The relationship between consumer role socialization and nostalgia sport tourism: A symbolic interactionist perspective

Tags: Wrigley Field, socialization, role model, sport tourism, McPherson, Nostalgia, individual, social institutions, ballpark tour, favorite sport, Australian Football League, the questionnaire, leisure participation, process of socialization, socialization process, individual differences, peer influence, qualitative study, sports memorabilia, social roles, Department of Recreation, Parks, Lou Ann Wilson, Chicago Cubs, df, watching sports, favorite sports team, Consumer, childhood socialization, Heather Gibson, THE RELATIONSHIP, SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE, primary socialization
Content: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONSUMER ROLE SOCIALIZATION AND NOSTALGIA SPORT TOURISM: A SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE By AMANDA LEA WILSON A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN RECREATIONAL STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004
Copyright 2004 by Amanda Lea Wilson
I would like to dedicate this project to my parents, Jim and Lou Ann Wilson, who have made it possible for me to be here and have supported me throughout my educational career.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS As I sit in front of a computer I have spent so many hours staring at and wondering how I was ever going to get everything done before the many deadlines I faced, I also think about all of those people that have helped me realize that it really was possible. There may have been a few late nights that turned into early mornings, but there was always someone there that I knew I could contact no matter what time it was or what I needed. This is when I realized how important all of my relationships have been in helping me to get through the past two years of graduate school. Not just those people I might consider my "core group of friends," but also those people who did minor things along the way that might have made the difference between a mental breakdown and the realization that I might be capable of doing more than I thought. I wish that I could thank all of them individually, but they will have to trust that if they spent any time listening to me when I needed someone that they were an important part of the successful completion of this project. There are several people that I have to personally express my thanks to because without them I would not be here to acknowledge anyone. I especially have to credit my parents for somehow knowing when they needed to call me and tell me that things would work out just when I was starting to wonder if they would. And, even though my sister might not be the best person at keeping in touch, she also somehow knew when I needed the advice and support that only a sister can give. iv
Academically, my chair and my mentor, Heather Gibson, has taught me more than I thought possible in the two years that she has spent helping me expand my knowledge within the field and develop my writing skills. I have never had a professor who has been able to make time for so many people and still give them each the attention they needed to take that next step. I hope that this thesis is a reflection of what she has taught me, and I can only hope that I have the chance to work with her again in the future. My committee members have been impressively patient with me and have provided me with the insight from different viewpoints that I needed to tie everything together. Lori Pennington-Gray has been very supportive of me throughout my career here and has been great to work with on this thesis and as my graduate assistant supervisor. Gregg Bennett has a unique talent of making everyone feel like he/she is the most intelligent person in the room and has provided me with the encouragement I needed. The rest of the professors in the department have also been instrumental, as each of them has helped me in some way since I have been here. I could not have asked for a better team of professors to learn about the field and help me solidify my belief that leisure and academics can work together. Finally, I have to thank my support group that I have been lucky enough to have here in Florida. I would first like to thank Carol for helping me make the copies I needed and get everything organized on a college student's budget. Charlie Lane was my technical and also emotional support as I prepared the last minute details for my defense. Dr. Kgr. has been my lifeline more times than I can count. I am glad that I met someone who is awake when the rest of the world is sleeping so I had someone to talk to and even help me with academic questions in the wee hours of the morning. I hope that I have v
made her time here more entertaining just as she has done for me. I am also glad that I met someone here who liked the Cubs as much I do and was able to change the conversation from the stress of my thesis to something more pleasant like the game we were at when the Cubs won the division. At the same time, I should also thank those fans of rival teams whose occasional banter helped me remain focused on the purpose of my study and not just on the Cubs. I do have to thank the Chicago Cubs organization for allowing me to come and collect data for this thesis. I got to experience first hand why Wrigley Field has become known as "The Friendly Confines" and I hope to make many return visits. I am an optimistic fan: Eamus Catuli! AC000000. Finally, one would think I would avoid the discussion of any subject covered within my thesis in the acknowledgements, but I cannot tell express how many times I have put a particular song or CD in that helped me recall a time when I was spending time with a family member or friend and nothing seemed to matter except that we were doing nothing or something together. The `nostalgic' feelings evoked by these songs not only helped me to understand how past experiences can lead to symbolic meaning, but also helped me to realize that I would look back on this thesis as a memorable experience. Thanks to everyone who has been a part of it. vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................................................................................. iv LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................. ix ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... xi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................1 Statement of Problem ...................................................................................................4 Purpose of the Study.....................................................................................................7 Theoretical Rationale....................................................................................................7 Research Questions.....................................................................................................11 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ............................................................................12 Socialization ...............................................................................................................12 Gender-Role Socialization..........................................................................................14 Sport ....................................................................................................................14 Tourism................................................................................................................15 Sport and Social Theory .............................................................................................16 Sport Consumption .....................................................................................................19 Sport Tourism .............................................................................................................21 Nostalgia .....................................................................................................................22 Nostalgia Sport Tourism.............................................................................................25 3 METHODS .................................................................................................................31 Site Description ..........................................................................................................31 data collection ...........................................................................................................33 Participants .................................................................................................................34 Instrument ...................................................................................................................38 Data Analysis..............................................................................................................43 4 RESULTS ...................................................................................................................45 Motivations of Nostalgia Sport Tourists.....................................................................45 Nostalgia as a Motivation ...........................................................................................49 vii
Behavioral Consumer Role Socialization While Growing Up ...................................54 Role Model Socialization While Growing Up............................................................56 Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization While Growing Up.....................................60 Summary.....................................................................................................................61 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ........................................................................63 Socialization ...............................................................................................................63 Motivations and Nostalgia..........................................................................................67 Implications ................................................................................................................72 Recommendations for Further Research ....................................................................75 Limitations ..................................................................................................................78 Delimitations...............................................................................................................79 Conclusion ..................................................................................................................79 APPENDIX A SURVEY INSTRUMENT..........................................................................................81 B WRIGLEY FIELD TOUR PICTURES......................................................................91 list of references...................................................................................................92 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ...........................................................................................101 viii
LIST OF TABLES
Table
page
3-1 Tourist Profile for Wrigley Field Ballpark Tours ....................................................35
3-2 Group Composition of Respondents ........................................................................36
3-3 Trip Information and Influence on Respondent's Decision to Take Wrigley Field Tour ..........................................................................................................................37
3-4 exploratory factor analysis Results of Evoked Nostalgia Scale ............................39
3-5 Exploratory Factor Analysis Results of Behavioral Consumer Role Socialization Scale .........................................................................................................................40
3-6 Exploratory Factor Analysis Results of Role Model Socialization Statements .......41
3-7 Exploratory Factor Analysis Results of Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization Statements ................................................................................................................42
4-1 Motivations of Participants to Tour Wrigley Field ..................................................46
4-2 Independent Samples t-test Results of Motivations by Gender ...............................47
4-3 Mean Scores of Evoked Nostalgia Scale (NOST) Items..........................................50
4-4 Independent Samples t-test Results of Evoked Nostalgia Scale Items by Gender...51
4-5 Paired Samples t-test Results of Motivations by Mean Evoked Nostalgia Scale Score .........................................................................................................................52
4-6 Paired Samples t-test Results of Motivations by Mean Evoked Nostalgia Scale Score by Gender .......................................................................................................53
4-7 Mean Scores of Behavior Consumer Role Socialization Items ...............................55
4-8 Independent Samples t-test Results of Behavioral Consumer Role Socialization by Gender .................................................................................................................56
4-9 Mean Scores of Role Model Socialization Items .....................................................57
4-10 Independent Samples t-test Results of Role Model Socialization by Gender..........59
ix
4-11 Mean Scores of Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization Items ..............................61 4-12 Independent Samples t-test Results of Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization by Gender .................................................................................................................62 x
Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Recreational Studies THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONSUMER ROLE SOCIALIZATION AND NOSTALGIA SPORT TOURISM: A SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE By Amanda Lea Wilson August 2004 Chair: Heather Gibson Major Department: Recreation, Parks, and Tourism Limited research exists on nostalgia sport tourists, and consequently, there is little empirical evidence to support the contention that nostalgia is a primary motivation of this type of travel. Based on its traditional, intimate atmosphere and historic background, the nostalgic sport venue chosen for this study was Wrigley Field, home of the Chicago Cubs since 1914. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between socialization into and through sport (consumer role socialization) and participation in nostalgia sport tourism among male and female participants of Wrigley Field Stadium tours from a symbolic interactionist perspective. Nostalgia sport tourists were defined as those who had traveled outside of their home community to take a 90-minute tour of Wrigley Field. A total of 357 questionnaires measuring tourist motivation, nostalgia, consumer role socialization, and demographics were collected from non-residents on three different tour dates (July 19, 20, 26, 2003) and used for analysis. Consumer role socialization was divided into three xi
types: behavioral consumer role socialization, role model socialization and cognitive consumer role socialization. Frequencies and independent and paired t-tests were the primary analysis tools. Content analysis was used to reveal patterns in the open-ended questions. The results revealed that nostalgia was not the main factor in the decision of participants to take a tour of Wrigley Field. Novelty, enhancement of kinship relationships, prestige, facilitation of social interaction and relaxation were all more important motives to come on the tour. Although nostalgia was not a primary motive, there was evidence that it was a meaningful part of the experience for many of the participants. A gender comparison of motivations revealed that men were more likely to report that the tour took them back to their childhood while females were more likely than males to feel that spending time with family/friends was more important. The nostalgia sport tourists in this study reported a higher degree of socialization into passive rather than active sport consumption. This study is the first to investigate nostalgia sport tourism using quantitative methods. As such, the findings provide support for the contention that nostalgia does motivate these tourists; however, it is not the primary motivator of such travel. Further, childhood socialization into sport appears to be related to adult patterns of sport consumption and the proclivity to engage in nostalgia sport tourism. Regarding the Practical Applications of this study, it is important for sport managers and markets to understand the background and motives of these tourists so that they can better address their needs and attract others who are interested in travel to "nostalgic" venues such as Wrigley Field. xii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Consider for a moment what life would be like without sport. This might be difficult to do because in today's society there are very few individuals who do not, directly or indirectly, encounter elements of sport in their daily lives. Some people may be actively involved as an athlete on a team, or a participant in some other physical activity. Those who do not physically engage in sport may be spectators at sports events, consume sport through the mass media or travel to famous sport-related attractions such as halls of fame. Still others may volunteer to work as coaches, referees or members of sports organizations. Even those who are not particularly interested in sport often find that it is in some way a part of their lives through things such as news coverage or conversation in family and work settings. Regardless of the level of contact an individual has with sport, it is clear that such contact has significant direct and indirect influences on the lives of most children and adults throughout the United States, and in most other countries. As a result of this widespread involvement in sport, researchers have become increasingly interested in the social dimensions of sport. One research line has been concerned with how individuals learn sport roles and at what stages in their lives (Giuliano, Popp & Knight, 2000; McPherson, Curtis & Loy, 1989; Prochaska, Rodgers & Sallis, 2002). A consistent finding in this research is that there is a positive relationship between the amount of social support received from significant others and the degree of participation in sport roles (McPherson et al., 1989). For example, if children are socialized into sport so that 1
2 participation or consumption becomes an integral part of their lifestyles, this will likely persist into adolescence and throughout their adult years. As such, socialization plays a major part in the maintenance of sport as a social institution and might be useful as an important predictor of direct and indirect sport involvement throughout life (McPherson et al., 1989). Socialization, as it is used here, refers to the process in which individuals learn the norms and values of their society. It is a dynamic process and the lessons learned vary according to gender, age, ethnicity, race and social class. McPherson (1972) coined the term consumer role socialization to describe the process whereby individuals are socialized into sport. In his definitions, he identified three types of consumer role socialization: 1) behavioral consumer role socialization, which refers to the extent to which an individual has been introduced to attendance at sport events, reading, viewing and listening to and discussing sport; 2) affective consumer role socialization, or what will be called role model socialization in this study, which refers to the extent to which an individual has become ego and emotionally involved in the role of sport consumer; and 3) cognitive consumer role socialization, which refers to an individual's knowledge about sport. The term role model socialization was used instead of affective consumer role socialization in this study because McPherson's original method of measurement did not translate well into the current time period and purpose of the study. More specifically, this study was focused more on the influence of a significant other or role model in the socialization of an individual into sport. Thus, only part of McPherson's affective consumer role socialization scale was used in this study (Appendix A).
3 Recently the combination of both active and passive sport participation as vacation activities has also evolved as a topic of research (DeKnop, 1990; Gibson, 1998a; Gibson, 1998b; Gibson, Willming & Holdnak, 2003). Historically, people have taken sportrelated trips for centuries, but sport tourism has only recently surfaced as an area of study. A particular group of sport consumers that can be examined are those who participate in themed sport cruises or travel to halls of fame, sport museums or historic venues such as Wrigley Field in Chicago (Gibson, 1998c). The term nostalgia sport tourism has been used to describe this type of travel behavior. Fairley (2003) states the things "identified as being the focus of nostalgia sport tourism are physical entities to which society is said to attribute special meaning (or multiple meanings), and which are associated with sport" (p. 285). The nostalgic feeling that people link to a place or experience may be a major factor in their decision to travel to participate in these types of activities. Research has shown that sport consumption is a fundamentally social experience (Green & Chalip, 1998), and so it is reasonable to expect that sport nostalgia can derive from group (or social) experiences which themselves become the basis for tourism (Fairley, 2003). Therefore, it is also necessary to consider a person's past sport experiences and socialization into and through sport when trying to understand what may lead them to make a nostalgic connection to sport. Although research into sport tourism has grown rapidly over the past ten years, many of these studies have lacked a theoretical foundation (Gibson, 2002). A theoretical framework that is of particular use in developing an understanding of socialization in general and into sport in particular is symbolic interactionism. This theoretical
4 perspective recognizes that individuals are capable of reflective behavior about objects, others and themselves. Therefore, this framework might be useful in examining the ways individuals define, reflect and make decisions related to sport. The process and emergent nature of socialization and sport make them appropriate phenomena to study from a symbolic interactionist perspective (Snyder, 1986). Despite an abundance of research on the sociology of sport, there has been little effort to link this literature with tourism. The aim of this study is to bridge the gap between these disciplines in order to formulate a more complete understanding of how the socialization process influences people to travel to consume sport. More specifically, the individuals that will be examined in this study are nostalgia sport tourists who traveled to a famous sport-related attraction. By grounding this study in symbolic interactionism, this will not only facilitate the interpretation of the findings but also help to link it to the wider body of knowledge in leisure, sport, and tourism studies as advocated by Gibson (2002). Statement of Problem A review of the literature indicates that there has been very little research on nostalgia sport tourism (Fairley, 2003; Gammon, 2002; Gibson, 1998b; Gibson, 2002). This study will contribute to the limited body of knowledge that exists regarding nostalgia sport tourism and assist in the understanding of the link between socialization into and through sport, and participation in nostalgia sport tourism. It will also explore any differences among males and females in their motivation to be nostalgia sport tourists and the relationship of socialization into and through sport on their choice to visit Wrigley Field. Overall, there is little insight into what motivates people to travel to famous, historic sport venues like Wrigley Field.
5 Tourism studies have shown an increase in the amount of evidence that suggests some travelers are motivated by nostalgia (Dann, 1994). This is supported by the growth in the popularity of attractions that use themes based on the past to catch the attention of potential tourists (Dann, 1994; Urry, 1990). One aspect of the tourism industry that has tapped into the nostalgia theme is sport tourism. However, it appears that there is little empirical evidence that these sport tourists are motivated by nostalgia. In a study of Australian football fans on an annual bus trip to watch their team play, Fairley (2003) found evidence of nostalgia among the fans. Likewise, Gammon (2002) hypothesized that attendance at sports fantasy camps was motivated somewhat by nostalgia. As yet, however, researchers have not investigated the relationship between stadium tours and nostalgia. There is also debate over the origins of this sport-related nostalgia. Is it an outcome of the wider socialization process into sport, particularly in the family setting? In other words, is nostalgia related to childhood experiences in the family? Do individuals take trips to certain sporting venues to reminisce about their childhood or to socialize their own children into aspects of sporting heritage? Moreover, is an affiliation to a particular team or sport developed through early socialization into sport? That is, do individuals become sports fans as a result of their childhood experiences? Also, are male and female nostalgia sport tourists motivated differently as a result of the socialization process? It appears these questions remain unanswered and might help to explain nostalgia as a motivation for travel and perhaps indicate a link between socialization into and through sport to nostalgia sport tourism.
6 In sport sociology, the idea of socialization into and through sport has received much attention, especially through the 1970's and 1980's (Kenyon & McPherson, 1976; McPherson et al., 1989; Nixon, 1981). Because the process of socialization changes over time, it is necessary to continually study this phenomenon to determine how it impacts sport participation. Despite the fact that sport sociology literature is extensive, there remains a relative paucity of original research focusing on how the socialization process might influence people to travel to famous sporting attractions. As such, this study seeks to begin to fill a void in the existing literature. In practical terms, understanding the link between socialization and nostalgia sport tourism might be useful for sport managers and marketers. Sport marketers might be better able to determine what market they should target in an attempt to boost future sales and attendance at famous sport venues. Particularly, if there are consistencies within the behavior of nostalgia sport tourists based on their past socialization, this can allow marketers to predict their most susceptible crowd. For sport managers, especially those working at stadiums, the realization that stadium tours are a popular attraction might provide a source of additional revenue. Such tours may also reinforce fan loyalty and, particularly for teams who need to increase game attendance, loyal fans may be more likely to attend games especially when a team is not winning. The results of this study may also be useful in developing techniques to study the influence of socialization on attendance at other nostalgia sport tourism destinations. Despite a lack of research, there is considerable evidence to indicate that individuals who embark on nostalgia-based trips would provide a marketable tourist group. There is little doubt that the marketing techniques targeting this group could be
7 improved upon with a better understanding of their background and behavior. Because many tourism advertising materials are based on nostalgic images in an attempt to sell the past to the future (Dann, 1994), it would be easier to cater to the needs of these tourists if their desires and motivations were more clearly understood. This would not only enhance their experience as tourists, but could also attract more people to the destination. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between socialization into and through sport (consumer role socialization) and participation in nostalgia sport tourism. In addition, this study sought to determine if there were any gender differences among the motivations, feelings of nostalgia and consumer role socialization of nostalgia sport tourists. Specifically, the study focused on nostalgia sport tourism related to stadium tours of Wrigley Field, home of the Chicago Cubs. Wrigley Field is known as one of the most historic ballparks within Major League Baseball. In fact, few would argue that it is among the most memorable, well-liked stadiums in any sport. For this reason, it satisfies the need for a nostalgic venue in this study. Theoretical Rationale Dann and Cohen (1996) point out "no established approach to tourism has developed with its own unique blend of theory and method" (p. 303). However, there are a growing number of researchers who have recognized tourism as a domain that requires sociological understanding and explanation. Due to the lack of powerful theoretical and analytical utilization, the "sociology of tourism" is still in its infancy. Gibson (2002) further emphasizes the need to adopt theoretical approaches in the study of sport tourism. To answer the need for conceptually grounded work, this study was grounded in a symbolic interactionist perspective.
8 Herbert Blumer, who took George Herbert Mead's ideas and developed them into a more systematic sociological approach, coined the term symbolic interaction in 1937 (Fine, 1986). The term "symbolic interaction" refers to: the peculiar and distinctive character of interaction as it takes place between human beings. The peculiarity consists in the fact that human beings interpret or "define" each other's actions instead of merely reacting to each other's actions. Their "response" is not made directly to the actions of one another but instead is based on the meaning which they attach to some actions. Thus, human interaction is mediated by the use of symbols, by interpretation, or by ascertaining the meaning of one another's actions. (Blumer, 1978, p. 97) Blumer (1969) argued that three premises are crucial to symbolic interactionism and serve as the foundation of this perspective. The first is that human beings act toward things (people, objects, etc.) on the basis of meanings that these `things' have for them. Therefore, objects or actions have no a priori stimulus value. Second, the meanings of these stimuli emerge through social interaction. This social interaction over the life course serves as the link to the process of socialization. Third, and most important, these meanings are not static but are modified through an interpretive process. Therefore, this allows meanings to be altered based on interpersonal negotiation through time. Based on this assumption, the symbolic interactionist perspective orients itself to change. Another assumption is that social meanings are shared through communication, and, as a result, causes of action are not primarily biological and subconscious, but are social and conscious (Fine, 1986). Indeed, Kelly (1983) suggested that leisure socialization is more than taking up new and renewed activities throughout the life course for the individual. He stated, "it is a development of self-definitions of investment and competence in activities that extend and test the self" (p. 195). Thus, it is conceivable that socialization into and through sport, initially in the family, and then through other social institutions convey meanings associated with
9 particular sports and teams. Children may be socialized into being a fan of a certain team or sport because one or both of their parents are also fans (James, 2002). The sport specific patterns of attendance at certain sports events by men and women suggests that there is still evidence of a gender-role socialization process that discourages females from becoming involved, either actively or passively, in certain sports (McPherson et al., 1989; Sargent, Zillman & Weaver, 1998). The gendered nature of socialization into and through sport might help to explain why Sargent et al. (1998) found that males are more partial to sports such as football, ice hockey, basketball, baseball and boxing, while females expressed more interest in things like gymnastics, skiing, diving and figure skating. Frey and Eitzen (1991) emphasized the need to study sport from a sociological perspective stating, "the existence of sport must be explained in terms of something more than simply the needs of the social system or the production needs of a capitalist economy" (p.505). Further, sport is created by people interacting, using their skills and interests to make sport into something that meets their interests and needs (Coakley, 1990). Wilson (1980) suggested that leisure is "a form of symbolic interaction in which distinct meanings emerge and are displayed" (p. 36). This personal meaning that people can develop for leisure and sport over time also supports the use of a symbolic interactionist perspective as an appropriate theoretical framework for this study. In the past, a symbolic interactionist framework has been used in the study of various aspects of sport. For example, Fine (1986) chose to use this perspective in the study of small groups and sport. This approach to the study allowed him to focus on the meanings created in team sport and on how these meanings influence play. Snyder
10 (1986) also used a symbolic interaction perspective to investigate athletics in higher education. Specific areas of consideration included the meanings and definitions attached to sport, the construction and conservation of identity by players and coaches, and the way that interactionism clarifies the negotiated order of athletic organizations. Other sport studies have also discussed the meanings and symbols that people associate with sport. Trujillo and Krizek (1994) conducted interviews with fans and employees in attendance at the final series in two major league ballparks that were closing and found that many people expressed "the importance of baseball in their lives and the places where it is played" (p. 303). One fan interviewed at the old Comiskey Park in Chicago provided a strong testimony to the significance of ballpark memories: I drove all night from Philly to get here. I paid 50 bucks to get in and I'm gonna drive all night to get back home. I want somethin' to show for my time. I grew up over by the stockyards and used to come here a lot with my dad. I want somethin' to remember this day by and remember my dad. I'm gonna take this damn brick home to help me remember my father, that's why. (p.305) This particular fan's reaction to the closing of Comiskey Park shows the strong connection that people develop for places that hold special meaning. From their interviews, Trujillo and Krizek realized: for fans and ballpark employees, major league baseball is not merely an industry; it is revered symbolically as our "national pastime". The local franchise is not just another bank, department store, or amusement park; rather, it is experienced as a public trust that engenders a powerful sense of identification and identity for fans and franchise employees alike. (p. 305) Weiss (2001) supports the idea that "sport is shaped by and derives symbolic significance from its close links with society" (p. 393). Dimanche and Samdahl (1994) also point out that "a common theme in the consumer behavior literature and traditional leisure theory is a focus on the symbolic meaning of an activity" (p. 121). In addition, the nostalgic meanings that people attach to sport have been linked to the private and
11 collective meanings that people associate with symbols such as artifacts, documents, relics and certain venues (Nauright, 1996; Slowikowski, 1991; Snyder, 1991). Despite this link of symbols to sport and nostalgia and the recognition of the impact of socialization on sport and tourism as separate entities, it appears that the application of symbolic interactionism has yet to be used in the study of sport tourism. However, as nostalgia sport tourism, in this instance a stadium tour, involves visiting a venue that may evoke special meanings for tourists, symbolic interactionism is deemed to be an appropriate foundation for this study. Research Questions The research questions to be addressed in this study will be: 1a. What motivates nostalgia sport tourists to take a tour of Wrigley Field? 1b. Are men and women motivated differently to tour Wrigley Field? 2a. What items of the evoked nostalgia scale (NOST) are most associated with taking a tour of Wrigley Field? 2b. Are there significant differences between gender and the feelings of nostalgia generated by taking a tour of Wrigley Field? 2c. Is nostalgia a primary motive to tour Wrigley Field? 2d. Are there gender differences in the primacy of nostalgia when compared to the other motivations? 3a. What aspects of behavioral consumer role socialization are associated with nostalgia sport tourists? 3b. Are there significant differences between the behavioral consumer role socialization of male and female nostalgia sport tourists? 4a. What aspects of role model socialization are associated with nostalgia sport tourists? 4b. Are there significant differences between the role model socialization of male and female nostalgia sport tourists? 5a. What aspects of cognitive consumer role socialization are associated with nostalgia sport tourists? 5b. Are there significant differences between the cognitive consumer role socialization of male and female nostalgia sport tourists?
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Socialization Individuals do not function as independent entities in society; rather they interact with other people (Blumer, 1969; Crompton, 1981). Socialization is a complex developmental learning process that teaches the knowledge, values, and norms essential to participation in social life. It is through socialization that we learn all types of social roles, among these are roles related to sport and leisure participation (McPherson et al., 1989). In focusing on leisure socialization, an emphasis is placed on the processes through which a child acquires basic knowledge about leisure and recreation, forms fundamental attitudes and values associated with them, and learns various leisure skills and motives. Past research indicates that childhood play provides the foundation for leisure and recreation behavior later in life (Giuliano et al., 2000; Iso-Ahola, 1980). In other words, Iso-Ahola suggested that limited opportunities for play in childhood tends to impair cognitive and behavioral flexibility in adult leisure pursuits. Much of the learning that takes place in childhood occurs through imitation, modeling, and identification with the behavior of others. Therefore, Iso-Ahola suggests that the socialization agents in an individual's life play an important role in transmitting behavioral patterns and basic values relating to leisure. For example, consider the number of images in the popular press that portray small children in the bleachers sitting among their friends and families. Some of them might even be too young to understand 12
13 the rules, but the experience still has the potential to influence their future leisure pursuits. To illustrate this, popular author and journalist Bill Bryson (1999) in discussing why his heart belongs to baseball today wrote: "It's what I grew up with, what I played as a boy, and that of course is vital to any meaningful appreciation of a sport" (p. 24). The family is the primary socialization agent in the early years of life (Greendorfer, 1983; McPherson et al., 1989). Greendorfer argues that all other institutions depend on contributions and learning that are initiated in, and through, this basic social unit. She further states that although other social institutions, such as the school and peer group, shape individual development, these institutions merely reinforce what has been initiated within the family. Prochaska et al. (2002) support the contention that the nuclear family serves as the most important behavioral role model. However, they also suggest that as children age, the role of peer influence becomes more apparent even though parents continue to influence adolescents' leisure behavior. They found that parent and peer support significantly correlated with adolescent self-reported physical activity, with peer support being the strongest correlate. While Prochaska et al. examined active physical participation, their findings suggest that an examination of family and peer influence on childhood socialization might lead to interest in passive sport activities such as being a sports fan and nostalgia sport tourism. It must be pointed out that these patterns of learning may vary due to individual differences such as gender (McPherson, 1983). While monumental political developments such as Title IX have noticeably expanded the opportunities for women in sport, there are still many people who discourage girls from playing sports. To illustrate
14 this point, a study of popularity among elementary school boys and girls found that boys achieved high status based on things like athletic ability, coolness and toughness. On the other hand, girls gained popularity because of characteristics such as their parents' socioeconomic status, physical appearance and academic success (Adler, Kless & Adler, 1992). So even though sport may be integrative at the higher political levels, it has not necessarily been the case at the interpersonal level of gendered expectations (Frey & Eitzen, 1991) and may account for some differences in later tendencies to consume sport. Gender-Role Socialization Sport Some of the gender differences in the personal meaning that males and females associate with sport may be a result of socialization. Historically women have been perceived as inferior to men and have not been given equal opportunities in many social institutions, including sport (McPherson et al., 1989; Theberge & Birrell, 1994). While the involvement of women in sport has progressed from no involvement to passive involvement as specators to increasing involvement as participants and leaders, gender equity is still lacking in most aspects of sport (McPherson et al., 1989). It has been argued that the female who makes the decision to compete in sport must decide whether to accept her socially sanctioned, ascribed role of as a female or ignore these norms to achieve her full potential as an athlete (Boutilier & SanGiovanni, 1983; McPherson et al., 1989). In the past, people believed that the ideal woman should perform her patriotic duties of attracting a mate, bearing and rearing children and serving her husband. Although society has become much more liberal, women, especially those with Young children, report a conflict between extensive personal involvement in sport and their perceived duties to be good mothers and wives (Fasting & Sisjord, 1985;
15 Boutilier & SanGiovanni, 1983; McPherson et al., 1989). Specifically, women who choose to play less socially sanctioned sports such as softball, volleyball, field hockey, track and field and basketball report more role conflict than those who participate in more socially approved sports such as tennis, golf, swimming and gymnastics (McPherson et al., 1989). A study of the differences between male and female college students with regard to their sport fanship and sport fan behavior also revealed the likelihood of females to place more emphasis on the social interaction involved in sport consumption. (DietzUhler, Harrick, End & Jacquemotte, 2000). They found that although males and females equally considered themselves to be sport fans, females seemed more likely than males to be a sport fan for "social" reasons such as watching and spending time with friend and family. Specifically, they found that while females reported being a sport fan because they go to games, enjoy cheering for their team, and like to watch sports with family and friends, males reported being a sport fan because they themselves play sports, like sports in general, and appear to enjoy learning about sports by doing things such as reading the sports page. Tourism The emphasis that women place on relationships in their decision to participate in a leisure activity is also evident in the tourism literature. For example, Davidson (1996) examined the holiday experiences of women with young children and found that women chose a particular holiday location because "it allowed the role of mother, partner or self to be achieved rather than because a particular activity was available" (p. 98). These women also said that `relationships with significant others' (p. 96) were the best part of their holiday or what they looked forward to the most.
16 McGehee, Loker-Murphy and Uysal (1996) also discovered that women were more likely to choose a travel destination that provided a chance for a cultural experience, an opportunity for family and kinship, and prestige. On the other hand, men felt that sport and adventure were the more important parts of a vacation. This difference in the tourism motivations of males and females reflects the norms and values that still exist in society, and may be a product of socialization. While there is little argument that numerous socializing agents (family, peers, etc.) play a part in the socialization process of both males and females, there is some discrepancy about how to measure this concept. For this reason, it is important for each study to clearly define socialization and state how it will be operationalized. In addition, these studies should be grounded in a theoretical framework in order to make connections that will allow for the comparison of results among different studies and across disciplines. Sport and Social Theory Because of the interdisciplinary, eclectic approach to the study of socialization, and its multifaceted nature, McPherson (1986) argues that it is unlikely that any one theoretical perspective will ever adequately explain the process or the end product. However, Dawe (1970) points out that in general there are "two sociologies" that have been used by researchers to examine the process of socialization. These "sociologies" are known as the normative approach and the interpretive approach. In the normative approach, deviance is viewed as nonconforming and incomplete socialization, explains Dawe. An example of a theoretical framework using this approach would be social imitation. This concept argues that an individual is more or less passive
17 and learns by observing and modeling the behavior and perceived values, beliefs, and norms displayed by socialization agents (McPherson et al., 1989). The competing approach, known as the interpretive approach, states that the individual seeks to gain control or mastery over his or her situation, relationships and institutions. Dawe explains, in this approach, the focus of study is on such elements of the process as the definition of the situation, presentation of the self, and negotiation with others. This more recent approach to the study of socialization has been prevalent within sociology as a result of three interrelated developments (McPherson, 1986). The first is that "an adequate explanation or theory must account for both the transmission of culture and for the development of autonomous human beings" (McPherson, 1986, p. 114). In other words, there are two interacting levels of analysis for which different theoretical approaches are most appropriate. At the macro-level, more universal outcomes occur and learning is more generalized from one situation to another making the process more predictable. At this level, social learning theory, role theory, reference group theory, and cognitive and Social development theories are most likely to be powerful explanatory frameworks. At the micro-level, the focus is on individual learning and situation-specific outcomes. As a result, the process is less predictable because it depends more on the active involvement of the person being socialized to determine the outcome. Therefore at this level, McPherson suggests theories that account for interpersonal interaction and negotiation are more useful. For example, the symbolic interactionist perspective views socialization as an active rather than a passive process. In other words, this perspective
18 recognizes that new and novel meanings and definitions can be created out of the process (Mortimer & Simmons, 1978). A second development that promotes the greater use of micro-level theories has been, as McPherson suggests, a general realization that socialization continues throughout an individual's life. As a result, there has been greater research interest in socialization during the middle and later years. In addition, social scientists have recognized that the use of one perspective is not likely to account for the life-long process of socialization, and that the use of particular theoretical perspectives may be most appropriate at different stages in the life cycle. To illustrate this idea, Dowd (1980) and George (1980) discussed the use of theory in relationship to the life span. They each agreed that during infancy and early childhood, the functionalist perspective using social and cognitive development theories might be the most appropriate. However, during adolescence and throughout adulthood, it is possible that the exchange or symbolic interaction perspective would better capture the socialization process. The third, and perhaps the most influential, factor leading to an increased use of the interpretive approach was the debate concerning whether the analyses have viewed people as "over" or "under" socialized (McPherson, 1986). In the `oversocialized approach', it is assumed that the individual's behavior is completely determined by society. Conversely, the `undersocialized approach' assumes that individuals act totally independently regardless of their past experiences (Dautenhahn & Edmonds, 2002). The optimum situation is the compromise of these two views in which people interpret meanings based on their experience.
19 Yaels and Karp (1978) argued that the use of the symbolic interactionist perspective could be used in response to this debate. Boldt (1979) also suggested that the concern regarding "over" or "under" socialization could be alleviated by a greater emphasis on symbolic interactionism because it shifts the focus from social structure and the outcome of conformity to the process of negotiated interaction, personal meaning, and nonconforming outcomes. Sport Consumption Over the years, researchers have conducted numerous studies of sport consumers and the role socialization plays in `forming' sport consumers (Hunt, Bristol & Bashaw, 1999; Green, 2001). McPherson et al. (1989) define sport consumers as "people who at any time consume sport, either directly through attending an event, or indirectly, through exposure to some sort of mass media (p. 11)." The main focus of the present study will be on the nostalgia sport tourist, which is a form of indirect sport consumption. However, it is important to recognize both dimensions of this definition because both active and passive sport consumption are integrally related to the socialization process. Although more recent studies on sport consumption have been conducted, the early work of McPherson cannot be overlooked in the study of socialization and sport consumption. In fact, it appears that no recent scale of measurement focuses on socialization in as much detail necessary for the purpose of this study. His 1972 dissertation formulated and tested a theoretical model designed to explain the social factors that were hypothesized to account for individuals learning a leisure role, namely, that of a sport consumer (McPherson, 1972). Several studies have also examined the motives that drive people to become indirect sport consumers in the role of sports fans. Wann, Schrader and Wilson (1999)
20 developed the Sport Fan Motivation Scale (SFMS), which is an instrument designed to measure eight different motives of sport fans. Based on an examination of previous work by researchers that attempted to identify the motivations of sport fans and spectators, they felt that there were eight common motives. These included eustress, self-esteem, escape, entertainment, economic, aesthetic, group affiliation, and family. More recently, Trail and James (2002) developed the Motivation Scale for Sport Consumption (MSCC) to measure the motivations behind sport spectator consumption behavior. They felt that previous efforts to develop scales to measure spectator motives demonstrated weaknesses in content, criterion and construct validity. Specifically, they argued that the SFMS scale presented by Wann et al. had problems in the areas of content validity, discriminant validity, criterion validity and to some extent convergent validity. The MSSC was developed from a review of the literature and from the evaluation of previous scales and administered to Major League Baseball season ticket holders. The motives were based on the sport sociology literature and were consistent with those identified in previous research. Items were generated for the nine motives, which included achievement, acquisition of knowledge, aesthetics, drama/eustress, escape, family, physical attractiveness of participants, the quality of the physical skill of the participants and social interaction. The results showed that the MSCC demonstrated the best psychometric properties overall to accurately and reliably measure motivations of sport spectator consumption behavior. James and Ridinger (2002) later used this same scale to expand upon the knowledge of sports fans and determine if the motives for being a fan of a specific team were similar or different for females and males. However, at the request of the university
21 at which the study was conducted, the physical attractiveness item was omitted from this study. Participants were asked to fill out a survey to determine whether they were fans of sport in general and fans of the women's or men's basketball teams specifically, and to express their reasons for following a particular team. Inconsistent with earlier findings, females did not rate the opportunity to spend time with family or social interaction higher than males. Further, females and males disagreed with the idea that basketball games were good opportunities to spend time with family members. This is of particular interest in the discussion of the socialization process in which literature has revealed a difference among genders in value orientation and behaviors related to sport (Greendorfer, 1983; McPherson et al. 1989). Many more studies have investigated various aspects of fandom, including the meanings and identities associated with being a fan (eg., Anderson, 1979; Laverie & Arnett, 2000; Wann & Branscombe, 1993), fan behavior (eg. Greenberg, 1979; Kerstetter & Kovich, 1997), and team loyalty (eg. Cialdini, Border, Thorne, Walker, Freeman & Sloan, 1976; Wann & Branscombe, 1990). However, few studies have investigated the role of socialization in becoming a fan. Moreover, the meanings associated with being a fan have not been investigated in relation to the decisions to travel to sports related attractions. In other words, while these studies have examined the motives of individuals to become sports fans, few researchers have examined the sports fan or sports consumer in the context of sport tourism (Gibson et al., 2003; Weed, 2001; Weed, 2002). Sport Tourism Although the study of sport socialization is not a new concept, there has been little effort to examine how it might relate to tourism. In fact, the study of sport tourism, although steadily expanding, has been a part of the literature for no more than thirty
22 years. As Glyptis (1991) points out, while sport and tourism are closely linked in the minds of participants, they have traditionally been treated as separate entities in research. Despite the lack of connection of sport to tourism, there is tangible evidence of the similarities that exist between them. When a comparison is made, one can see that all of the elements that make up the tourism industry, including things such as transportation, accommodation, food, entertainment, are also an integral part of organizing a sporting event (Loverseed, 2001). Getz (1998) examined sport-event tourism through a model of the supply-demand system and argued that a more comprehensive evaluation of the sportevent tourist is necessary to improve management strategies. The lack of knowledge about this potential marketable population further emphasizes the need for future research. Due to the lack of consistency in the literature, it is important to recognize how the concept of sport tourism has been defined. For the purpose of this study, the working definition, which Gibson (1998b) proposed, will be used. This definition recognized sport tourism as "leisure-based travel that takes individuals temporarily outside of their home communities to play, watch physical activities, or venerate attractions associated with these activities" (p. 108). Based on this definition, she also identified three major types of sport tourism: active sport tourism, event sport tourism, and nostalgia sport tourism. Nostalgia The special meaning that people attach to specific places can be a result of a connection they make to some past time. In a world of increasing change and instability, people often look to this past to escape the present or questionable future. Social and cultural norms are also experiencing change, leaving us anxious and lost amongst what
23 was once familiar (Davis, 1979). The term often used to describe this yearning for an either real or imaginary past is nostalgia. In other words, nostalgia indicates an individuals' desire to regain some control over their lives in an uncertain time (Aden, 1995). Historically, the word nostalgia was used as a medical term to explain the physiological and psychological symptoms associated with homesickness. A more recent interpretation of nostalgia has altered from its original definition to take on a more sociological meaning. From a sociological perspective, nostalgia allows human beings to maintain their identity in the face of major transitions, which serve as discontinuities in the life cycle (Havlena & Holak, 1991). Today the public culture contains many powerful symbols of the past. Wilson (1999) believes that "these symbols become more personal, as we, in some ways, construct our identities from that which is available to us culturally" (p. 297). It is these symbols that people attach meaning to based on their past experiences. However, to claim that nostalgic material derives from a personally experienced past is not to claim that the past "causes" or even "explains" current nostalgia. What causes us to feel nostalgia must also reside in the present, regardless of how much the ensuing nostalgic experience may draw its meaning from our memory of the past (Davis, 1979). Davis suggests nostalgia is one of the means we employ in the continuous aim of constructing, maintaining, and reconstructing our identities. Wilson suggests in order to maintain these identities, there is often a need to actively reconstruct the past. Although not necessary, this active reconstruction often involves travel to a destination that evokes
24 certain memories. This travel may include those people socialized into fandom that travel to the `shrine' associated with their favorite team or favorite sport. Marketers and advertisers have recognized the use of nostalgia in some of their promotion schemes. In today's marketplace we see many firms using nostalgia to address a growing desire by consumers to recapture part of the past (Holak & Havlena, 1998; Pascal, Sprott & Muehling, 2002). For instance, Coca Cola has reintroduced the distinctively shaped green-tinted coke bottle. Likewise, Burger King has used classic 1960s and 1970s music in TV commercials in an attempt to separate themselves from the cluttered fast food environment (Pascal et al.). Pascal et al. developed a ten-item evoked nostalgia scale (NOST) in order to assess the potential nostalgic feelings stimulated by such focal marketing stimuli. The items used were created based on the conceptualization of nostalgia presented by Holbrook and Schindler (1991). Respondents were asked to fill out a questionnaire containing these items after viewing a group of advertisements. The results indicated that evoked nostalgia was a significant predictor of a more positive attitude toward the advertisement for two companies, namely Kodak and Toshiba. In addition, they found that the more nostalgia evoked by an advertisement, the greater the brand purchase likelihood (Pascal et al.). Studies of music, motion pictures, movie stars and fashion products have also shown that styles popular during a consumer's youth can influence the consumer's lifelong preferences. As an illustrative example, Schindler and Holbrook (2003) investigated the effects of early experience on consumer preferences for automobile styles. They found an age-related preference peak in which there was a favorite style
25 found among car models popular during one's youth and typically no longer commonly available or widely circulated. In addition, they found that nostagic tendencies had a moderating effect on this peak in preference for a certain style of car. Specifically, they suggested that a `psychographic variable', namely attitude toward the past or nostalgia proneness, is associated with individual differences in early-experience effects. Dannefer (1981) also identified a small group of old-car enthusiasts who traced their own interest back to childhood experiences and suggested that this may have wider applicability in studying leisure activity and social participation. These findings can also be expanded to study sport and how previous exposure to certain aspects of sport early in life might influence future involvement. In addition, the individual differences found in the respondents' nostalgic tendencies further supports the use of a symbolic interactionist framework in that individuals construct their own meanings related to what they consider nostalgia to be. Nostalgia Sport Tourism Until recently, there was a geographical divide in relation to what behaviors constituted sport tourism. In Europe sport tourists were largely regarded as active participants (DeKnop, 1990; Glyptis, 1991). In the United States, much of the research in the realm of sport tourism was limited to large Sporting Events that draw spectators to an area (Ritchie, 1984). Redmond (1991) recognized that, in addition to event spectators, active sport participants and visitors to famous sport attractions such as museums, halls of fame and famous stadiums also constituted sport tourists. Taking a lead from Redmond's discussion about people who visit sport related attractions, Gibson (1998a) identified those sport tourists who were interested in visiting sports halls of fame or famous stadiums as nostalgia sport tourists.
26 Sport is a good indicator of change, and when combined with a nostalgically driven media, it can also be a strong reminder of the past and the way things used to be (Gammon, 2002). It is the "visiting and, perhaps, paying homage" aspect of sport tourist behavior that Gibson (1998b) termed nostalgia sport tourism (p. 49). Although it is still in the early stages of development as an area of research, visiting sports halls of fame, sports museums, and famous sporting venues has become an increasingly popular tourist attraction. For example, in 1991 the growing demand for baseball research material and archival resources forced The National Baseball Hall of Fame Library in Cooperstown, NY to expand the building to make room for the influx of baseball books, periodicals, trivia questions and motion pictures ("National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum", n.d.). Gammon also pointed out that nearly 400,000 people come to the National Baseball Hall of Fame each year to pay tribute to the great baseball heroes of the past. However, there has been little research that has investigated why people become nostalgia sport tourists. Gibson suggested that an examination of theoretical approaches from anthropological and sociological understandings of pilgrimage could reveal some insight into this question. One idea that has emerged from these disciplines is that sport is a new religion and that stadiums and sport museums have become sacred sites within our culture (Erickson, 2001; Gammon, 2002; Newman, 2001; Trujillo & Krizek, 1994). It is no surprise that baseball, the national pastime, has received much of the attention related to nostalgia. Indeed, our vocabulary is filled with references that relate baseball and the places it is played to religion and religious practice (Erickson, 2001; Redmond, 1973). For instance, Newman (2001) points out that the great, old ballparks,
27 both those still standing and those of historic teams, "are spoken of with the awe generally reserved for the great cathedrals of Europe" (p. 46). In her discussion of the National Baseball Hall of Fame, Newman states that "just as droves of pilgrims flock to the holy sites of their religions, so too do they flock to Cooperstown, to observe the relics of baseball's saints and martyrs" (p.47). Visiting nostalgic venues, such as halls of fame and museums, is a form of socialization in which artifacts and the memories people attach to them symbolically convey the values and norms of a society (Snyder, 1991). Segrave (2000) believes that these so-called `cathedrals' of sport "allow us to connect with a larger, more social sense of who we are both as individuals and as members of a culture" (p.63). Sports then do not just take place anywhere; they become culturally significant places that are celebrated as repositories of history, folklore and sentiment. Baseball, as the saying goes, is America's game. Recently, however, individuals seem more interested in baseball's past than in its present. Movies such as The Natural, The Babe, Bull Durham, Eight Men Out, A League of Their Own and Field of Dreams are just a few of examples of how baseball can be used to provide people with a `trip down memory lane' so to speak (Aden, 1995; Altherr, 2001; Mosher, 1991). "Legends" games featuring stars of the past are also played prior to contemporary baseball games. Many of the same `legend' players also attract, often frustrated, middle-aged men to fantasy baseball games (Aden, 1995). In addition, new ballparks such as Camden Yards in Baltimore have sought to capitalize on nostalgia by creating a more traditional look and feel to their ballparks. However, these new ballparks have not escaped the criticism of die-hard fans who argue
28 that nothing new can replace an old stadium (Altherr, 2001). Bryson (1999) emphasizes the significance of the feeling that is attached to historic ballparks: Call me eccentric, call me fastidious, but I truly believe that baseball should only be watched in an old stadium... In fairness it must be said that the new ballparks of the 1990's, as opposed to the multipurpose arenas built in the previous thirty years, do strive to keep the character and intimacy of old ballparks ­ sometimes even improve on them ­ but they have one inescapable, irremediable flaw. They are new. They have no history, no connection with a glorious and continuous past... A day game at Wrigley Field is one of the great American experiences. (pp. 26-27) Theme parks such as Disney and hotels such as the Raffles Hotel in Singapore spend millions of dollars on renovations in order to create a `nostalgic' atmosphere. In fact, the Raffles relies almost entirely on its nostalgic links with the past to promote their hotel (Dann, 1994). While these attractions are forced to invest large sums of money to construct a nostalgic feel, old stadiums like Wrigley Field only need to worry about regular maintenance repairs and minor changes. Before nostalgia sport tourism was ever introduced into the literature, the space upon which sporting action is played out was discussed by Bale (1989). In terms of baseball, the playing field itself has been viewed as a vestige of the frontier. Ross (1973) explains the symbolic comparison of the stadium to an America of the past, separating the diamond as the urban core, infield as the supporting hinterland and outfield as the frontier. Bale emphasized that this "spatial analogy between baseball and America itself is argued by some to be a major source of attraction to the game" (p.14). For instance, the physical environment of baseball can bring back memories of a lost pastoral world and at the same time be related to the day-to-day work of an individual with division of labor, specialization of roles and limited independence. Much like tourism, two journeys are often made in nostalgically driven sport tourism including the journey made to the attraction or event and the imagined journey
29 that takes place once there. Springwood (1996) raises the following question: "Why do people load themselves into their cars and vans... and traverse miles of state country road to arrive in these bucolic locales of baseball's celestial sights, sounds, and smells?" (p. 171). The answer is of course not a simple one, but it is one that deserves the attention of researchers. There has also been sense of wishful thinking in some cases that baseball has served to smooth over generational differences and tensions. Poet Donald Hall (1985) touched on this theme in the following passage: Baseball connects American males with each other, not only through bleacher friendships and neighbor loyalties, not only through barroom fights but, most importantly, through generations. When you are small, you may not discuss politics or union dues or profit margins with your father's cigar-smoking friends when your father has gone out for a six-pack, but you may discuss baseball. (pp. 49-50) Trujillo and Krizek (1994) also discussed the "generational continuity of ballpark fans" (p. 307). One fan accompanied by his father, brother and son at Comiskey Park discussed their attendance at one of the last games played in the stadium: ...That's why I thought it would be kind of sentimental to have three different generations of the family. My dad's been coming here for 70 years, I've been coming here for 35 years, he's (my brother) about the same, just a little bit longer, and Adam (my son) now for 3 years. What better of a way to celebrate our relationships? (p. 307) These are just two of many examples of how books and movies have reinforced the therapeutic connection in which the game of catch can help people of different generations transcend their differences. Further, as Trujillo and Krizek point out: As the ballpark brings together these generations of families and friends, it also becomes a place where older people experience their own youth vicariously as they interact with and observe the children and grandchildren of their own family and of other families. (p. 307)
30 This also sheds some light on how early childhood socialization is connected to both nostalgia and sport. So, although there have been some hypotheses about how nostalgic imagery and memory is related to sport, the answer to why people engage in this sort of sport tourism remains unanswered. Perhaps the process of socialization into and through sport that was examined in this study will reveal some of the underpinnings of nostalgia motivated sport tourism.
CHAPTER 3 METHODS Survey research was the primary method used in this exploratory and descriptive study. The data for this study were collected on-site at Wrigley Field with a selfadministered questionnaire. Permission was received from the Chicago Cubs organization before data collection began. Site Description Wrigley field, located in northern Chicago, Illinois, was built in 1914, and is the second-oldest ballpark in Major League Baseball behind Boston's Fenway Park, which was built in 1912. The first major league game took place at the ballpark April 23, 1914 and the first National League game was played nearly two years later on April 20, 1916. Today's home of the Chicago Cubs was originally known as Weeghman Park, and it was not until 1926 that it was named Wrigley Field in honor of William Wrigley Jr., the club's owner. Despite numerous renovations, several historic pieces of the park remain intact. For example, the scoreboard constructed in 1937 is used to post the score-by-innings and the pitchers' numbers, which are still changed manually. In addition, the ivy that runs along the outfield wall remains a trademark of the field. The original vines, including 350 Japanese bittersweet plants and 200 Boston ivy plants, were purchased and planted in September 1937. These physical features depict only a small portion of the nostalgia that fills Wrigley Field for the fans that walk through the gates. It goes without saying that the 31
32 field has also been the home of many historic baseball moments as well. Among the most memorable was Babe Ruth's "called shot" during Game three of the 1932 World Series ("Wrigley Field: Ballpark History", n.d.). It is things like the rich history of this ballpark that makes it an appropriate venue to study the effects of socialization on nostalgia-related sport tourism. Known to many as "The Friendly Confines", Wrigley field is also one of the most beloved stadiums in baseball history. In fact, while interviewing people in Dyersville, Iowa, site of the Field of Dreams, the first question Mosher (1991) asked respondents was, "What is your favorite Major League park?" (p. 274). Not surprisingly, Wrigley Field was the most often mentioned. During the summer of 1982, a fan who had never visited Wrigley Field before looked out upon the crowd and remarked, "This place is baseball `heaven'... If the game of baseball ever needed a museum in the year 2050, they ought to keep Wrigley Field and its fans in mind. This is what the game is all about" (Ibach & Colletti, 1983, p. 1). Tours are offered to provide people with an insider's look at over 85 years of history in this legendary ballpark. The tour guides place a strong emphasis on the origin of the field and the club as well as many of the historic events that have occurred in the ballpark. The emphasis of these tours separates those people who came to take a tour from those event sport tourists who come to Wrigley Field for a baseball game as spectators. People come from all over the United States and the world to take these tours. These tour participants are nostalgia sport tourists and constituted the participants for this study.
33 Data Collection Contact with the Chicago Cubs organization was made in March 2003. The message sent to the organization was forwarded to the Community Relations Intern who organized the tours. This intern became the primary liaison with the organization during the planning and data collection phases that followed. The purpose of the study was explained and the researcher was given permission to survey tour participants during summer 2003. As part of the negotiation process, the Chicago Cubs organization requested that question 10 was included in the questionnaire (Appendix A). Specifically, this question asked respondents, "Do you know what charity will benefit from the money you paid to take part in today's tour?" The information gathered from this question was pertinent to the Chicago Cubs organization, rather than the purpose of this study. Prior to each tour of Wrigley Field (July 19, 20 and 26, 2003), participants were informed about the study and asked if they would be willing to complete a questionnaire at the conclusion of the 90-minute tour. Tour stops included the Cubs' clubhouse, the visitors' clubhouse, dugouts, mezzanine suites, press box, bleachers, playing field and security headquarters. Pictures showing stops along this tour are included in Appendix B. Due to the logistics of this study, non-random sampling procedures were used to select participants. Everyone over the age of 18 on the tour was considered a potential respondent. It is estimated that each tour group contained between 30 and 40 people. Exact numbers were not provided by the organization. On each of the data collection days, fourteen tours were conducted. A standardized protocol of administering the questionnaires was used. The researcher was introduced to the group at the beginning of each tour. She gave a brief explanation of the study and asked for volunteers. An
34 estimated 48% of those people who took a tour over the three days of data collection, including Chicago residents, took time to fill out the questionnaire. Questionnaires were administered to those who agreed to take part in the study and the researcher remained in the area to answer any questions the participants had. Upon completion, the researcher personally collected the questionnaires from each respondent and thanked him or her for taking the time to assist in the study. The estimated average time taken to complete the questionnaire was between 10 and 15 minutes. Participants Of the 702 total completed questionnaires, 357 were non-residents of metro Chicago. As this study was focused on nostalgia sport tourists, only the responses from the non-residents or tourists were analyzed and reported. Due to the exploratory nature of this study, the profile of the participants was an important part of this study and will be discussed in detail. The following characteristics apply only to the non-residents, or `tourists' that took part in this study. The data from the residents will be analyzed at a future point. Of the 346 non-resident nostalgia sport tourists who reported their gender, 62.7% (n = 217) were male and 37.3% (n = 129) were female. They ranged in age from 18-89 with a mean age of 38.5 years. The majority of participants had completed a bachelor's degree (44.4%), followed by 19.4% who had completed a Master's Degree. Almost 60% (n = 193) of the participants reported Annual Household Incomes below $100,001 with a median income falling in the range of $75,001- $100,000. An overwhelming percentage of the respondents (95.6%) were white, and based on observation this number seems to
35
be consistent with the actual composition of the crowd that toured Wrigley Field on the
data collection days. A more detailed demographic profile is presented in Table 3-1.
Table 3-1. Tourist Profile for Wrigley Field Ballpark Tours
Socio-Demographic Characteristics
Frequency
Valid Percent
Gender (N =346) Male Female
217
62.7
129
37.3
Race and Ethnicity (N=344)
White
329
95.6
Hispanic/Latino
6
1.7
Native American
4
1.2
Asian
3
0.9
Black
1
0.3
Other
1
0.3
Education (N=340)
Less than high school
16
4.7
High school graduate
47
13.8
Associate or technical degree
49
14.4
Bachelor's degree
151
44.4
Master's degree
66
19.4
Doctoral degree
11
3.2
Annual Household Income (N=318)
$25,000 or less
35
11.0
$25,001 - $50,000
48
15.1
$50,001 - $75,000
49
14.4
$75,001 - $100,000
61
19.2
$100,001 - $125,000
42
13.2
$125,001 - $150,000
23
7.2
$150,001 or more
35
11.0
Age Range (N = 344)
18-29
118
34.3
30-39
60
17.4
40-55
121
35.2
56-65
38
11.0
66 and older
7
2.0
The number (N) may vary due to missing values or responses
Participants in the study were also asked to describe the composition of their
group (Table 3-2). Almost 34% (n = 116) of participants reported that they came to the
36
tour with one companion. This was the most frequently reported group composition.
Overall, only 29.9% (n = 102) of the people on the tour who responded to the
questionnaire came in groups of five or more people. A majority (69.0%) of these people
did not bring any children under the age of 18 on the tour.
Table 3-2. Group Composition of Respondents
Number of People in Group 1 (alone) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 or more
Frequency 20 116 53 51 25 26 22 29
Valid Percent 5.8 33.9 15.5 14.9 7.3 7.6 6.4 8.6
When asked approximately how many miles they had traveled to take the tour, 30.3% (n = 105) said they had traveled 51-100 miles (Table 3-3). In contrast, 24.6% (n = 85) of the respondents had traveled over 1000 miles. The median number of miles traveled was between 201-500 miles and the mode was 51-100 miles. When asked about the primary purpose of their trip, 34.8% (n = 124) reported that visiting Wrigley Field was their primary purpose (Table 3-3). A majority (48%) of all of the nostalgia sport tourists on the tour also reported that visiting Wrigley Field was `very important' to their overall trip. For 44.3% (n = 158) of the respondents, the tour marked their first ever visit to Wrigley Field and only 10.9% (n = 39) indicated they had been there more than 10 or more times prior to the tour. When asked who had the most influence on their decision to take the tour, 33.1% (n = 118) claimed that it was their own decision. A list of other influences and their level of importance is shown in Table 3-3.
37
Table 3-3. Trip Information and Influence on Respondent's Decision to Take Wrigley Field Tour
Miles Traveled (N = 346) 51-100 101-200 201-500 501-1000 Over 1000
Frequency 105 28 62 66 85
Valid Percentage 30.3 8.1 17.9 19.1 24.6
Trip Purpose (N = 356)
Visit Wrigley Field
124
34.8
Vacation
108
30.3
Visiting Friends/Family
74
20.8
Business
17
4.8
Day Trip
19
5.3
Convention
3
.8
Other
11
3.1
Most Influence (N = 356)
Yourself
118
33.1
Spouse/Partner Friend
69
19.4
55
15.4
Children
44
12.4
Other Relative
44
12.4
Parent(s)
18
5.1
Other
8
2.2
The number (N) may vary due to missing values or responses
While in Chicago, only 36.8% of the participants planned to attend a game at
Wrigley Field when the Cubs played in town. However, it should be noted that ballpark
tours are only offered on weekends when the club is out of town so there were no games
scheduled at Wrigley Field several days before and after the tour dates. For example, one
male respondent stated that the reason he came on the tour was because there were "no
games so [the] tour was the next best thing." Another male respondent said there was
"no game in town, but you cannot come to Chicago without visiting Wrigley Field". A
majority of the participants (87.3%) claimed to be baseball fans in general. Of these
baseball fans, 26.4% said that they were Cubs fans.
38 Instrument The questionnaire (Appendix A) used in this study consisted of four parts. The first part asked respondents about their motivations for going on a tour of Wrigley Field. Seven motives were measured on a Likert-type scale (1 = `Strongly Disagree' to 5 = `Strongly Agree') and were based on those identified by Crompton (1979), such as escape, relax, family, etc. An additional motive addressing nostalgia was also included in this section, making a total of eight items. Part one also contained the ten-item evoked nostalgia scale (NOST) developed by Pascal et al. (2002). This scale was used to further examine the extent to which taking the tour was motivated by nostalgia. The reported Cronbach's alpha for the ten items in the NOST scale was .96. Cronbach's alpha for the NOST scale in the current study was identical to the original scale ( = .96). An exploratory factor analysis revealed that the NOST scale consisted of the ten constructs identified by Pascal et al. and explained 76.0% of the variance (Table 3-4). The second part of the questionnaire asked respondents to recall their degree of consumer role socialization. McPherson's (1972) work provided the basis for the operationalization of consumer role socialization. The three levels of consumer role socialization are: behavioral, role model and cognitive. Behavioral consumer role socialization examined the extent to which an individual had been introduced to attending sports events, reading, viewing and listening to and discussing sport while growing up. Role model socialization, which McPherson referred to as affective socialization, measured the extent to which an individual has become emotionally involved in the role of sport consumer due to the behavior of a
39
Table 3-4. Exploratory Factor Analysis Results of Evoked Nostalgia Scale
Evoked Nostalgia Statements It brought back memories of good times from the past It reminded me of good times in the past It evoked fond memories It was a pleasant reminder of the past It helped me recall pleasant memories It made me reminisce about a previous time It made me think about when I was younger It reminded me of the good old days It reminded me of the past It made me feel nostalgic
Factor .93 .91 .90 .90 .89 .87 .86 .84 .82 .79
Eigenvalue
7.60
Cronbach's Alpha
.96
Factor Mean1
3.64
Percentage of variance explained
76.0
1 Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly disagree and
5 = Strongly agree
primary socialization agent growing up as identified by the respondent. Finally, cognitive socialization measured the extent to which an individual has learned and retained facts and concepts related to sport while growing up. Each socialization scale was measured using a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from either 1 = `never' to 5 = `frequently' or 1 = `strongly disagree' to 5 = `strongly agree'. Nine items were used to measure behavioral consumer role socialization. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that this scale was unidimensional, accounting for 58.8% of the variance (Table 3-5). Cronbach's alpha ( = .91) showed that this scale had high internal consistency. In order to measure role model socialization, respondents were asked to list who they felt was their most significant influence into sport. In reference to the person identified, 12 role model socialization questions were asked. An exploratory factor analysis revealed two different factors (or domains) with eigenvalues greater than 1.0 that
40
Table 3-5. Exploratory Factor Analysis Results of Behavioral Consumer Role Socialization Scale
Behavioral Consumer Role Socialization Statements I discussed sports with others
Factor 1 .93
I read about sports (e.g. newspaper, magazines, books, etc.)
.86
I listened to sports on the radio
.79
I collected sports memorabilia (e.g. player's cards, hats, jerseys,
.79
etc.)
I attended sports events (e.g. high school, college, professional,
.76
etc.)
I played pick-up games
.75
I played organized sport (e.g. team, league, etc.)
.67
I watched sports on TV
.67
I visited a Hall of Fame or sport museum
.49
Eigenvalue
5.29
Cronbach's Alpha
.91
Factor Mean1
3.68
Percentage of variance explained
58.8
1 Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Never and 5 = Frequently
accounted for 54.9% of the total variance. Items with loadings of at least .40 were
used as the cutoff point to determine which factor they were associated with. Nine of the
12 role model socialization items loaded on one of the two factors (Table 3-6).
Based on the nature of the items that loaded on Factor 1, it was labeled "Passive
Sport Involvement". The role model socialization items included in this factor were:
"he/she had a favorite sport", "he/she had a favorite sports team", "he/she talked about
and/or watched sports frequently", "he/she had a favorite player", "he/she got very
emotional when watching sports" and "because him/her I have a favorite player".
The second factor was labeled "Active Sport Involvement" because the items
included in this domain are suggestive of the participants' actual participation in sport
and attendance at sports events. These items include: "He/she used to watch me play
41
sports", "he/she encouraged me to play sports" and "he/she used to take me to sporting
events".
Table 3-6. Exploratory Factor Analysis Results of Role Model Socialization Statements
Role Model Socialization Statements
Factor 1 Factor 2
Factor 1 ­ Passive Sport Involvement
He/she had a favorite sport
.78
.03
He/she had a favorite sports team
.77
.10
He/she talked about and/or watched sports frequently
.76
.04
He/she had a favorite player
.71
.05
He/she got very emotional when watching sports (cheered, yelled, .60
.11
"booed", applauded...)
Because of him/her I have a favorite player
.51
.36
Factor 2 ­ Active Sport Involvement He/she used to watch me play sports He/she encouraged me to play sports He/she used to take me to sporting events
-.04
.86
-.08
.86
.17
.71
Eigenvalues
3.62
2.97
Cronbach's Alpha Factor Means1
.80
.81
3.86
3.83
Percentage of variance explained
30.1
24.7
Cumulative variance explained
30.1
54.9
1 Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly disagree and 5 = Strongly agree
The remaining three statements not included in either domain were: "I owe my interest in sport to him/her", "because of him/her I follow the same team" and "because of him/her I have a favorite sport". These statements had loadings above .40 for both domains and could not be clearly distinguished as belonging to either factor and therefore were eliminated from future analysis. Finally, cognitive socialization was measured using five items. An exploratory factor analysis confirmed that each of these items was a part of a unidimensional scale (Table 3-7). The results showed that, as expected, this scale had only one construct and it
42
explained 74.7% of the variance. A high Cronbach's alpha ( = .91) showed that this scale was also internally consistent. The third part of the questionnaire measured the individual's current participation and cognitive awareness about sport. The same items used in the second part of the
Table 3-7. Exploratory Factor Analysis Results of Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization Statements
Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization Statements I knew the players on the roster for one or more teams
Factor 1 .91
I knew what teams were in each league for one or more sports
.91
I followed the progress of teams in one or more sports
.90
I kept track of player's statistics in one or more sports
.86
I was taught about the rules and strategies of one or more sports
.73
Eigenvalues
3.73
Cronbach's Alpha
.91
Factor Mean1
3.87
Percentage of variance explained
74.7
1 Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly disagree and
5 = Strongly agree
questionnaire were used to measure behavioral and cognitive socialization, but respondents were asked to answer the questions according to their current behavior. These questions could be used to measure the correlation between past and present sport behavior, but will not be the focus of this study and will be used only as a recommendation for future research. The final part of the questionnaire consisted of nine demographic questions such as age, gender, annual household income and education as well as an open-ended question where respondents were given a chance to share any additional comments about the tour or this study. The responses from this section were used to generate a general profile of the participants in this study and to understand their responses.
43 Face validity of the instrument was established using a pilot test by a group of sport tourism graduate students who were familiar with questionnaire design and nostalgia sport tourism during Spring 2003. Their input was used to clarify the wording and format of the questionnaire. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was used to establish the construct validity of the NOST and the consumer role socialization scales. Data Analysis The data were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, Version 11.5). descriptive statistics were run for all questions to generate the frequencies, means, modes and standard deviations. These statistics were used to determine the demographics of the sample, check for coding errors and create a profile of the `nostalgia sport tourist' that chose to take a tour of Wrigley Field. Mean scores were used to determine the motivations of participants to take a tour of Wrigley Field and to identify what components of consumer role socialization are associated with the `nostalgia sport tourist'. Independent samples t-tests were then used to answer the five research questions for this study and determine if there were any significant gender differences among each individual item in the scales. The mean score for the NOST scale, behavioral consumer role socialization, role model socialization and cognitive consumer role socialization was also computed. An independent samples t-test was also used to determine if there were any significant difference between men and women for the entire scale. In addition, the mean score for each factor of role model socialization (`Passive and Active Sport Involvement') was also computed and analyzed separately using an independent samples t-test to determine if there were any significant gender differences. A paired samples t-test was then used to
44 compare the computed mean NOST scale with each individual motivation statement for the entire sample as well as for each gender. Finally, a thematic analysis was used to group open-ended comments according to similarity in response and will be used to supplement statistical findings for the appropriate research questions.
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The data collected at Wrigley Field provided many insights into the motivations of nostalgia sport tourists, what aspects of socialization were prominent among these visitors, and if any statistically significant gender differences related to these characteristics existed. In addition, a primary purpose of this study was to find out if nostalgia really was a primary motivator of these tourists, or if it served as a less significant reason for taking part in the tour. Although over 700 useable surveys were collected, only the `tourists' were analyzed because the focus of this study was to understand the motivations and socialization patterns of nostalgia sport tourists on a trip to Wrigley Field. Where appropriate, responses from open-ended questions were also used to supplement statistical findings. Because there is a limited understanding about the profile of `nostalgia sport tourists', the socio-demographic information presented in Chapter 3 provided valuable information about the basic characteristics of this sample. This profile will continue to be developed as the research questions are answered in this chapter. Motivations of Nostalgia Sport Tourists Research Question #1 1a. What motivates nostalgia sport tourists to take a tour of Wrigley Field? 1b. Are men and women motivated differently to tour Wrigley Field? When asked about their decision to visit Wrigley Field, the motivational statement that respondents agreed with the most was, "It was a chance to see something new and 45
46
different" (M = 4.50, SD = .74) (Table 4-1). This statement reflected the `novelty'
motive that Crompton (1979) identified in his discussion of motivations to take pleasure
vacations. The second most important motive was, "It gave me a chance to share
something special with family/friends" (M = 4.48, SD = .82). This item was used to
express Crompton's idea of the `enhancement of kinship relationships'. Respondents
also indicated that, "It will give me something to talk about when I get home" (M = 4.41,
SD = .78) was an important motive. Crompton's idea of `prestige' was the basis of this
statement. Finally, respondents also agreed that, "It was a chance to spend time with
family/friends" (M = 4.15, SD = .99), which was used to represent Crompton's
`facilitation of social interaction'.
Table 4-1. Motivations of Participants to Tour Wrigley Field
Motivation Statements
N1
Mean2
SD
It was a chance to see something new and
347
4.50
.74
different
It gave me a chance to share something special
352
4.48
.82
with family/friends
It will give something unique to talk about
353
4.41
.78
when I get home
It was a chance to spend time with
351
4.15
.99
family/friends
It was a chance to relax
350
3.82
.96
It was an escape from routine
351
3.61
1.24
It took me back to my childhood
345
3.02
1.29
It was a chance to get to know myself better
346
2.30
1.14
1The number (N) may vary due to missing values or responses 2 Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly disagree and 5 = Strongly agree
The only motivational statement that respondents disagreed with was, "It was a
chance to get to know myself better" (M = 2.30, SD = 1.14), which was based on
Crompton's `exploration and evaluation of self' motive. The statement used to address
the motive nostalgia ("It took me back to my childhood" (M = 3.02, SD = 1.29)) ranked
47
above only this item. So, although the tour participants were considered nostalgia sport
tourists for this study, nostalgia was not a primary motivation to take the tour. Individual
items are listed in Table 4-1 from highest to lowest mean.
An independent samples t-test was used to determine if there were any significant
differences in the motivations of males and females (Table 4-2). Men were more likely
to agree that the tour "took them back to their childhood" (t = 2.64, p < .01, df = 332).
On the other hand, females were more likely to agree that the tour gave them "a chance to
spend time with family/friends" (t = -3.13, p < .01, df = 338).
Table 4-2. Independent Samples t-test Results of Motivations by Gender
Motivation Statements
Males
Females
Mean1 SD Mean1 SD
df
t
It was a chance to see
4.46
.76
4.55
.73
334 -1.04
something new and
different
It gave me a chance to
4.43
.85
4.57
.72
339 -1.47
share something special
with family/friends
It will give something
4.40
.77
4.40
.80
340
-.02
unique to talk about when
I get home
It was a chance to spend
4.02 1.02 4.37
.89
338 -3.13*
time with family/friends It was a chance to relax It was an escape from
3.90
.85
3.70
1.06 216.06a 1.80
3.61
1.17
3.58
1.35 232.62a .23
routine
It took me back to my
3.18 1.27 2.80 1.26 332 2.64*
childhood
It was a chance to get to
2.33 1.11 2.25 1.16 333
.58
know myself better
1Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly disagree and 5 = Strongly agree aEqual variances not assumed
*p < .01
There were no other significant differences between the motives of males and
females, but women were more likely to agree that they came on the tour because it gave
them a "chance to share something special with family/friends" (M = 4.57, SD = .72).
48 More females than males also felt that "it was a chance to see something new and different" (M = 4.55, SD = .73). On the other hand, males were more motivated by "a chance to relax" (M = 3.90, SD = .85), "escape from routine" (M = 3.61, SD = 1.17) and have the opportunity to "get to know themselves better" (M = 2.33, SD = 1.11). Males and females were equally motivated to take the tour so that they would have "something unique to talk about when they got home" (M = 4.40). Several open-ended comments made by females regarding the primary purpose of their trip support the statistically significant difference among men and women regarding the importance of spending time with family and friends: · "husband and son are sports enthusiasts ­ thought it would be interesting to learn baseball trivia" · "accompany boyfriend for fun activity" · "father, sister and friend wanted to come" · "family outing" · "my husband is a HUGE Cubs fan" · "bring out the family" · "husband wanted to tour the field" · "dad wanted to see the field" · "for my husband and boys" · "husband and son wanted to tour ­ I just went along" The females who shared these comments ranged in age from 22-49 (M = 36.7) and came in groups of between two and nine people (M = 4.11). A gender comparison of the person who had the most influence on their decision to take the tour also supports these statements. While only 12.5% (n = 27) of males said that a spouse or partner had the most influence on their decision, 30.2% (n = 39) of females said they came on the tour because of a significant other. On the other hand, 42.1% (n = 91) of males said that their decision to come on the tour was `personal', while only 19.4% (n = 25) of females reported they decided to come on the tour for themselves.
49 Nostalgia as a Motivation Research Question #2 2a. What items of the evoked nostalgia scale (NOST) were most associated with taking a tour of Wrigley Field? 2b. Are there significant differences between gender and the feelings of nostalgia generated by taking a tour of Wrigley Field? 2c. Is nostalgia a primary motive to tour Wrigley Field? 2d. Are there gender differences in the primacy of nostalgia when compared to the other motivations? The mean scores for the statements on the NOST scale used to measure nostalgia ranged between 3.35 and 3.91 on a five point Likert-type scale (Table 4-3), indicating that participants responded between `neutral' and `agree' for each item. The overall mean of this scale was 3.64. Although there was not much variance among the means for the items in the NOST scale, the two statements that people were more likely to agree with were: "It made me feel nostalgic" (M = 3.91, SD = 1.10) and "It was a pleasant reminder of the past" (M = 3.75, SD = 1.13). Respondents were more likely to disagree that it "made them think about when they were younger" (M = 3.35, SD = 1.23), but this mean was still above `neutral' (i.e. a score of 3 on the Likert-type scale). The `compute variable' function in SPSS 11.0 was used to calculate the mean score for the entire NOST scale. More specifically, the `MEAN' function was used to enter each item and derive a composite score. The composite mean NOST score and the individual scale item means were then tested for gender differences. An independent samples t-test showed that there was no significant difference between males and females in relation to the overall NOST mean score (t = 1.74, df = 340). Although this difference
50
Table 4-3. Mean Scores of Evoked Nostalgia Scale (NOST) Items
Nostalgia Statements
N1
Mean2
SD
It made me feel nostalgic
352
3.91
1.10
It was a pleasant reminder of the past
350
3.75
1.13
It made me reminisce about a previous time
350
3.68
1.19
It reminded me of the past
352
3.67
1.12
It helped me recall pleasant memories
351
3.67
1.16
It evoked fond memories
349
3.64
1.14
It brought back memories of good times from
352
3.61
1.18
the past
It reminded me of good times in the past
350
3.60
1.14
It reminded me of the good old days
348
3.57
1.18
It made me think about when I was younger
351
3.35
1.23
1The number (N) may vary due to missing values or responses 2 Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly disagree and 5 = Strongly agree
was not statistically significant, the mean for males (M = 3.73) was higher than the mean
for females (M = 3.55).
However, there were significant differences between males and females for two of
the individual items within the scale (Table 4-4). Males were more likely than females to
agree that the tour "reminded them of the past" (t = 2.93, p < .01. df = 339) and "helped
them recall pleasant memories" (t = 1.95, p < .05, df = 338). Although there were no
other statistically significant gender differences, males had the higher mean score for
every item in the scale.
A paired-samples t-test was also used to determine statistically significant (p .05)
differences between the individual tourism motives and the mean score of the NOST
scale (Table 4-5). "It took me back to my childhood" was not used for this comparison
since this item was used to measure the same concept as the NOST scale. An exploratory
factor analysis with the ten items in the NOST scale and the additional `nostalgia' item
from the motivation scale was run to confirm this relationship. The results indicated that
this item did in fact load into the same factor as those in the NOST scale.
51
Table 4-4. Independent Samples t-test Results of Evoked Nostalgia Scale Items by Gender
Nostalgia Statements
Males
Females
Mean1 SD
Mean1
SD
df
It made me feel nostalgic
3.99 1.06
3.80
1.09
339
It was a pleasant reminder 3.84 1.06
3.64
1.17 239.90a
of the past
It made me reminisce
3.78 1.15
3.58
1.20
337
about a previous time
It reminded me of the past 3.82 1.06
3.46
1.14
339
It helped me recall
3.78 1.11
3.53
1.18
338
pleasant memories
It evoked fond memories
3.69 1.10
3.61
1.16
336
It brought back memories 3.66 1.13
3.57
1.22
339
of good times from the
past
It reminded me of good
3.69 1.09
3.52
1.15
337
times in the past
It reminded me of the good 3.67 1.16
3.47
1.13
335
old days
It made me think about
3.47 1.18
3.21
1.26
338
when I was younger
1Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly disagree and 5 = Strongly agree aEqual variances not assumed
*p .05; **p < .01
t 1.57 1.55 1.46 2.93** 1.95* .61 .68 1.37 1.49 1.92
When compared with the remaining seven motives, five of the items were
significantly more important motivators than nostalgia. These items included: "It gave
me a chance to share something special with family/friends" (t = 13.95, p < .001, df =
350), "It was a chance to see something new and different" (t = 13.12, p < .001, df =
345), "It will give me something unique to talk about when I get home" (t = 12.15, p <
.001, df = 352), "It was a chance to spend time with family/friends" (t = 7.32, p < .001, df
= 349) and "It was a chance to relax" (t = 2.91, p < .01, df = 348). The only significantly
weaker motive was "It was a chance to get to know myself better" (t = -19.56, p < .001,
df = 345).
52
Even though nostalgia was not the main motive to travel to Wrigley Field, some
responses to the open-ended question about trip purpose did reveal the importance of
history in their decision to take the tour. When asked to list the primary purpose of their
visit to Wrigley Field, a content analysis revealed that 24.9% (n = 89) of the respondents
indicated it was for the historic, nostalgic or traditional value of the ballpark.
Table 4-5. Paired Samples t-test Results of Motivations by Mean Evoked Nostalgia Scale
Score
Motives1
Mean
Mean
SD
df
t
Difference
It was a chance to spend time 4.15
.50
1.29
349
7.32**
with family/friends
It was an escape from routine 3.61
-.03
1.45
350
-.42
It was a chance to get to know 2.30
-1.35
1.28
345 -19.56**
myself better
It was a chance to relax
3.82
.18
1.17
348
2.91*
It was a chance to see
4.50
.86
1.23
345 13.12**
something new and different
It will give me something
4.41
.76
1.17
352 12.15**
unique to talk about when I
get home
It gave me a chance to share
4.48
.83
1.12
350 13.95**
something special with
family/friends
1Each motive was paired with the mean NOST scale score (M = 3.64)
*p < .01; **p < .001
In order to determine if there were any gender differences in the primacy of
nostalgia when compared to the other motivations, another series of paired samples t-tests
was used. Cases were separated by gender using the `select cases' function in SPSS and
individual paired t-tests were run on males and then females to see if there were any
variances in the significant differences.
The results of the paired t-tests for males revealed the same significant differences
between the motive items and the mean NOST score as the entire sample as discussed
53
above. In other words, five of the seven items were significantly stronger motives for
men than nostalgia and one item ("It was a chance to get to know myself better" (t = -
16.58, p < .001, df = 211)) was a significantly weaker motive (Table 4-6).
Table 4-6. Paired Samples t-test Results of Motivations by Mean Evoked Nostalgia Scale
Score by Gender
Motives1
Mean
Mean
SD
df
t
Males2
Difference
It was a chance to spend time 4.02
.29
1.26
213
3.35**
with family/friends
It was an escape from routine 3.61
-.12
1.33
213
-1.36
It was a chance to get to know 2.33
-1.41
1.24
211 -16.58**
myself better
It was a chance to relax
3.90
.16
1.13
213
2.08*
It was a chance to see
4.46
.73
1.20
212
8.88**
something new and different
It will give me something
4.40
.66
1.18
214
8.21**
unique to talk about when I
get home
It gave me a chance to share
4.43
.70
1.08
213
9.45**
something special with
family/friends
Females3
It was a chance to spend time 4.37
.83
1.22
124
7.63**
with family/friends
It was an escape from routine 3.58
.04
1.64
125
.27
It was a chance to get to know 2.25
-1.28
1.36
122 -10.41**
myself better
It was a chance to relax
3.70
.17
1.22
123
1.54
It was a chance to see
4.55
1.04
1.21
121
9.50**
something new and different
It will give me something
4.40
.85
1.08
126
8.95**
unique to talk about when I
get home
It gave me a chance to share
4.57
1.03
1.06
125 10.91**
something special with
family/friends
1Each motive was paired with the mean NOST scale score 2Mean NOST scale score for males = 3.73 3Mean NOST scale score for females = 3.55
*p < .05; **p .001
54 However, only four of the seven items were significantly stronger motives than nostalgia for women. Unlike the overall sample and the male sub-sample, females did not feel that "It was a chance to relax" (t = 1.54, df = 123) was a significantly more important motive than nostalgia. The remainder of the significant differences was the same for males and females as shown in Table 4-6. Behavioral Consumer Role Socialization While Growing Up Research Question #3 3a. What aspects of behavioral consumer role socialization are associated with nostalgia sport tourists? 3b. Are there significant differences between the behavioral consumer role socialization of male and female nostalgia sport tourists? The two aspects of behavioral consumer role socialization that were most associated with the nostalgia sport tourists in this study were "watching sports on TV" (M = 4.22, SD = 1.02) and "attending sports events" (M = 4.19, SD = .98) while growing up (Table 4-7). The aspect of behavioral consumer role socialization least associated with the nostalgia sport tourists was, "I visited a Hall of Fame or sport museum" (M = 2.29, SD = 1.39). The composite mean score for this scale for the entire sample was 3.68. The mean score of the entire behavioral consumer role socialization was calculated using the `compute variable' function in SPSS 11.0 as described previously. Levene's test for equality of variances was significant (F = 10.96, p .001) so the null hypothesis was rejected and equal variances were not assumed for this t-test. Results of an independent samples t-test showed a large significant difference (t = 9.90, p < .001, df = 227.99) between males and females. The mean score for males (M = 4.05) was much higher than that of females (M = 3.09), which means they participated in the activities
55
Table 4-7. Mean Scores of Behavior Consumer Role Socialization Items
Behavioral Socialization Statements
N1
Mean2
SD
I watched sports on TV
355
4.22
1.02
I attended sports events (eg. high school,
356
4.19
.98
college, professional, etc.)
I discussed sports with others
356
3.95
1.21
I played organized sport (team, league, etc.)
357
3.83
1.38
I read about sports (eg. newspaper, magazines,
357
3.81
1.30
books, etc.)
I played pick-up games
352
3.72
1.43
I listened to sports on the radio
356
3.70
1.31
I collected sports memorabilia (eg. player's
357
3.38
1.42
cards, hats, jerseys, etc.)
I visited a Hall of Fame or sport museum
356
2.29
1.39
1The number (N) may vary due to missing values or responses 2 Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Never and 5 = Frequently
associated with behavioral consumer role socialization more frequently than females
while growing up.
A comparison of individual items also showed that there were significant
differences between males and females for eight of the nine items (Table 4-8). The only
mean that was not significantly different was, "I attended sports events" (t = 1.11, df =
343). The means for males were significantly higher than females while growing up for
the remainder of the items as listed: "I watched sports on TV" (t = 6.08, p < .001. df =
206.15), "I discussed sports with others" (t = 8.93, p < .001, df = 203.11), "I played
organized sport" (t = 6.59. p < .001, df = 204.04), "I read about sports" (t = 9.36, p <
.001, df = 222.75), "I played pick-up games" (t = 9.50, p < .001, df = 198.22), "I listened
to sports on the radio" (t = 7.23, p < .001, df = 219.93), "I collected sports memorabilia"
(t = 9.17, p < .001. df = 247.02) and "I visited a Hall of Fame or sport museum" (t = 4.22,
p <.001, df = 319.30).
56
Table 4-8. Independent Samples t-test Results of Behavioral Consumer Role Socialization by Gender
Behavioral Socialization
Males
Females
Statements
Mean1 SD
Mean1
SD
I watched sports on TV
4.50
.83
3.79
1.15
I attended sports events
4.23
.94
4.11
1.11
(eg. high school, college,
professional, etc.)
I discussed sports with
4.40
.91
3.25
1.28
others
I played organized sport
4.22 1.10
3.19
1.56
(team, league, etc.)
I read about sports (eg.
4.29 1.03
3.04
1.30
newspaper, magazines,
books, etc.)
I played pick-up games
4.27 1.06
2.83
1.49
I listened to sports on the
4.09 1.09
3.05
1.40
radio
I collected sports
3.88 1.21
2.56
1.35
memorabilia (eg. player's
cards, hats, jerseys, etc.)
I visited a Hall of Fame or 2.53 1.47
1.94
1.14
sport museum
1Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Never and 5 = Frequently aEqual variances not assumed
*p < .001
df 206.15a 343 203.11a 204.04a 222.75a 198.22a 219.93a 247.02a 319.30a
t 6.08* 1.11 8.93* 6.59* 9.36* 9.50* 7.23* 9.17* 4.22*
Role Model Socialization While Growing Up
Research Question #4
4a. What aspects of role model socialization are associated with nostalgia sport tourists?
4b. Are there significant differences between the role model socialization of male and female nostalgia sport tourists?
In order to determine the nostalgia sport tourists' degree of role model socialization while growing up, respondents were first asked to identify the person or people who they considered to be the most influential in their introduction to sport in general. Some respondents did not feel that there was a particular individual who was more influential,
57
so these people did not answer this group of questions. Therefore, the sample size for
these items was slightly lower than the other scales, but still suitable for analysis (N =
304 ­ 311).
The aspects of role model socialization that had the highest means were all related
to the past behavior of the role model as shown in Table 4-9. These items include:
"He/she had a favorite sports team" (M = 4.24, SD = .85), "He/she had a favorite sport"
(M = 4.21, SD = .80) and "He/she talked about and/or watched sports frequently" (M =
4.06, SD = .93). Respondents did not `disagree' with any of the statements, but "because
of him or her I have a favorite player" (M = 3.16, SD = 1.05) had the lowest mean of the
items used to measure role model socialization. The composite mean score for the entire
scale was 3.82.
Table 4-9. Mean Scores of Role Model Socialization Items
Role Model Socialization Statements
N1
Mean2
SD
He/she had a favorite sports team
309
4.24
.85
He/she had a favorite sport
311
4.21
.80
He/she talked about and/or watched sports
307
4.06
.93
frequently
I owe my interest in sport to him/her
309
3.90
1.00
He/she encouraged me to play sports
304
3.84
1.13
He/she used to take me to sporting events
304
3.83
1.12
He/she used to watch me play sports
304
3.82
1.22
He/she got very emotional when watching
308
3.82
1.08
sports (cheered, yelled, "booed", applauded...)
Because of him/her I have a favorite sport
310
3.75
1.04
He/she had a favorite player
304
3.66
1.01
Because of him/her I follow the same team
309
3.55
1.25
Because of him/her I have a favorite player
307
3.16
1.05
1The number (N) may vary due to missing values or responses and not all participants identified a
role model 2 Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly disagree and 5 = Strongly agree
There was no significant difference (t = .30, df = 303) between males and females in regard to the composite mean score for the role model socialization. However, an
58 exploratory factor analysis revealed that this scale contained two constructs: "Passive Sport Involvement" and "Active Sport Involvement" (see Chapter 3). An independent samples t-test revealed a significant difference (t = 3.24, p .001, df = 195.18) between the "Active Sport Involvement" mean of males and females. Levene's test for equality of variances was significant (F = 9.99, p < .01) so the null hypothesis was rejected and equal variances were not assumed for this t-test. The mean score for males (M = 3.97) was higher than the mean score for females (M = 3.57), which indicates that males were more likely to have had a role model who encouraged their active involvement in sport. In contrast, females had a higher mean score (M = 3.92) than males (M = 3.84) on "Passive Sport Involvement", which indicates that while growing up they received more encouragement in this domain. The role model socialization items were also analyzed individually to determine more specific significant differences between males and females. The results of an independent samples t-test suggested that men and women differ significantly on four of the 12 items (Table 4-10). Females were more likely to report that the role model they identified had a favorite sport (t = -2.95, p < .01, df = 303) and that because of him/her they now follow the same team as their role model did (t = -2.44, p < .05, df = 301). On the other hand, males were more likely to say that their role model encouraged them to play sports (t = 4.38, p < .001, df = 172.51) and also came to watch them play sports (t = 3.11, p < .001. df = 183.59). These results support those of the factor scores, which revealed that women were more likely to be socialized into passive in sport involvement compared with males who received more encouragement to be actively engaged in sport.
59
Table 4-10. Independent Samples t-test Results of Role Model Socialization by Gender
Role Model Socialization
Males
Females
Statements
Mean1 SD
Mean1
SD
df
t
He/she had a favorite sports 4.20 .83
4.33
.88
302
-1.34
team
He/she had a favorite sport 4.12 .82
4.39
.73
303 -2.95**
He/she talked about and/or 4.03 .87
4.12 1.02 300
-.80
watched sports frequently
I owe my interest in sport 3.89 .97
3.92 1.07 302
-.27
to him/her
He/she encouraged me to
4.07
.92
3.44
1.33 172.51a 4.38***
play sports
He/she used to take me to 3.86 1.08 3.77 1.20 298
.64
sporting events He/she used to watch me
3.99 1.06
3.51
1.41 183.59a 3.11***
play sports
He/she got very emotional 3.77 1.06 3.93 1.08 301
-1.28
when watching sports
(cheered, yelled, "booed",
applauded...)
Because of him/her I have 3.78
.97
3.70
1.14 208.77a
.60
a favorite sport
He/she had a favorite
3.68 .98
3.65 1.04 297
.26
player
Because of him/her I
3.41 1.26 3.77 1.22 301
-2.44*
follow the same team
Because of him/her I have 3.17 1.03 3.12 1.07 300
.44
a favorite player
1Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly Disagree and 5 = Strongly Agree aEqual variances not assumed
*p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001
When asked to share the primary purpose of their trip, some of the open-ended
responses also reflected the concept of role model socialization and the desire of the
nostalgia sport tourists in this study to pass on a piece of history to future generations.
The following statements illustrate this point and are responses to the question, "What is
the primary purpose of your visit to Wrigley Field?":
· "bring the kids to see some history" · "culture and have my daughter appreciate history" · "enjoy tour with grandson"
60 · "my boys and I enjoy touring baseball parks" · "so my grandchildren can see it" · "to bring kids and wife to the park where I came as a kid" · "to share some baseball history with my sons" · "to show my 14-yr old nephew" · "take my son on the tour of Wrigley" · "a visit to Wrigley Field with grandchildren" The nostalgia sport tourists who shared these comments were males and females who ranged in age from 35-63 (M = 47.8) and had between one and four children with them. Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization While Growing Up Research Question # 5 5a. What aspects of cognitive consumer role socialization are associated with nostalgia sport tourists? 5b. Are there significant differences between the cognitive consumer role socialization of male and female nostalgia sport tourists? Respondents reported that while growing up, they were "taught about the rules and strategies of one or more sports" (M = 4.21, SD = .90) and they "followed the progress of teams in one or more sports" (M = 4.14, SD = 1.03). The least important aspect of cognitive consumer role socialization among these participants was: "I kept track of player's statistics in one or more sports" (M = 3.35, SD = 1.32). Table 4-11 shows the means and standard deviations for each of the five items in the scale. The composite mean score for all of the items combined in this scale was 3.87. An independent samples t-test revealed that men and women differed significantly in their overall level of cognitive consumer role socialization (t = 8.38, p < .001, df = 191.92 (equal variances not assumed)). Specifically, the composite mean score for this scale was used to compare gender, and males reported that they had a high level of sport-
61
Table 4-11. Mean Scores of Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization Items
Cognitive Consumer Role
Socialization Statements
N1
Mean2
SD
I was taught about the rules and strategies of
339
4.21
.90
one or more sports
I followed the progress of teams in one or more
338
4.14
1.03
sports
I knew what teams were in each league for one
336
3.92
1.25
or more sports
I knew the players on the roster for one or more 337
3.75
1.27
teams
I kept track of player's statistics in one or more
337
3.35
1.32
sports
1The number (N) may vary due to missing values or responses 2 Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly disagree and 5 = Strongly agree
related knowledge (M = 4.21) growing up, while females reported knowing less (M =
3.23) than the males about sport as a child.
A comparison of the individual items in the cognitive consumer role model
socialization scale revealed that males had significantly higher means than females for
each of the five items used to measure cognitive consumer role socialization (Table 4-
12). These five items included: "I was taught about the rules and strategies of one or
more sports" (t = 3.88, p < .001, df = 180.49), "I followed the progress of teams in one or
more sports" (t = 5.53, p < .001, df = 176.10), "I knew what teams were in each league
for one or more sports" (t = 8.62, p < .001, df = 175.89), "I knew the players on the roster
for one or more teams" (t = 7.68, p < .001, df = 201.23) and "I kept track of player's
statistics in one or more sports" (t = 9.65, p < .001, df = 328).
Summary
These results provide an interesting insight into the motivations and socialization
patterns of nostalgia sport tourists. Although nostalgia was not a primary
62
Table 4-12. Independent Samples t-test Results of Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization by Gender
Cognitive Consumer
Males
Females
Role Socialization
Statements
I was taught about the
Mean1 SD
4.36
.73
Mean1 121
SD
df
t
3.93 180.49a 3.88*
rules and strategies of one
or more sports
I followed the progress of 4.39
.80
120
3.69 176.10a 5.53*
teams in one or more
sports
I knew what teams were in 4.35
.90
119
3.13 175.89a 8.62*
each league for one or
more sports
I knew the players on the
4.12
1.05
120
3.09 201.23a 7.68*
roster for one or more
teams
I kept track of player's
3.82 1.11
119
2.54 328 9.65*
statistics in one or more
sports
1Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly Disagree and 5 = Strongly Agree aEqual variances not assumed
*p < .001
motivation of respondents to travel to Wrigley Field for a ballpark tour, analysis of the
NOST scale and open-ended responses about trip purpose revealed that feelings of
nostalgia were evoked by the visit. The socialization scales were used to determine the
relationship between consumer role socialization and nostalgia sport tourism and reveal
that these sport tourists were socialized into various aspects of sport while growing up.
Overall, the research questions addressed in this chapter have been used to develop a
general understanding of why people decide to travel to nostalgic sport places and how
their past might influence this decision.
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between socialization into and through sport and participation in nostalgia sport tourism. Gender differences in motivations, feelings of nostalgia and consumer role socialization were also explored. Based on the history of Wrigley Field and the focus of the ballpark tours offered, tourists who traveled to take a tour of this venue were considered to be nostalgia sport tourists. This chapter will discuss the findings of this study as they relate to the profile of these nostalgia sport tourists, their motivations, including nostalgia, and their socialization into sport. Socialization Socialization is a process that evolves over a person's life, making it a difficult concept to study and measure. As the symbolic interactionist perspective points out, people are also capable of interpreting or `defining' each other's actions rather than just reacting to another person's actions (Blumer, 1978). This means that it is impossible to say that if a person is socialized heavily into sport, he or she will always participate in sport later in life. However, research supports the contention that childhood play does influence future leisure and recreation behavior (Giuliano et al., 2000; Iso-Ahola, 1980). In fact, James (2001) demonstrated that children form preferences for sports teams early in life and they are capable of forming a commitment to a sports team as young as age five. 63
64 Using the dimensions of consumer role socialization identified by McPherson (1972), three socialization scales were developed to measure this complex concept. The purpose of these socialization scales was to determine if there was a relationship and to what degree the nostalgia sport tourists were socialized into sport while growing up so that inferences could be drawn about the effect of socialization on nostalgia sport tourism. The results show that the participants reported a higher degree of socialization into passive rather than active sport consumption. The highest composite score for the consumer role socialization scales was cognitive consumer role socialization, followed by passive sport involvement, active sport involvement and behavioral consumer role socialization. In other words, participants were more likely to learn about sports or have a role model who was ego or emotionally involved in sports while growing up than they were to actively participate in sport as a child. This makes sense because the tour was focused on the history and background of the ballpark and not on participation in sport. The participants in this study were typically well educated and many people even reported that the main reason they came on the tour was to `learn'. The positive influence of pleasure vacations on the education of children was also reported as a motivation for parents by Crompton (1979, 1981) and in some cases even reported as the main consideration in destination selection, so it is not surprising that this theme emerged. Passive involvement in sport also reflects the capacity in which the majority of society, particularly in the United States, is involved in sport. For example, it is reported that overall active participation rates in sport decline after childhood (Malina, 1996; McPherson et al., 1989; "Participation U.S. Research Menu: Total Participation By Age Group, By Sport", n.d.) and more people often turn to passive sport consumption (i.e.
65 watching sports on television, becoming a spectator at sports events) (McPherson et al., 1989). Perhaps there would have been more evidence of socialization into active sport involvement if the data had been collected at a fantasy camp or at a nostalgia sport tourism event where active participation was the focus. In fact, in his discussion of a fantasy baseball camp with an assortment of players from the 1969 Cubs, Roy Blount, Jr. (1985) talked about his and other `old boys' over the age of thirty-five living out their childhood baseball dreams to play Major League Baseball. The gender differences found in this study support the contention that socialization has some effect on nostalgia sport tourism. Overall, males reported significantly higher levels of behavioral consumer role socialization, cognitive consumer role socialization and active sport involvement than females. The only domain of socialization which females reported a higher level in was passive sport involvement. These results are supported by other studies that have found men more likely to be socialized into sport to a higher degree than women (Gantz & Wenner, 1991) and are more likely to consider it a part of their identity (Adler et al., 1992; Dietz-Uhler et al., 2000). Dietz-Uhler et al. also found a similar gender difference between active and passive sport involvement, as well as behavioral and cognitive socialization. Specifically, women reported that they considered themselves a fan because they attended games, cheered for their team and enjoyed watching sports with their friends and family, while males reported being a fan because they personally played sports, liked sports in general and enjoyed learning about sports.
66 The ratio of males to females who participated in this study alone reveals that socialization might have an effect on a person's desire to participate in nostalgia sport tourism. In other words, the sample consisted of a higher percentage of males than females. Although this could have been simply because more males volunteered to take part in the study, in actuality this sample seems to be representative of the actual tour group composition based on the researcher's observation. While the highest percentage of participants felt that their decision to come on the tour was a personal one, several of the females who responded were more likely than males to report that they came on the trip because their spouse or partner wanted to come and not to fulfill personal goals or desires. Again, this goes back to the higher level of importance and emphasis placed on relationships and family in the socialization of females into sport (Iso-Ahola, 1980; McPherson, 1983) and in their reasons for taking vacations (Crompton, 1981). It is through socialization that the knowledge, values and norms that lead to the development of social roles, including those related to sport and leisure participation, are developed (McPherson et al., 1989). Over time, a person attaches their own personal meaning to the knowledge, values and norms that have been passed on to them and they act toward this based on the meanings that these things (sports, baseball, Wrigley Field, etc.) have for them (Blumer, 1969). As Wilson (1999) suggests, it is sometimes necessary to actively reconstruct this past in order to reminisce about a personal past, more vividly recall historical events that have occurred during one's life or even to better understand history that one was not yet born to witness. This might involve travel to a personally `sacred' site for some individuals. People from as far away as Australia, New Zealand and Puerto Rico journeyed to Wrigley Field, but many of the participants
67 traveled within 51-100 miles. Davis suggests the pilgimmage to somewhere that evokes feeling of nostalgia may be one of the most effective ways to construct, maintain and even reconstruct our identity (Davis, 1979). This illustrates the link between symbolic interaction, socialization and nostalgia and offers support for the findings of this study. Due to the interpretive nature of socialization (Blumer, 1969), it is impossible to say that it did or did not have a critical effect on each individual's decision to travel to Wrigley Field. However, it is evident that socialization played a key role in the meaning that the nostalgia sport tourists attached to their experience and was an important part of the nostalgic feelings that the tour brought about. Motivations and Nostalgia Tourists who travel to historical venues and halls of fame are called `nostalgia sport tourists' (Gibson, 1998a, 1998b, 1998c; Redmond, 1991), but there is little empirical evidence to suggest that nostalgia is actually a motivation to participate in this form of tourism. This study sought to determine if nostalgia was indeed the major factor in a person's desire to travel to Wrigley Field for a tour, or if more general motivations for pleasure vacations such as those presented by Crompton (1979) were more important. The results indicated that nostalgia was not in fact the main factor in people's decision to come on a tour of Wrigley Field. The following motivations for pleasure vacation identified by Crompton were all significantly more important motives: `novelty', `enhancement of kinship relationships', `prestige', `facilitation of social' interaction' and `relaxation'. The number one motive reported by participants was novelty, which is consistent with previous studies that have reported novelty seeking as a key motive in pleasure vacations (Cohen, 1974; Cohen, 1979; Crompton, 1979; Dann, 1981; Dimanche & Havitz, 1994; Goossens, 2000). In fact, Cohen (1974) even
68 recognized the importance of novelty in the following definition of tourist he proposed: "A `tourist' is a voluntary, temporary traveler, traveling in the expectation of pleasure from the novelty and change experienced..." (p. 533). Although it was not a primary motive of these tourists, this does not discount the importance of the nostalgic and historic aspect of the experience. In fact, nearly a quarter of the participants said that the main purpose of their visit to Wrigley Field was because of its historic, traditional and nostalgic features. The responses to the open-ended questions revealed the personal meanings they attached to the experience. Males in their twenties in particular provided many comments that demonstrate the nostalgia associated with their visit. It is possible that some of the younger males in this study who reported feelings of nostalgia had recently completed their competitive baseball careers and the memories of those days were still fresh in their minds. Interestingly, of those adults who responded to the questionnaire, few of them (less than 15%) were even over 56 years old. While one might think that these younger people are not old enough to reflect upon their past, Gammon (2002) pointed out that nostalgia is no longer reserved for the middle aged and beyond. Recent monumental developments in technology and terrorist attacks have abruptly changed society and have even young people reminiscing about a `different' time. Davis (1979) suggested that historical discontinuities and transitions like war, depression and natural catastrophes promote a nostalgic perspective that could serve to minimize the jolts of rapid historical change. During such uncertain, hectic times, Wilson (1999) theorized that the exercise of nostalgia might serve as forced downtime or a chance to escape and/or relax. This might provide some insight into why the
69 motivation statements related to `relaxation', `escape' and `nostalgia' in this study ranked so closely to one another as motives to travel to Wrigley Field for a ballpark tour. The tourism industry has taken advantage of this expanded market yearning for the past by targeting this group through advertising and in some cases even spending large sums of money on renovations to recreate a nostalgic atmosphere (Dann, 1994). Fortunately, Wrigley Field does not need to spend large amounts of money to `reconstruct' the past, but they do make reference to `historic Wrigley Field' and advertise ballpark tours that offer an `insider's look at over 90 years of history in a legendary ballpark' ("Wrigley Field Tours", n.d.). Recent trends in the entertainment industry also reflect the increase in people's desire to revisit things such as music and sport from different eras. Entire `classic' channels show re-runs of time-honored sports events and allow even people who might not have been alive for games to see them broadcast as they happened (Gammon, 2002). Consumer literature has shown that the use of nostalgia can have a positive effect on brand image and willingness to purchase (Pascal et al., 2002), but findings also suggest that nostalgia might also be a difficult reaction for marketers to predict (Holak & Havlena, 1998). In other comments, the nostalgic appeal of the tour was apparent both in reliving earlier memories for themselves or in sharing them with friends and family, particularly children and grandchildren. There were many young children on the tour, but only participants over the age of 18 were asked to participate. One of the primary assumptions inherent in symbolic interactionism is that meanings are constructed and shared among individuals (Blumer, 1969). Certainly, in this study affiliation needs were reported as important reasons for taking the trip. Less than 6% of the participants came alone on the
70 tour, and all others were in groups. However, a closer examination of the NOST scale and the open-ended responses revealed that for men in particular, there was a sense of pilgrimage (Bale, 1989) associated with visiting Wrigley Field as well as the need to share this experience with family and friends. Sharing special places that have special meaning is consistent with studies about Cooperstown, home of the National Baseball Hall of Fame, where a large proportion of visitors are fathers and grandfathers sharing the nostalgia of the sport with their sons and grandsons (Newman, 2001; Snyder, 1991). Even though many of the participants may have just been tourists to Chicago who decided to go on a ballpark tour because Wrigley Field is viewed as a landmark in the city, the link between nostalgia and Wrigley cannot be ignored. So although the motives of these tourists were found to be similar to those who go on pleasure vacations in general, there is a deeper meaning associated with certain nostalgic destinations such as Wrigley Field that separates them from other cultural or heritage tourist attractions. Therefore, even though the results of this study indicate that nostalgia might not be as important as a motive as originally thought, it was an important part of the experience for many of the people who took the tour and nostalgia should not be disregarded as a potential motive underlying visits to sports themed locations. The gender differences found in the motivations are also consistent with the literature and possibly reflect the effect of socialization on nostalgia sport tourists. Females were significantly more likely than males to report that the tour was a chance to spend time with family and friends. This is related to general gender patterns in tourism and leisure in which women are more relationship-oriented and place more emphasis on the family than men in their travel choices (Crompton, 1981; Davidson, 1996; Giuliano et
71 al., 2000; Iso-Ahola, 1980; McGehee et al., 1996). This finding is also consistent with the results of Dietz-Uhler et al.'s (2000) study of male and female college student fans, in which females were more likely to report being a sport fan for `social' reasons, such as watching and spending time with friends and family. Males on the other hand, were more likely to report that the tour took them back to their childhood. Although the difference in the overall NOST scale was not significant, males also reported that the tour made them feel more nostalgic than females. This may be in part due to the fact that males in this study had been socialized into sport more extensively than females. According to symbolic interactionism, the meanings of things (such as a tour of Wrigley Field) emerge through social interaction over the life course (Blumer, 1969; Fine, 1986). Therefore, males might have felt a stronger symbolic connection to the things they experienced during the tour than the females due to their higher level of socialization into and through sport (Adler et al., 1992; Frey & Eitzen, 1991; McPherson, 1983). However, symbolic interactionism also recognizes that these `meanings' are not static but are modified through an interpretive process (Blumer, 1969). This might help to explain why the difference between the mean NOST scale scores was not significant among men and women. Perhaps some of the females may have been increasingly exposed to sport as they interacted with people outside of their immediate family and as a result could have developed more meaning and a stronger affiliation for sport than they reported during their childhood (Gibson, Willming & Holdnak, 2002). The researcher also made observations that indicated the tour participants attached special meanings to some of the objects or `symbols' encountered during their experience
72 at Wrigley Field. Following the tour, fathers and sons put on their gloves and played catch on the infield dirt. This supports Snyder's (1991) finding that visits to Cooperstown were a special bonding time for fathers and sons. Families gathered and asked the tour guide to take a picture with the scoreboard and ivy covered walls in the background. One group expressed that there were four generations of family in the picture. This is similar to findings in the mainstream tourism literature where the importance of taking family photographs for future reminiscence about the vacation has been discussed (Redfoot, 1984; Urry, 1990) as a significant part of the immediate tourism experience. Tour participants who were lucky enough to be allowed on the outfield grass were told numerous times that they were not to go past the warning track to keep them from trying to take an ivy leaf home with them. Even as they were being warned about this while sitting in the `bleachers', several tour members leaned down over the wall in the bleachers and tried to reach even a leaf of the plants to take home for a keepsake. Some just settled for putting a handful of dirt in their pocket as they walked off the field. This is analogous to the fan who took the brick home from Comiskey Park to remember his father when it was going to be torn down (Trujillo & Krizek, 1994). It is also suggestive of sign value in leisure consumer behavior, which poses that there is a symbolic nature to leisure purchases (Dimanche & Samdahl, 1994), such as souvenirs, and that the consumer controls a substantial amount of the symbolic meaning attributed to that object (Hirschman, 1986). Implications Because there is still very little known about the demographics and background of nostalgia sport tourists, this study provides a good overview of this potentially
73 marketable group. In a time particularly ridden with uncertainty, change and instability, many people are looking to escape back to a childhood that seemed simpler and less intimidating (Davis, 1979). Nostalgia sport tourism has the chance to offer the escape to the `past' that people are looking for and can do so in various ways. For example, this study offers hope for authentically nostalgic venues that might be able to attract visitors based on historic value alone. While recreations of the past have been successful at marketing a nostalgic feel (Gammon, 2002), some individuals are not satisfied with this `staged authenticity' and seek out a more realistic traditional experience (MacCannell, 1976; Redfoot, 1984). Without investing large sums of money to recreate the past as many businesses have done, these venues have the potential to create revenue, but also offer nostalgic experiences at an affordable price. The venue chosen for this study provides a good example of how this might be possible. The tour guides for Wrigley Field were all volunteers so this kept prices at a reasonable $15, which was actually used to fund a charity known as Cubs Care. The participants in this study reported diverse levels of annual household income, which indicates the tours were not limited to only those families with high incomes even though over a quarter of them reported annual household incomes greater than $100,000. Volunteers to lead tours can be enticed with preferred seating or other benefits that do not cost the organization anything, but make it worthwhile for them to dedicate their time. Even though the money from the tours did not go directly to the Cubs budget, it was probably more valuable in terms of portraying a positive image of Wrigley Field and creating a more intimate feeling of attachment for those who took the tour. This is similar to the finding that people show a stronger place attachment to places where they
74 have had a previous positive experience (Williams, Patterson, Roggenbuck & Watson, 1992). Providing ballpark tours could also be a good idea for venues that do not necessarily have the historical background like Wrigley Field and have trouble attracting crowds to support their team. A place does not have to be old for people to feel nostalgic about it, so sport marketers might want to consider placing more emphasis on promoting ballpark tours to families. Certainly, there is evidence of interest among baseball fans to tour newer ballparks such as Coors Field, home of the Colorado Rockies, which was built in 1995 and hosts a team that has only been in Major League Baseball since 1993 ("Coors Field Tours", n.d.). While baseball has only been played in the Cincinnati Red's Great American Ballpark for one year, people also travel to tour the facility ("Great American Ballpark Tours", n.d.) and observe the intimacy and a sense of history that the architect tried to incorporate into the design at the request of fans (Erardi, 2003). During these tours, it might also be beneficial to offer children special privileges that would make the experience more memorable to build upon the socialization and symbolic connection to the ballpark (Williams et al., 1992). In fact, research on various entertainment products has revealed that a consumer's early experience plays a significant role in forming lifelong attachments and determining brand favorites (Schindler & Holbrook, 2003). So, this could not only give the parents a good impression of the venue, but might also lay a potential foundation for the future generation of paying supporters. The findings of Pascal et al. (2002) support that advertisements evoking nostalgic feelings are capable of creating more favorable
75 perceptions of an advertisement and advertised brand resulting in a higher likelihood of purchase. Recommendations for Further Research One of the goals of this study was to contribute to the limited empirical understanding of nostalgia sport tourism in the academic literature. Because the focus of this study was on those people who had traveled outside of their home community to take a Wrigley Field tour, only the tourists or non-residents of Chicago were analyzed in this study. However, the researcher did not screen out residents or metro-Chicago when conducting the survey so that they can be used for future analysis. It is suggested that comparisons be made between the tourists and residents using this data. Information regarding current sport participation was also collected so a comparison of past and current sport behavior could also be made and might shed further understanding of the relationship between active and passive sport consumption and participation in nostalgia sport tourism. Another future analysis of these data could break down the `purpose of the trip' by nostalgia and other motivations. A comparison of the nostalgia and motivations of those people who said that sport or "visiting Wrigley Field" was the primary purpose of their trip to Chicago might differ from those people who reported that their primary purpose was something other than sport such as "vacation", "visiting friends/family", "business", "convention", etc. This might reveal a difference between `sport tourism' and `tourism sport' or between those tourists who journey to a sport venue specifically to see and experience that place and those who are just traveling and decide to take a tour or participate in sport as a side trip (Gammon & Robinson, 2003).
76 It is especially recommended that this study be replicated at other baseball ballpark tours across the country and even internationally to determine if the age or setting of the venue has an impact on the motivations of people who travel to take a stadium tour. For example, the motivations (including nostalgia) and socialization of tourists who traveled to an old stadium such as Wrigley Field could be compared to those people who traveled to a more modern stadium like the Astrodome in Houston, Texas. This might provide researchers with a better idea as to what brings about feelings of nostalgia. Is it the history and aura of the stadium that evokes these feelings or can a person feel nostalgic about a place based on personal experience and memories they associate with a place? Fairley (2003) found that the feelings of nostalgia people experienced were more associated with social interaction, so this suggests that special nostalgic meanings might not only be attached to physical locations, but to social groupings as well. Redfoot (1984) and Gammon (2002) suggest the search for `authentic' nostalgic experiences are rooted deep in society and may become more prominent in our fast-paced, technologically driven society. Certainly, Dann (1994) documents the growth of the use of nostalgia in mainstream tourism marketing and development. A similar questionnaire could be implemented to study venues for other sports such as football, basketball and hockey. This would allow researchers to determine if the type of sport has any influence on the motivations and socialization of the tourists that travel to participate in tours of these stadiums. For example, is nostalgia associated more with baseball than other sports? Brandmeyer and Alexander (1986) suggest that baseball has been surpassed as the "nation's pastime" by football as baseball is more reminiscent
77 of an earlier era when the pace of society in the United States was slower, more people worked or lived in rural areas and there was a heightened sense of community. In contrast, football is a better reflection of today's high paced technologically driven society. As a result, nostalgia for a previous era might be more heightened with regards to baseball than other sports. Thus, studies of the stadium tours of other sports would be one way of expanding this present study. In addition, studies of other 'nostalgia sport' venues of such as halls of fame, fantasy camps, and so forth is recommended to probe more deeply into this idea of nostalgia for both baseball and other sports. Although this study did not discuss place attachment as a theoretical framework, a connection between nostalgia, history and place attachment emerged throughout the discussion of the results. Despite the differences among these concepts, they can be linked together through socialization. For example, the nostalgic feelings a person develops for a certain place might be based on its history. The historic value of a place, which might be specific to a certain person or a part of society as a whole, is passed down through generations via socialization and can create special meaning for individuals. This might also help in understanding how the nostalgia associated with a particular place is passed on over time and may serve as a link in explaining how meanings are developed for a place like Wrigley Field over the life course. So, although place attachment has been more commonly used as a framework in outdoor recreation studies (Bricker & Kerstetter, 2000, 2002; Kyle, Absher & Graefe, 2003; Moore & Graefe, 1994), it might serve as a good foundation for the study of nostalgia sport tourists and should be considered as a better understanding of nostalgia sport tourists is pursued. Certainly,
78 referring to a similar concept, Bale (1989) writes of the place identity associated with sports venues around the world. Finally, a qualitative study involving nostalgia sport tourists, such as Fairley's (2003) study of a group of traveling Australian Football League fans, could also provide a more in depth understanding of the patterns evident in the quantitative data collected in this study. The open-ended responses in this study suggested nostalgia was an important part of their trip, so personal interviews of ballpark tour participants could also provide a more in-depth understanding of an individual's nostalgia and socialization into and through sport. Limitations There were several limitations of this study. There was some evidence of participant fatigue or respondents experiencing difficulty in understanding the wording of some of the questions. This may have been a result of the length of the questionnaire or the nature of the questions. This was controlled for as much as possible by the wording and pre-coding of responses to enhance the ease of filling out the questionnaire. The person administering the questionnaire was also present at the time of the survey to answer any questions. Another limitation of this study involved the section of the questionnaire that asked people to recall past experiences in order to gather information about socialization. Whenever asking a person to recall earlier events there is always the possibility of a memory lapse that might result in an inaccurate recollection of the past. Although a longitudinal design might be more accurate in the depiction the complete process of socialization, this was the beyond the scope of this study.
79 Delimitations The primary delimitation of this study was that only those individuals who took a tour on the three specified tour dates were eligible to participate in the survey. This limits the generalizability of the results to people who take tours of Wrigley Field. Because the method of random selection was not used in this study, any generalizability of the findings should be made with caution. However, the profile of this sample was similar to that reported in other fan studies (Gladden & Funk, 2002; James, 2001; James & Ridinger, 2002; Tripp, 2003), so this supports the contention that the sample was probably representative of the entire population. There was also some difference in the sub-sample sizes of males and females used for comparison. However, from observing the general make-up of the tour groups, this is thought to be representative of the average profile of the nostalgia sport tourist that came to Wrigley Field for a ballpark tour as well as other sports fans in general (James, 2001; James & Ridinger, 2002; Tripp, 2003). This is also consistent with the characteristics of the typical active sport tourist revealed by Gibson (1998a). She found that the people who engaged in active sport tourism represented a minority of the US population and were mostly white, male, affluent and well educated. Due to the exploratory nature of this study, these delimitations were tolerated, as it was more important to establish some baseline data about nostalgia sport tourism related to stadium tours than it was to generalize the findings to a wider population. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that nostalgia sport tourism is similar to other types of tourism, in that things such as novelty and family were primary motivations to travel, and that a secondary level of motivation may be nostalgia. Also, if you look at
80 what constitutes nostalgia, looking backwards to the past, then a connection can be made among the concepts of socialization, sentimentality and something to share with the family that have tied together the results of this study. While this study can only draw inferences about the influence of socialization on the motivations of nostalgia sport tourists, it has provided an even deeper look into a sport that has offered a link between the past and the present. Baseball is a phenomenon that has evolved, reflected the best and worst of our society, and baffled generations of writers and scholars. In closing, Peter V. Ueberroth (1985) discusses what he feels baseball means and what might help to capture the essence of this study in his foreword to The Complete Armchair Book of Baseball: From Damn Yankees to The Natural, the magic of baseball is elusive and impossible to explain. Perhaps this is one reason that it has captured the hearts of Americans for generations, that the country's greatest writers have turned on their creative juices to try to unlock its secrets. ...It is a game full of paradoxes: as old as the horse and buggy, yet as modern as the Concorde; as slow as a sweltering summer afternoon, yet as swift as a thunderbolt; as simple as a hand-held calculator, yet as complex as calculus. How has this game managed to bridge time and space? How does one explain America's fascination with its tradition and voluminous statistics? Baseball is a realm of fairness and order where imagery, mysticism, and alchemy in the confines of the baseball diamond tickle the little boy or girl in all of us (p. xiii-xiv).
APPENDIX A SURVEY INSTRUMENT
The entire questionnaire was 6 pages and appears differently here in accordance
with the University of Florida Graduate School Thesis guidelines.
Department of Recreation, Parks and Tourism University of Florida
Summer 2003 Subject ID:__________
Wrigley Field Stadium Tour Survey Introduction: If you agree to participate, the following questions will ask you about your past sport experience and motivations to go on today's tour of Wrigley Field. Your time and assistance is greatly appreciated in this study! Consent Statement: This questionnaire will take only 10-15 minutes to complete. You do not have to answer any question you do not wish to answer, and you are free to discontinue participation at anytime without consequence. No compensation will be awarded. If you choose to fill out this questionnaire, you agree to participate in this study.
PART A: Motivations: This section of the survey will examine your motivations to take today's tour.
1. Are you a resident of metro Chicago?
1 = Yes
2 = No
2. The primary purpose of my trip to Chicago is (please circle ONE):
1 = Vacation 2 = Business 3 = Convention
4 = Visiting friends/family 5 = Day trip 6 = I live in Chicago
7= Visit Wrigley Field 8 = Other _______________ (please specify)
81
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3. How important is visiting Wrigley Field to your overall trip to Chicago?
1
2
3
4
5
Not Important -------------------Somewhat Important-------------------Very Important
4. What is the primary purpose of your visit to Wrigley Field? ___________________________________________________________________________
5. Not including today's visit, how many times have you been to Wrigley Field before? (Please circle ONE)
1 = Never 2 = Less than 5 times
3 = 5-10 times 4 = I'm a regular
6. If you have been to Wrigley Field before, who was with you on your first visit? (List ALL that apply) ___________________________________________________________________________ (e.g. father, brother, friend etc.)
7. Who had the most influence on your decision to take today's tour? (Please circle ONE)
1 = Yourself
4 = Children
2 = Spouse / Partner
5 = Parent(s)
3 = Other relative ___________
(please specify)
6 = Friend 7 = Grandparent(s) 8 = Other ___________ (please specify)
8. While in Chicago I plan to attend a Cubs game: 9. Do you consider yourself a baseball fan?
1 = Yes 1 = Yes
2 = No 2 = No
10. Do you know what charity will benefit from the money you paid to take part in today's tour?
1 = Yes (please name)_________________
2 = No
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11. Please rate the following reasons in your decision to visit Wrigley Field today:
It was a chance to spend time with family/friends It was an escape from routine It was a chance to get to know myself better It was a chance to relax It took me back to my childhood It was a chance to see something new and different It will give me something unique to talk about when I get home It gave me a chance to share something special with family/friends
Strongly Disagree 1 1 1 1 1
Disagree
Neutral
Agree
Strongly Agree
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
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12. In thinking about your trip today, please rate the following:
It reminded me of the past It helped me recall pleasant memories It made me feel nostalgic It made me reminisce about a previous time It made me think about when I was younger It evoked fond memories It was a pleasant reminder of the past It brought back memories of good times from the past It reminded me of the good old days It reminded me of good times in the past
Strongly Disagree 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Disagree 2
Neutral 3
Agree 4
Strongly Agree 5
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
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PART B: Past Sport Experience: Please tell me about your sport experience while growing up.
13. WHEN YOU WERE GROWING UP, how often did you participate in the following activities?
I played organized sport (e.g. team, league, etc.) I played pick-up games. I attended sports events (e.g. high school, college, professional, etc.) I watched sports on TV I listened to sports on the radio I discussed sports with others I read about sports (e.g. newspaper, magazines, books, etc.) I collected sports memorabilia (e.g. player's cards, hats, jerseys, etc.) I visited a Hall of Fame or sport museum
Never Rarely Sometimes Often Frequently
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
1
2
1
2
3
4
5
3
4
5
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
14. Thinking about the activities listed above (Question 13), was there one person(s) who most often encouraged you to participate in these activities? If so, please identify this person(s). _________________________________________________________________ (e.g. father, brother, friend etc.) 15. Who do you consider to be the most influential person(s) in your introduction to sport (in general)? _________________________________________________________________ (e.g. father, brother, friend etc.)
86
16. In reference to the person you identified in question 15, please answer the following:
Strongly Disagree
Disagree
Neutral
Agree
Strongly Agree
He/she had a favorite sport
1
2
3
4
5
Because of him/her I have a favorite sport
1
2
3
4
5
He/she had a favorite sports team
1
2
3
4
5
Because of him/her I follow the same team
1
2
3
4
5
He/she had a favorite player
1
2
3
4
5
Because of him/her I have a favorite player
1
2
3
4
5
He/she got very emotional when
watching sports (e.g. cheered,
1
yelled, "booed", applauded...)
2
3
4
5
He/she talked about and/or watched sports frequently
1
2
3
4
5
I owe my interest in sport to him/her
1
2
3
4
5
He/she used to take me to sporting events
1
2
3
4
5
He/she encouraged me to play sports
1
2
3
4
5
He/she used to watch me play sports
1
2
3
4
5
16. What was your favorite sports team growing up? _______________________________ (please specify)
a. Circle the number that indicates your level of commitment to that team?
1
2
3
4
5
Low Interest -------------------Moderate Interest-------------------High Interest
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17. WHILE YOU WERE GROWING UP: Strongly Disagree
Disagree
Neutral
Agree
Strongly Agree
I was taught about the rules and strategies of one or more sports
1
2
3
4
5
I followed the progress of teams in one or more sports
1
2
3
4
5
I kept track of player's statistics in one or more sports
1
2
3
4
5
I knew the players on the roster for one or more teams
1
2
3
4
5
I knew what teams were in each league for one or more sports
1
2
3
4
5
PART C: Current Sport-related Behavior: Please tell me about your current level of interest in sport.
18. Please indicate how often you CURRENTLY participate in the following:
I play organized sport I play pick-up games I attend sports events (e.g. high school, college, professional, etc.) I watch sports on TV I listen to sports on the radio I discuss sports with others I read about sports (e.g. newspaper, magazines, books, etc.) I collect sports memorabilia (e.g. player's cards, hats, jerseys, etc.) I visit Halls of Fame or sport museums
Never 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Rarely 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Sometimes 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Often 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
Frequently 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
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19. Please indicate your CURRENT level of sport-related knowledge:
I know the rules and strategies of one or more sports I follow the progress of the teams in one or more sports I keep track of player's statistics in one or more sports I pay attention to what teams players are on in one or more sports I know the players on the roster for one or more teams
Strongly Disagree 1 1 1 1 1
Disagree Neutral Agree
Strongly Agree
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
20. What is/are your favorite team(s) now?
_________________
_________________
_________________
21. What is your current level of commitment as a sports fan?
1
2
3
4
5
Low Interest -------------------Moderate Interest-------------------High Interest
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PART D: Demographics & Additional Comments: Finally, please tell me a little bit about yourself and your experience on today's tour of Wrigley Field.
22. Circle the number that indicates approximately how many miles you traveled to come on
today's tour?
1 = 0-50
3 = 101-200
5 = 501-1,000
2 = 51-100
4 = 201-500
6 = Over 1,000
23. What country/state do you live in?
24. How many people are in your group?
25. How many children under the age of 18 are with you today?
26. What is your age?
27. Are you: 1 = Male
2 = Female
28. Which best describes your racial or ethnic background?
1 = Native American 2 = Asian 3 = Black 4 = Hispanic/Latino ___________ (specify group)
5 = White 6 = Hawaiian 7 = Other ___________ (please specify)
29. Which statement best describes your TOTAL 2002 annual household income? (Please circle ONE)
1 = $25,000 or less 2 = $25,001 - $50,000 3 = $50,001 - $75,000 4 = $75,001 - $100,000
5 = $100,001 - $125,000 6 = $125,001 - $150,000 7 = $150,001 or more
30. What is the highest level of education you have obtained? (Please circle ONE)
1 = Less than high school 2 = High school graduate 3 = Associate or technical degree
4 = Bachelor's degree 5 = Master's degree 6 = Doctoral degree
90 31. Please share any additional comments about your visit to Wrigley Field today: Thank you for taking the time to fill out this questionnaire! Whom to contact if you have any questions concerning this study: Amanda Wilson, The University of Florida, Department of Recreation, Parks and Tourism, 320 Florida Gym, PO Box 118208, Gainesville, FL 32611, phone (352) 392-4042 x1301, email: [email protected] Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in this study: UFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250, phone (352) 392-0433
APPENDIX B WRIGLEY FIELD TOUR PICTURES A view from the press box during a ballpark tour on July 26, 2003. The author waits for another tour group to finish and volunteer to fill out a questionnaire. 91
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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Amanda Wilson was born on October 21, 1979, in Lewistown, Pennsylvania. Sport has played a significant part in her decisions throughout life. After running cross country and playing basketball and softball in high school, she attended Gettysburg College to pursue a degree in health and exercise sciences and continue playing basketball and softball competitively. Following her junior year at Gettysburg, she chose to study abroad in Wollongong, Australia, where she experienced the educational benefits of travel and discovered a personal desire to meet and converse with people who have different perspectives on life. While her undergraduate degree provided her with an understanding of the physical aspects of sport and exercise, she decided to attend the University of Florida to learn more about the social benefits of leisure in the Department of Recreation, Parks and Tourism. She continued her involvement in athletics by organizing and playing on several intramural teams and continued to compete competitively on the university's club rugby team. Amanda is now graduating with her Master of Science in Recreational Studies degree from the Department of Recreation, Parks and Tourism, with an emphasis in sport tourism. 101

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