The new generation Kalina cycle

Tags: Kalina Cycle, ORC, Rankine Cycle, Facility Management Training, Geothermal Power Plants, Photovoltaic Power Plants Solarthermal Power Plants Gas, Dr. Alexander Kalina Kalina Cycles, System Specification, temperatures, Waste Heat Recovery, Working Fluid, heat source, Ozone Depletion Potential, source temperature, Evaporation and condensation, temperature restrictions, temperature level, Brine, Dr. Alexander Kalina, Manfred Renz, Electricity Generation, Zander Markts, Facility Management, Geothermal Systems, Services Facility Engineering Electronics Photovoltaics Energy Solutions Technical Facility Services Pharma, Biotech / Chemical Industry Automation Security Systems Facility Management, Maintenance Global Facility Management Real Estate Management, Services Commercial Services Facility Evaluation, Alexander Kalina, Electrical Output, Brine Inlet Temperature, Operation Maintenance, Zander Energy Solutions, Operation Consulting Services, Manfred Engelhard, SG
Content: The New Generation Kalina Cycle Contribution to the conference "electricity generation from Enhanced Geothermal Systems" Dr. Manfred Renz, Manfred Engelhard M+W Zander, Strasbourg, France September 14 2006
M+W Zander Markts and Services
Facility Engineering Electronics Photovoltaics Energy Solutions Technical Facility Services Pharma / Biotech / Chemical Industry Automation Security systems Facility Management IT-Services
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Scope of Services
Consulting
Design
Construction
Operation
Consulting Services, Planning
Evaluation,
and Design
Programming
Construction Management and Build
Site Selection Services Feasibility Studies Architectural / Engineering Programming Economic Analysis Financial Engineering Process Development and Simulation design concepts
Facility Planning Preliminary Design Value Engineering Conceptual, Basic, Detail and Final Design Facility Systems Integration Permits and environmental compliance Cost Optimization
project management Time Scheduling Cost Control General Contracting Tendering Manufacturing Procurement Construction Commissioning Single Source Responsibility Fast Track Execution
Facility Management, Operation, Maintenance Global Facility Management real estate Management and Operation Maintenance of Technical Building Systems Energy and Consumption Management Infrastructure Services Commercial Services Facility Evaluation Security Services
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Locations Worldwide
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Energy Solutions as Turnkey Supplier
Decentralized Energy Systems
Cogeneration
and
Renewable Energies
Domestic
Heat
Energy Systems Pumps
Biomass Power Plants
CHP (Combined Heat + Power) Large-Scale Power Plants
Viessmann Vaillant Bosch-Buderus Hitachi
Kalina-Cycle Trigeneration
applications
Photovoltaic Power Plants
Solarthermal Power Plants
Gas fired Power Stations
...
Siemens Alstom MHI Hitachi Bechtel
Geothermal
District-
SNC Lavalin
1000 MW
Power
Heating/Cooling ...
Plants
Waste Heat
Recovery
0,1 MW
1 MW
10 MW
100 MW
1.000 Megawatts
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Geothermal Power Plants: Full System Contractor
Consulting Services Programming System Specification Environmental Permitting Financial engineering design design development Design Reviews Kalina Cycle Thermodynamic Calculations Heat Exchanger interior Design Turbine Specification Ammonia-Water Characteristics Project Management Scheduling Cost Control quality control Web Based Project Collaboration Commissioning and Ramp Up Test and Certifications Putting into service Facility Management Training and Support The New Gen Kalina Cycle at ENGINE MWZ- Eng. 14.09.06 6
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Operation In Line Process Monitoring Advanced Process Control Web Based Visualization Supply Systems N2 Supply Plant Water Treatment System Building and Facilities Civil, Structural and Architecture Mechanical Systems (air, exhaust) electrical systems Instrumentation and Controls Construction Construction Management Material Logistics Installation Services Field Engineering
Rankine Cycle Overview Rankine Cycles Single Fluid
Mixtures
Water The New Gen Kalina Cycle at ENGINE MWZ- Eng. 14.09.06 7
ORC 100 °C ORC (Propane, R290) 125 °C ORC (RC318) 150 °C ORC (i-Butane) 175 °C ORC (n-Butan) .... © M+W Zander
Kalina Cycles System Geothermal New Gen. SG 2, SG 4 ... Kalina Cycle System KCS 11, KCS 34 ... ....
ORC ­ Kalina Cycle
Preheater Boiler Superheater Preheater Boiler
Kalina Cycle compared to ORC Single organic working fluid replaced by NH3/H2O Closed loop of liquid working fluid (strong resp. weak solution) Separation of steam and liquid Superheating possible but normally not considered in KCS34 Condensation (absorption) of vapor at low pressure level in 2 steps A substantial part of absorption energy may be recuperated to the cycle in HE 2
Weak Solution NH3/H2O Strong Solution Recuperator KCS 34
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Characteristics of ORC and Kalina Cycles organic substances must be selected in accordance to the heat source temperature level (Tcr < Tin Brine)
Temperature
Evaporation / Desorption Process
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Entropy
Cycle Caracteristics
ORC (Single Componant Working Fluid) Evaporation and condensation at fixed temperatures Fluid must be selected in accordance to the temperature level of the heat source Pinch point is limiting factor for heat transfer Environmental Impacts and restrictions by using organic substances Inflamable and/or toxic and/or GWP (global warming Potential) and/or ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) Kalina Cycle (Mixture of Ammonia/Water) Evaporation (desorption) and condensation (absorption) over a large temperature range (fits to the nature of the heat source) Same working fluid may cover a wide range of the heat source temperature levels Optimization by switching concentration Ammonia has toxic potential but: Easy to detect at save concentration levels A lot of experiences in handling the substance and operating ammonia cycles (mechanical and absorption chillers) No GWP and ODP
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Kalina Cycles KSC 34 and SG 2a
Preheater Boiler
KCS 34
SG2a compared to KSC 34 Evaporator is splitted in preheater HE 4 and Boiler HE 5 The working fluid is separated into 2 substreams, preheated in HE 3, HE 4 Evaporator HE 5 is supplied additionally by an internal cycle, collecting working fluid from separators operating at intermediate and low pressure levels
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SG 2a
Kalina SG 2a Cycle Increased efficiency, especially at low heat source temperatures ( 150°C) Improved adaptability to brine output temperature restrictions (scaling effects) Lower electricity generation loss in case of temperature restrictions Enhanced economic and technical viability for the utilization of low temperature geothermal sources Additional geothermal energy usage for heating purposes may be performed (e.g. during winter time) at less electrical power losses
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Cycle Net Electrical Output Comparison
Spec. Net Electrical Output (Wh/ kg Brine)
20,0
18,0
16,0 Typical temperatures
14,0
for geothermal
application 12,0
10,0
SG-2a
8,0
SG-2d
6,0
KCS-11
KCS-34
4,0
SG-4d
2,0
ORC Double Pressure
ORC Single Pressure
0,0
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
Brine Inlet Temperature (°C)
Source: Dr. Alexander Kalina
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Cycle Net Electrical Output Comparison
Spec. Net Electrical Output (Wh/kg Brine)
12,0
10,0
8,0
6,0
4,0
2,0
0,0
120
125
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SG-2a KCS-11 KCS-34 ORC Double Pressure ORC Single Pressure
130
135
140
Brine Inlet Temperature (°C)
© M+W Zander
145
150
Source: Dr. Alexander Kalina
Kalina Cycles SG 2a and SG 2d SG2d compared to SG2a Working fluid is totally evaporated and slightly superheated in HE 6 No intermediate pressure level SG 2a best performances at temperatures 150°C SG 2d best performances at temperatures 150°C SG2d shall be used for high temperature applications SG2a
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SG2d
Cycle Net Electrical Output Comparison
120%
100%
Electrical Output in %
80%
60%
40%
20%
SG-2a
SG-2d
KCS-11
KCS-34
ORC Double Pressure
ORC Single Pressure
0%
125°C
150°C
Brine Supply Temperature
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Source: Dr. Alexander Kalina
Cycle Net Electrical Output Comparison
Operational Discounted Net Revenue in Euro/ a Accumulated Discounted Net Revenue in Euro
5.000.000 4.000.000 3.000.000 2.000.000 1.000.000
Geothermal Pow er Plant - Cash Flow Comparison of different cycles
Kalina SG 2a appr. 10,5 years
ORC appr. 14,5 years
30.000.000 25.000.000 20.000.000 15.000.000 10.000.000 5.000.000
0
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
-1.000.000
-5.000.000
-2.000.000 -3.000.000 -4.000.000
Kalina KSC 34 appr. 12,5 years
-5.000.000
Financing interest 6%
Year
Cost increase (N2, water, staff, el. power purchase) 2 % p a
-10.000.000
SG-2a
-15.000.000
KCS 34
ORC
-20.000.000
SG-2a Accumulated
KCS 34 Accumulated
-25.000.000
ORC Accumulated
-30.000.000
Thermal water temperature 125°C Thermal water flow rate 150 kg/s Wet cooling tower
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Conclusion Ammonia water mixture has no GWP and ODP New Generation Kalina Cycle SG2a is very flexible concerning project factors (heat source and heat sink adaptation) SG2a has the best performance at heat source temperatures 150°C More sellable electrical energy SG2a causes higher invest costs but: Higher revenue Shorter payback period Highest possible economics of a geothermal project
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