The Procida Immigrants of 1885: A Case Study on Their Origins and Recruitment in Germany, and Immigration and Settlement in Tasmania

Tags: ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS, Germany, Tasmania, Procida, Battery Point, Adventure Bay, Procida immigrants, Lars Hansson, Recruitment, Immigration, German newspapers, clustered settlement, Collinsvale, emigrants, Heinrich Friedrich, immigrants, Johanna Wilhelmine Burczak, Wilhelm Heinrich Johann, Wilhelm Heinrich, Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany, Elin Marie Anderson, Anna Alwina Haustein, Name Haustein, Anna Sophia Kruse, Saxony Germany, Cornelian Bay Cemetery, Elise Marie Burczak, Friedrich Carl Kruse, Hamburg Germany, Caroline Sophia Haustein, Frederick Archibald Frederick Archibald Davis, Mary Anne John Peter Johnsen, Dorcas Agnes Hansson, George Oscar George Watt, Arthur Stanley Davis, William James Terry, William James Elsie Cecelia Terry, Oscar Harold Hansson, Marjorie Florence Chinnery, Janette Ronald Wilfred Jestrimski, Andrew Hansson, Augusta Winifred Hansson, Anne Elsie Mary Frerk, Carl Oscar Mansson, Prudence Christina Davis, Ada Martha Jestrimski, Frank Henry Dorloff, Albert Herman Leonard Kaden, Johanna Burczak, Caroline Lindgren Johann Peter Anderson Henry John Stonehouse, Caroline Anderson, Huonville Cornelian Bay Cemetery Cornelian Bay Cemetery, Emma Frederica Glau, Marie Christine Glau, Port Arthur Cornelian Bay Cemetery Carnarvon Cemetery, Holstein Stolzenberg Carl Joh, Spouse Claus Heinrich Glau, Carnarvon Cemetery, Anna Elvera Anderson, Mass emigration, Karl Peterson, individuals, Buck, German unification, Launceston Examiner, Government of Tasmania, Marie Danker, Collinsvale Cornelian Bay Cemetery Cornelian Bay Cemetery Cornelian Bay Cemetery Cornelian Bay Cemetery Cornelian Bay Cemetery Cornelian Bay Cemetery Cornelian Bay Cemetery Cornelian Bay Cemetery, Caroline Sophia Rank Alban Julius Haustein, Louise Wilhelm Albat Moss, Ralph Harold Davis, Julius Alban Haustein, Anna Magdalena Glau, Anna Marie Lembeck Wilhelm Heinrich Kruse, Gustav Adolph Anderson, Auguste Marie, Alma Matilda Anderson, Collinsvale Cornelian Bay Cemetery Methodist Cemetery, Rudolph Emil, Mauer Switzerland Rudolph, Interment Cornelian Bay Cemetery Methodist Cemetery, Holstein Stolzenberg Anna Cath, Martin Franz Burczak, Lars Haustein, Adventure Bay Anglican Cemetery, Louise Hans Henry August Frerk, Jacob Jestrimski, arrived immigrants, Johannis Danker, Claude Rieper, Friedrich Kupsch, established, Wattle Grove, Franz Kohl, Isabel Neilson, Olaf Ohlson, Hobart, Christian Bose, Victoria Kohlhagen, dairy farm, German families, Emma Peterson, Heinrich Frerk, Victoria, Michael G. Watt, William Kruse, Carl Zanotti, Michael Watt, Sandy Bay, Tasmania, Tasmanian Family History Society, Wilhelm Kruse, Caroline Haustein, Heinrich Dorloff, Anna Rieper, Heinrich Dunkel, Sven Mansson, Alfred Haustein, Carl Wachholz, Wilhelm Zschachner, family members, Henry Arnold Jestrimski, William Edward Doris Francis, Ralph Bernard Jestrimski, Henry Theodore Davis, Frederick Leslie Douglas Frederick Chinnery, Henry Bruce Danker, Henry Ernest Jestrimski, Wilhelmina Christina Hansson, Hubert Thomas Claude William Alfred Hubert Applebee, Daisy Eliza Donald Charles Jestrimski, Ivan Charles Jestrimski, Amelia Pearl Jestrimski, Henry Ernest Terry, Victoria Ada Flora Victoria Kohlhagen, Reginald Ernest Davis, Agnes Marie Glau, Thomas Frederick Chinnery, Amelia Rosalia Clara Ellen Jestrimski, James James Horace Haustein, Caroline Sophia Alexander Haustein, Ethel Camellia Haustein, Shirley Vera Haustein Hilton Lionel Alfred Haustein Brenda Valmai Houstein Haustein, James Charles Claude Haustein, Kathleen Mary Kathleen Anne Haustein, Vera Josephine Hedley Guildford Haustein, Bonnie Vivienne Haustein, Irene Josephine Haustein, Winifred Mary Davis, Matilda Amanda Dora Caroline Jestrimski, West Hobart, Anna Magdalona Frieda Christine Glau, Launceston, Haustein, Thelma Viola Jestrimski
Content: The Procida immigrants of 1885: a Case study on their origins and recruitment in Germany, and immigration and settlement in Tasmania Michael Watt
Copyright (c) 2016 by Michael G. Watt All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the author. Requests for permission should be addressed in writing to the author. Author: Michael G. Watt Address: 316 Churchill Avenue, Sandy Bay, Tasmania 7005, Australia Phone: 03 6225 1335 E-mail: [email protected] Cataloguing in Publication Data Watt, Michael G. The Procida immigrants of 1885: a case study on their origins and recruitment in Germany, and immigration and settlement in Tasmania 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface ............................................................................................................ 4
Introduction .................................................................................................. 5
Method .......................................................................................................... 8
Origins and Recruitment ................................................................................ 10
Immigration and Settlement ........................................................................... 15
Appendix A.................................................................................................... 25
Appendix B.................................................................................................... 33
Appendix C.................................................................................................... 45
References ...................................................................................................
57
3
PREFACE My interest in the Procida immigrants arose from a study I conducted on the Mansson family, my father's maternal ancestors, who emigrated on the Procida and settled at Pyengana (Watt, 2006). In 2009, I read and reviewed Marita Hargraves' book, and concluded that additional information contained in this source warranted revising the document on the history of the Mansson family. In 2011, the introductory chapter was revised by including analyses of the recruitment, demographic characteristics and settlement patterns of the immigrants, who arrived on the Procida in 1885. In Issue 8 of the Glamorgan Spring Bay Historical Society's newsletter Former Times, I published an article titled `Researching Immigration to Tasmania from Germany in the Nineteenth Century'. Distributed at the Tasmanian Family History Society's Annual General Meeting and Conference held at Swansea in June 2015, this issue of the newsletter reached a wider audience than usual. An outcome of the article's publication was an invitation to give a presentation on this topic to a group at a Tasmanian Family History Society general meeting held on 17 November, 2015 in the Sunday School, St John's Park, New Town. The talk focused mainly on the immigrants, who arrived from Germany on the Procida in 1885. An outcome was the publication of two articles on this topic in the Tasmanian Family History Society's journal, Tasmanian Ancestry. The first article titled, `The origins of Tasmanian settlers recruited from Germany: a case study of the Procida immigrants of 1885' was published in volume 36, number 4 in March 2016. The second article titled, `The settlement patterns of immigrants from Germany: a case study of the Procida immigrants of 1885' was published in volume 37, number 1 in June 2016. While researching the articles, I concluded that information reported in the articles should be amalgamated into a single document to provide a resource for library collections and researchers of family history. During the course of writing the articles, I compiled a list of children born to the families after arrival, single adults, who subsequently married, and the children of the families, who subsequently married. It is believed that this information will form a valuable reference for other descendants of the Procida immigrants in tracing their family histories. The author wishes to acknowledge the assistance given by the following people in contributing genealogical information about the Procida immigrants. Kathy Duncombe, coordinator of the Bruny Island Historical Society, is thanked for reviewing Appendix B and providing details about family members of the Glau, Kaden and Ohlson families, who settled on Bruny Island. Judith Reeves is thanked for providing information about the descendants of Marie Christina Glau. Kym Matthews, curator of the St Helens History Room, is thanked for providing access to family history files on the Jestrimski, Kohl and Nicklason families, who settled at Pyengana. A genealogy, compiled by Lance Dwyer of families associated with the Dwyer family, provided genealogical information about the Jestrimski, Kohl and Nicklason families. A genealogy, compiled by the late John Medwin of families related to the Medwin family, descendants of William Medwin, the first settler in the Circular Head district, provided genealogical information about the Haustein family. Diane Horton is thanked for providing genealogical information about the descendants of Niels Peter Neilson. 4
INTRODUCTION Immigration to Tasmania in the late Nineteenth Century In the early 1850s, the gold rushes in New South Wales and Victoria and the cessation of transportation affected the pattern of recruiting new settlers to Tasmania. At the same time as the transportation of convicts ceased in 1853, a large proportion of ablebodied men left for the goldfields. This situation became sufficiently serious for the colonial government to introduce two systems, indented and bounty immigration, to overcome the diversion of workers to the goldfields. In 1852, a select committee of the Legislative Council recommended that the indented system should be used to recruit immigrants. Indented immigration, which accounted for most immigrants arriving in 1853 and 1854, involved the Colonial Land and Emigration Commission selecting emigrants to work for settlers. The emigrants were required to pay a set amount for their passage in advance, and repay the rest from wages they earned in the colony. The settler was required to pay half of the amount on hiring an immigrant and to give a promissory note for the remainder to be paid in one year. However, the commissioners failed to send sufficient numbers of immigrants, and relied on Irish sources regarded by the settlers as providing inferior immigrants. This situation led Lieutenant-Governor William Denison to support the bounty system, initially proposed by the Legislative Council. Bounty immigration required settlers to apply for immigrants through John Loch in Hobart or William Sams in Launceston, the government immigration agents Denison appointed in 1852. Applicants paid the government immigration agent half of a set amount per immigrant, furnished descriptions of the types of artisan, labourer, domestic or other servant wanted, and provided a promissory note for the remainder to be paid on the arrival of each immigrant. The government immigration agent then provided the required number of ordinary bounty tickets to the applicant, who engaged any agent in Britain and Europe to select suitable emigrants. The bounty system also enabled individuals to act as agents by allowing them to purchase blank bounty tickets for presentation to agents in Britain and Europe to issue as required to emigrants. After immigration declined in the early 1860s, the colonial government fostered assisted immigration on two occasions to meet needs arising from labour shortages. In 1864 and 1865, parliamentary select committees, appointed to inquire into the issue of immigration, recommended that small farmers, who paid their own passages, should be encouraged to take up free grants of land set aside under the Waste Lands Act of 1863. The Immigration Act of 1867, resulting from these inquiries, established a Board of Immigration, which appointed agents in Britain and Europe authorised to issue land warrants to immigrants, who paid their own passages. The immigrants exchanged the warrants for land grants after they had lived in Tasmania for five years, but the result was poor with only 607 hectares being selected before this system was terminated in 1872. Meanwhile, the mining boom from 1871 boosted the influx of miners, but had led to a scarcity of agricultural labourers by 1880. The recommendation of a parliamentary select committee, appointed to examine the issue of immigration, led to the Immigration Act of 1882, which provided a fund to promote immigration through appointed agents. Bounty tickets were issued to agricultural labourers, domestic servants and artisans for assisted passages, land certificates were issued enabling holders to select 728 hectares of waste land, and land orders permitted selection of 303 hectares. Although the provisions for assisted passages and land grants were revoked in May 1885, the Immigration Act of 1882 led to the immigration of 2,734 persons between 1883 and 1892. 5
Recruitment of Emigrants from Germany Documented extensively by Hargraves (2003), the recruitment of assisted emigrants from Germany began in the mid-1850s. A German, Ludwig Carl Wilhelm (William) Kirchner, who arrived in Australia in 1839 and established a mercantile trading company at Grafton, New South Wales, was active in arranging passages for Germans to immigrate to northern New South Wales. In May 1854, Kirchner purchased 500 blank bounty tickets from John Loch, and emigrants he recruited in Germany arrived at Hobart with 156 on the Lewe van Nyenstein in May 1855, 267 on the America in July 1855, 193 on the Wilhelmsburg in August 1855, and 49 on the San Francisco in November 1855. Another group of 168 German immigrants, who arrived at Launceston on the Montmorency in June 1855, were sponsored by a group of prominent landowners in the northern Midlands. In January 1869, the Board of Immigration appointed Amandus Friedrich (Frederick) Buck, a German, who had arrived in Tasmania in 1854, as its immigration agent in Germany after learning that he was about to return to Germany. In February 1869, Buck, his second wife, Elizabeth, and five children departed from Hobart on the Windward for London. By August 1869, Buck was active in Germany recruiting emigrants. As a consequence of this mission, emigrants he recruited in Germany arrived at Hobart with 187 on the Victoria in August 1870, 137 on the Figaro in October 1870 and 198 on the Eugenie in March 1872. Recruitment of the Procida Emigrants Provisions in the Waste Lands Act and the Immigration Act encouraged Buck to write to the Board of Immigration in August 1884 proposing that he should be appointed immigration agent to Germany, issued with 100 bounty tickets to select suitable emigrants and authorised to issue land order warrants to emigrants prepared to pay their own passages. After the Board of Immigration adopted Buck's proposal, the Governorin-Council approved his appointment in September 1884. Then, the Board of Immigration drew up regulations for introducing immigrants from Germany of the agricultural, ordinary labour and domestic classes, and developed a brief document regarding the colony, which Buck translated into German for the information of intending emigrants. Some 35 applications were received from Germans living in Tasmania nominating relatives and friends they wished to sponsor for emigration. Late in September 1884, Buck departed for Germany, and by the end of December 1884 he was active recruiting emigrants in Germany. In April 1885, he reported to the Board of Immigration having received the names of 62 German adults, who were willing to immigrate to Tasmania. In August 1885, he reported to the Board of Immigration that 89 German immigrants had left Hamburg on the Procida. In September 1885, he supplied the Board of Immigration with a list of 121 immigrants on the Procida, of whom 118 arrived in Hobart from Melbourne on the Wairarapa on 17 September 1885. Conditions in Tasmania 6
When the immigrants on the Procida arrived in September 1885, Tasmania had recovered from the depression in the 1860s and 1870s, and entered a period of prosperity. The two decades following the advent of responsible self-government in 1856 were characterised by economic depression, an out-migration of population, conservative politicians resisting change, a workforce drawn largely from emancipists requiring supervision by a repressive Masters and Servants Act, and the maintenance of a large number of institutions to house convicts, invalids, paupers, lunatics and orphans. The policy initiated in the 1850s to recruit assisted immigrants, however, led to the passage of the Waste Lands Act of 1858, the first in a series of laws passed to provide selectors with blocks of land under 130 hectares able to be secured with deposits. This land was mostly in densely forested and hilly country on the fringes of established agricultural and pastoral properties and beyond on the north-West Coast, the interior of the north-east and the Huon Valley. The selectors, drawn mainly from emancipists and assisted immigrants, often found prosperity elusive, since small blocks were the sites of hard work and basic living. The discovery of tin at Waratah in 1871 and in the north-east in 1874 initiated a mining boom, which was extended by the mining of silver-lead at Zeehan from 1882 and copper at Queenstown from 1892. Economic revival arising from the mining boom was strengthened by improvement in the transport network with the opening of railway lines from Launceston to Deloraine in 1871, Hobart to Western Junction in 1876, Deloraine to Devonport in 1885, Launceston to Scottsdale in 1889, Devonport to Ulverstone in 1890, and Ulverstone to Burnie in 1901. Political reform emerged with the formation of a coalition government led by William Giblin (1879-1884), which reformed the Masters and Servants Act, extended the franchise of eligible voters, reorganised the colony's finances, secured the adoption of an equitable taxation policy and initiated an active program of public works. The reforming government led by Philip Fysh (1887-1892) introduced legislation to regulate health, employment and charitable institutions, legalised trade unions, introduced technical education and provided incentives to establish a university. Statement of the Research Problem The purpose of this document is to identify critical information about the origins, recruitment, immigration and settlement of the Procida immigrants. Evidence obtained from documentary sources was evaluated to ascertain whether the pattern of the Procida immigrants' demographic characteristics reflects Frederick Buck's activities in recruiting emigrants, the actions of families and individuals in emigrating as part of a group or a combination of these factors. Following arrival in Tasmania in 1885, evidence obtained from archival records and documentary sources was analysed to determine whether the immigrants' decisions to settle in particular localities satisfied needs arising from the scarcity of workers caused by the drift of agricultural labourers to the mining industry. This evidence was evaluated to ascertain whether the improvement in economic conditions, that affected Tasmanian society in the late 1870s and 1880s, influenced the immigrants' decisions to settle permanently in Tasmania. 7
METHOD The study involved collecting data about the origins, recruitment, immigration and settlement of 118 immigrants, who arrived on the Procida. Content analyses of archival records, primary sources, newspaper articles and documents on local history were undertaken to identify data referring to the Procida immigrants. Identification of each immigrant's place of origin was possible, because Hargraves reported this information from the German language shipping list held in the Mortlock Library, Adelaide, South Australia. Of particular interest as primary sources were two accounts written by Procida immigrants. The most important of these accounts is the autobiography of Adolph Jager written in 1907. In a substantial book of 408 pages, Jager (1908) includes several chapters describing his experiences as an emigrant during the voyage of the Procida. Of less value is an account attributed to Rudolf Jestrimski, then a fifteen-year old. Consisting of a 27-page handwritten document, it appears to be an unfinished journal of the Procida's voyage commencing in Hamburg and ending when the ship docks at London. These documents were reviewed to identify relevant information that referred to Frederick Buck's recruitment of emigrants or the motivations of intending emigrants. Hargraves reported having initiated work in progress, called The Procida Immigrants to Tasmania, to identify where the immigrants were living 30 years later, although a report on the findings was not published. Preliminary findings of this research indicating that some families, who arrived on the Procida, left Tasmania prompted the present study to identify where the immigrants settled, who they married and how many children they had, and where they died and were interred. In 2011, initial findings referring to where some families and individuals had settled were identified during the course of analysing the recruitment of the immigrants before they emigrated on the Procida in 1885. Late in 2015, the research was extended by content analyses of archival records and genealogies compiled in family history studies. Searches were undertaken on a range of online resources on the internet, CD-ROMs, microforms and print resources available for genealogical research. Indexes available on CD-ROMS were the principal resources searched to identify records about births, marriages and deaths. Searchable databases on Ancestry.com were searched to identify records on immigration, births, marriages and deaths, and electoral rolls. The searchable database of digitised newspapers, contained on Trove, was searched to identify articles and family notices referring to particular individuals. In addition, genealogies compiled by descendants of some families proved to be valuable resources in providing details about births, marriages and deaths. Review of research literature involved reading articles in historic newspapers, books and articles published in journals and newsletters on the local histories of Bruny Island, Collinsvale, the Huon Valley, the Tasman Peninsula and Pyengana, where Procida immigrants established small farms in clustered settlements. Reporting the results of the content analyses was accomplished in a sequence of steps. In the chapter on Origins and Recruitment, an analysis of the demographic characteristics of the immigrants is reported in relation to each immigrant's gender, age, family relationship, occupation and place of origin. In the chapter on Immigration and Settlement, an analysis of the demographic characteristics of the immigrants is reported 8
in relation to each immigrant's marital status, births of children, death and interment. Then, a brief description of the initial employment of the immigrants is reported by citing articles reported in the press. Finally, more detailed descriptions of the permanent pattern of settlement of the immigrants are reported by referring to particular families and individuals. It was decided to discuss the pattern of settlement, where possible, by describing clustered settlements in which families and individuals chose to live. 9
ORIGINS AND RECRUITMENT The names of the assisted immigrants, who sailed on the Procida for passage to Tasmania in 1885, are listed in Appendix A. Analysis of their demographic characteristics, which examined gender, age, family structure, occupation and place of origin as reported in Appendix A, provides valuable information for determining factors that led to their recruitment. Demographic Characteristics Of the 121 emigrants, one adult male deserted at Antwerp, Belgium and two infants, one a male and the other a female, died during the voyage. Of the 118 immigrants, who landed at Hobart, 61 were males and 57 were females. Of these immigrants, 35 were married and 83 were single. They consisted of 18 family groups, one of which had a single male parent, and 30 single adults and adolescents aged 12 years and older and 53 children, aged 11 years and younger. The family groups ranged in size from one family of three persons, three families of four persons, five families of five persons, six families of six persons, one family of seven persons and two families of eight persons. The ages of the married males ranged from 27 to 44 years and the ages of the married females ranged from 21 to 44 years. The ages of the single adult males ranged from 13 to 36 years and the ages of the single adult females ranged from 12 to 40 years. The occupations of 36 adult male immigrants and one single, adult female immigrant were stated. Of these immigrants, 12 were listed as `farm labourers', four each were listed as `ship carpenters', `joiners' or `cabinet makers', and two each were listed as `locksmiths' or `firemen'. One each was listed as a `blacksmith', `bricklayer', `carpenter', `cook', `engine driver', `house carpenter', `labourer', `photographer' or `shoe maker'. Nationality was stated as Germany for 94 immigrants, Sweden for 16 immigrants, Switzerland for five immigrants and Denmark for three immigrants. Based on the detailed information on each immigrant's place of residence reported by Hargraves, it was found that a large proportion of the immigrants were listed as residents of Schleswig-Holstein, particularly from the city of Kiel and its environs. The Danker and Nicklason families, Louisa Dohrmeyer and Friedrich Fischer lived in central Kiel. The Anderson, Glau, Jestrimski, Mansson, Peterson (listed in Appendix A under the surname `Alm') and Stolzenberg families and Fanny Meyer lived in Gaarden, a district of Kiel on the east coast of Kiel Fjord. The Wiese family and Claude Rieper lived at Ellerbek, on the east coast of Kiel Fjord, north of Gaarden. The Kruse family lived at Dietrichsdorf, on the east coast of Kiel Fjord, north of Ellerbek. Heinrich Frerk lived at Dammdorf, Schleswig-Holstein. Franz Kohl lived at Friedberg, Hesse. The Burczak and Suhr families and Otto Garso lived in central Hamburg. Adolph Jager lived at Ottensen, a quarter of Hamburg. Minna Koerbin lived at Altona, a borough of Hamburg. Hermann Ludemann lived at Veddel, a quarter of Hamburg. Frederick Kohlhagen lived at Eichholz, Mecklenburg-West Pomerania. The Ruthsatz family lived at Ballenberg, Mecklenburg-West Pomerania. Carl Wachholz lived at Schlawe, now Slawno in the province of Zachoniopomorskie, Poland. The Albat family lived at Halle, Saxony-Anhalt. The Ulrich family lived at Giebichenstein, Saxony-Anhalt. The Haustein and Kaden families lived at Niederplanitz, a district of Zwickau, Saxony. Carl Unger lived at Cainsdorf, Saxony. Carl Zanotti lived at Plosen, Saxony. Paul Selzer lived at Niklasdorf, now Mikulowice in the Olomouc region of the Czech Republic. Niels Maae lived at Oster Gesten, Denmark. Hans Johnsen and Niels Neilson lived at 10
Norburg on the island of Als, Denmark. Lars Hansson lived at Helingsborg, Sweden. Ola Ohlson and Per Ohlson lived at Lund, Sweden. The Zollinger family lived at Mauer in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland. Discussion The analysis of the Procida immigrants' demographic characteristics showed that ten families and three individuals, totalling 60 out of 118 emigrants, lived in Kiel or its hinterland at the time they were recruited. The greatest concentration of six families and one individual lived in Gaarden, a suburb of Kiel. Although two families and one individual lived in Hamburg, the remaining six families and 16 individuals lived in places across a wider area of northern Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland, the Czech Republic and Switzerland. First, Buck's activities during the course of his recruiting missions were investigated to identify whether they biased the selection of prospective emigrants. For the recruiting mission in 1869, Buck (1870) produced a 35-page pamphlet for intending emigrants during the voyage on the Windward, which was published in English by the Australian and New Zealand Gazette Office, while a German-English version was published by the Hamburg publisher, Boyes & Geisler. Enquires for the pamphlet from Jutlanders and Zealanders induced Buck to translate it into Danish, and have 2,000 copies printed in Copenhagen for distribution to small farmers in these regions. In 1870, the Board of Immigration reported that Buck visited localities in Germany where he believed the greatest number of emigrants might be recruited, establishing agencies in many towns and villages. Several impediments, however, arose during the course of Buck's recruiting mission in 1884-1885. On arriving in Hamburg, he found that the German Imperial Government favoured German colonisation schemes rather than supporting emigration to British colonies. His relationship with Dugald Buckler, the secretary of the Emigrant and Colonists Aid Corporation, who was the Board's immigration agent in London on whom he depended for funds, proved difficult. Efforts in negotiating payments through Buckler and making arrangements with ship owners entailed Buck making five trips between Hamburg and London between December 1884 and April 1885. There is no account detailing Buck's activities in recruiting emigrants in Germany or disseminating the document, which the Board of Immigration produced in 1884, to intending emigrants. Instead, it seems a great deal of his time was spent in London, or travelling between London and Hamburg, to secure funds and make arrangements with shipping companies. Another means Buck used to recruit intending emigrants was to place advertisements in German newspapers, which provided a London address for directing correspondence. An article published in the Tasmanian press, while he was recruiting emigrants in Germany in 1869-1870, states that Buck appointed a representative in London to answer enquiries, as reported below. "That a considerable number of intending emigrants have unavailingly sought Mr. Buck in London is a fact, for complaints on the subject have appeared in the Times, and have also been referred to in private letters received by residents in this colony. An occasional correspondent in 11
England writes to us as follows, by the last mail:- "From the August papers I gleaned some news of the arrival of Mr. Buck in England as Tasmanian Emigration Agent. I thought this began to look as if your Government meant business in this line, and if you have received a paper I sent you containing a letter of mine, dated 21st December last, you will have seen by the postscript that I drew attention to Mr. Buck's arrival, and gave his address, which I learned accidently from a Secretary of one of the Emigration Aid Societies. On 28th January, 1870, I instructed a friend to write and make enquiries of Mr. Buck about emigration to Tasmania. On 14th February, I wrote to him myself, making similar enquiries, but, receiving no reply, I took occasion to call at 15 Buckingham-street, Strand, and in the lobby I found a notice card referring `inquirers on Tasmanian emigration matters to Mr. Algar, of 8 St. Clement's Lane, Lombard-street'. Determined to find out the root of this matter, I went on 19th February to St. Clement's Lane, and learned from Mr. Algar that Mr. Buck had been in Germany all the winter, but he expected him back the second week of March, and on enquiry I found that upwards of a hundred letters awaited his return, unopened. On the 4th April, I thought I would call again to see Mr. Buck; but, alas! Mr. Algar seemed out of patience at his long delayed return, and at the accumulating pile of unopened letters. Mr. Algar said `he had been looking for his return the past two months, but did not (on the 4th April) then know when he would come back'." (Launceston Examiner, 25 June 1870, p. 2) Evidence from an independent source suggests that Buck advertised in German newspapers to recruit the Procida emigrants under similar circumstances. In his autobiography, Adolf Jager described his own recruitment in the following terms. "Every day I carefully scanned the daily papers and at last came across something which seemed to suit, and which did indeed suitably prove to be the finger-post on the road which led to the success I sought. In one of the newspapers I saw an advertisement to the effect that the Government of Tasmania was offering about 200 free passage tickets for approved emigrants to that place who had any relation there; application to be made to an address in London which I have forgotten. ... Directly I read the advertisement I fairly jumped up and ran off with the paper to my friend's place, which was not far distant. It was Sunday, by the way, so he was home, and with some excitement I read the good news to him. We both decided to try to seize the opportunity, so that very afternoon I wrote my application, stating that I had an uncle somewhere in Tasmania but I did not know the exact locality. ... For a few days after posting my letter I was in feverish expectation. A fortnight passed without a reply, so I gave up all hope and even further thought of the matter. This was about Christmas 1884, and I was in constant work and earning good wages. Many months slipped by and at last in June I received one day a letter from London notifying that if I had still a desire to go to Tasmania I must forward 30s. to the London address and be ready to start by the 5th of July. I did not hesitate, but posted the required money straight away, all I possessed at the time." (pp. 257-259) 12
Second, evidence that families and individuals emigrated as part of a group was evaluated by reviewing research literature on conditions in Germany and Scandinavia as well as accounts of the Procida immigrants during the voyage and after arrival in Tasmania. Nearly all emigration from Germany to eastern Australia, which occurred between 1850 and the mid-1880s, coincided with a period of economic recession in Germany, and poor harvests and political unrest in Central Europe. Overpopulation along with lack of agrarian reform made it increasingly difficult for small farmers and agricultural labourers, as well as artisans in the cities and towns, to maintain their life styles. The disbanding of the Danish army in Schleswig-Holstein after the war of 1849-1851, and the loss of these duchies to Prussia in 1864 caused the emigration of a large number of young Danes. Mass emigration in Sweden began in the 1860s, following a famine in rural areas. Improved agricultural practices and the widespread growing of potatoes led to over-population in rural areas. The failure of crops in the 1860s led to many people leaving rural areas for cities, where poor conditions were exacerbated by the influx of people. Between 1870 and 1890, more than 2,000 Swedish families migrated to Kiel, where many of the men worked in the naval shipyards. Attention given to the gold rushes in Australia served to make potential emigrants aware of opportunities for sudden prosperity, and political and religious independence. As the Jestrimski, Mansson and Peterson families lived in Gaarden, and the Niclasson family lived in Kiel at the time they were recruited, the families may have known each other and emigrated as a group. In the narrative on the history of the settlement of Pyengana, Webb (1975) described the reason why these emigrants left Germany in terms that suggest a group migration. "... Some of these men were tradesmen, forced to earn a living at whatever offered, some had worked on farms previously. News had reached their ears of new lands being opened up in Australia, where grants of land were being made to new settlers, so they decided to try their `luck', not knowing what hardships and privations were awaiting them. All they had in mind was land to call their own, something they would never have in Europe. In 1884 this band of men sailed from Hamburg in the vessel `Procida' with very few belongings apart from the necessities of which they were most in need. This ship was apparently a trading vessel and carried only a few passengers as partitions of pine were erected to form cabins for people. On arrival at their destination these partitions were dismantled and sold for a princely sum, pine being a prohibited export at that time. ... The party consisted of Sven Mansson, his wife and four children, one having died during the voyage; Franz Kohl and Lars Hansson, both of whom were single men; Jacob Jestrimski, his wife and four children; Karl Peterson, his wife and two children; and Ola Nicklason, his wife and three children, two others having died in infancy in Germany." (pp. 15-16.) Conclusion After the founding of a unified German state in 1871 few emigrants came from those regions that formed the heart of the new empire. Instead, they came from eastern 13
border regions, initially from Silesia. Later, they came from Saxony, Pomerania and the Danish border area. Furthermore, emigration from Germany diminished sharply during the 1880s, when economic conditions improved as a unified Germany challenged Britain and France to become an imperial power. Since the unification of the German states and the economic growth of the German Empire were well advanced in 1885, the Procida emigrants were among the last to depart from Germany motivated by the promise of new land and sudden prosperity. Changing conditions arising from German unification account for some of the difficulties Buck experienced recruiting the Procida emigrants. Furthermore, these conditions explain why most of the Procida emigrants came from northern Germany as well as Denmark and Sweden. The findings of this study show that the method Buck used to recruit the Procida emigrants probably relied on placing advertisements in German newspapers rather than visiting localities and interviewing prospective emigrants. It is likely that such a practice would lead to a random selection of emigrants. The large number of Procida emigrants, particularly family groups, who originated from Kiel and its environs suggests that these families probably emigrated as a group. It is not possible, however, to substantiate these conclusions, because of the lack of primary documents containing specific information relevant to the recruitment of the Procida emigrants. Extension of this research to Germany, particularly to Hamburg and Kiel, could identify emigration records and genealogical information that would confirm or reject these conclusions. 14
IMMIGRATION AND SETTLEMENT The names of 118 assisted immigrants, who arrived on the Procida in 1885, are listed in Appendix B. Analysis of their demographic characteristics, which examined spouses, children, deaths and interments as reported in Appendix B, provides valuable information for determining factors that affected the immigrants' fertility, settlement pattern, mortality and their interaction with social and economic institutions. The names of children born to the families after arrival, single adults, who subsequently married, and the children of the families, who subsequently married, are listed in Appendix C. Demographic Characteristics Complete records referring to marital status, death and interment were identified for 89 individuals. Incomplete records referring to marital status, death and interment were identified for another 17 individuals, while no records were identified for 12 individuals. Records referring to marriages and births provide evidence to identify the immigrants' fertility. Records for marriages and births were identified for the members of 17 families, while isolated records for another family were identified. Four individuals from these families, whose spouses had died within 20 years after arrival, remarried. Records indicate that 32 children were born to ten of the 18 families after they arrived in 1885. It is likely there are living descendants of 15 families, but the Albat and Ulrich families died out in the second generation, and a lack of records means that the status of the Burczak family is unclear. Of 21 immigrants, who immigrated as single adults, 12 of 13 individuals, for whom records were identified, married within 11 years after arrival in 1885. Four individuals married fellow immigrants: Fanny Meyer married Paul Selzer in 1886; and Louisa Dohrmeyer married Heinrich Frerk in 1887. Of these 12 individuals, eight married a spouse of German or Scandinavian descent, indicating a marked preference among these immigrants of the first generation for a partner of the same ethnicity. Records indicate that 61 children were born to these 12 individuals. Carl Wachholz, the other immigrant, died without leaving descendants, and records provide insufficient information to determine his spouse's ethnicity. Of the other eight single immigrants, Adolph Jager was already married prior to departure on the Procida, and he nominated his spouse's emigration after arriving in Tasmania. Of 62 individuals, who immigrated as children of the 18 families, 46 individuals married, 11 individuals never married, one individual died in childhood and the marital status of the other four individuals is unclear, because of a lack of records. Two individuals, Rudolph Jestrimski and Matilda Nicklason, from immigrant families, married. Twenty-five individuals, about three-quarters of the immigrants, married Anglo-Australians, but 11 individuals, almost one-quarter of the immigrants, married a spouse of German or Scandinavian descent, indicating a preference among a small proportion for a partner of the same ethnicity. Of the 46 married individuals, four of whom married twice, 42 had children, three had no children, and the status of the other individual is unclear, because of a lack of records. Records indicate that these 42 individuals had 189 children, three of whom were illegitimate and one was adopted. 15
Generally, records referring to the dates and ages at death and places of interment provide evidence to identify the immigrants' longevity and settlement pattern. Records for the specific dates of the deaths or funeral services of 99 individuals are reported in the appendix together with the years for the deaths of another three individuals. Records for the specific ages at the time of death of 94 individuals are reported in the appendix. Records for 47 of 56 married and single adults indicate that two died between 1885 and 1889, one died between 1890 and 1899, four died between 1900 and 1909, 14 died between 1910 and 1919, eight died between 1920 and 1929, ten died between 1930 and 1939, five died between 1940 and 1949, and three died between 1950 and 1959. Records for 45 of these individuals show that one was aged between 20 and 29 years old at death, one was aged between 30 and 39 years old at death, four were aged between 40 and 49 years old at death, six were aged between 50 and 59 years old at death, two were aged between 60 and 69 years old at death, 14 were aged between 70 and 79 years old at death, 12 were aged between 80 and 89 years old at death, and five were aged between 90 and 99 years old at death. At the time of death, the 45 individuals' mean age was 71.8 years and the median age was 76.0 years. Records for 55 of 62 individuals, who immigrated as children of the 18 families, indicate that one died between 1885 and 1889, four died between 1900 and 1909, one died between 1910 and 1919, five died between 1920 and 1929, seven died between 1940 and 1949, 12 died between 1950 and 1959, 19 died between 1960 and 1969 and six died between 1970 and 1979. Records for 52 of these individuals show that one was aged between 1 and 9 years old at death, two were aged between 20 and 29 years old at death, three were aged between 30 and 39 years old at death, three were aged between 40 and 49 years old at death, one was aged between 50 and 59 years old at death, four were aged between 60 and 69 years old at death, 13 were aged between 70 and 79 years old at death, 15 were aged between 80 and 89 years old at death, and ten were aged between 90 and 99 years old at death. At the time of death, the 52 individuals' mean age was 72.9 years and the median age was 78.5 years. Records for the interment of 89 individuals are reported in the appendix. Of 72 individuals interred in cemeteries in Tasmania, 33 individuals were interred at Cornelian Bay Cemetery, Hobart, 11 individuals were interred at Pyengana General Cemetery, ten individuals were interred at St Paul's Anglican Cemetery, Adventure Bay, four individuals were interred at Carr Villa Memorial Park, Launceston, four individuals were interred at Carnarvon Cemetery, Port Arthur, three individuals were interred at Collinsvale Methodist Cemetery, two individuals were interred at Ulverstone General Cemetery, two individuals were interred at St Mark's Anglican Cemetery, Cygnet, one individual was interred at St John's Anglican Cemetery, New Town, one individual was interred at Huonville Congregational Cemetery and one individual was interred at Geeveston Congregational Cemetery. Of 16 individuals interred in cemeteries in Victoria, four individuals were interred at Springvale Botanical Cemetery, two individuals were interred at Boroondara Cemetery, two individuals were interred at Burwood Cemetery, two individuals were interred at Warringal Cemetery, one individual was interred at Box Hill Cemetery, one individual was interred at Drouin Cemetery, one individual was interred at Eaglehawk Public Cemetery, one individual was interred at Echuca Cemetery, one individual was interred at Fawkner Memorial Park and one individual was interred at Seymour Pioneer Cemetery. One individual was interred at Foxton Cemetery in New Zealand. 16
Records for the place of death of another 12 individuals are reported in the appendix. Of these individuals, five died in Victoria at Balwyn, Brighton, Fish Creek, Melbourne and Templestowe, three died in New South Wales at Hunters Hill, Manly and Merrylands, two died in Tasmania at Launceston and Pyengana, one died in South Australia at Adelaide, and one died at Johannesburg, South Africa. Initial Employment On arrival, the immigrants were conveyed to the immigration depot at the Brickfields on the present site of the North Hobart oval. An article published in the press described the process used for prospective employers to hire the immigrants. "The Immigration Agent has been in attendance daily at the depot, Argylestreet, since Thursday last, for the purpose of receiving applications from persons desirous of securing the services of the German immigrants who arrived Thursday last. Up to Saturday afternoon about twenty of the new arrivals, principally farm labourers and carpenters, have been engaged." (Launceston Examiner, 21 September 1885, p. 3.) In January 1884, an Italian silk merchant and entrepreneur, Angelo Giulio Diego Bernacchi (1853-1925) and his family arrived in Melbourne with the intention of finding a suitable site for silk and wine production. After inspecting Maria Island, the Bernacchi family moved there in April 1884 and leased the island in November 1884. Bernacchi hired some of the immigrants to form part of the Labour force on the island, as outlined below. "A considerable number of German immigrants ex Procida, were engaged by Signor Bernacchi to-day for Maria Island, and they left by the ketch Trucanini this evening." (The Daily Telegraph, 23 September 1885, p. 3.) Several reports were published in the press on the progress of the immigrants' employment. On Monday, 12 October 1885, The Mercury published a statement indicating that all of the immigrants had found employment. "The last of the German immigrants per the s.s. Procida was engaged on Saturday, and the Immigration Depot is once more closed. All the immigrants have obtained good situations, and are scattered all over the colony, a large proportion having gone to Maria Island. Their employers are highly pleased with them, their habits of industry and thrift, and general capability to pick up our manners and customs, rendering them invaluable as servants." (The Mercury, 12 October 1885, p. 2.) Permanent Settlement In August 1886, Frederick Buck circulated a proposal to the members of both houses of the Tasmanian Parliament recommending a process for recruiting emigrants from Germany at no expense to Tasmania. At the request of the Legislative Council, Buck provided a report on the outcome of his work as an immigration agent. The report 17
included the following statement outlining the typical practice, whereby immigrants from Germany settled in Tasmania. "The general character of my immigrants is gregarious. They arrive here, go into country service, and after having saved money enough out of their wages, make room for others, and look about for a piece of Crown land in the neighbourhood of where one or two of the older arrivals have settled, sometimes in most inaccessible parts, and which would be considered as "not good enough" by most settlers, and there lay the foundations of "German towns" all over the island. I give one instance out of many similar ones:- A man and his family of children I brought out in October last put out of his and his wife's earnings about 40 pounds into the Savings Bank, goes and buys 50 acres of Crown land down Channel, purchases his provisions, and takes down a pair of horses, plough and implements, a cow, sow and boar, a stock of poultry, etc., builds himself a house out of the material on the ground, and settles down with some four or five German and Scandinavian neighbours out of the same ship, also holders of 50 acres each in a place where there were only one or two foreign settlers before." (The Mercury, 26 October 1886, p. 3.) Several factors played a significant part in the immigrants' decisions to settle in particular localities after an initial period of working for employers. The decisionmaking process was affected by four principal factors: initial engagement by an employer; the immigrant's demographic background from either an urban or rural community; the availability of land; and the presence of clustered settlements of German and Scandinavian immigrants. Small freehold settlers, salesmen and craftsmen formed most of the German immigrants, who settled in cities, but they mixed with importers, merchants and manufacturers. They were from diverse regional and class backgrounds, and found employment where work was available, but they were well-represented in retailing, service industries and skilled trades, such as printing, cabinet-making and tailoring, and were active as musicians and artists. Despite their diverse backgrounds, they formed German associations and clubs that enabled them to define an ethnic German culture for themselves and the wider colonial population. The associations and clubs met social needs, such as annual picnics and occasions for public celebration, but also provided material support by opening up employment opportunities for newcomers and acted as mutual benefit organisations by providing basic forms of self-help. By 1886, German immigrants living in Hobart and its hinterland had formed a German club, which included 13 Procida immigrants: Johann Stolzenberg, Lars Hansson, Claude Rieper, Franz Burczak, Paul Selzer, Carl Wachholz, Adolph Jager, Louisa Dohrmeyer of Hobart, Georg Wiese of New Norfolk, Heinrich Suhr of New Town, Wilhelm Kruse of Cygnet, and Fanny Meyer and Friedrich Kohlhagen of Sandy Bay. However, most of the immigrants on the Procida, who initially settled in Hobart, soon left. Only the Anderson and Stolzenberg families continued to live in Hobart over subsequent generations. Johann Anderson, a carpenter, worked in Hobart and the family lived in Sandy Bay. His daughter, Anna married Henry Stonehouse, an engineer, and the family lived in New Town, but moved to Huonville in the early 1920s. His son, Gustav, a painter, who lived with his family in South Hobart, later worked as a railway employee. His daughter, Elin married Ernest Conrad, a painter and sign writer, and the family lived in 18
New Norfolk. His daughter, Eledia married Charles Gluschke, a commercial traveller, and the family lived in central Hobart. Johann Stolzenberg, a carpenter, worked in Hobart and the family lived in West Hobart. Following their marriages, Johann's daughters, Dora and Johanna and their spouses worked in the mining industry at Zeehan in the late 1890s. Following the death of her first husband, Johanna, married Shadrick Pace, who operated a coach building firm, Pace and Vout, in partnership with Charles Vout. Following Pace's death in 1921, the firm, consisting of a brick house, a foundry used as a coach and motor body workshop, and a blacksmith's shop was put up for sale, but the site in Barrack Street was leased to the Tasma Foundry Company until 1928, when it was eventually sold. Johann's son, Karl leased a property in Augusta Road, Lenah Valley, where he ran a dairy farm. By 1920, he was purchasing milk from dairy farms and operating as a milk vendor trading as the Tasmanian Milk Company. By 1930, Karl and Agnes Stolzenberg and their family had moved to Sydney at first living in Five Dock, but later settling in Hunter's Hill. By the mid-1880s, much of the best land available under the provisions of the Waste Lands Act had been selected, but abuses by speculators led to amendments. In 1891, the Crown Lands Act introduced regulations, which attempted to make residence and improvement conditions for selection, thereby reducing the amount of land alienated. The Crown Lands Act of 1903 attempted to increase land alienation by allowing for the selection of second- and third-class land on easy terms, but all land suitable for grazing was soon alienated. In response to pressure from land reformers, the Closer Settlement Act of 1907 allowed for large estates in the Midlands and the Northern districts to be acquired by the government for subdivision into small farms for selectors. German and Scandinavian immigrants from rural backgrounds preferred to establish small farms in clustered settlements, sometimes in inaccessible areas where land was available. Usually they pursued intensive mixed farming, but those who settled near cities, often became market-gardeners. Once established, their next priority was to found a German-language church and school, which encouraged other Germans and Scandinavians to settle in the immediate vicinity. A network of family ties throughout various clustered settlements and the practice of mutual assistance meant that close links existed between these settlements. By 1885, clustered settlements of Germans and Scandinavians already existed in Tasmania, consisting of immigrants, who had arrived in the 1850s, 1860s and 1870s. These communities were located at Collinsvale (known as Bismarck) near Hobart, the Huon Valley, D'Entrecasteaux Channel and Bruny Island, south of Hobart, Falmouth on the East Coast, St. Marys (known as Germantown) in the Fingal Valley, Lilydale (known as German Town) and Harford (known as Heidelberg) in northern Tasmania. Immigrants on the Procida from rural backgrounds settled in existing clustered settlements at Collinsvale, Adventure Bay on Bruny Island and the Huon Valley, and created small clustered settlements at Pyengana and on the Tasman Peninsula. The history of the settlement of immigrants from Germany and Denmark at Collinsvale has been documented by Alexander (1986) and Appeldorff (2010). About 1870, land became available along Sorell Creek, which rose in the hills behind Glenorchy and joined the Derwent River near New Norfolk. Groups of German and Danish immigrants were among the first settlers. The Dahlke, Darko (Darkow), Fehlberg, Gall, Kunde, Radfer, Ratzmann, Totenhoffer (Todtenhofer) and Wenzel families from Prussia, who arrived on the Victoria in 1870, made up the first group. The Appeldorff, 19
Brandstater (Brandstadter), Carlsen, Christensen, Hansen, Johannsen, Nielsen and Wessing families, mainly from Denmark, who arrived on the Eugenie in 1872, made up the second group. The Stellmaker (Stellmacher) and Petersen families of German and Danish descent, who arrived on the Figaro, as well as the Voss family and the Rabe (Raabe) family, descended from a German seaman, who deserted ship in Hobart, were other prominent German families, who settled at Collinsvale. In the late 1880s, the Albat, Suhr and Ulrich families and Carl Zanotti, who arrived on the Procida, settled in the Collinsvale district. The Albat and Ulrich families farmed in the Collinsvale district well into the early decades of the twentieth century, while the Suhr and Zanotti families farmed there until recently, and were involved in various community activities at Collinsvale. It can be concluded from narratives on the history of the settlement of immigrants from Germany in the Huon Valley, documented by Woolley (2006) and Coad (2009, 2010), that initial engagement by employers was the major factor influencing their decisions to settle there. The Batge (Batje), Bose and Schultz families, who arrived on the Lewe van Nyenstein in May 1855, were hired by settlers at Cygnet and Wattle Grove, and later each family bought land and settled at Wattle Grove. Johannes Kregor (Krieger), a single man, who arrived on the America in July 1855, and married Dorothea Schultz in 1860, also settled at Wattle Grove. The Kube family, who arrived on the San Francisco in November 1855, had settled at Wattle Grove by 1858. The Olbrich family, who arrived on the Figaro in October 1870, had settled at Cygnet by 1874. Friedrich Kupsch, a single man, who arrived on the Victoria in August 1870, was hired by Christian Bose, married Charlotte Bender in 1879, and later settled at Cygnet. The Helm family, who arrived on the Eugenie in March 1872, was hired by George Green Sherwin, owner of Forest Home at Judbury, and father of operatic singer, Amy Sherwin. The Helm family settled at Lonnavale. Soon after arrival, the Kruse family, who arrived on the Procida, settled at Cygnet. Wilhelm Kruse, a master mariner, who had spent 22 years at sea before emigrating from Germany, worked as a ship builder and established a property at Lymington called Kruseworth. His son, William Kruse, a carpenter, built a number of public buildings and more than 200 houses in towns in the Huon Valley. Carl Wachholz, another immigrant on the Procida, established an orchard at Hospital Bay near Geeveston. In the narrative on the history of the settlement of South Bruny Island, Pybus (1988) documented the establishment of a clustered settlement of immigrants from Germany at Adventure Bay. In 1876, the Zschachner family, who arrived on the Figaro, leased Coal Point, the site of a previous survey for coal in 1826 and a mining operation in the early 1830s. Wilhelm Zschachner, a miner, first shipped 18 tonnes of coal to Hobart in 1877, but it was not until Arthur Risby, a timber and bark merchant, acquired the lease in 1879, funded the mining operation and engaged Zschachner as manager, that production peaked at 815 tonnes in 1884. In 1882, Heinrich Dunkel, a quarryman, who also arrived on the Figaro, came to work in the coalmine, but instead purchased 40 hectares and established a dairy farm. Immigrants from the Procida settled at Adventure Bay soon after their arrival in Hobart. Herman Kaden, a fitter and turner, was asked on arrival to go to Adventure Bay to work at the coalmine. The Glau family arrived at Adventure Bay in 1888, and established a farm. Lars Hansson arrived soon afterwards, and established a farm. Heinrich Dorloff, a German sailor, who deserted ship in Sydney in 1874, married Olga Kaden in 1892 and in 1896 they established a farm at Adventure Bay. On arrival, Olaf Ohlson worked as a blacksmith in Hobart serving whalers and their ships. Then, he went to Maria Island and worked for Bernacchi. In the early 1890s, the Ohlson family moved to New Norfolk. In the late 20
1890s, the Ohlson family settled on Bruny Island and Olaf worked in a saw-mill before buying 20 hectares and establishing a blacksmith's workshop on his property. The history of the settlement of the Tasman Peninsula after the closure of the Port Arthur penitentiary in 1877 has been documented by MacFie (1986). Families from south-eastern rural districts established small communities on the western and northern coastlines of the Tasman Peninsula that depended on farming, fruit-growing, logging and fishing. Tourism, however, soon developed at Eaglehawk Neck and Port Arthur. Although some former officials of the Convict Department continued to administer the settlement at Carnarvon, new settlers, who purchased buildings at the penal settlement, were mainly newly arrived immigrants. Among these settlers were Johannis Danker and Heinrich Frerk, both of whom were joiners. Soon after arriving on the Procida, they were employed by the government in refitting police offices at Port Arthur. Following the destruction of the bushfire in 1897, Frerk was contracted by the Carnarvon Town Board, established in 1889, to renovate the asylum and Danker refitted the parsonage. Afterwards living at various times at Hobart or Port Arthur, Danker purchased 18 hectares of land at Point Puer in 1915, and established a farm there. Frerk established a private boarding house, which became known as the Tasman Villa Hotel, when a licence was granted in 1905. After 16 years as licensee, Frerk became a guide at the Port Arthur penal settlement. In the narrative on the history of the settlement of Pyengana, Webb (1975) concluded that the availability of land in the district led to the creation of a clustered settlement of immigrants from the Procida. On arrival, the Jestrimski family moved to Campania, where Jacob Jestrimski worked as a labourer. Later, the family moved to Maria Island, where Jacob worked for Bernacchi. In 1887, the Jestrimski family moved to Pyengana and established a dairy farm renowned for producing a cheddar cheese sold under the farm's name, Nalya. The Mansson family went to Maria Island, where Sven Mansson worked for Bernacchi. In 1887, the Mansson family moved to Pyengana and rented a block of 20 hectares with a river frontage. In the 1890s, the Mansson family purchased 120 hectares of land at the head of Power's Rivulet east of Pyengana, where descendants lived until the property was sold to the Rattray family. The Nicklason family went to Germantown near St. Marys, and then St Helens. In 1888, the Nicklason family moved to Pyengana and rented a block of land with a river frontage. The Peterson family went to Maria Island and then to Collinsvale. In 1888, they moved to Pyengana and established a dairy farm known as Greendale on a steep block in West Pyengana. In 1917, Carl and Emma Peterson moved to Hobart, but a son, Vincent continued to farm a property called Mountain View in West Pyengana. Franz Kohl went to Plenty in the Derwent Valley, and later to Bruny Island. Soon after marrying Elizabeth Burns, the daughter of a settler on Bruny Island in 1896, Franz and Elizabeth Kohl moved to Pyengana and ran a dairy farm. By 1894, the Haustein family had settled on a farm at Abbotsham, a small hamlet south of Ulverstone. Although the family continued to farm at Abbotsham until after World War I, and descendants still live in the district, most family members moved away, principally settling in Hobart. At this time, Julius and Caroline Haustein moved to Hobart, but their daughters Anna, Agnes and Camilla together with their spouses had settled in Hobart following their marriages. Alfred Haustein was a teacher in public schools at Yolla, King Island, Cygnet and Meander before becoming principal at Railton in 1938. Retiring as principal of Glen Dhu Primary School in 1950, his family remained in Launceston. 21
Friedrich and Victoria Kohlhagen lived in Sandy Bay and later moved to Kingston. Sometime after the late 1890s, the Kohlhagen family immigrated to South Africa, and they were living in Johannesburg where Friedrich died in 1915. Following their marriage, Neils and Isabel Neilson lived at Sorell and Eaglehawk Neck. Early in 1906, Neils travelled to New Zealand leaving his family living with Isabel's parents at Franklin. Failing to hear from him for over six months, the police initiated a search and Neils was found working as a farm labourer at Spar Bush, near Winton in Southland. Late in 1906, his family joined him, but Isabel died in May 1907. After Isabel's death, her sister, Lucy, travelled to New Zealand for six months and helped Neils care for his children. His son, Hans moved to Foxton in Manawatu-Wanganui, and later joined the army. Neils and most of his family also moved to Foxton, and in 1916, Neils joined the army, but while serving he drowned in March 1923. His daughter, Isobel married and remained in Southland. Claude Rieper's emigration was motivated by the presence of relatives living in Tasmania. His parents, Heinrich and Anna Rieper lived at New Norfolk, his father dying in 1891 and his mother in 1912. In the early 1890s, Claude and his brother, Christian, moved to Strahan, and his sister, Dora, moved to Queenstown, where each married. Claude worked as an accountant for Gaffney and Harvey, a firm of merchants at Strahan. In 1906, the Rieper family moved to Rosebery and ran a store until the business became insolvent in 1907. Then, the Rieper family moved to Zeehan, but by 1914 the family had returned to Hobart. In the early 1920s, the family was living at Oyster Cove. By 1925, the Rieper family was living in South Melbourne, where Claude worked as a storekeeper. By 1928, his son, Roydon, had been appointed officer-incharge of the State Electricity Commission at Bairnsdale, where other family members moved and settled. Within a few years of arrival, several families of immigrants on the Procida emigrated from Tasmania and settled in Victoria, possibly attracted by the presence of German immigrants, who had settled there. The first German immigrants, recruited by William Westgarth in Silesia and Saxony, arrived in 1849 and 1850, and settled at Grovedale, near Geelong, Melbourne and the suburbs of Collingwood, Richmond, Hawthorn and Northcote, as well as further afield at Thomastown, Doncaster, Greensborough and Harkaway, near Berwick. As a consequence of the gold rush, there was a considerable increase in the early 1850s in arrivals of German adventurers, who settled in towns on the gold fields. A third group were rural Germans from South Australia, who established farms in western Victoria, the Wimmera and the Mallee between the 1850s and 1890s. The Burczak family immigrated to Victoria and settled at Carlton. An inquest conducted at the Melbourne City Morgue into the death of a six-month old infant named Martha Frances May Burczak on 17 July 1904 found that she died from broncopneumonia (The Age, 21 July 1904, p. 6). As no further records were identified for this family, it seems likely that the Burczak family left Australia. The Ruthsatz family had immigrated to Victoria by 1888, when Paulina Ruthsatz died in child birth at Mangalore in that year. By 1895, the family had settled at Drouin, where Wilhelm was employed by the Buln Buln Shire Council as a contractor of road works. In the late 1920s, Emily Ruthsatz moved to Melbourne and lived at Camberwell, where she died in 1937. Soon after the family moved to Victoria, Wilhelm's son, Gustav, worked as a farm labourer at Corop. Later he went to Undera 22
and then Myuna, where he became a carpenter. When Cornelia Creek, near Echuca, was opened up for settlement, he purchased a block of land there and established a poultry farm. The Wiese family immigrated to Victoria and settled at Doncaster, a district first settled by German orchardists. In 1893, Georg Wiese, a builder, established an orchard, trading as G. Wiese and Sons, run by his three sons. Growing mainly peaches, but also small fruits and vegetables, the Wiese brothers were recognised for the innovative method applied in growing peaches, which involved using irrigation for intensive cultivation. The Wiese brothers were active members of the Doncaster Fruit Growers' Association. In 1889, Paul and Fanny Selzer immigrated to Victoria and settled in Hawthorn. By 1896, the Selzer family had moved to Toora in South Gippsland encouraged by the Village Settlement Scheme to establish a dairy farm at Upper Toora, while Fanny worked as a nurse in the district. When the small farms in the district failed and were consolidated into large dairy farms, the Selzer family moved back to Melbourne in the 1930s and lived in South Yarra. The Zollinger family immigrated to Victoria and settled in Hawthorn, but later moved to Richmond. Jacob Zollinger also owned an orchard at Sassafras in the Dandenongs. After marrying, John and Emilie Thomas moved to Foster in South Gippsland, where they owned a farm. Anna Zollinger married George Penny, a labourer, and the family lived in Camberwell. Hans Johnsen had immigrated to Melbourne by 1890, when he married Mary Anne Whiteside, the widow of James Whiteside, who had died following an altercation at a hotel in Footscray. By 1894, Hans, Mary and her three children had moved to Bendigo. In 1899, Johnsen was employed by the Virginia Gold Mining Company, which operated a reef mine at Eaglehawk, north-west of Bendigo. In June 1905, Johnsen and another miner, John William Mayberry, were killed in an explosion caused by testing a hole that had failed to fire on a previous shift with a hand drill and a hammer. Although her children from the first marriage stayed in Victoria, Mary and the three children from the second marriage moved to New Zealand, where she married George Grenville, and died at Napier in 1945. Carl Unger immigrated to Victoria and settled at Fish Creek, a small town in South Gippsland settled in the mid-1880s. He was probably related to Andreas Unger, licensee of the Fish Creek Hotel, who resided there for more than ten years, but died suddenly in November 1914. Carl Unger died at Fish Creek in October 1917. No records were identified for several individuals, who emigrated as single adults on the Procida. Adolf Garso returned to Germany in April 1889. It is likely that Minna Koerbin went into service as a housekeeper for the Hon. Thomas Reiby, but no records were identified for her after 1885. No records were identified for Friedrich Fischer, Hermann Ludemann, Niels Maae and Per Ohlson. These single men, ranging in age from 24 to 33 years old, undoubtedly left Tasmania for Mainland Australia, foreign countries or returned to Germany, Denmark or Sweden. Conclusion 23
In the early 1850s, the cessation of convict transportation and the departure of many men to the gold fields led the colonial government to introduce assisted immigration as a means of increasing the labour force. In spite of more than 16,600 assisted immigrants arriving in the 1850s, the slow growth in Tasmania's population was affected initially by slow natural increase due to a marked gender imbalance and then by the rate of emigration exceeding the rate of immigration. From the 1860s to the 1880s, the growth in Tasmania's population accelerated due to a more equal gender balance leading to greater natural increase, while the rate of emigration decreased due to improving economic and social conditions. The buoyancy of the economy in the mid-1880s is reflected in the decisions of most of the immigrants, who arrived on the Procida, to settle in Tasmania and to follow the same occupations. A large proportion of the immigrants were farm labourers from rural backgrounds, who settled in existing or created new clustered settlements. A degree of intermarriage within this group as well as with earlier arrivals in the 1850s, 1860s and 1870s substantiates the presence of networks of family ties throughout the various clustered settlements. These networks allowed the immigrants to transplant conservative attitudes and patriarchal social patterns that fitted in well with contemporary Victorian values. These attitudes were manifest in a German life-style characterised by diligence, thrift, stability and reliability, qualities for which they were actively sought as immigrants. Even at Collinsvale, where they formed a substantial proportion of a mixed population, the German and Scandinavian immigrants recognised the need to participate in the wider community. They quickly abandoned the land tenure patterns they had known in Europe as they adapted to new modes of freehold tenure and different climatic conditions. Participation in the wider community also encouraged out-marriage with Anglo-Australians, although it occurred at a slower pace than in the city. Several families and single adults, who arrived on the Procida, soon immigrated to Victoria, most of them settling in localities with high concentrations of German settlers. For instance, the Wiese family settled at Doncaster. They established a presence in the district's fruit-growing industry, which was dominated by German families, and married into the Zander family, a prominent family in the district's German community. 24
Surname Albat Albat Albat Albat Albat Alm (1) Alm Alm Alm Anderson Anderson Anderson Anderson Anderson Anderson
APPENDIX A
LIST OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA, 1885
(After Hargraves, 2003, pp. 109-222)
First Names Wilhelm
Gender Marital Age Native Place Country of Occupation
Status
Origin
Male Married 36 Halle, Saxony- Germany Farm
Anhalt
labourer
Louise
Female Married 37
Marianne Female Single 9.6
Carl
Male Single 7.6
Lydia
Female Single 6
Carl Petterson
Male
Married 29
Emma Christ.
Female Married 25
Carl Herm. Male Single 3
Ernst Emil. Male Single 0.3
Johann Peter Caroline
Male Married 32 Female Married 32
Anna Elvera
Female Single 10
Alma Matilda
Female Single 8.3
Gust. Adolf
Male Single 6
Elin Marie Female Single 4.3
Halle, SaxonyAnhalt Halle, SaxonyAnhalt Halle, SaxonyAnhalt Halle, SaxonyAnhalt Gaarden, SchleswigHolstein Gaarden, SchleswigHolstein Gaarden, SchleswigHolstein Gaarden, SchleswigHolstein Gaarden, SchleswigHolstein Gaarden, SchleswigHolstein Gaarden, SchleswigHolstein Gaarden, SchleswigHolstein Gaarden, SchleswigHolstein Gaarden, SchleswigHolstein
Germany Germany Germany Germany Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany
Farm labourer Ship carpenter
25
APPENDIX A (cont.)
LIST OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA, 1885
(After Hargraves, 2003, pp. 109-222)
Surname Anderson Anderson Burczack (2) Burczack Burczack Burczack Burczack Burczack Danker Danker Danker Dohrmeyer Fischer Frerck (3) Garso Glau Glau
First Names Elida Louise Hildegard Joh. Martin Franz Johanna Wilh. Elise Marie Johanna C. Franz Henry Joachim Willy Johann Marie Heinrich Louise Friedrich H. Heinr. Fried. Otto Adolf Claus Heinrich Anna Magdal.
Gender Marital Age Native Place Status Female Single 2.6 Gaarden, SchleswigHolstein Female Single 0.6 Gaarden, SchleswigHolstein Male Married 33 Hamburg
Female Married 37 Hamburg
Female Single 8 Female Single 7 Male Single 5
Hamburg Hamburg Hamburg
Male Single 0.6 Hamburg
Male Female Male Female Male Male Male Male Female
Married 27 Kiel, SchleswigHolstein Married 39 Kiel, SchleswigHolstein Single 3 Kiel, SchleswigHolstein Single 17 Kiel, SchleswigHolstein Single 26.6 Kiel, SchleswigHolstein Single 24 Dammdorf, SchleswigHolstein Single 23 Hamburg Married 42 Gaarden, SchleswigHolstein Married 39 Gaarden, SchleswigHolstein
26
Country of Occupation Origin Germany
Germany
Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany
House carpenter Died on voyage Joiner
Germany
Germany
Germany
Germany Joiner
Germany Joiner
Germany Germany Germany
Photographer Farm labourer
APPENDIX A (cont.)
LIST OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA, 1885
(After Hargraves, 2003, pp. 109-222)
Surname Glau Glau Glau Hansen (4) Haustein (5) Haustein Haustein Haustein Haustein Haustein Haustein Haustein Jager Jestrimski Jestrimski Jestrimski
First
Gender Marital Age Native Place
Names
Status
Marie
Female Single 12.5 Gaarden,
Christine
Schleswig-
Holstein
Emma Fr. Female Single 10 Gaarden,
Schleswig-
Holstein
Claudine Female Single 0.7 Gaarden,
Margaretha
Schleswig-
Holstein
Lars
Male Single 30 Helsingborg
Julius Alb. Caroline Albine Anna Anna Agnes Alma Adolf Alfred Camilla Emma Adolph Johann Jacob Amelia Rudolph
Male Female Female Female Female Male Female Female Male Male Female Male
Married 35 Niederplanitz, Saxony Married 35 Niederplanitz, Saxony Single 12.6 Niederplanitz, Saxony Single 9 Niederplanitz, Saxony Single 7.6 Niederplanitz, Saxony Single 5.9 Niederplanitz, Saxony Single 3.9 Niederplanitz, Saxony Single 0.6 Niederplanitz, Saxony Single 32 Ottensen, SchleswigHolstein Married 40 Gaarden, SchleswigHolstein Married 40 Gaarden, SchleswigHolstein Single 15 Gaarden, SchleswigHolstein
Country of Occupation Origin Germany
Germany
Germany
Sweden Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany
Farm labourer Farm labourer Locksmith
Germany Germany
Ship carpenter
Germany
27
APPENDIX A (cont.)
LIST OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA, 1885
(After Hargraves, 2003, pp. 109-222)
Surname Jestrimski Jestrimski Jestrimski Johnsen Kaden Kaden Kaden Kaden Kaden Kaden Koerbin Kohl Kohlhagen Kruse Kruse Kruse
First Names Auguste Hugo Herm. Alfred Hans Peter
Gender Marital Age Native Place Status Female Single 13 Gaarden, SchleswigHolstein Male Single 7 Gaarden, SchleswigHolstein Male Single 5 Gaarden, SchleswigHolstein Male Single 22 Norburg
Carl Herm. Male
Augusta Marie Olga
Female Female
Anna
Female
Hermann Male
Frieda
Female
Minna
Female
Franz
Male
Heinrich
Carl Christ. Male
Wilh. Heinr.
Male
Anna Marie
Female
Wilh.
Male
Heinr. Joh.
Married 39 Niederplanitz, Saxony Married 41 Niederplanitz, Saxony Single 14 Niederplanitz, Saxony Single 11.6 Niederplanitz, Saxony Single 10 Niederplanitz, Saxony Single 9 Niederplanitz, Saxony Single 40 Altona, Hamburg Single 24 Friedeberg, Hesse Single 27 Eichholz, MecklenburgWest Pomerania Married 44 Dietrichsdorf, SchleswigHolstein Married 44 Dietrichsdorf, SchleswigHolstein Single 13 Dietrichsdorf, SchleswigHolstein
28
Country of Occupation Origin Germany
Germany
Germany
Denmark Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany
Farm labourer Engine driver Cabinet maker Locksmith
Germany Germany
Ship carpenter
Germany
APPENDIX A (cont.)
LIST OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA, 1885
(After Hargraves, 2003, pp. 109-222)
Surname Kruse Kruse Kruse Ludemann Maae Mansson Mansson Mansson Mansson Mansson Mansson Mayer (6) Niclasson (7) Niclasson
First
Gender Marital Age Native Place
Names
Status
Anna
Female Single 11 Dietrichsdorf,
Sophie
Schleswig-
Holstein
Meta
Female Single 9 Dietrichsdorf,
Schleswig-
Holstein
Elvira
Female Single 6 Dietrichsdorf,
Dorothea
Schleswig-
Holstein
Hermann Male Single 24 Veddel,
Hamburg
Niels Jacob Male Single 33 Oster Gesten
S.
Sven
Male Married 35 Gaarden,
Schleswig-
Holstein
Christina Female Married 21 Gaarden,
Dora
Schleswig-
Holstein
Friedrich Male Single 7 Gaarden,
Wilh.
Schleswig-
Holstein
Anna
Female Single 5 Gaarden,
Gertrud.
Schleswig-
Holstein
Alwine W. Female Single 1.6 Gaarden,
Schleswig-
Holstein
Emma M. Female Single 0.3 Gaarden,
Schleswig-
Holstein
Fanny
Female Single 18.6 Gaarden,
Schleswig-
Holstein
Ola
Male Married 41 Kiel,
Schleswig-
Holstein
Horna
Female Married 41 Kiel,
Jorson
Schleswig-
Holstein
29
Country of Occupation Origin Germany
Germany
Germany
Germany Denmark Germany Sweden
Carpenter Shoemaker Farm labourer
Sweden
Sweden
Sweden Sweden
Died on voyage
Germany Cook
Sweden Sweden
Farm labourer
APPENDIX A (cont.)
LIST OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA, 1885
(After Hargraves, 2003, pp. 109-222)
Surname Niclasson Niclasson Niclasson Nielsen
First
Gender Marital Age Native Place
Names
Status
Mathilde Female Single 7 Kiel,
Schleswig-
Holstein
Carl Alfred Male Single 5 Kiel,
Schleswig-
Holstein
Heinr.
Male Single 2 Kiel,
Oscar
Schleswig-
Holstein
Niels Peter Male Single 19 Norburg
Ohlsson (8) Ola Ohlsson Per
Male Male
Single 24 Lund Single 25 Lund
Rieper Ruthsatz
Claus Detlev Wilhelm
Male Male
Ruthsatz Pauline
Female
Ruthsatz
Gustav Wilhelm
Male
Ruthsatz
Friedrich Alb.
Male
Schurbohn August
Male
Selzer
Paul
Male
Stolzenberg Joh. Heinr. Male
A.
Single 17 Ellerbek, SchleswigHolstein Married 28 Ballenberg, MecklenburgWest Pomerania Married 26 Ballenberg, MecklenburgWest Pomerania Single 2 Ballenberg, MecklenburgWest Pomerania Single 0.3 Ballenberg, MecklenburgWest Pomerania Single 30 Ebeshagen, SchleswigHolstein Single 24.6 Niklasdorf Married 40 Gaarden, SchleswigHolstein
30
Country of Occupation Origin Sweden
Sweden
Sweden
Denmark Sweden Sweden Germany Germany
Farm labourer Blacksmith Farm labourer Farm labourer Fireman
Germany
Germany
Germany
Germany Germany Germany
Deserted at Antwerp Joiner Ship carpenter
APPENDIX A (cont.)
LIST OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA, 1885
(After Hargraves, 2003, pp. 109-222)
Surname First
Gender Marital Age Native Place Country of Occupation
Names
Status
Origin
Stolzenberg Margaretha Female Married 38 Gaarden,
Germany
Schleswig-
Holstein
Stolzenberg Dora
Female Single 15 Gaarden,
Germany
Schleswig-
Holstein
Stolzenberg Johanna Female Single 11 Gaarden,
Schleswig-
Holstein
Stolzenberg Anna Cath. Female Single 8 Gaarden,
Schleswig-
Holstein
Stolzenberg Carl Joh. Male Single 6 Gaarden,
Germany
Chr.
Schleswig-
Holstein
Suhr
Joach.
Male Married 27 Hamburg
Germany Farm
Heinr.
labourer
Suhr
Anna
Female Married 30 Hamburg
Germany
Catherine
Suhr
Joh. Heinr. Male Single 6 Hamburg
Germany
Suhr
Joachim H. Male Single 4 Hamburg
Germany
W.
Suhr
Carl Joh. Male Single 2 Hamburg
Germany
H.
Ullrich (9) Carl
Male Married 44 Giebichenstein, Germany Labourer
Saxony-Anhalt
Ullrich
Anna
Female Single 16 Giebichenstein, Germany
Saxony-Anhalt
Ullrich
Louise
Female Single 14 Giebichenstein, Germany
Saxony-Anhalt
Ullrich
Wilhelmine Female Single 10 Giebichenstein, Germany
Saxony-Anhalt
Unger
Carl
Male Single 36 Cainsdorf,
Germany Fireman
Hermann
Saxony
Wachholz Carl
Male Single 24 Schlawe
Germany Cabinet
Friedrich
maker
Alb.
Wiese
Georg
Male Married 41 Ellerbek,
Germany Bricklayer
Hermann
Schleswig-
A.
Holstein
31
Surname Wiese Wiese Wiese Wiese Wiese Wiese Zanotti Zollinger Zollinger Zollinger Zollinger Zollinger
APPENDIX A (cont.)
LIST OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA, 1885
(After Hargraves, 2003, pp. 109-222)
First
Gender Marital Age Native Place Country of Occupation
Names
Status
Origin
Margaretha Female Married 37 Ellerbek,
Germany
Schleswig-
Holstein
Heinrich Male Single 11 Ellerbek,
Germany
Carl A.
Schleswig-
Holstein
Johannes Male Single 7 Ellerbek,
Germany
Christian
Schleswig-
Holstein
Dorothea Female Single 5 Ellerbek,
Germany
Magdalona
Schleswig-
Holstein
Gretha
Female Single 3 Ellerbek,
Germany
Schleswig-
Holstein
Georg
Male Single 0.6 Ellerbek,
Germany
Gottlieb
Schleswig-
Heinr.
Holstein
Carl
Male Single 33 Plosen, Saxony Germany Cabinet
maker
Rudolph Male Married 38 Mauer
Switzerland Cabinet
Zac.
maker
Catharina Female Married 31 Mauer
Switzerland
Rudolph Male Single 5.6 Mauer
Switzerland
Anna
Female Single 3 Mauer
Switzerland
Marie
Johanna Female Single 0.1 Mauer
Switzerland
NOTES (1) The Alm family subsequently adopted the surname `Peterson'. (2) The Burczack family, incorrectly listed by Hargraves as `Burezack', subsequently spelt their surname as `Burczak'. (3) Heinrich Frerck subsequently spelt his surname as `Frerk'. (4) Lars Hansen subsequently spelt his surname as `Hansson'. (5) The Haustein family subsequently spelt their surname alternatively as `Haustein' or `Houstein'. (6) Fanny Mayer subsequently spelt her surname as `Meyer'. (7) The Niclasson family subsequently spelt their surname as `Nicklason'. (8) Ola Ohlsson subsequently spelt his surname as `Ohlson' (9) The Ullrich family subsequently spelt their surname as `Ulrich'. 32
APPENDIX B LIST OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA, 1885
Name Albat, Wilhelm (1) Albat, Louise Albat, Marianna Albat, Carl Albat, Lydia Anderson, Johann Peter Anderson, Caroline Anderson, Anna Elvera Anderson, Alma Matilda Anderson, Gustav Adolph Anderson, Elin Marie Anderson, Eledia Lucy Anderson, Hildegard Johanna
Date of Birth c. 1849 c. 1848 c. 1875 7/12/1878 c. 1880 c. 1853 c. 1854 c. 1875 c. 1878 c.1879 c. 1881 c. 1883 c. 1885
Name of Spouse Louise Wilhelm Albat Moss Allan Woods unmarried unmarried Caroline Lindgren Johann Peter Anderson Henry John Stonehouse unmarried Sarah Emma Mabel Johnson Ernest Walter Augustus Conrad Charles William Gluschke (2) Hjalmar Achaton Hansen
Date of Marriage 9/2/1921 1/7/1911 27/3/1905 5/6/1905 27/12/1904 11/12/1909
Number of Children 3 3 0 0 0 6 6 4 0 5 8 3 1
Date of Death or Funeral 12/6/1925 4/7/1919 28/4/1951 6/6/1915 8/7/1926 16/10/1934 16/8/1930 19/7/1967 (service) 12/5/1964 (service) 5/6/1961 (service) 14/9/1967 (service) 5/9/1972 (service)
Age at Death 75 70 37 46 81 76 92 86 82 86 89
Place of Death or Interment Cornelian Bay Cemetery Methodist Cemetery, Collinsvale Cornelian Bay Cemetery Methodist Cemetery, Collinsvale Cornelian Bay Cemetery Cornelian Bay Cemetery Cornelian Bay Cemetery Cornelian Bay Cemetery Cornelian Bay Cemetery Cornelian Bay Cemetery Cornelian Bay Cemetery Cornelian Bay Cemetery
33
APPENDIX B (cont.)
LIST OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA, 1885
Name Burczak, Martin Franz Burczak, Johanna Wilhelmine Burczak, Elise Marie Burczak, Johanna Burczak, Franz Henry Danker, Johannes Dederik (3) Danker, Marie Danker, Heinrich Dohrmeyer, Louisa Fischer, Friedrich Frerk, Heinrich Friedrich (4) Garso, Otto Adolf (5) Glau, Claus Heinrich
Date of Birth c. 1852 c. 1848 c. 1877 c.1878 c. 1880 13/5/1858 c. 1846 c. 1878 c. 1868 c. 1859 13/3/1861 c. 1862 c. 1843
Name of Spouse Marie 1. Dohrmeyer; 2. Johannis Dederick Danker 1. Amy Plummer; 2. Ethel Sarah Ann Banks Heinrich Friedrich Frerk Louisa Dohrmeyer Anna Magdalona Stroh
Date of Marriage 1. 11/9/1905; 2. 18/2/1919 30/11/1887 30/11/1887
Number of Children 4 4 1 1. 1; 2. 1 1. 4; 2. 0 3 3 5
Date of Death or Funeral 15/9/1939 24/8/1926 8/10/1974 (service) 25/12/1916 27/5/1944 7/2/1917
Age at Death 81 80 96 48 83
Place of Death or Interment Carnarvon Cemetery, Port Arthur Carnarvon Cemetery, Port Arthur Cornelian Bay Cemetery Carnarvon Cemetery, Port Arthur Carnarvon Cemetery, Port Arthur Anglican Cemetery, Adventure Bay
34
APPENDIX B (cont.)
LIST OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA, 1885
Name Glau, Anna Magdalena Glau, Marie Christine Glau, Emma Frederica Glau, Claudine Margaretha Hansson, Lars Haustein, Julius Alban Haustein, Caroline Sophia Haustein, Anna Alwina Haustein, Agnes Anna (7) Haustein, Alma May (8) Haustein, Alfred Adolphus
Date of Birth c. 1846 3/10/1872 c. 1876 c. 1884 25/11/1855 5/5/1849 12/5/1850 26/1/1873 16/8/1876 1/12/1879 19/10/1880
Name of Spouse Claus Heinrich Glau Frederick Archibald Davis Frederick Leslie Chinnery William Edward Francis Augusta Dunkel (6) Caroline Sophia Rank Alban Julius Haustein George Alfred Cope James Hassett Edward Anthony Smith 1. Kathleen Mary Medwin; 2. Vera Josephine Harvey
Date of Marriage 1/8/1891 1904 19/7/1914 13/7/1890 1872 1872 18/10/1897 2/2/1900 29/12/1909 1. 19/12/1910; 2. 27/4/1916
Number of Children 5 11 7 1 9 9 9 3 5 4 1. 1; 2. 6
Date of Death or Funeral 23/7/1914 12/3/1954 1959 20/7/1956 17/11/1927 27/8/1919 20/9/1934 26/11/1947 16/3/1962 27/10/1959 (service) 8/10/1965
Age at Death 81 71 73 70 84 75 85 79 84
Place of Death or Interment Anglican Cemetery, Adventure Bay Carr Villa Memorial Park Anglican Cemetery, Adventure Bay Anglican Cemetery, Adventure Bay Cornelian Bay Cemetery Cornelian Bay Cemetery Cornelian Bay Cemetery Died at Manly, New South Wales Ulverstone General Cemetery Carr Villa Memorial Park
35
APPENDIX B (cont.)
LIST OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA, 1885
Name Haustein, Camilla (9) Haustein, Emma Rose Jager, Adolph (10) Jestrimski, Johann Jacob (11) Jestrimski, Amelia Rosalia Jestrimski, Rudolph Emil (12) Jestrimski, Martha Jestrimski, Hugo Jestrimski, Alfred Herman (13) Johnsen, Hans Peter (14) Kaden, Carl Herman
Date of Birth 16/10/1882 10/2/1885 c. 1853 1844 c. 1844 17/4/1870 c. 1872 31/5/1879 2/3/1880 c. 1863 c. 1846
Name of Spouse Hubert Thomas Claude Applebee Llewellyn Thomas Bakes Johanne Elizabeth Alwyn Amelia Rosalia von Kluck Johann Jacob Jestrimski Matilda Amanda Nicklason William James Terry Daisy Eliza Terry Janette Beechey Mary Anne Martin Auguste Marie Trommer
Date of Marriage 9/10/1907 10/3/1909 24/2/1897 28/10/1896 29/4/1908 11/9/1907 27/11/1890 1868
Number of Children 4 3 0 6 6 13 3 4 1 3 4
Date of Death or Funeral 27/4/1969 16/5/1965 21/4/1921 25/10/1927 14/8/1948 29/10/1902 25/6/1966 6/10/1956 (service) 8/6/1905 11/2/1901
Age at Death 86 80 76 84 78 30 88 76 45 55
Place
of
Death or
Interment
Cornelian
Bay Cemetery
Died
at
Adelaide,
South
Australia
Pyengana General Cemetery Pyengana General Cemetery Pyengana General Cemetery Pyengana General Cemetery Carr Villa Memorial Park Ulverstone General Cemetery Eaglehawk Public Cemetery, Victoria Anglican Cemetery, Adventure Bay
36
APPENDIX B (cont.)
LIST OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA, 1885
Name Kaden, Auguste Marie (15) Kaden, Olga Kaden, Anna Kaden, Hermann Kaden, Frieda Koerbin, Minna (16) Kohl, Franz Heinrich (17) Kohlhagen, Friedrich Carl Kruse, Wilhelm Heinrich (19) Kruse, Anna Maria (20) Kruse, Wilhelm Heinrich Johann (21) Kruse, Anna Sophia Kruse, Meta
Date of Birth 21/11/1843 c. 1871 c. 1874 c. 1875 c. 1876 c. 1845 8/8/1861 c. 1858 1/7/1840 1/1/1840 c. 1872 c. 1873 c. 1875
Name of Spouse Carl Herman Kaden Henry Dorloff Robert Miller Clara Anna Kaden Edward David Murray Elizabeth Burns Victoria Schwan (18) Anna Marie Lembeck Wilhelm Heinrich Kruse Ethel Lomas Henry Charles Wolf unmarried
Date of Marriage 1868 1/6/1892 9/9/1896 26/4/1904 24/2/1904 8/7/1896 22/4/1889 29/11/1899 15/1/1919
Number of Children 4 11 4 6 2 8 3 4 4 12 0 0
Date of Death or Funeral 9/11/1936 13/1/1966 8/7/1951 21/2/1958 23/5/1946 8/10/1953 28/8/1915 8/1/1918 23/10/1923 14/3/1970 15/7/1964 (service) 10/7/1973
Age at Death 92 95 77 83 69 92 55 77 83 97 90 97
Place of Death or Interment Anglican Cemetery, Adventure Bay Anglican Cemetery, Adventure Bay Anglican Cemetery, Adventure Bay Anglican Cemetery, Adventure Bay Anglican Cemetery, Adventure Bay
Pyengana General Cemetery
Died
at
Johannesburg,
South Africa
Anglican
Cemetery,
Cygnet
Anglican Cemetery, Cygnet Congregational Cemetery, Huonville
Cornelian Bay Cemetery Cornelian Bay Cemetery
37
APPENDIX B (cont.)
LIST OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA, 1885
Name Kruse, Elvira Dorothea Ludemann, Hermann Maae, Niels Jacob Mansson, Sven Mansson, Christina Dora Mansson, Friedrich Wilhelm (22) Mansson, Anna Gertrude Asserina Mansson, Emma Matilda Meyer, Fanny Adelgunde (23) Nicklason, Ola (24) Nicklason, Karna Nicklason, Matilda Amanda (25)
Date of Birth c. 1879 c. 1861 c. 1852 c. 1847 c. 1864 c. 1878 23/5/1881 c. 1885 c. 1866 c. 1845 c. 1844 8/7/1878
Name of Spouse unmarried 1. Margaretha Wilhelmina; 2. Christina Dora Kahlar Sven Mansson unmarried George Watt Donald Crawford Paul Selzer Karna Ola Nicklason Rudolph Emil Jestrimski
Date of Marriage 27/11/1899 16/3/1910 18/12/1886 24/2/1897
Number of Children 0 1. 2; 2. 5 5 0 6 5 11 4 4 13
Date of Death or Funeral 5/11/1944 8/12/1917 11/1/1956 29/7/1900 27/8/1961 21/7/1964 11/9/1946 20/7/1933 29/5/1914 7/4/1951
Age at Death 65 70 92 22 80 79 79 88 70 72
Place of Death or Interment Cornelian Bay Cemetery Pyengana General Cemetery Pyengana General Cemetery Died at Launceston, Tasmania Springvale Botanical Cemetery, Victoria Carr Villa Memorial Park Burwood Cemetery, Victoria Pyengana General Cemetery Pyengana General Cemetery Pyengana General Cemetery
38
APPENDIX B (cont.)
LIST OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA, 1885
Name Nicklason, Carl Alfred Nicklason, Heinrich Oscar Neilson, Neils Peter Ohlson, Olaf (26) Ohlson, Per Peterson, Carl Peterson, Emma Christina (27) Peterson, Carl Herman
Date of Birth c. 1880 c. 1884 11/8/1866 16/1/1861 c. 1860 31/10/1856 9/5/1860
Name of Spouse Amelia Katherine Oldham unmarried Isabel Mary Jane Batchelor Hilda Petersen Emma Christina Olofsson Carl Peterson
Date of Marriage 5/6/1910 25/8/1890 19/12/1887
Number of Children 9 7 6 11 11
Date of Death or Funeral 25/2/1956 4/11/1888 30/3/1923 30/12/1932 25/7/1940 18/12/1957
Age at Death 76 5 56 71 83 97
Place of Death or Interment Pyengana General Cemetery Died at Pyengana, Tasmania Foxton Cemetery, New Zealand Cornelian Bay Cemetery Cornelian Bay Cemetery Cornelian Bay Cemetery
c. 1882
Urania Reading
28/8/1926 3
14/4/1961 78
Cornelian Bay Cemetery
Peterson, c. 1885 Ernst Emil
Rieper, Claude Detlev Ruthsatz, Wilhelm
c. 1868 c. 1857
Ruthsatz, Paulina
c. 1859
Mary
25/10/1915 3
Magdalene
Hansson
Catherine Thyrna Stubbings
9/11/1892 3
1. Paulina 2. 1893
1. 4;
Simman; 2.
2. 7
Emily Jane
Hart
Wilhelm
4
Ruthsatz
4/2/1924 38
13/4/1946 77
1/11/1916 59
1888
28
St John's Anglican Cemetery, New Town Springvale Botanical Cemetery, Victoria Drouin Cemetery, Victoria Seymour Pioneer Cemetery, Victoria
39
APPENDIX B (cont.)
LIST OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA, 1885
Name Ruthsatz, Gustav Wilhelm (28) Ruthsatz, Friedrich Alban Selzer, Paul Stolzenberg, Johann Heinrich August Stolzenberg, Margaretha (29) Stolzenberg, Dora Stolzenberg, Johanna Frederica Agnes Stolzenberg, Anna Catherine Stolzenberg, Karl Johann Christian Suhr, Johann Joachim Heinrich Suhr, Anna Katherine Dorothee
Date of Birth c. 1883 c. 1885 c. 1860 c. 1845 c. 1847 c. 1870 c. 1874 c.1877 c. 1879 c. 1858 c. 1855
Name of Spouse Lily Ada Day Fanny Adelgunde Meyer 1. Margaretha; 2. Julia Maria Lehmann Johann. Heinrich A. Stolzenberg Charles Rudolph Richter 1. William Henry Rumbold; 2. Shadrick John Pace unmarried Agnes Hardy Anna Katherine Dorothee Johann Joachim Heinrich Suhr
Date of Marriage 1919 18/12/1886 2. 5/5/1900 2/1/1897 1. 4/3/1896 2. 17/11/1906 25/12/1902
Number of Children 1 11 1. 4; 2. 0 4 1 1. 3; 2. 1 0 2 3 3
Date of Death or Funeral 26/9/1949 7/10/1948 3/8/1939 1/9/1896 27/9/1901 10/10/1968 (service) 25/9/1944 (service) 8/5/1968 8/9/1926 22/7/1933
Age at Death 66 87 93 49 29 94 68 78
Place of Death or Interment Echuca Cemetery, Victoria
Burwood Cemetery, Victoria Cornelian Bay Cemetery
Cornelian
Bay
Cemetery
Died
at
Melbourne,
Victoria
Cornelian
Bay
Cemetery
Cornelian
Bay
Cemetery
Died
at
Hunters Hill,
New South
Wales
Cornelian
Bay
Cemetery
Cornelian Bay Cemetery
40
APPENDIX B (cont.)
LIST OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA, 1885
Name Suhr, Johann Heinrich Emile Suhr, Joachim Heinrich Willy Suhr, Carl Johann Ulrich, Carl (30) Ulrich, Anna Maria Ulrich, Louise Caroline Ulrich, Wilhelmina Bertha Unger, Carl Hermann Wachholz, Carl Friedrich Alban Wiese, Georg Herman August
Date of Birth c. 1879 c. 1881 c. 1883 c. 1841 c. 1869 c. 1872 c. 1876 c. 1849 c. 1861 c. 1844
Name of Spouse Maria Hagar Snape Barbara Wilson Florence May Snape Louisa Brandstater unmarried unmarried unmarried Matilda 1. Margaretha Magdalena Elizabeth Dickmann; 2. Annabelle Campbell
Date of Marriage 27/7/1912 21/9/1908 28/2/1912 2. 1909
Number of Children 2 3 5 3 0 0 0 0 1. 6; 2. 1
Date of Death or Funeral 8/9/1966 (service) 26/8/1971 (service) 1/6/1945 22/8/1917 9/7/1915 23/3/1966 (service) 1965 15/10/1917 15/3/1911 20/10/1919
Age at Death 86 90 62 83 58 94 89 49 75
Place
of
Death or
Interment
Cornelian
Bay
Cemetery
Cornelian Bay Cemetery
Died
at
Merrylands,
New South
Wales
Cornelian
Bay
Cemetery
Cornelian
Bay
Cemetery
Cornelian
Bay
Cemetery
Died
at
Brighton,
Victoria
Died at Fish
Creek,
Victoria
Congre-
gational
Cemetery,
Geeveston
Warringal
Cemetery,
Victoria
41
APPENDIX B (cont.)
LIST OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA, 1885
Name Wiese, Margaretha Magdalena Elizabeth Wiese, Heinrich Carl (31) Wiese, Johannes Nicholaus Christian (32) Wiese, Dorothea Magdalona (33) Wiese, Gretha Wiese, George Henry Zanotti, Johann Carl Zollinger, Jacob Rudolf Zollinger, Catharina Zollinger, Rudolf Zollinger, Anna Elizabeth
Date of Birth c. 1848 c. 1874 c. 1878 c. 1880 c. 1882 c. 1885 16/6/1852 c. 1850 c. 1854 c.1880 c. 1882
Name of Spouse George Herman August Weise unmarried 1. Florence Catherine Sweeney; 2. Phoebe Matilda Smith Carl Heinrich Zander Henry Otto Linda Elsie Otto Matilda Henrietta Fehlberg (34) 1. Catharina Zabelberg; 2. Emily Ann Wheeler Jacob Rudolf Zollinger Margaret Ryan George Thomas Penny
Date of Marriage 1. 1905; 2. 1916 1909 1908 9/9/1908 20/1/1887 2. 1890 16/6/1914 1911
Number of Children 6 0 1. 2; 2. 1 2 0 4 8 1. 3; 2. 2 3 4
Date of Death or Funeral 22/5/1904 22/6/1903 1/10/1920 14/7/1928 7/1/1959 16/1/1939 27/7/1901 (service) 16/11/1889 (service) 5/1/1954
Age at Death 56 41 48 74 86 51 35 70
Place
of
Death or
Interment
Warringal
Cemetery,
Victoria
Died
at
Templestowe,
Victoria
Died
at
Balwyn,
Victoria
Box Hill Cemetery, Victoria Fawkner Cemetery, Victoria Methodist Cemetery, Collinsvale Boroondara Cemetery, Victoria Boroondara Cemetery, Victoria Springvale Botanical Cemetery, Victoria
42
APPENDIX B (cont.)
LIST OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA, 1885
Zollinger, Emilie Johanna
c. 1885
John Richard Thomas
23/11/1904 6
22/6/1976 92
Springvale Botanical Cemetery, Victoria
NOTES (1) An article on the death of Wilhelm Albat was published in The Examiner under the title "Found dead in garden" on 13 June 1915, p. 5. (2) Charles William Gluschke was the second son of Wilhelm Gluschke, who arrived on the Victoria in August 1870. During World War I, the family adopted the surname `Gluskie' under which they were interred. (3) An article on the 80th birthday anniversary for Johannis Danker was published in The Mercury under the title, "Point Puer hermit" on 10 May 1938, p. 19 and on 13 May 1939, p. 8. An obituary on Johannis Danker was published in The Mercury on 18 September 1939, p. 9. (4) An article on the 80th birthday anniversary for Heinrich Frerk was published in The Mercury under the title, "Guide's birthday" on 14 March 1941, p. 4. (5) Jager (1908) reported that Otto Adolf Garso went to Melbourne after a few years, where he did well, and not long after returned to Germany to be with his mother in her declining years (p. 287). In April 1889, Otto Garso returned to Bremen, Germany on the Nurnberg. (6) Augusta Dunkel arrived as a three-year old child on the Figaro in October 1870. (7) Agnes Anna Haustein had an illegitimate son born on 13 March 1894. (8) Alma May Haustein had an illegitimate daughter born on 8 September 1897. (9) Articles concerning a legal case for the failure of George Hastie to pay maintenance to Camilla Haustein for an illegitimate child, born in December 1900, were reported in The North Western Advocate and Emu Bay Times on 13 November 1900, p. 2 and 26 March 1904, p. 2. (10) Jager (1908) reported that he nominated his wife, Johanne Elizabeth Alwyn Jager, to immigrate to Tasmania, and she arrived on the Liguria in August 1886. In 1890, they left Tasmania and settled in Melbourne. In March 1891, Johanne returned to Germany on the Kaiser Wilhelm II and later they divorced. After working in various occupations in Melbourne, Adolph Jager immigrated to the USA in 1908 and settled in Los Angeles. (11) Articles on Jacob and Amelia Jestrimski's golden wedding were published in The Daily Telegraph on 4 February 1920, p. 3 and the North-Eastern Advertiser on 6 February 1920, p. 3. An article on the death of Jacob Jestrimski as a result of a fall from a horse was published in The Examiner on 6 May 1921, p. 6. (12) An article on Rudolph and Matilda Jestrimski was published in the North-Eastern Advertiser under the title "Golden wedding" on 22 April 1947, p. 2. Articles on the death of Rudolph Jestrimski as a result of being struck by a falling branch from a tree during a storm were published in The Examiner on 16 August 1948, p. 2 and The Mercury on 16 August 1948, p. 1. An obituary on Rudolph Jestrimski was published in The Examiner on 17 August 1948, p. 2. (13) An article on Alfred Jestrimski was published in The Advocate under the title "Retired" on 15 February 1950, p. 11. (14) Articles on the death of Hans Peter Johnsen as a result of a mining accident were published in The Argus under the titles "Shocking mine fatality" on 9 June 1905, p. 2 and "Bendigo mining 43
tragedy" on 10 June 1905, p. 17, The Australasian under the title "Shocking mine accident" on 10 June 1905, p. 38, and The Age under the title "Misuse of explosives" on 10 June 1905, p. 12. (15) An obituary on Auguste Kaden was published in The Mercury under the title, "Mrs A. M. Kaden: Adventure Bay pioneer" on 13 November 1936, p. 7. (16) Minna Koerbin was nominated by Otto Gustav Koerbin (1846-1927), who arrived on the Eugenie in March 1872. Minna served as matron on the Procida, and was hired as a housekeeper by the Hon. Thomas Reibey (1821-1912), the member for Westbury in the House of Assembly and the owner of Entally and The Oaks near Carrick. (17) Articles on Elizabeth and Franz Kohl were published in The Examiner under the title, "To celebrate golden wedding" on 4 July 1946, p. 6 and the North-Eastern Advertiser under the title, "Golden wedding: Kohl-Burns" on 12 July 1946, p. 3. (18) Victoria Schwan was the daughter of Wilhelm August Schwan, who arrived on the Figaro in October 1870. (19) An obituary on Wilhelm Kruse was published in the Huon Times on 11 January 1918, p. 2. (20) An obituary on Anna Kruse was published in the Huon Times on 26 October 1923, p. 2. (21) An article on William and Ethel Kruse was published in The Mercury under the title, "Golden wedding for Huon couple" on 29 November 1949, p. 6. (22) Articles on the inquest into the death of Wilhelm Mansson due to gunshot wounds were published in The Examiner under the title "Justifiable homicide" and The Daily Telegraph under the title "The Garibaldi tragedy" on 1 August 1900, p. 5. (23) Obituaries on Fanny Meyer were published in The Argus under the title, "Mrs F. A. Selzer" on 12 September 1946, p. 7 and in The Age under the title, "Gippsland pioneer" on 12 September 1946, p. 6. (24) Obituaries on Ola Nicklason were published under the title, "Pyengana pioneer" in The Mercury on 25 July 1933, p. 5 and the North-Eastern Advertiser on 25 July 1933, p. 3. (25) Obituaries on Matilda Nicklason were published in The Examiner on 13 April 1951, p. 4 and in the North-Eastern Advertiser on 13 April 1951, p. 3. (26) Olaf Ohlson met Hilda Petersen, a waitress or maid working in a tavern in Hamburg, while waiting to board the Procida. Olaf Ohlson sponsored Hilda Petersen, who arrived at Hobart on the Coptic on 20 November 1887 and they married a month later on Maria Island. (27) Articles on the 86th and 90th birthday anniversaries for Emma Peterson were published in The Mercury on 9 May 1946, p. 15 and 11 May 1950, p. 8. (28) An obituary on Gustav Ruthsatz was published in The Riverine Herald under the title, "Mr G. Ruthsatz" on 29 September 1949, p. 2. (29) An article on the death of Margaret Stolzenberg as a result of suicide was published in The Mercury under the title, "Suicide at North Hobart" on 2 September 1896, p. 2. (30) Carl Ulrich's wife, whose maiden name was Brandstater, was related to the Brandstater family, who arrived on the Eugenie in March 1872 and settled at Collinsvale. Emanuel Brandstater nominated Karl Ulrich, possibly a son of Carl Ulrich, who arrived on the Polosi in August 1883, and in turn, he sponsored Carl Ulrich and his three daughters. (31) Articles on the death of Heinrich Wiese as a result of suicide were published in The Age under the title, "An orchardist hangs himself" on 23 June 1903, p. 6, The Argus under the title "Determined suicide" on 23 June 1903, p. 9 and the Evelyn Observer and Bourke East Record under the title, "Determined suicide" on 26 June 1903, p. 2. (32) An article on the death of Johannes Wiese as a result of suicide was published in The Age under the title, "Orchardist poisons himself" on 23 October 1920, p. 17. (33) An article on the inquest into the death of Dorothea Zander, due to being struck by a bus in Doncaster on 9 July 1928, was published in The Argus on 25 July 1928, p. 10. (34) Matilda Henrietta Fehlberg arrived as a six-year old child on the Figaro in October 1870. 44
APPENDIX C LIST OF CHILDREN OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA BORN IN 1885 OR AFTER Anderson family Second generation Anderson, Anna Elvera and Stonehouse, Henry John Edna Evena Stonehouse; born: 19 September 1911, North Hobart. Thomas Fleetwood Stonehouse; born: 29 December 1912, New Town. Margaret Florence Stonehouse; born: 24 March 1915, New Town. Grace Caroline Stonehouse; born: 23 July 1917, Hobart. Anderson, Gustav Adolph and Johnson, Sarah Emma Mabel Arthur Edward Anderson; born: 19 March 1907, Launceston. Beryl Irene Anderson; born: 13 September 1909, Inveresk. Augustus George Anderson; born: 17 June 1912, Sandy Bay. Reginald John Anderson; born: 8 August 1915, Sandy Bay. Amy Joan Anderson; born: 29 November 1918, Sandy Bay. Anderson, Elin Marie and Conrad, Ernest Walter Augustus Raymond Ernest Conrad; born: 27 September 1905, New Norfolk. Alan James Conrad; born: 17 March 1907, New Norfolk. Albert Edward Conrad; born: 13 October 1908, New Norfolk. William Neil Conrad; born: 26 May 1910, New Norfolk. Eric Walter Conrad; born: 9 April 1912, New Norfolk. Catherine Mary Conrad; born: 23 May 1914, New Norfolk. Charles Henry Conrad; born: 11 January 1916, New Norfolk. Isabel May Conrad; born: 7 April 1918, New Norfolk. Anderson, Eledia Lucy and Gluschke, Charles William Cedric Charles Gluschke; born: 8 June 1906, Glebe. John Albert Gluschke; born: 23 April 1908, Hobart. Robert Owen Gluschke; born: 15 September 1911, Hobart. Anderson, Hildegard Johanna and Hansen, Hjalmar Achaton Andrew Henrick Hansen; born: 16 January 1911, Hobart. Burczak family Burczak, Martin Franz and Burczak, Johanna Wilhelmina Martha Frances May Burczak; born: 1904, Melbourne, Victoria. Danker family Second generation 45
APPENDIX C (cont.) LIST OF CHILDREN OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA BORN IN 1885 OR AFTER Danker, Heinrich and Plummer, Amy Beryl Myrtle Danker; born: 19 June 1908, Dover. Henry Bruce Danker; born: 2 August 1910, Dover. Johannis Karl Danker; born: 30 November 1912, West Hobart. Lucy Maud Danker; born: 21 October 1913, Battery Point. Frerk family Frerk, Heinrich Friedrich and Dohrmeyer, Louise Hans Henry August Frerk; born: 9 February 1888, Tasman. Anne Elsie Mary Frerk; born: 8 April 1889, Tasman. Meta Christina Frerk; born: 2 September 1892, Tasman. Glau family First generation Glau, Claus Heinrich and Stroh, Anna Magdalona Frieda Christine Glau; born: 22 January 1887, Hobart. Agnes Marie Glau; born: 21 February 1891, Adventure Bay. Second generation Glau, Marie Christina and Davis, Frederick Archibald Frederick Archibald Davis; born: 8 December 1892, Launceston. Winifred Mary Davis; born: 8 December 1892, Launceston. Prudence Christina Davis; born: 9 June 1895, Launceston. Evelyn Elsie Davis; born: 20 September 1896, Launceston. Henry Theodore Davis; born: 11 September 1899, Launceston. Ralph Harold Davis; born: 27 December 1900, Launceston. Vera Edith Davis; born: 22 January 1903, Launceston. Leslie Davis; born: 14 March 1904, Launceston. Arthur Stanley Davis; born: 3 April 1905, Launceston. Ena Dulcie Davis; born: 25 August 1906, Launceston. Reginald Ernest Davis; born: 25 April 1911, Launceston. Glau, Emma Frederica and Chinnery, Frederick Leslie Douglas Frederick Chinnery; born: 1906, Bungendore, New South Wales. Winifred Adeline Chinnery; born: 23 August 1908, Hobart. Marjorie Florence Chinnery; born: 1911, Goulburn, New South Wales. Freda Chinnery; born: 1913; Queanbeyan, New South Wales. Alice Chinnery; born: 1914; Bungendore, New South Wales. Thomas Frederick Chinnery; born: 1916. 46
APPENDIX C (cont.) LIST OF CHILDREN OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA BORN IN 1885 OR AFTER Violet Chinnery; born: 1918. Glau, Claudine Margaretha and Francis, William Edward Doris Francis; adopted. Hansson family Hansson, Lars and Dunkel, Augusta Augustus Andrew Hansson, born: 27 December 1893, Gordon. Oscar Harold Hansson, born: 27 August 1895, Gordon. Wilhelmina Christina Hansson, born: 8 July 1898, Gordon. Dorcas Agnes Hansson, born: 17 January 1900, Adventure Bay. Martin Dunkel Hansson, born: 19 February 1902, Adventure Bay. George Robert Hansson, born: 19 September 1903, Adventure Bay. Leonard Victor Hansson, born: 25 May 1909, Adventure Bay. Augusta Winifred Hansson, born: 17 August 1911, Battery Point. Herbert Wilford Hansson, born: 9 October 1913, Battery Point. Haustein family First generation Haustein, Julius Alban and Rank, Caroline Sophia Alexander Haustein; born: 25 September 1886, Hobart. Second generation Haustein, Anna Alwina and Cope, George Alfred Georgina Anna May Cope; born: 4 January 1898, Hobart. George Alfred Bertie Cope; born: 19 July 1899, Hobart. Phyllis Dorothy Cope; born: 24 October 1900, Hobart. Haustein, Agnes Anna and Milbourn, James Charles Claude Haustein; born: 13 March 1894, Ulverstone. Haustein, Agnes Anna and Hassett, James James Horace Haustein (1); born: 21 June 1900, Hobart. Cyril Thornton Hassett; born: 14 January 1902, Hobart. Alfred Blenard Hassett; born: 6 October 1903, Hobart. Maida Beatrice Hassett; born: 17 December 1909, Hobart. Haustein, Alma May and name not recorded Ethel Camellia Haustein; born: 8 September 1897, Ulverstone. Haustein, Alma May and Smith, Edward Anthony 47
APPENDIX C (cont.) LIST OF CHILDREN OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA BORN IN 1885 OR AFTER Rita Helen Smith; born: 13 July 1910, Abbotsham. Freda Kathleen Smith; born: 18 February 1917, Ulverstone. Nellie Fay Smith; born: 20 January 1919, Battery Point. Haustein, Alfred Adolphus and Medwin, Kathleen Mary Kathleen Anne Haustein; born: 14 January 1911, Burnie. Haustein, Alfred Adolphus and Harvey, Vera Josephine Hedley Guildford Haustein; born: 16 June 1918, Guildford, Western Australia. Bonnie Vivienne Haustein, born: 11 December 1919, King Island. Irene Josephine Haustein, born: 6 March 1921, Hobart. Shirley Vera Haustein Hilton Lionel Alfred Haustein Brenda Valmai Houstein Haustein, Camilla and Hastie, George Name not recorded (2); born: December 1900. Haustein, Camilla and Applebee, Hubert Thomas Claude William Alfred Hubert Applebee; born: 22 January 1908, Hobart. Eunice Nellie Barbara Applebee; born: 14 January 1910, Hobart. Raymond Alexander Applebee; born: 2 November 1916, Hobart. Haustein, Emma and Bakes, Llewellyn Thomas Jean Joyce Bakes; born: 5 May 1910, Ulverstone. Celia Coral Bakes; born: 8 August 1911, Ulverstone. Edna May Bakes; born: 4 July 1915, Hobart. Jestrimski family First generation Jestrimski, Johann Jacob and von Kluck, Amelia Rosalia Clara Ellen Jestrimski; born: 29 December 1885, Portland. Henry Ernest Jestrimski; born: 9 February 1889, Portland. Second generation Jestrimski, Rudolph Emil and Nicklason, Matilda Amanda Dora Caroline Jestrimski; born: 12 November 1897, Pyengana. Otto Herbert Jestrimski; born: 13 March 1899, Pyengana. Ralph Bernard Jestrimski; born: 16 August 1900, Pyengana. Amelia Pearl Jestrimski; born: 2 April 1902, Gould's Country. Henry Arnold Jestrimski; born: 25 May 1904, Pyengana. Ada Martha Jestrimski; born: 6 October 1905, Pyengana. Cecil Jestrimski: born; 7 April 1907, Pyengana. 48
APPENDIX C (cont.) LIST OF CHILDREN OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA BORN IN 1885 OR AFTER Myra Jestrimski: born; 8 September 1909, Lottah. Ivan Charles Jestrimski; born: 13 March 1912, Lottah. Clarice Bertha Jestrimski; born: 1 June 1914, Lottah. Thelma Viola Jestrimski; born: 15 March 1916, Lottah. Geoffrey Norman Jestrimski; born: 25 May 1918, Lottah. Rodney Mervyn Jestrimski; born: 4 May 1920, Lottah. Jestrimski, Martha and Terry, William James Elsie Cecelia Terry; born: 7 March 1897, Portland. Henry Ernest Terry; born: 31 August 1898, Portland. William James Terry; born: 5 November 1900, Lottah. Jestrimski, Hugo and Terry, Daisy Eliza Donald Charles Jestrimski: born: 21 May 1911, Pyengana. Dulcie Eileen Jestrimski: born: 7 February 1913, Pyengana. Dorothy Evellyne Jestrimski: born: 10 September 1914, Pyengana. Effie Jestrimski: born: 28 June 1916, St Helens. Jestrimski, Alfred Herman and Beechey, Janette Ronald Wilfred Jestrimski: born: 25 September 1908, Pyengana. Johnsen family Johnsen, Hans Peter and Martin, Mary Anne John Peter Johnsen; born: 1891, Taradale, Victoria. Violet May Johnsen; born: 1894, Bendigo, Victoria. Ruby Myrtle Johnsen; born: 1896, Bendigo, Victoria. Kaden family Second generation Kaden, Olga and Dorloff, Henry Martha Thusnelda Dorloff; born: 9 April 1893, Hobart. Walter Godfrey Dorloff; born: 12 September 1895, Zeehan. Olga Esther Dorloff; born: 27 June 1897, Zeehan. Frank Henry Dorloff; born: 27 October 1898, Zeehan. Matilda May Dorloff; born: 3 May 1903, Hobart. Ruby Beatrice Dorloff; born: 12 May 1905, Adventure Bay. Annie Helena Dorloff; born: 30 September 1907, Hobart. Tasman Henry Dorloff; born: 11 December 1909, Battery Point. Ida Phyllis Mary Dorloff; born: 28 May 1913, Battery Point. Lucy Meta Dorloff; born: 5 March 1915, Adventure Bay. 49
APPENDIX C (cont.) LIST OF CHILDREN OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA BORN IN 1885 OR AFTER Frieda Edith Dorloff; born: 6 January 1918, Hobart. Kaden, Anna and Miller, Robert Oscar Robert Miller born: 23 October 1897, Hobart. Mary Eleanor Miller born: 4 June 1904, Hobart. Olga Marie Miller born: 10 February 1906, Hobart. Esther Johanna Miller born: 27 May 1907, Hobart. Kaden, Hermann and Kaden, Clara Anne Alice Thelma Kaden; born: 29 March 1905, Battery Point. Albert Herman Leonard Kaden; born: 24 November 1906, Hobart. Anna Marie Kaden; born: 12 August 1908, Hobart. Maurice Ernest Kaden; born: 1 February 1910, Adventure Bay. Dennis Lawrence Kaden; born: 21 December 1912, Battery Point. Phyllis Eugene Kaden; born: 23 October 1915, Battery Point. Kaden, Frieda and Murray, Edward David Ivy Emily Eugena Murray; born: 18 March 1905, Battery Point. Olive Eveline Murray; born: 25 March 1906, Hobart. Kohl family Kohl, Franz Heinrich and Burns, Elizabeth Frank Kohl; born: 1 February 1898, Gordon. Walter James Kohl; born: 19 May 1899, Portland. George William Kohl; born: 16 March 1901, Pyengana. Harold Tasman Kohl; born: 15 July 1902, Pyengana. Queenie Victoria Kohl; born: 1903, Pyengana. Amy Louisa Kohl; born: 16 April 1909, Pyengana. Eric Maurice Kohl; born: 12 August 1911, Pyengana. Maurice Joseph Kohl; born: 1 April 1914, Pyengana. Kohlhagen family Kohlhagen, Friedrich Carl and Schwan, Victoria Ada Flora Victoria Kohlhagen; born: 2 February 1890, Hobart. Female, name not recorded; born: 10 September 1891, Hobart. Linda Elsie May Kohlhagen; born: 18 June 1894, Hobart. Kruse family Second generation 50
APPENDIX C (cont.) LIST OF CHILDREN OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA BORN IN 1885 OR AFTER Kruse, Wilhelm Heinrich Johann and Lomas, Ethel Mona Kruse; born: 10 September 1900, Port Cygnet. Doris Kruse; born: 15 January 1902, Southbridge. Leo Lomas Kruse; born: 20 July 1903, Franklin. Cora Kruse; born: 1 October 1905, Franklin. Ethel Kruse, born: 15 May 1907, Lymington. Joseph William Kruse, born: 20 February 1909, Lymington. John Henry Kruse; born: 28 November 1910, Southbridge. Mary Kruse; born: 27 October 1912, Southbridge. Harold Lembeck Kruse; born: 29 June 1916, Huonville. Jean Kruse. William Kruse; born: 15 March 1918, Huonville. George Eric Kruse; born: 15 March 1918, Huonville. Mansson family First generation Mansson, Sven and Kahlar, Christina Dora Mary Louisa Mansson; born: 7 April 1887, Portland. Martha Augusta Mansson; born: 10 October 1889, Portland. Carl Oscar Mansson; born: 17 May 1893, Portland. Second generation Mansson Anna Gertrude Asserina and Watt, George Oscar George Watt; born: 31 December 1900, Gladstone. Florence Maud Watt; born: 5 May 1903, Derby. Laura Christina Watt; born: 15 March 1905, Gladstone. Alice Wilhelmina Watt; born: 22 June 1907, Gladstone. George Clarence Watt; born: 28 June 1909, Gladstone. Ivy May Watt; born: 4 May 1913, Gladstone. Mansson, Emma Matilda and Crawford, Donald Florence Ella Crawford; born: 27 February 1911, Launceston. Alice Christina Crawford; born: 20 March 1913, Launceston. Donald Henry George Crawford; born: 23 January 1916, Launceston. Norman Leslie Crawford; born: 5 May 1918, Launceston. Allan Crawford; born: 13 November 1927, Launceston. Nicklason family First generation 51
APPENDIX C (cont.) LIST OF CHILDREN OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA BORN IN 1885 OR AFTER Nicklason, Ola and Nicklason, Karna Francis Augustus Nicklason; born: 1886, St Marys. Second generation Nicklason, Carl Alfred and Oldham, Amelia Katherine Oswald Gilbert Nicklason; born: 15 December 1910, Pyengana. Beatrice Daphne Nicklason; born: 11 March 1912, Pyengana. Wilfred Clyde Nicklason; born: 21 May 1913, Pyengana. Laurence Keith Nicklason: born: 8 January 1915, Pyengana. Margaret Gladys Nicklason; born: 5 August 1916, Pyengana. Kathleen Eva Nicklason; born: 30 September 1917, Pyengana. Hubert Maxwell Nicklason; born: 22 July 1919, Pyengana. Lewis Charles Nicklason; born: 1920, Pyengana. Rita Doris Nicklason; born: 1922, Pyengana. Neilson family Neilson, Niels Peter and Batchelor, Isabelle Mary Jane Grace Elsie Annie Neilson; born: 5 February 1893, Sorell. Hans Peter George Neilson; born: 2 July 1894, Tasman. Doris Wilhelmina Neilson; born: 11 June 1896, Port Cygnet. Sydney Neilson; born: 26 March 1898, Tasman. Isobel Neilson; born: 20 November 1900, Port Cygnet. Annie Irene Neilson; born: 18 September 1901, Eaglehawk Neck. Ella Josephine Neilson; born: 8 February 1903, Eaglehawk Neck. Ohlson family Ohlson, Olaf and Petersen, Hilda Alfred Ohlson; born: 14 September 1888, Spring Bay. Albert Henry Ohlson; born: 7 October 1889, Hobart. Hannah Maria Helena Ohlson; born: 27 October 1890, New Norfolk. Hilda Matilda Ohlson; born: 12 November 1892, New Norfolk. Olaf Ernest Ohlson; born: 3 January 1895, New Norfolk. Thomas Gustof Ohlson; born: 20 October 1896, New Norfolk. Peterson family First generation Peterson, Carl and Olofsson, Emma Christina 52
APPENDIX C (cont.) LIST OF CHILDREN OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA BORN IN 1885 OR AFTER Eda Mary Peterson: born: 1887, Portland. Vincent Alfred Peterson: born: 17 November 1888, Portland. Peter William Peterson: born: 7 October 1890, Portland. Edward George Peterson: born: 4 May 1893, Portland. Annie Aline Peterson: born: 29 March 1895, Portland. Hilda Elizabeth Peterson: born: 9 March 1897, Portland. John FredeRick Peterson: born: 4 September 1899, Portland. Essie May Peterson: born: 29 May 1901, Portland. David Allen Peterson: born: 23 May 1904, Portland. Second generation Peterson, Carl Herman and Reading, Urania Keith Peterson; born: 10 June 1928, New Town. John Edward Peterson; born: 5 July 1932, New Town. Josephine Mary Peterson; born: 5 July 1932, New Town. Peterson, Ernest Emile and Hansson, Mary Magdelena Alan Harold Peterson; born: 17 August 1916, St Helens. Gwendoline May Peterson; born: 18 June 1917, Hobart. Percy Wilfred Peterson; born: 30 January 1918, Hobart. Rieper family Rieper, Claude Detlev and Stubbings, Catherine Thyrna Rhoda Katie Rieper; born: 28 June 1893, Strahan. Herbert Detlev Rieper; born: 22 October 1894, Strahan. Roydon Roland Rieper; born: 29 August 1895, Strahan. Ruthsatz family First generation Ruthsatz, Wilhelm and Simman, Pauline Florence Emma Ruthsatz; born: 1886. Wilhelm Ruthsatz; born: 1888, Seymour, Victoria. Ruthsatz, Wilhelm and Hart, Emily Jane Charles Edward Hart Ruthsatz; born: 1889, Drouin, Victoria. Ethel Jane Hart Ruthsatz; born: 1893. Bertha Ruthsatz; born: 1894, Drouin, Victoria. Ernest August William Ruthsatz; born: 1896, Drouin, Victoria. Solomon David Ruthsatz; born: 1899, Drouin, Victoria. Amelia Alice Jane Ruthsatz; born: 1902, Drouin, Victoria. 53
APPENDIX C (cont.) LIST OF CHILDREN OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA BORN IN 1885 OR AFTER Johann August Carl Ruthsatz; born: 1905, Drouin, Victoria. Second generation Ruthsatz, Gustav and Day, Lily Ada Hazel May Ruthsatz; born: 1923, Echuca, Victoria. Selzer family Selzer, Paul and Meyer, Fanny Adelgunde Caroline Francis Joseph Arthur Selzer; born: 7 July 1887, New Norfolk. Gertrude Christal Selzer; born: 18 August 1888, Spring Bay. Robert Paul Selzer; born: 1889, Richmond, Victoria. Carl Ferdinand Selzer; born: 1891, Hawthorn, Victoria. Elsie Annie Dorothy Selzer; born: 1894, Hawthorn, Victoria. William Rudolph Selzer; born: 1896, Toora, Victoria. Bertha Adelgunde Selzer; born: 1899, Toora, Victoria. May Rosina Fanny Selzer; born: 1900, Toora, Victoria. John Sydney Selzer; born: 1902, Toora, Victoria. Antoinette Gerte Selzer; born: 1903, Toora, Victoria. Henry Adolph Selzer; born: 1905, Toora, Victoria. Stolzenberg family Second generation Stolzenberg, Dora and Richter, Charles Rudolph Oscar Henry Richter; born: 24 March 1898, Zeehan. Stolzenberg, Johanna Frederica Agnes and Rumbold, William Henry William Henry Rumbold; born: 22 October 1896, Hobart. Dorothy Mabel Rumbold; born: 5 August 1899, Zeehan. Stanley Alfred Rumbold; born: 9 August 1901, Hobart. Stolzenberg, Johanna Frederica Agnes and Pace, Shadrick John Harold Edgar Pace; born: 14 January 1908, Hobart. Stolzenberg, Karl and Hardy, Agnes Edna Margaret Stolzenberg; born: 29 February 1904, Hobart. Ivan Karl Stolzenberg; born: 28 December 1909, Hobart. Suhr family 54
APPENDIX C (cont.) LIST OF CHILDREN OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA BORN IN 1885 OR AFTER Second generation Suhr, Johann Heinrich Emil and Snape, Maria Hagar Roy John Suhr; born: 24 August 1915, Forest Lodge, New South Wales. Eric John Suhr; born: 23 April 1917, Hobart. Suhr, Joachim Heinrich Willy and Wilson, Barbara Gordon John Willy Suhr; born: 17 September 1909, Hobart. Douglas James Suhr; born: 8 May 1911, Hobart. Pearl Barbara Suhr; born: 16 March 1922, Hobart. Suhr, Carl Johann Heinrich and Snape, Florence May Dorothy Suhr: born: 24 January 1913, Croydon, New South Wales. Stanley Suhr: born: 24 January 1913, Croydon, New South Wales. Claude William Suhr: born: 6 April 1915, Croydon, New South Wales. May Suhr. Ivy Florence Suhr. Wiese family First generation Wiese, Georg Herman Augustus and Wiese, Margaretha Magdalona Elizabeth Friedrich Carl Wiese; born: 1891, Doncaster, Victoria. Wiese, Georg Herman Augustus and Campbell, Annabelle Hermine Wiese; born: 1910, Kew, Victoria. Second generation Wiese, Johannes Nicholaus Christian and Sweeney, Florence Catherine John Nicholas George Wiese; born: 1905, Kew, Victoria. Dorothea Kathleen Wiese; born: 1910, Balwyn, Victoria. Wiese, Johannes Nicholaus Christian and Smith, Phoebe Matilda Vera Ellen Wiese; born: 1920, Balwyn, Victoria. Wiese, Dorothea Magdalona and Zander, Carl Heinrich Albert Charles Andrew Zander; born: 1910, Doncaster, Victoria. Frederick Carl Zander; born: 1912, Box Hill, Victoria. Wiese, Georg Heinrich and Otto, Linda Elsie Lawrence George Wiese; born: 1909, Doncaster, Victoria. Marjorie Elsie May Wiese; born: 1912, Doncaster, Victoria. Maurice Archibald Wiese; born: 1916, Doncaster, Victoria. Shirley Wiese. 55
APPENDIX C (cont.) LIST OF CHILDREN OF ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN TASMANIA ON THE PROCIDA BORN IN 1885 OR AFTER Zanotti family Zanotti, Johann Carl and Fehlberg, Matilda Henrietta Emily Ida Zanotti; born: 11 July 1887, Hobart. Albert Karl Zanotti; born: 9 December 1888, Hobart. Walde George Zanotti; born: 12 April 1891, Hobart. Edward Bernard Zanotti; born: 8 October 1892, Hobart. Olive Flora Zanotti; born: 11 September 1895, Hobart. Lottie Matilda Zanotti; born: 1 November 1896, Hobart. Benjamin Norman Zanotti; born: 14 January 1900, Bismark. Clarice Ella Zanotti; born: 3 September 1902, Bismark. Zollinger family First generation Zollinger, Jacob Rudolf and Wheeler, Emily Anne Catherine Agnes Josine Zollinger; born: 1891, Hawthorn, Victoria. Lillias Nellie May Zollinger; born: 1893, Hawthorn, Victoria. Second generation Zollinger, Anna Elizabeth and Penny, George Thomas Norman George Penny; born: 1912, Richmond, Victoria. Stanley Russell Penny; born: 1916, Prahran, Victoria. Frank Thomas Penny; born: 1914, Prahran, Victoria. Nancy Josine Penny; born: 1919, Balwyn, Victoria. Zollinger, Emilie and Thomas, John Richard Gwendoline Thomas; born: 1906, Loch, Victoria. Millicent Anne Jean Thomas; born: 1907, Foster, Victoria. William John Hugh Thomas; born: 1907, Foster, Victoria. Hugh Rudolf Thomas; born: 1908, Foster, Victoria. David Griffith Thomas; born: 1910, Foster, Victoria. John Francis Thomas; born: 1914, Prahran, Victoria. NOTES (1) James Horace Haustein was registered with his mother's name: Agnes Houstein nee Hassett; father's name: James Houstein. (2) Refer to Appendix B, note 9. It is likely that this individual was named Gustav Adolf Haustein. 56
REFERENCES Alexander, A. (1986). Glenorchy 1804-1964. Glenorchy, TAS: Glenorchy City Council. Appeldorff, G. (2010). Memories of Collinsvale. Collinsvale, TAS: Gwendolyne AppeldorffPridmore. Buck, F. (1870). Handbook for Emigrants: the British Colony of Tasmania. London, England: Australian and New Zealand Gazette Office. Coad, D. (2009). A History of Tasmania: volume 1, Port Cygnet 1792-1860. Kingston, TAS: David Coad. Coad, D. (2010). A History of Tasmania: volume 2, Port Cygnet 1860-1900. Kingston, TAS: David Coad. Hargraves, M. (2003). Inducements and Agents: German, Northern European and Scandinavian Recruitment to Tasmania 1855-1887. Hobart, TAS: Artemis Publishing Consultants. Jager, A. (1908). The Emigrant: the Life, Experience and Humorous Adventures of A. Jager, Emigrant to South America in 1882, to Australia in 1885, and to California in 1908. Los Angeles, CA: Southern California Printing Company. MacFie, P. (1986). Changes and Continuations: the Post-Penal Settlement of Tasman Peninsula, 1877-1914. In: Tasman Peninsula: a Symposium. (Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania), 97-106. Pybus, R. (1988). South Bruny Island, Tasmania: a Brief History of its Settlement. Blackmans Bay, TAS: R. C. and B. J. Pybus. Watt, M. G. (2006). The Mansson Family: A Case History of Immigration and Settlement in Tasmania. Hobart, TAS: M. G. Watt. Webb, G. (1975). Pyengana: A New Country. Hobart, TAS: Mercury Walch. Woolley, R. N. (2006). Above the Falls: the People and the History of the Upper Huon. Geilston Bay, TAS: R. N. Woolley. 57

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