending of the
"Sinews of Peace"speech, Fulton,
Missouri, 5 March 1946. (816) A.V.
Alexander became First Lord of the
Admiralty in the Churchill War Cabinet
on 11 May 1940.
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 4 6
o incuts °inn1p"°ime. Dorothy Jones (Edenfield, Lancashire) sends us this photograph from a friend's house clearance: "He doesn't remember where it originated other than the Evening Standard." But a date on the back reads 23 June 1936, which led us to the Complete Speeches. On that date, Churchill was speaking in London to the Central and Associated Chambers of Agriculture. It is satisfying to find the words that go with the photograph...
/ / T h a v e done my best to warn the J-Government of the dangers which from every side are gathering and growing about our native land. Not only is the growth of food in close proximity to the populations the highest economy that can be achieved, but it is also a very great security. The more food we can grow the more solid will be the foundations on which our very large population reposes, and the less strain there is on the Navy in time of war. I believe the Navy at present is, and will be for the next year, fully adequate to any strain that might be cast on it. If measures are taken now and pressed forward, there is no reason why the strength of the Navy should not be adequately maintained. But then there is the complication of the attack by air on our ports of entry as well as on the approaches from the sea. That would certainly impose a new strain on the Navy and might require the use of the westerly ports of the country to a very much larger extent than has occurred before. If that should occur no one can doubt that the possession of large and fertile home-grown resources of food would be of inestimable assistance. "....I am surprised as well as pained to see the lack of comprehension that
exists throughout the country of the dangerous position in which we are. The Secretary of State for War is quite right when he says that the condition of Europe is far worse than it was in 1914. But our own position is not nearly so good as it was then. Our defences have been neglected to an extent surprising and astonishing, and even the novel menace of the air did not exist to any extent in 1914. Yet, when a Minister like that, in one of the highest positions, with all the secret information of the Government at his disposal, makes a statement so alarming, one is astonished that the country does not rouse itself on the matter, that it does not ask whether it is true, or that it does not insist on
minor topics being laid aside and the whole efforts and energies of the country concentrated on placing the country in a position of security....MR. Baldwin said in the House of Commons last week that he believed if this country were threatened by any Power or combination of Powers, the people would spring to arms like one man. But what would happen if there were no arms for them? If measures are not taken in time there may not be even food to nourish their bodies."
--Winston S. Churchill: His Complete
Speeches, Robert Rhodes James, ed.,
(New York: Bowker 1974), Vol. VI, pp
fo r
Tlie 1951 Campaign Pin The Washington Society for Churchill has issued this finely enameled replica of the pin Churchill's supporters wore in the election which made him Prime Minister again after six years out of office. The craftsmanship is a significant improvement on the original, crisp, clear and bright. US $10 or the equivalent postpaid. Order from WSC, c/o Dr. John Mather, 12144 Long Ridge Lane, Bowie MD 20715 USA.
FINEST HOUR 9 6 / 4 7
IMMORTAL WORDS " I look forward confidently to tbe exploits of our figbter pilots -- tbese splendid men, tbis brilliant youtb -- wbo will bave tbe glory of saving tbeir native land, tbeir island borne, and all tbey love, from tbe most deadly of all attacks....tbe Battle of France is over. I expect tbat tbe Battle of Britain is about to begin. Upon tbis battle depends tbe survival of Cbristian civilisation. Upon it depends our own Britisb life, and tbe long continuity of our institutions and our Empire....Let us tberefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves tbat, if tbe Britisb Empire and its Commonwealtb last for a tbousand years, men will still say, 'Tbis was tbeir finest bour.' " --Winston S. Churchill, House of Commons, 18 June 1940 FROM THE ROYAL AIR FORCE BATTLE OF BRITAIN MEMORIAL FLIGHT Hurricane PZ 865, "Last or tne Many," was tne final or 14,533 Hurricanes built by Hawkers. Completed in 1944, she was retained by tbe manufacturers and used for communications and testing before being presented to tbe BBMF in 1972. Pbotograpb by courtesy of Lincolnshire's Lancaster Association (Ltd.) and Douglas Hall, whose article appears (appropriately) on pages 40-41.

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