Towards an integrated curriculum-CLIL National Statement and Guidelines, D Coyle, B Holmes, L King

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Content: Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines Do Coyle, Bernardette Holmes, Lid King October 2009
`The cognitive level of the teaching is not right for teenagers... Languages would be more stimulating if they provided a framework for discussion, debate and writing about subjects that are of concern and interest to young people.' Dearing/King Languages Review 2007
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines October 2009 Published by The Languages Company ISBN: 978-0-9564256-0-7 Extracts from this document may be reproduced for non-commercial, educational or training purposes on condition that the source is acknowledged. © The Languages Company June 2009
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines
Contents

1. Preface
4
2. What is CLIL?
6
3. Policy context
8
4. Rationale
11
5. Key characteristics
14
6. Questions and challenges
16
7. Available support
23
8. Future perspectives
26
9. Case Studies
27
10. Bibliography
38
Contents 03
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines 1. Preface There is nothing new about linking language with meaning. From our earliest experiences of learning to speak we use language to interpret the world ­ to access new meanings, and the language we use shapes our understanding of that world. The same could be said about the learning of another language, most obviously when this takes place in the multilingual contexts which are increasingly the norm. Even the rather more traditional (some would say elitist) models of language learning regarded language as a means to access a new culture, usually through literature. So why is there so much current interest in this link between language and meaning, between language and `real' content? Why is Content and Language Integration (CLIL) on so many agendas? I think that there are three major reasons. There is firstly a certain sense of dissatisfaction about some of the ways that language teaching has developed since the 1980s ­ a sense that we have taught (and tried to learn) in a way that can separate form from meaning, with too much of the languages programme consisting of a recycling of existing knowledge. Although of intrinsic interest to some learners this approach has not been motivating for many, especially for our secondary school students. It has led to what the Languages Review of 2007 described as the `boring and difficult' syndrome. Secondly there is a growing view, based on experience, that it can be better, that it is possible for all language learners ­ even in the early stages ­ to access new content and new ways of seeing the world through studying a new language, and that they can also develop their abilities as communicators through accessing this new knowledge. In the words of the recent Independent review of the Primary Curriculum: "English, communication and languages lie at the heart of our capacity to imagine, think, create and learn" Finally, as suggested by this reference to the Primary Review, there have never been so many systemic possibilities for CLIL approaches to prosper. In all parts of the school curriculum the emphasis now is on the integration of learning ­ on the links between subjects and the importance of subjects in enabling children to access new meanings and develop generic thinking skills. Within the languages curriculum the focus has moved away from the ubiquitous topic to the acquisition of language through `meanings that matter' to learners. All of this favours the integration of content and language, of meaning and form. The introduction of the new Diploma in Languages in International Communication which will be ready for teaching by September 2011, will offer extensive opportunities to engage with content through language, developing a range of cross curriculum skills as well as language proficiency. These are dynamic times for languages and further opportunities for languages within the other eventual 16 Diplomas may also be developed. 04 Preface
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines
These more recent developments inevitably owe much to those who have pioneered work on content and language integration, in schools and Universities, in this country and throughout the world. Some of this history is touched on in the pages that follow, as too is the range of practice which has been developing in England in recent years. It was in response to this growing interest that in 2007 the then DfES set up an `Advisory Group for CLIL' with a brief to `provide guidance and strategic advice on developments in Content and Language Integrated Learning in England, with reference to the National Strategy for Languages'. Importantly this committee did not only involve the languages community, but included in its number The Geographical Association and also specialists in other curricular areas from QCA, the British Council and the SSAT. This document is the fruit of those discussions over more than two years. Our particular thanks must go to the main authors ­ Do Coyle and Bernardette Holmes, who will be known to many readers and who have synthesized a vision and formulated a set of practical ideas based on many hours of discussion and analysis of a wide range of practice. What is presented here is in no sense statutory ­ that is not the role of the DCSF. It is, rather an authoritative source of support and guidance for teachers and schools who are interested in what is possible, whether they are starting down the road towards greater integration of content and language or have considerable experience already. By the same token there is no single model proposed here, but a range of possible directions and outcomes which will depend on the circumstances, objectives and aspirations of individual schools. What unites those possible routes is the belief that language learning is important above all because of the access that it gives to the world, and indeed to new worlds, and that this can be reflected in the way that we teach and the content of the learning. The Guidelines are not static. They are not a carving to be admired from afar, which is why in the first instance they have been made available on line. My hope is that this will stimulate further discussion, more suggestions, new case studies. As well as reading the pages that follow you are therefore invited to participate in their further development. Dr Lid King NATIONAL DIRECTOR FOR LANGUAGES For comments or contributions please e mail ­ [email protected]
THE DCSF (DFES) CLIL ADVISORY GROUP List of particpating organisations and schools ALL British Council CILT Geographical Association OFSTED QCA SSAT TDA University of Aberdeen University of Cambridge University of Nottingham University of Southampton Chenderit School Hockerill Anglo-European College Tile Hill Wood School
Preface 05
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines 2. What is CLIL? Content and Language Integrated Learning describes a pedagogic approach in which language and subject area content are learnt in combination. The generic term CLIL describes any learning activity where language is used as a tool to develop new learning from a subject area or theme. Within the CLIL classroom, language and subject area content have complementary value. Learners process and use language to acquire new knowledge and skills and as they do so they make progress in both language and subject area content. Introducing CLIL involves curriculum development. The CLIL approach to the curriculum is inclusive and flexible. It encompasses a variety of teaching methods and curriculum models and can be adapted to the age, ability, needs and interests of the learners. CLIL is appropriate for all learners and can be developed at different levels of complexity for different sectors. The approach is suitable for primary and secondary schools and further and higher education. Planning for CLIL in the curriculum for England will vary according to the context. In the primary school the CLIL approach can facilitate the introduction of the primary entitlement to language learning by supporting the embedding of language learning across the curriculum. Primary CLIL can link with one or more subjects of the curriculum and can often take the form of a theme or project, for example, healthy eating, light, forces, celebrations and festivals. Secondary CLIL is evolving from making specific links between a language and a subject (for example, history through French, business studies through Spanish) to more broadly based integration of language with parts of the curriculum. Currently CLIL is becoming less aligned to single subjects and is developing more flexibly through links with a range of subjects or themes. The content for lessons can address particular aspects of the National Curriculum for individual subjects such as photosynthesis, electricity, digestion, the French Revolution, ecosystems, deforestation and volcanoes. Lessons can involve joint planning across a number of subject areas focusing on the new cross-curriculum dimensions for the secondary curriculum, including: · identity and cultural diversity · healthy lifestyles · community participation · enterprise · global dimension and sustainable development · technology and the media · creativity and critical thinking. 06 What is CLIL?
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines A particular benefit of the approach is that it also promotes the development of cross-curricular skills through a focus on enquiry, information processing and problem solving. This will be of particular relevance to the development of the new Diploma in Languages and International Communication. The Diploma will encourage cross-curriculum collaboration and will require the learning of a very flexible range of subject areas through another language. (See P22 (j) The new Diplomas and the CLIL approach). Curriculum models for CLIL can vary in length from a single unit comprising a sequence of 2-3 lessons to a more sustained experience through modules lasting half a term or more. Some schools with more established CLIL programmes are developing bilingual sections where subjects are taught through the medium of another language for extensive periods. (See Case Studies p.27). The CLIL approach in both primary and secondary schools can play a significant part in delivering the wider school curriculum. Learning content through another language (or languages) provides opportunities for interaction with different language communities and cultures. CLIL is particularly relevant for EAL and community language contexts, where we are encouraging strategies for using several languages for learning, including English, heritage and other languages. The emphasis on international communication and on using authentic material encourages learners to develop fresh perspectives, recognising that there are many ways to interpret our world. Successful CLIL fosters deeper intercultural communication and understanding, providing learners with meaningful contexts to explore and evaluate beliefs and attitudes. In this way CLIL can make a valid contribution to personal development and preparation for global citizenship. "If you just translate one key word that you don't know it helps the whole sentence slot together." What is CLIL? 07
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines
3. Policy context The Children's Plan sets out the Government's ambition to make England the best place in the world for children and young people to grow up. There is a call to develop world-class schools in every community, which achieve world-class standards. The central purpose of the school curriculum must be to equip young people for life and enable them to face up to rapid local, national and global change. We are living in a knowledge-based economy where the workforce is both multinational and multilingual. If we are to realise the ambitions set out by recent policy it seems plain that we should be driven by the determination to develop a curriculum which truly enables young people to become: · Successful learners who enjoy learning, make progress and achieve · Confident individuals who are able to live safe, healthy and fulfilling lives · Responsible citizens who make a positive contribution to society. With these aspirations driving policy reform, it is plain to see that language learning and language using can play a prominent role in the design and articulation of the new curriculum for learners of all ages. Recent developments in both primary and secondary sectors show that we are moving to a less stratified curriculum. Excellence and Enjoyment (DCSF 2003) heralded reduced prescription in relation to the way the curriculum is organised and delivered in primary schools, emphasising the importance of the child at the heart of the learning process. In the Languages Review, (DCSF 2007) Lord Dearing recommended that languages should become statutory from the age of 7. Approximately 90% of primary schools are currently offering languages and research is showing that this figure is rising. There is clearly a need for a focus on transition and also on the integration of language learning into the curriculum, so that language learning becomes more about language use rather than purely language study. The vision of the Diploma in Languages and International Communication is in line with this notion, in that its whole ethos revolves around the application of languages to purposeful contexts which can be applied in a variety of different contexts. Languages may also be combined or linked to other parts of the curriculum. This will be a common feature of teaching in primary schools. We also see merit in developing this more consistently and systematically in secondary schools, providing a basis for further study and use of languages. A continuum from links with Sport, Performing Arts and Enterprise through to Bilingual learning or CLIL.
Secondary curriculum aims QCA Dearing/King (3.37) Languages Review DfES March 2007
08 Policy context
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines
The Independent Review of the Primary Curriculum led by Sir Jim Rose (DCSF April 2009) endorses curriculum design, which offers opportunities to link subjects and provide challenging cross-curricular studies. The report asserts that direct teaching of essential subject content is vital but not sufficient. It develops the case further, going on to say that there are times when it is right to marshal content from different subjects into well-planned, cross-curricular studies. This is not only because it helps children to better understand ideas about such important matters as citizenship, sustainable development, financial capability and health and well-being, but also because it provides opportunities across the curriculum for them to use and apply what they have learned from the discrete teaching of subjects. The Review clearly opens the door to innovation by strengthening the impact and relevance of individual subject disciplines across the curriculum. This approach respects the integrity of subjects but lessens the rigidity of their boundaries. Among other things it encourages children and teachers to think creatively `outside subject boxes'. Following recommendations from Sir Jim Rose, languages will now become statutory with the introduction of the new primary curriculum from September 2011. The new curriculum for secondary schools provides a fresh canvas for curriculum planning and the development of innovative approaches to teaching and learning. The aspiration for reform, `maKing Learning relevant, engaging and irresistible for our youngsters' encourages us to make connections between and across subjects, focusing on deeper learning and functional skills to equip learners for life. At the heart of this process lie the cross-curriculum dimensions, which are intended to provide cohesion across different areas of learning. `To achieve the aims of the curriculum, young people need to experience opportunities to understand themselves and the world in which they live. Cross-curriculum dimensions provide important unifying areas of learning that help young people make sense of the world and give education relevance and authenticity. They reflect the major ideas and challenges that face individuals and society.' The revised programme of study for languages and accompanying guidance propose a strong steer towards a more integrated approach to language learning. "You should select contexts and topics that are likely to be of interest to pupils, that correspond to their level of maturity and that relate where possible to what they are learning in other subjects. You should provide opportunities for pupils to talk about things that matter to them." "Teachers have the freedom to choose themes and topics that will be relevant and of interest to pupils, including current issues and debates, and to make links with other subjects. This could range from work relating to the geography or history of a country, for example, to more extensive cross-subject projects." In the exemplification of the new curriculum, two of the six case studies on the QCA website refer to making links with other subjects.
A Planning Guide for schools QCA 2009 Planning across the key stage in MFL QCA 2008 New opportunities in MFL QCA 2008
Policy context 09
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines
Opportunities for change through new qualifications and the new Diploma structure The revised specifications for the new GCSE will increase the possibilities of developing a CLIL approach in Key Stage 4. GCSE specifications (for first teaching from September 2009, with first full course award in 2011) now offer schools the opportunity to design their own controlled assessment tasks for speaking and writing. The topics and themes for these assessments are no longer prescribed and can reflect content of their choice. (See p.20) There appears to be a developing interest in making the new Diploma in Languages and International Communication compatible with the CLIL philosophy and approach. The Diploma Development Partnership has expressed a serious commitment to exploring the potential for the Diploma to become a vehicle for CLIL approaches to language learning, an intention that has attracted considerable support from those responding to the consultation. At level 3 future developments could include the possibility of an element of joint or bi-national accreditation on the model of the ABIBAC (as agreed in the Anglo-French Communiquй of March 2008). Expanding and enriching opportunities for language learning through CLIL has the potential to increase numbers of students continuing with language study post 14 and help schools to meet their benchmark targets. Perspectives from Europe The strategic goal for the European Union, set out at the Lisbon European Council March 2000, is to "become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion". If we are to succeed in creating a Europe of Knowledge, built on the linguistic diversity and intercultural development of its citizens, we can envisage changes in the way learners encounter and use languages in school. These changes are reflected in the Action Plan Content and language integrated learning... in which pupils learn a subject through the medium of a foreign language, has a major contribution to make to the Union's language learning goals. It can provide effective opportunities for pupils to use their new language skills now, rather than learn them now for use later. It opens doors on languages for a broader range of learners, nurturing self-confidence in young learners and those who have not responded well to formal language instruction in general education. Current conditions could not be more favourable for promoting flexible curriculum models where CLIL-related programmes of learning can become the norm.
Promoting language learning and linguistic diversity An action plan 2004 ­ 2006, European Commission "I would rather learn French this way, it is much more useful; it is good to see our French teacher learning geography and our geography teacher speaking French."
10 Policy context
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines
4. Rationale It is widely recognised that a significant challenge for policy makers and teachers alike is how to motivate young people in England to engage with language learning beyond their primary experiences and especially beyond the statutory age of 14. There has been much research into students' attitudes to language learning over the last decade and a remarkably consistent view has emerged which appears to be shared across all age groups within the secondary sector. Languages are often perceived to be difficult, not enjoyable and not relevant.1 There is also a tendency for students to lack confidence in their language capability even when they have achieved a recognised accreditation such as the GCSE.2 Clearly low levels of enjoyment and perceptions of lack of relevance can create negative attitudes, which influence subject choices at Key Stage 4. If we are to increase the number of students who actively and independently choose to continue with language study post-14, we must address the factors, which are adversely affecting students' perceptions. We believe that effective CLIL methodology can not only extend the role of language (including first and subsequent languages) across the curriculum but also can improve teacher and learner motivation and raise the quality of teaching and learning. Recent research3 indicates that students generally do not share the view that languages are unimportant because `everyone speaks English'. In fact, to the contrary, students are keen to learn more about other countries and cultures and would prefer their language learning to include more input on culture and more contact with speakers of the language. CLIL within the context of the new secondary curriculum can contribute to remodelling language provision and rekindling interest in language learning by focusing on using language for a purpose and addressing issues of direct relevance to students' lives. Learners who feel confident in communicating in two or more languages develop a clear sense of self-worth. Through the CLIL approach they explore and investigate ideas and concepts and develop a spirit of enquiry, which contributes to openness and an international outlook. In this way, CLIL can make a significant contribution to learners' personal and cultural development as well as promoting progression in language learning and use. As CLIL learners progress, they will increasingly be required to apply and develop skills across a range of subjects. The approach supports young people to become independent in their learning. They will be expected to investigate issues, research information and analyse what they hear and read. They will be encouraged to question and put forward original ideas. They will be given opportunities to make presentations and justify opinions, using language to clarify their points of view, to persuade and make a case or to express disagreement through well informed and reasoned discussion. They will work independently and in pairs and groups, learning to collaborate with others and listen and respond to views, which may challenge their own.
1 (Blenkinsop et al., 2006; Clark and Trafford, 1996; Davies, 2004; Fisher, 2001; Graham, 2002, 2004; Marshall; Stables and Stables, 1996; Stables and Wikeley, 1999, 2003; Watts, 2003, 2004; Watts and Pickering, 2004, 2005) in Evans and Fisher 2009 2 (Fisher, 2001, 2003; Graham, 2002, 2004; Stables and Wikeley, 1999; Watts, 2003, 2004). 3 Fisher 2001, Evans and Fisher 2009
Rationale 11
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines
They will make rapid progress in using discourse patterns in their second language to engage with contemporary issues of interest, which have direct relevance to their lives. They will learn how to reflect on their learning and evaluate their own knowledge and skill. In this way, CLIL complements the QCA framework for Personal, Learning and Thinking skills, improving the quality of learning in the classroom and preparing learners for life. CLIL is not a new concept and nor is it untested. In many parts of the world, CLIL is delivered through the medium of English. However there is growing international movement promoting CLIL in languages other than English (LOTE), for example, CLILiG Content and Language Integrated Learning in German.4 Within the UK a growing number of schools have now established effective CLIL programmes through French, German and Spanish, EAL and community languages (See Case Studies p.21). Qualitative research demonstrates the high degree of teacher and learner satisfaction with the experience of CLIL.5 Improved levels of engagement help to sustain motivation and actively contribute to raising academic standards across the ability range6. Successful learning produces successful teaching and, of course, vice versa. 4.1 The 4Cs curriculum In developing the rationale for introducing CLIL into the curriculum it may be helpful to consider the benefits to teachers and learners in relation to four specific dimensions:
Content
integrating content from across the curriculum through high quality language interaction
Cognition
engaging learners through creativity, higher order thinking and knowledge processing
Communication
using language to learn and mediate ideas, thoughts and values
Culture
interpreting and understanding the significance of content and language and their contribution to identity and citizenship
These four dimensions (4 Cs) form a conceptual framework (Coyle 2005; revisited Coyle, Holmes, King 2008), which connects content, cognition, communication and culture. Culture and intercultural understanding lie at the core of the conceptual framework, offering the key to deeper learning and promoting social cohesion.
4 CLILOTE an ECML initiative through German and more recently French 5 Dobson, A (2005), Wiesemes, R. (2005) 6 Tile Hill Wood, Coventry in Holmes, B. (2005)
12 Rationale
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines The following descriptors summarise the essential reasons why the CLIL approach is appropriate to current curriculum reform. The reasons are classified under the overarching heading of the 4 Cs Conceptual Framework (Coyle 2005). The descriptors are produced in this format for ease of reference to support teachers in making the case for CLIL within the curriculum and may be helpful in informing discussions with senior leadership teams in schools. Content · CLIL provides learning contexts which are relevant to the needs and interests of learners · CLIL supports the integration of language into the broader curriculum · CLIL can be explicitly linked to literacy, forming conceptual and linguistic bridges across the curriculum. This should involve first and second language learning and EAL. Cognition · CLIL promotes learner progression in both language skills and knowledge construction · CLIL helps to redefine the curriculum, sharpening the focus on the interconnections between cognition and communication ­ between language development and thinking skills · CLIL accelerates creativity in taking independent control of language using; a process leading to refining thinking and applying skills. Communication · CLIL involves using language in the here and now to construct new knowledge and skills · CLIL offers direct opportunities to learn through language and to make meanings that matter · CLIL offers genuine opportunities to interact face to face and through the use of new technologies e.g. internet, video-conferencing, international projects. Culture · CLIL is particularly relevant in classrooms where learners bring diverse language and cultural experiences · CLIL is an appropriate vehicle for exploring the links between language and cultural identity, examining behaviours, attitudes and values · CLIL involves contexts and content which enrich the learners' understanding of their own culture and those of others · CLIL strengthens intercultural understanding and promotes global citizenship. Rationale 13
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines 5. Key characteristics The following characteristics have been drawn from experience of working with successful CLIL programmes in primary and secondary schools both nationally and internationally. They are in effect a synthesis of good practice arranged under four headings. They are intended to support teachers considering developing CLIL in their schools. 5.1 Choosing appropriate content · CLIL is about new learning. In a CLIL lesson the learner is discovering new knowledge, developing new or existing skills and deepening understanding · Lessons must integrate subject area content and language content · Content planning involves choosing relevant contexts for learning which are appropriate to the learners' age, ability and interests and provide meaningful interaction with and through the language · The CLIL approach will take account of the statutory requirements of the national curriculum and provide a suitable platform for developing personalised learning. 5.2 Developing intercultural understanding · CLIL actively seeks to promote intercultural understanding by planning and providing rich opportunities to investigate and reflect on different cultures, traditions, values and behaviour · This approach not only involves learning content through another language but also often involves learning content through another cultural lens. This helps learners to redefine the familiar, offering multiple perspectives and developing knowledge of and understanding about issues of shared global relevance · Themes with relevance across the curriculum provide an appropriate arena to develop citizenship addressing challenging ideas and fostering a human rights perspective on individual roles and responsibilities. 5.3 Using language to learn/learning to use language · CLIL involves rich input. Learners are expected to interact with language which is accessible to their existing linguistic level but which promotes linguistic progression by exposing them to a wide range of authentic, unedited resources at an appropriate level · Learning new content through language often requires learners to find information by processing language and extracting meaning from spoken and written text which is at a higher level than the learners' current productive capability · CLIL accelerates the development of a range of language learning strategies to support learners in working out the meaning of what they hear and read, including recognising key words and cognates, identifying high frequency structures and using prior knowledge to predict content 14 Key characteristics
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines
· The CLIL approach builds on and transfers the range of reading strategies developed in literacy in English, for example, the use of contextual clues, including non-verbal features such as layout, punctuation and graphical illustrations, reading between the lines (inference), visualising and summarising main ideas · Appropriate code-switching between languages, particularly in EAL and community language contexts, enriches understanding and encourages the development of pluriliteracy across the curriculum. 5.4 Making meanings that matter · There is an expectation that CLIL will involve maximum interaction in the target language within and beyond the classroom · Learners will have frequent opportunities to use language for authentic communication with native speakers through video conferencing, classroom learning links, email exchanges, blogs, shared internet enquiry, and school international projects · There will be content which challenges learners' thinking, stimulating the desire to interact with and through language at an appropriate level of cognitive demand · CLIL provides motivating contexts for communication which encourage learners to use language to express thoughts, ideas and feelings which genuinely matter to them · With careful planning, monitoring and evaluation, over time CLIL can lead to the development of literacies across languages, metacognitive awareness and intercultural understanding (Coyle, Hood and Marsh, 2010). 5.5 Progression · In a sequence of learning there will be evidence of scaffolding in both language using and interaction with content · Learner support will be provided in a number of forms, including speaking and writing frames, key words, guided web quests, model answers, gap texts, summaries of key points, graphs, diagrams and other visual aids · Learners will progress in language and in the content subject. They will develop knowledge, skills and understanding and improve their capability to use language in order to construct new knowledge and develop a range of transferable and specific skills · Learners will develop creativity and independence in language using. They will gradually take control of the language system in order to access information from a range of sources, make new meanings and impart information · Learners will develop higher order thinking skills, demonstrating their ability to make observations, analyse, generalise and apply their skills to fresh contexts.
"Parents report that their children are finding learning a language very easy! There are huge benefits for the staff involved ­ it is great professional development."
Key characteristics 15
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines 6. Questions and challenges The following questions illustrate the kinds of issues that are often raised by teachers considering introducing CLIL into their schools. The responses seek to clarify some misconceptions and offer first level guidance on how to address the challenges of integrating languages into the curriculum. a) What are the benefits of CLIL? For learners, CLIL is different from traditional learning. It can be more interesting and more motivating. It provides opportunities to use a new language for learning new knowledge but in different ways from in conventional grammar-based lessons. It makes good use of time since both subject area content and languages are being learned together. It connects different segments of the curriculum and enables learners to transfer knowledge and skills across subjects. Some learners claim that CLIL helps them concentrate more in class, building their confidence, widening their skill base and making them feel `ahead of the game' in terms of life skills. In some schools CLIL contributes to fast track learning and early GCSE entrance. Where CLIL is integrated with a range of technologies it links classes with other learners on a global scale through communicating in a shared language or languages. It can also bring alive the global agenda and promote communication and understanding across cultures. CLIL contributes to personal and cultural development, preparing learners for international citizenship. For teachers, CLIL supports teamwork. It refreshes classroom practice and gives creative opportunities for interpreting the new curriculum according to the needs of individual schools and learners. Teachers `own' CLIL initiatives, which can be challenging and motivating. Some teachers find that CLIL raises their expectations and `elevates' subjects across the school. CLIL provides a springboard for developing language and thinking skills which learners want and need to use for learning and for life. For school managers and head teachers, CLIL promotes the school as a `learning school' and provides evidence of innovation, change and 21st century learning for plurilingual Britain. b) What are the risks? Good practice in CLIL has few pedagogic disadvantages. However the journey to successful CLIL is not always straightforward or immediate. Initially CLIL teachers need to invest time in rethinking how they will teach through an additional language. CLIL pedagogy draws on successful experiences in both subject learning and language learning, which often involves new ways of working. This includes planning, selecting appropriate materials and resource making. Some CLIL teachers will need support in accessing language beyond the standard communicative repertoire or in finding appropriate materials. Others will require language upskilling. 16 Questions and challenges
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines
In schools where CLIL is associated with fast-track learners there is the danger that it might be seen as elitist. There is a view that CLIL is aimed at successful language learners or that to do CLIL learners must have a high standard of language. This is not the case ­ CLIL is for everyone ­ but changing attitudes is complex. Sustaining CLIL programmes in school can be fragile due to teacher supply and continuity of staffing. Attending to professional development needs can be costly but the benefits to the quality of teaching, the breadth and depth of the curriculum and to learning are considerable. Historically there have been very few opportunities to assess CLIL through nationally recognised qualifications. This meant that learners had to revert to English to pass examinations. The landscape is now changing. For the first time revisions to the new GCSE specification offer the possibility of assessing language through a CLIL approach. This will be made possible through teacher designed speaking and writing tests (See How do I assess CLIL? p.20). We also anticipate that developments in the new Diplomas may offer increased opportunities to assess language capability linked to other subjects. CLIL needs the full support of the senior leadership team, if it is to go beyond a small project and be integrated into the curriculum. HEIs, local authorities and other agencies can often provide additional support for developing CLIL and opportunities to work together with other schools through learning networks. c) Am I teaching history or languages? Successful CLIL requires the confidence to move away from a single subject focus towards an integrated approach. CLIL involves choosing appropriate themes for learning which offer opportunities for developing skills, knowledge and understanding through the new language which may be relevant to a number of national curriculum subject areas. CLIL encourages teachers to let go of traditional subject boundaries and to pool their subject expertise. All CLIL teachers will need to consider how to teach through the new language and how to build progression in both language and subject area content. As a CLIL teacher it is unlikely that you will be working alone. The CLIL approach is best developed through teamwork. The team will work collaboratively to choose an appropriate theme and to identify key concepts and processes that will be developed through the CLIL approach. Becoming a CLIL teacher means sharing responsibility for teaching and learning across subjects and developing a broader perspective on curriculum design. CLIL aims to combine language using with new learning. d) I only have GCSE French. Can I teach CLIL? Primary and secondary schools with experience of introducing CLIL have often involved teachers with varying levels of language ability. The
Questions and challenges 17
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines swiftest solution for improving language skills is for teachers to work together with a languages specialist. CLIL teachers in secondary schools usually work in partnership with colleagues from different specialist areas. In a CLIL team there will normally be one or more language specialists working with specialists from, for example, science, technology and the humanities. In primary schools CLIL is most effective when it is part of the whole school planning process and involves a number of teachers and teaching assistants in its design and delivery. Through joint planning teachers can exchange subject knowledge and broaden their skills and understanding across different areas, including reviving and extending their capabilities in language. CLIL teams are most successful when there is clear cooperation and a shared vision and direction across subject disciplines. e) How do I make a case for CLIL with my senior leadership team? Current curriculum planning in primary and secondary schools has moved away from rigid subject boundaries. The reduction in prescription about what and how we teach opens the door to far greater autonomy for teachers and pupils. Teachers have increased flexibility in determining the curriculum locally. They can decide how best to engage their pupils and support their learning so that they become successful learners. In a curriculum which emphasises functional skills for learning and life, the challenge for school leaders is how to provide an appropriate programme of language learning. The case for CLIL is compelling. The CLIL approach is entirely flexible. CLIL strengthens the connections between language learning, language using and thinking skills. CLIL involves enquiry, information processing, reasoning, questioning and evaluation. CLIL actively encourages communication through the new language for real purposes, often involving the extensive use of new technologies. The flexibilities offered by the Independent Review of the Primary Curriculum DCSF 2008 for primary schools and the opportunities for innovation presented by the transformed secondary curriculum make this the ideal time for the further expansion of CLIL in our curriculum. CLIL supports cohesion across subjects and actively seeks to connect areas of knowledge, skills and understanding, while also providing a stimulating fresh approach to language learning and use. f) How do I start CLIL in my school? If you are a subject specialist in a secondary school, discuss the benefits of the CLIL approach with other colleagues in your department. Think carefully through your reasons why CLIL is relevant for your school before making an approach to colleagues in the languages department and then to the senior leadership team. If you are a languages specialist, talk to colleagues from 18 Questions and challenges
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines
other departments about the possibility of future collaboration and innovation in the curriculum. Contact colleagues from other schools who have experience of CLIL through national networks such as the Association for Language Learning, the Geographical Association or Science across the World. They may be able to assist in making the case. Once the head teacher is in agreement with developing CLIL, it should be possible to invite a number of colleagues from other departments to express interest in working together to develop a fresh approach to curriculum planning and teaching. If you are in a primary school, the CLIL approach can be used creatively in your medium and short term planning to help you embed language learning into the broader primary curriculum. It is essential to canvass the support of your head teacher and to have a clear rationale for introducing CLIL. Curriculum planning for primary CLIL should involve the class teacher, teaching assistants, the Primary Languages Co-ordinator and other teachers involved in teaching the specific year group. This is particularly important for mixed age classes where the themes chosen for CLIL will need to rotate to avoid duplication. g) How do you organise CLIL? Do I have to give over responsibility for my subject to the languages teacher? CLIL is an approach which actively links the development of knowledge, skills and understanding in both language and subject area content. In a sequence of learning there will be a balance between developing and supporting language learning and developing and supporting content learning. Successful CLIL involves joint planning. The subject area content or theme chosen for CLIL provides the learning route and determines the language that will be needed to access the new learning. Subject area specialists and language specialists work together to design the course. In the longer term one area should not dominate over another, although there will be flexibility so that emphasis can shift from language to subject area content according to the needs of the learners and their rates of progress. A variety of CLIL models exist in primary and secondary schools. Because CLIL is flexible and can be matched to the needs of all age groups and to learners of all abilities, integrating content and language learning can be adapted to individual school settings. CLIL planning should reflect the needs and interests of the learners. As CLIL focuses on integration, the selection of themes suitable for CLIL should not be restricted to rigid subject area boundaries. CLIL involves language and subject area skills but also provides rich and stimulating contexts for learners to develop personal, learning and thinking skills that are relevant to the wider curriculum. CLIL is a suitable vehicle to promote the citizenship agenda and can be very successful in supporting whole school initiatives like eco schools. CLIL models include any of the following: a short series of integrated lessons planned around a theme or topic, involving the subject area content from one or more national curriculum subjects; modular courses lasting half a term where aspects of individual subjects are taught through
"Children who can be unresponsive in other sessions, speak in the language sessions and an able Spanish speaker who has been reluctant to use skills has become more confident in sharing his language knowledge" Questions and challenges 19
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines the language; short intensive courses where the timetable is blocked for one or more days to allow for deeper learning and practical experience of language using; longer-term sustained joint-curriculum delivery and partial immersion. h) Does CLIL mean dumbing down the curriculum? The CLIL approach aspires to engage language learners in meaningful experiences by making connections with other areas of the curriculum and by offering increased opportunities for learners to learn through language. In CLIL lessons learners will regularly use language to research and present information and express feelings and opinions. Planning the curriculum for CLIL requires a commitment from teachers to focus on the development of functional skills and deep learning in both language and subject area content. In a CLIL context the theme of the sequence of learning determines the language that will be needed. One of the central challenges for CLIL teachers is to develop activities and select resources which provide sufficient challenge linguistically and cognitively. The major difference between CLIL and more traditional methods of language learning is that in CLIL lessons new ideas, concepts and language are presented at the same time. CLIL methodology encourages teachers and learners to engage with a wide range of media. CLIL lessons will draw on a rich variety of visual material including photographs, digital video and graphical representations. Learners will apply a range of skills including data handling. Communication in the CLIL classroom will not rely on verbal communication alone. In this way, cognitive challenge can be sustained even if language levels are initially relative low in comparison with the cognitive demands of the subject area content. The challenge for teachers is to raise the level of the language to meet the level of the content and not to fall into the trap of reducing both language and content to low and undemanding levels. This would mean `switch off' for the learners and is not `good' CLIL. i) How do I assess CLIL? What am I testing? CLIL is based on the notion of knowledge and skills transfer. It lends itself readily to a portfolio approach which can encompass skills development over time across a range of subject areas and can include the assessment of performance through languages other than English. In the early stages of CLIL, it is better to focus on formative processes ­ assessment for learning ­ where a more integrated approach to assessment tasks can be developed that connects content (including higher order thinking) and linguistic progression from a more holistic and creative perspective. Usually the methods used to assess learning outcomes in CLIL tend to depend exclusively on local decisions within schools. In secondary schools, teachers in the CLIL team determine the aims of individual courses and agree on assessment procedures. The kinds of assessment used vary 20 Questions and challenges
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according to who is teaching the course and how CLIL contributes to the curriculum overall. A CLIL teacher with a specialism in geography or history who is teaching through the medium of French, German or Spanish is likely to want to assess progression in geographical or historical knowledge and skills at the end of a unit. This could be formally assessed in English (if there are comparable non-CLIL groups) or in the relevant language, as appropriate, but the focus would be on measuring progress in knowledge, skills and understanding from the programme of study for the subject area. The languages department might wish to assess the language learned through the CLIL unit by developing a range of assessment activities, which demonstrate the key concepts and essential skills from the programme of study for languages. The future development of appropriate summative assessment for CLIL at national level is inextricably linked with the revisions of the new GCSE and the development of the new Diploma in Languages and International Communication. Innovation in these areas will support the expansion of CLIL and will provide the means to recognise and accredit language using as a core skill for learning and for life. The revised GCSE opens up opportunities to assess language through a CLIL approach. This will lead to a recognised award on the qualifications framework. GCSE specifications (for first teaching from September 2009, with first full course award in 2011) include the possibility for schools to design their own controlled assessment tasks for speaking and writing. While the assessment of listening and reading in the new GCSEs will still be based on the themes or topics prescribed in the specification, individual schools will be able to design their own assessments for speaking and writing which can reflect content of their choice. There are also changes to the weighting of the assessment objectives. The weighting for listening and reading has been reduced to 20% for each skill. Speaking and writing will be weighted at 30% each. This means that a school, if it wishes, will be able to design its own assessment components with a CLIL focus and that these will account for 60% of the total GCSE assessment for language. Alternative accreditation with a vocational focus is already available for students opting for languages in Key Stage 4 or in the Sixth Form. The forms of accreditation are flexible enough to be equally relevant to young people wishing to study in the workplace. Asset Languages for the World of Work offers a new qualification for 14-19, which is accredited by QCA. External assessment is now available in Spanish, French and German. Test materials are available at Preliminary and Intermediate Stages only, following the premise that Breakthrough language skills are so general that they underpin both general and vocational areas. The Asset philosophy is based on single skill assessment + functional literacy. The new tests are similar in style to general Asset qualifications but are set in vocational contexts. There is some limited degree of choice of contexts to provide greater relevance to students where possible.
"Learning vocabulary and then being able to use it in an outdoor context means that the boys have a concrete goal ­ working with their team and using German is the only way to get to the top of the climbing wall! " Questions and challenges 21
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines For students post-16 seeking to develop CLIL for vocational purposes, OCR offers a Certificate in Business Language Competence (CBLC). The qualification is intended to accredit knowledge and use of business vocabulary and communicative competence in a business context. The qualification is particularly relevant for students who wish to acquire language skills for their work or alongside their work and need a qualification that they can take when they are ready. It is currently available in French, German, Spanish and Italian at Entry Level and Levels 1-3 and at Entry Level in Japanese and Russian. The structure of the qualification offers a unit-based approach. This enables students to work towards particular objectives at a given level and to build up unit certificates while working towards the full award. The CBLC is 100% externally assessed. j) The new Diplomas and the CLIL approach The new Diploma in Languages and International Communication will encourage cross-curriculum collaboration and will require the learning of a very flexible range of subject areas through another language. From within the specified contexts of i) culture, the arts and sport, ii) business and enterprise, iii) humanities and social sciences and iv) science and technology, learners will be able to study their own areas of particular interest and will be expected to demonstrate and apply their knowledge and understanding of the content as well as their language skills. The Diplomas will be delivered via a consortium approach made up of schools, FE colleges, universities and employers. This will broaden the scope of possible choice and will enable learners/consortia the opportunity to develop language skills assimilated into purposeful contexts that are of current relevance and of personal interest to the students. Schools which already provide language learning using the CLIL approach and which have already developed learning programmes within specific curriculum areas will be able to share and build on this experience within the Diploma consortia. In addition, by 2013 there will be 17 Diplomas available as an entitlement for 14-19 year olds (including the Diploma in Languages and International Communication), any of which may include a language in the optional component. There will be opportunities for the language learning to be applied to the main area of study e.g. ICT, Society Health and Development, Travel and Tourism. 22 Questions and challenges
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7. Available support As the CLIL movement rapidly gains momentum, different types of support are becoming more readily available. Digital networks are increasing and often provide a multi-purpose virtual `one-stop-shop' ­ to enable professionals to exchange and share practice through blogs and wikis, to access good ideas, to download materials and to read new reports. Sites that support CLIL using languages other than English are particularly useful since many of the European sites promote English as the CLIL language. 7.1 Digital networks Some examples are provided below: Teacher networks in the UK ALL (Association of Language Learning) has a SIG (Special Interest Group) for CLIL and is developing a site for materials sharing CLIL4teachers has an online wiki to share ideas and a resources bank http://clil4teachers.pbwiki.com Teacher networks outside the UK European teacher networks are often linked to Comenius projects. Networks such as these provide useful information about conferences and meetings. CLIL Cascade Network (CCN) CCN is a free international resource for all educators involved with CLIL working at different levels of education, and in different languages. It is co-financed by the European Commission (LLP). CCN aims to consolidate local, regional and national network activities in CLIL at a European level in support of the development of teacher competences and qualifications. www.ccn-clil.eu Needs analysis An on-line self-evaluation tool can be accessed to assist in prioritising professional development needs http://clilcom.stadia.fi/ The Global Gateway Managed by the British Council, the global gateway brings an international dimension to the curriculum. It offers funding opportunities to schools and individuals to form links with other schools or colleagues across the world. It provides mechanisms to develop international projects and to participate in training and curriculum innovation. www.globalgateway.org.uk
"`The children are encouraged to be `language detectives' and try to work intelligently using context, pictures, cognates as clues. They are beginning to see language as a tool and are becoming more confident learners." Available support 23
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines 7.2 Setting up a CLIL team Perhaps the most important CLIL professional development grows from small teams working in the same school or similar schools. A local university and its Education Department can often offer support to schools in forming learning communities to engage in classroom research. Working with the senior leadership team also helps to link CLIL to the development of each school's specialism. CLIL needs to be part of the development plan and included in whole school targets and professional development programmes so that CLIL becomes embedded into the curriculum. Reading case studies from other schools, and carrying out an internet search for on-line MA courses and summer schools for CLIL in the UK will also provide inspiration and both practical and theoretical guidance. 7.3 Resources Although there are currently few published resources available in textbook format specifically aimed at CLIL in languages other than English, using textbooks from other countries to provide ideas and specialised language support to teach subject area content can be very helpful. However, published resources from Europe can rarely be used in their entirety in the English classroom due to the different cultural approaches associated with particular subject content, complex language which may be inaccessible to the learners or mismatched content which does not readily dovetail with the National Curriculum for England. Recently, perhaps as a result of the Key Stage 2 Framework for Languages, which encourages making connections between subjects and favours embedding language teaching within the primary curriculum, excellent and innovative primary resources have begun to be published for primary schools. An example of a recent and relevant publication is: `А la franзaise' Authentik Language Learning Resources Kristina Tobutt ISBN 978-1-905275-25-0 Based on the premise that valid content can be taught through language, this resource provides learning activities for aspects of maths (numbers up to 100, shapes, mental calculations and currency), science (comparing animals), geography (using maps, La Rйunion, Europe), music (recognizing different musical instruments), art (Matisse, colour and form, designing a model), history (the Vikings in France, and child labour in the 19th century), and P.E. (following instructions). 24 Available support
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines 7.4 Creating resources An important key message is that creating CLIL materials is not about translating existing resources but requires teachers to make independent decisions about how the new content will be taught and what language will be required for learning to take place. This process requires teachers to think about subject specific language and the language that learners will need to interact with the new knowledge and develop their skills. A useful starting point is Science Across the World, where CLIL teachers are supported in global curriculum linking through sharing a range of science topics based on simple, readymade materials. http://www.scienceacross.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=content.show homepage&CFID=720555&CFTOKEN=96223004 It can be helpful to access a range of teacher-made CLIL materials which are in English ­ especially those with lesson plans and teacher notes. This provides teachers with insight into how to develop bespoke materials including the pitfalls to avoid. EAL (English as additional language) materials also provide good examples of how content may need to be restructured to take account of language levels being at a lower level than the cognitive demands of the tasks. http://www.onestopclil.com/ http://www.opeko.fi/clilnetwork/englanti/about_clil.htm http://www.xtec.net/crle/05/aicle.htm http://www.isabelperez.com/clil.htm Available support 25
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines
8. Future perspectives As we develop a collective vision of language learning for the 21st century, we could argue that CLIL is not only a pragmatic solution to curriculum delivery but also an essential feature of an entitlement to plurilingual, pluricultural learning, offering cohesion and progression in the language learning apprenticeship. As we engage in finding a new direction for language learning in response to developments in the primary and secondary curricula, we are being invited to step out into new territory and broaden our vision of learning. The question for teachers is no longer how to teach language in a discrete capsule within an overcrowded curriculum, but how to promote and support learning with and through language, or, indeed, a number of languages. Our challenge for the curriculum is how to reconceptualise basic literacy to include Mother Tongue, second and third language literacies and digital literacy. Our aspiration for languages education is to nurture and develop a new generation of language learners who will become the plurilingual, pluricultural citizens of tomorrow, ready to play their part within an increasingly mobile democratic European and world community. Our aspirations for CLIL · Learners who become genuinely pluriliterate building knowledge, skills and understanding through using more than one language in the curriculum and in the wider world · Learners who develop greater intercultural understanding by recognising their own values and those of others · Learners who develop functional skills that are transferable across the curriculum improving learning and preparing learners for life · Learners who are willing to listen, willing to question, willing to challenge and defend, willing to adapt and develop richer perspectives on local and global issues, committed to developing an international outlook towards citizenship and social cohesion.
"`I see their language learning in terms of a spiral, we're always using previously learnt language in new contexts. CLIL provides the opportunities to teach within new contexts"
26 Future perspectives
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines 9. Inside the Classroom ­ Case studies We recognise that many schools are developing CLIL approaches and there is strength in continuing to share new initiatives. The following case studies illustrate just some of the current CLIL activity in our schools. If you would like to showcase your work through the online version of our guidelines, please contact us at [email protected] These examples illustrate key characteristics of effective teaching and learning through CLIL. They offer a wide variety of different curriculum models, representing primary and secondary school approaches to CLIL. Each case study offers brief background information and often includes relevant quotations from teachers, trainees and learners. There are also references to urls which link to digital video clips of CLIL in operation in the classroom. It is interesting to note that some schools have worked independently to develop CLIL within the curriculum, while others are part of a community of practice, which provides opportunities for schools new to CLIL to network with more experienced colleagues. Inside the Classroom 27
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines
Focus on Primary
(i) Christchurch Junior School Christchurch Junior School in Bristol has been involved in CLIL for 3 years. The initiative led by Jayne Wright and Katie Wilson involves classes in years 3 and 4 for one hour per week. The topics, which are taught through the medium of French, integrate History, Geography and Science themes such as the Tudors, Planets and Habitats. At Christchurch Junior School, there is a focus on CLIL being active and multisensory. For example, during a History topic on the Field of the Cloth of Gold, an ebook in French was used to launch the topic, supported by authentic images from the period. Children were involved in music, dancing, simulated jousting and authentic pastimes all taught through the medium of French. Improvised dialogue using shadow puppets encouraged the more able learners to be creative, giving them opportunities to reuse language in a number of different contexts. The school, supported by its language coordinator, has now developed KS2 schemes of work, which incorporate CLIL units. Teachers are engaged in language improvement and a former PGCE student
from the University of the West of England7 with a specialism in language is now a permanent member of staff and has adopted CLIL approaches. The teachers believe that the children's intercultural understanding is enhanced due to careful unit planning. There is an emphasis on creative language use and problem-solving which enhances the children's strategic competence. The children are actively engaged in their learning and are so highly motivated that during the project they wanted to involve their families, teaching them Tudor songs and how to dance the Pavane. As one pupil said It's more fun and encourages us to learn more. And well... I enjoy it! For further information about the West of England initiative: http://www.tes.co.uk/ article.aspx?storycode=2615969 7The University of the West of England, under the leadership of Sue Hughes, has participated in a TDA initiative involving a group of HEIs in collaboration with training institutions in France to provide trans-national school experiences. Many of the HEIs have opted to include a CLIL approach.
(ii) Great Milton CE Primary
Great Milton Primary school in Oxfordshire has been using cross-curricular CLIL approaches for four years. Vivienne Powell has led the initiative which involves all primary learners from Foundation to Year 6 where a range of topics including literacy, maths, history, geography and art are taught through the medium of French. With currently 6 classes, French topics last 1-2 terms (6-12 weeks) and are built around previously learned language. Topics are on a 2-3 cycle but are constantly evolving. For example, in Yrs 4-6 during a topic on Victorian times, children discovered 19th century France through transport and art in French. The children have half an hour per week in Years 1-3 and one hour per week in Years 4-6. Staff feel that some of the benefits of adopting a CLIL approach are:
Curriculum organisation ­ linking French teaching with other areas of the curriculum seemed the most natural way to teach in a small primary with mixed year groups, mixed cohorts of children and following a 2-3 year cycle of topic themes just as we do in other curriculum areas Our children have a positive attitude to learning languages; they transfer their skills to learn other languages in one off sessions e.g. Polish, Arabic, Hebrew and I believe see themselves as having the ability to learn languages The children are used to thinking about how they learn and to reflecting on the skills they have acquired and re-used. I see their language learning in terms of a spiral, we're always using previously learnt language in new contexts. CLIL provides the opportunities to teach within new contexts Vivienne Powell
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(iii) Hagbourne Primary School Hagbourne Primary School in Oxfordshire has been involved with CLIL for two years. Led by Pippa Jacobs and Sarah-Jane Dawes, 9 and 10 year olds experience some History and Science taught through the medium of French one lesson per week. The Science topic focuses on forces. The children play games with a parachute to learn about wind force, carry out experiments to do with gravity and air resistance, and as a DT link, they make kites. They learn to present their findings to others in a confident way. The culmination of the project is a visit to Berck-sur-mer, France, to the International Kite Festival.
`The children are encouraged to be `language detectives' and try to work intelligently using context, pictures, cognates as clues. They are beginning to see language as a tool and are becoming more confident learners. They always enjoy role-play, so in our Science lessons there are 3 characters: Mme Prйdiction, M. Pourquoi and M. Parce que. These 3 people (played by different children for each experiment) have significance in the scientific thinking process being encouraged, but also give scope for extending the spoken language in lessons. Science worked well as a CLIL subject because the language is logical and specific to the task in hand'. Pippa Jacobs
(iv) Leighton Primary School
At Leighton Primary School in Crewe, Andrea Price, a specialist primary language teacher in German, leads the CLIL initiative with a team of teachers including the artist in residence, Sarah Hayes. A CLIL approach is used with all key stage 2 classes focussing on Arts and Outdoor Adventure in German. The CLIL Art projects include creating and working with a German polar bear Knut. In Year 4, creative art work features discussions around Warhol, Hundertwasser and Kandinsky. The reception class focuses on German toys and Steiff teddy bears. The Outdoor Adventure programme is run in conjunction with an outdoor activity centre, which employs two German nationals each year as part of their community service. Activities are planned with Phil Limburg and Claire Flexen to ensure the content is suitably challenging physically and linguistically. outdoor activities relate to different ages for example: reception classes use their German numbers for orienteering, whilst year 5 children learn how to use the climbing wall, zip wire and play team games in German. They are awarded a Kletterurkunde. There is also a French dance club where Andrea works with the ML support Belinda Matthews, who with more limited language knowledge has embraced the ideas behind CLIL and uses her music specialism to enhance the French and German clubs.
Many of the CLIL activities have come from ideas that originated from the children. The Knut artwork for example was developed after children had written and sent pictures to Knut at Berlin zoo. The children really enjoyed making their `own' Knut and have enjoyed explaining the German words to the younger children. The days at Petty Pool have been hugely popular with all children including under-achieving boys. Learning vocabulary and then being able to use it in an outdoor context means that the boys have a concrete goal ­ working with their team and using German is the only way to get to the top of the climbing wall! I have also noticed an improvement in the confidence in some of the quieter girls who dislike sporting activities in general. Their academic strength in German has helped them to become part of a team and they have then tackled the sporting activities with enthusiasm that I have not seen before. Andrea Price (German Teacher of the Year Award, 2007) (Leighton is a PASCH School ­ Partners for the Future-supported by the Goethe Institut)
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(v) Spring Gardens Primary School, North Tyneside
Laura Craigen is a primary teacher in North Tyneside. She has been developing units of work in Geography and Science through French for children aged 10 to 11. Laura began to develop CLIL through a TDA initiative and was rather sceptical at first. However, following the children's reactions to her lessons and the positive learning outcomes, she has become convinced of the benefits of the CLIL approach. Her initial CLIL lessons formed part of a unit of work in Geography comparing water use in UK and in Africa. The children's responses were very enthusiastic and they readily accepted learning through French. Laura believes that their increased motivation and levels of concentration came about because they were working at a higher cognitive level.
Following her first successful experience of CLIL she has now developed a package of materials designed to prepare Year Six pupils for their Science SAT. Some of the topics include Keeping Healthy, Changing States and The Water Cycle. Through the TDA project she is working with the Local Authority advisers and the University of Newcastle developing resources and training initial teachers in how to use CLIL methodology while on their placements. For further information, please read the article in The Guardian: http://guardianmail.co.uk/go. asp?/bGUA001/qOX7H29/x2SR039
(vi) St Mary Magdalene Academy St Mary Magdalene Academy is a mixed school in the heart of Islington, London which opened to Year 7 and Primary age students in September 2007. The Academy, specialises in Humanities and Global Citizenship. CLIL has been introduced by a student teacher working with staff to integrate the learning of Spanish across the curriculum and provide students with maximum exposure to the language. For example, the Healthy Choices topic included a Science/Literacy unit with a focus on instruction and recipe writing which students followed in Spanish. Still life paintings of tropical fruit by the Mexican artist Frida Kahlo, were used as creative input for students own art work which was collated and posted to the school's link school in Mexico. Posters in Spanish highlighting `5 a day' are displayed in the `Spanish cafeterнa' role-play area. One child's mother, who is Columbian, presented a traditional Columbian recipe book, and gave instructions in Spanish for the children to make recipes. The
school is also involved with the Consejerнa de Educaciуn and the Arsenal Spanish Double Club. Once a week, Laura and the KS1 football teacher, also a fluent Spanish speaker, deliver a 45 minute session of football-related language games. Other teachers use the multimedia resources provided by the Double Club scheme, but supplement these with real Spanish and Latin American material such as online goal clips, games and activities developed for Spanish children on various Spanish football teams websites. The P.E. coach now uses Spanish in P.E. warm-up games, and the register is called in Spanish. Children who can be unresponsive in other sessions, speak in the language sessions and an able Spanish speaker who has been reluctant to use skills has become more confident in sharing his language knowledge Laura House (Teach First Trainee)
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(vii) West Drayton Primary Another Teach First trainee Jennifer Livesey has been introducing CLIL at West Drayton Primary school in Middlesex. Based in year 6, Jennifer has been integrating CLIL approaches in maths, science, PE and music. Activities include the use of maths starters and plenaries in French, PE warm ups in
French and a range of Science activities to encourage thinking skills. Jennifer believes that integrating language learning has increased the children's motivation, particularly in year 6. Building in explicit links with literacy has improved the children's understanding of sentence structure.
(viii) Downderry Primary School Tamil Academy for Language and Arts (TALA)
Downderry Primary School in the London Borough of Lewisham has been focussing on a Tamil class to support the learning and development of the children's first language through a CLIL experience based on Tamil dance. Led by Siva Pillai, the director of TALA, Kristhuraja Nithiya and Chandradevi Balachandran, the classes held on Fridays after school are enjoyed by over 40 multilingual students. In the early stages there was emphasis on language itself but these classes have now used the skills of Muthuswamy Navaraj to combine Tamil language development with dance skills. Using the Asset
Languages levels and the National Curriculum for Dance, the young people experience a 10-week unit on South Indian Classical Dance, culminating in a public performance. The unit is methodically organised with detailed lesson plans crossreferenced to key strategies, which result in a motivating and rich-cultural experience for the young people involved. The unit is supported by Goldsmiths College. http://www.ourlanguages.org.uk/teachinglearning/resources/schemes-of-work/tamil
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Focus on Secondary
(ix) Chenderit School Chenderit School is a rural mixed comprehensive school with a visual arts specialism on the Oxfordshire/Northamptonshire border. The CLIL programme started in 2008 with all year 7 students having some CLIL experiences in Geography, ICT, PHSE or tutorials in French or German. The CLIL team consists of subject and language teachers including Judith Woodfield (Geography through French); Tony Vickers (PSHE through French); Katherine Mobberley (ICT through German); Lisa Dolan and John Robertson, subject leaders for Languages (Tutorials through French and German). The CLIL lessons follow different subject schemes of work although the order of the modules has changed to accommodate CLIL. For example in Geography, map work is the first module instead of globalisation. In tutorial time, messages are delivered in the target language linked to PSHE topics including modules on Building Learning Power. Seeing how well the learners deal with language at a higher cognitive level is leading to a reassessment of the topics covered in normal language lessons.
A CLIL classroom is very visual and much time goes into preparing lessons which are multi-sensory, catering for a wide range of learning styles. 99% of students are pleased to be following the course. In March of Year 7, all of the students have reached their Year 7 target grades or above in their modern foreign language. The host subject is performing at the same level in French as in English. This pattern completely replicates a pattern found at a previous school where one of the teachers taught. Students are achieving higher grades on their reports for independent learning. Parents report that their children are finding learning a language very easy! There are huge benefits for the staff involved - it is great professional development. Judith Woodfield (Deputy Headteacher) http://www.all-nsc.org.uk/nsc/?q=node/ 94 (video) For further information, please read the article in The Guardian: http://guardianmail.co.uk/go. asp?/bGUA001/qOX7H29/x2SR039
(x) Elliott School The Elliott School, a Languages College in Putney, London, has been involved with CLIL for over seven years under the leadership of Neil Jones (Assistant Headteacher). Starting in KS2 cluster primary schools for one hour per week with year 6 learners, elements of the Geography curriculum are delivered through French. This continues into KS3 for five hours per fortnight with a range of topics relating to Geography and Art being taught and reinforced in language lessons. Topics include the physical and human geography of Burkina Faso in West Africa, climate zones, comparative studies of transport systems in Paris and London and volcanoes - using La Rйunion as a case study. Students make models of volcanoes in Art. CLIL approaches continue in KS4 through the Applied French GCSE (Leisure and Tourism) programme.
All KS3 French lessons follow the CLIL model.... Content and Language Integrated Learning allows language to be developed the same as in any normal scheme of work, but it places great importance on the development of thinking skills and cultural understanding. Many KS3 Framework objectives are addressed by a CLIL delivery. Neil Jones http://tinyurl.com/ycdamq http://www.elliott-school.org.uk/ http://www.tes.co.uk/article. aspx?storycode=2101026
32 Case studies
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines
(xi) Tile Hill Wood Tile Hill Wood School & Language College is an 11-18 girls' comprehensive with approximately 1400 pupils on roll. The school gained Language College status in 1998 and was designated a High Performing Specialist School, therefore taking up a second specialism in vocational education. All pupils in Year 7 are involved in an entitlement to CLIL. Each mixed-ability tutor group of approximately 30 pupils receives one of the following subjects taught through the medium of French: Science, Geography, PSHE, modules in Maths/Music. The subjects are taught by subject specialists through French with an additional input from French teachers on a weekly basis, when one of the timetabled French lessons is devoted to teaching the content subject. At the end of Year 7 pupils are able to achieve NC Level 5+ in the different skills in French. In the content subject, average and above average pupils achieve in line with expectations with lower-ability pupils exceeding their end of Year 7 predictions. Pupils find CLIL work challenging in the first instance, but are soon motivated by the challenge, the sense of success and their high levels of attainment. The main differences between a CLIL lesson and an ordinary language lesson are that pupils are required to think more about the content than the language.
Pupils are challenged by the content, producing lessons which make demands on pupils' cognitive ability while initially operating at a relatively low linguistic level. Pupils are motivated by the content in the CLIL lessons and the language becomes a tool for delivery. The content requires pupils to think, to hypothesise, to justify opinions and to access challenging concepts. Overall pupils develop better listening skills and gain confidence through experience of the rich range of teaching techniques. There are clear benefits to transferable skills with evidence that pupils who have been involved in CLIL have used these skills effectively across the curriculum. "I have really enjoyed learning interesting topics in French. It can be challenging, but I have become much better at problem-solving and I am prepared to take risks. Everyone should have the opportunity to have a go!" Y7 pupil Tile Hill Wood In 2006 the school won the European Award for Languages, combined with the Mary Glasgow Award for immersion teaching. Anastasia Neofitou, Curriculum Leader for MFL For further information please read the article http://www.tes.co.uk/article/ aspx?storycode=2131270
(xii) St Aidan's RC School for boys St Aidan's Language College in Sunderland has been involved with CLIL for over 4 years. AST in MFL, Andrea Simpson and the Director of Learning for Geography, Matthew Morris, have developed a twelve lesson module teaching Geography through the medium of French by examining the Earth's structure, tectonic plates, volcanic formation and eruption using Rйunion Island and its active volcano (Le Piton de la Fournaise) as a case study. The project is taught either during Geography lessons or during French lessons to mixed ability tutor groups. Feedback from the boys is most positive. Comments include:
It is more interesting; I enjoyed the lessons; it has helped me understand the geography side of things better; it is about a real place where our penpals live; I would rather learn French this way, it is much more useful; it is good to see our French teacher learning geography and our geography teacher speaking French. Andrea Simpson (AST) www.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/ nationalstrategies/mfl
Lesson 2 of the project was filmed for the National Strategies and clips from this including teachers' and students' views can be viewed as follows: www.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/nationalstrategies/mfl. Click on `CPD' under the blue heading `Section in Modern Foreign Languages'. Scroll down the page to `Module 16 ­ Motivation & Participation'. Click `join' at the bottom right of the page ­ you will then create a user name and password which you will need each time you access the site for any of the modules available.
Case studies 33
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines
Focus on Communities of Practice The CLIL Consortium Pilot Project (CCPP) The CCPP links a group of schools, which are piloting professional development opportunities for CLIL including sharing ideas and materials, edited video recordings of their lessons and engaging in class-based inquiry. The network aims to build a CLIL community of schools consisting of some with extensive experience and others starting CLIL. Current schools are: The Minster School, Southwell, Nottinghamshire; South Wolds School, Keyworth, Nottinghamshire; the Willink School, Berkshire; Hockerill Anglo-European School, Hertfordshire and Grays Convent School, Essex. The pilot project is a joint professional learning project between the Training School Initiative at Hockerill Anglo-European College (Mike Ullmann) and the University of Aberdeen (Do Coyle) using the LOCIT8 process to discuss and reflect on effective CLIL classroom practice.
8 LOCIT: Lesson Observation and Critical Incident Technique is an approach to class-based enquiry, which involves both teachers and learners in analysing their CLIL lessons to agree on how learning happens. For further information refer to Coyle, Hood and Marsh (2010) CLIL, Cambridge University Press
(xiii) Hockerill Anglo-European College
Hockerill Language and Music College in Bishop's Stortford, Hertfordshire has been developing a CLIL approach to the curriculum for over 12 years due to pioneering work led by Mike Ullmann. Now well established, the college delivers CLIL in years 7 to 10 in Geography, History, Music, Maths and Science through the medium of French and German. The whole History and Geography curriculum is delivered n French or German to 80% of Year 9 (three hours per fortnight), and to 60% of Year 10 (five hours per fortnight). Other subjects are taught using a modular format. Over the years, teams of subject and language teachers have been engaged in the bilingual programme including current staff: Marina Fraser, Mike Ullman, Sarah Rittman, Tanje Keuger and Axel Geissler.
It is clear that our bilingual (CLIL) work has been one of the key features in the academic improvement within the College. It has attracted a huge amount of media attention simply because the process works and works well. Results in later GCSE and IB exams have always been good and sometimes excellent therefore countering the argument about lowering standards in the other discipline. Mike Ullmann (Head of the Language College and winner of the Guardian Award for Teacher of the Year 2005 in a Secondary School). http://www.cilt.org.uk/14to19/intensive/ clil/hockerill_video.htm http://www.tes.co.uk/article. aspx?storycode=393325
34 Case studies
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines
(xiv) Grays Convent High School
Grays Convent School is a girls Language College in Grays, Essex. The Head of Modern Languages, Sophie da Silva, inspired by CLIL meetings at Hockerill Anglo European College started to work with the Geography and Art departments to carry out team teaching in French in 2007. However, from 2008, a new approach to CLIL is gaining in popularity. CLIL History lessons are offered before school once a week on a voluntary basis to year 8 and year 9 students. Over 50 students study
History topics through French since `we thought that History was a subject which lent itself to different perspectives'. The topics include an exploration of cave art in Lascau and the French Revolution. After winning a grant from the LSU Foundation, students who attend are also offered a subsidised visit to Paris at the end of their CLIL project. A particular feature of the Grays' approach is that achievement is celebrated since students are there to be motivated whatever their ability.
(xv) Willink School
The Willink School, a comprehensive school and Language College on the Berkshire/Hampshire border, has been piloting teaching a History module through French to all year 7 students since September 2008. The CLIL module is taught by languages staff (Katie Lee, Emily Townsend and Sarah Harris) after team planning with a History teacher (Sally Mercade). The historical theme focuses on the construction of castles which are taught in language lessons at the same time as the History department are teaching other aspects of the castles topic in English. CLIL lessons were taught entirely in French and learner participation was also in French.
Pupils are confident communicating in French and see it as normal that meaningful content can be communicated using French. As we have introduced this from the start, they are used to taking risks and using problem-solving strategies to help them understand and communicate. Immersion lessons with beginners are by nature based on a series of thinking skills and problem-solving activities. Katie Lee (Assistant Headteacher) http://www.westberks.org/GroupHomepage. asp?GroupID=44982
Case studies 35
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines
(xvi) The Minster School
The Minster School is a specialist Humanities and Music College in Southwell, Nottinghamshire. Under the leadership of Michele Atkinson, the school has piloted teaching modules of Geography and Mathematics through the medium of French. Subject teachers in both curricular areas have delivered the lessons with the support of the languages department. The focus of mathematics module has been angles (John Strain) and for geography (Adam Vaughn) climate change. Paul Stevens will be developing a digital repository for the outcomes of the consortium research.
This is what the students had to say about CLIL I didn't learn just French but learning maths as well... it made you understand but doing maths at the same time Here you were using the language more fluently putting it all together I wouldn't change anything because its taught me a lot of French The learning moments were: explanation bits when our teacher explained something or when we figured out something ourselves... It makes it more memorable when it is another language because you remember things, which are different.
(xvii) South Wolds Community School
South Wolds is a Language College on the outskirts of Nottingham. From the 2007, a class of year 7 students who opted to be in the bilingual class, have been studying their History through French. Led by Susan Ritordis (History Department) and Rachel Robinson (Languages Department). Here's what some of the students said about how they learn in CLIL lessons: Acting out important historical elements helps you to understand more about history and you learn things quicker. I like sorting cards because instead of just being told the information, you need to think through the task and because you are actually doing something it stays in your memory.
I learn best when I am in a group because we can all share ideas and put our ideas together and figure out what they mean. Also when we work in groups there is a good chance that if you don't understand a member of your group will and they can explain it... when we work in groups it makes us you feel more confident because you know if another person thinks your answer is right you are more likely to put up your hand and tell it to the whole class. If you just translate one key word that you don't know it helps the whole sentence slot together. Rachel Robinson
36 Case studies
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines
Focus on Initial Teacher Education
(xviii) Goldsmiths Cross-Curricular Art and Design/Languages
A highly successful cross-curricular approach is being adopted for PGCE Secondary Languages students at Goldsmiths College, London. A CLIL unit on Art and Design with Languages builds on both communication and culture elements offered by both subjects. The unit also explores the broader literacy implications embedded in identity and culture (Anderson 2009). The experiences encourage future teachers to explore crosscurricular potential, offer motivating opportunities for young people, understand better the links
between culture and creativity and provide a model for collaboration in terms of curricular planning and resources. With a theoretical base rooted in an adaptation of the 4Cs Framework and Cummin's work, the unit is practice-oriented and results in student teachers creating lesson plans ready for putting into action during their practicum alongside discussions with experienced teachers who provide practical examples drawn from their own schools.
Case studies 37
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines 10. Bibliography Anderson, J. (2009) Relevance of CLIL in developing pedagogies for minority language teaching. In Marsh, D., Meehisto, P., Wolff, D., Aliaga, R., Asiakinen, T., Frigols-Martin, M. J., Hughes, S., Lange, G. (eds) CLIL Practice: Perspectives from the Field, pp. 124-132, CCN: University of Jyvдskylд ( Finland ). http://www.icpj.eu/ Baetens-Beardsmore, H. (1993) Introduction in H. Baetens-Beardsmore (ed.) European Models of Bilingual Education, MultiLingual Matters: Clevedon. Baetens-Beardsmore, H. (1999) in D. Marsh, Marsland, B., Maljers, A (eds.) CLIL Intiatives for the Millenium: Report on the CEILINK Think-Tank, Jyvaskyla: University of Jyvaskyla. Baker, P. and Eversley, J. (eds) (2000) Multilingual Capital, London: Battlebridge Boston, K. (2007) Qualifications and Curriculum Agency Chief Executive http://www.qca.org.uk/qca_10899.aspx de Bot, K. (2002) Relevance of CLIL to the European Commission's Language Learning Objectives, in D. Marsh, (ed.), CLIL/EMILE- The European Dimension: Actions, Trends and Foresight Potential Public Services Contract DG EAC: European Commission, Strasbourg. Brinton, D.M and P. Master. (eds) (1997) New Ways in Content-Based Interaction. New Ways in TESOL Series II Innovative Classroom Techniques. Jack C. Richards Series Editor. Bloomington: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. Chaput, P. (1993). Revitalizing the Traditional Program In: Kreuger and Ryan (eds.) Language and Content: Discipline- and Content-Based Approaches to Language Study. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath. CLIP: Content and Language Integrated project (CILT/DfES) Online: http://www.cilt.org.uk/clip/#toppage Commission of the European Communities (1995) White Paper: Teaching and Learning ­ Towards the Learning Society, Objective IV, Council of Europe, DGV, Brussels. Commission of the European Communities (2005) A New Framework Strategy for Multilingualism http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/policies/lang/doc/com596_en.pdf Cook, V. (2001) Second Language Learning and Language Teaching 3rd Edition London: Arnold Coyle, D. (2005) Developing CLIL: Towards a Theory of Practice, APAC Monograph 6, APAC, Barcelona. Coyle, D., Hood, P. and Marsh, D. (2010) Content and Language Integrated Learning Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Crandall, J. A. and Tucker, G. R. (1990). Content-based language instruction in second and foreign languages In Anivan, S. (ed.) Language teaching methodology for the nineties, (pp.83-96). Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre. ED 366 187 Cummins J. and Swain, M. (1986) Bilingualism in Education: Theory, Research and Policy. London: Longman Dearing R. and King L (2007) The Languages Review. Nottingham: Department for Education and Skills Publications http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/_doc/11124/LanguageReview.pdf DfES (2002) Languages for All: Languages for Life ­ A Strategy for England. London: DfES Dobson, A (2005) Content and Language Integration Project (CLIP) External Evaluation Report ­ A Commentary on Progress and Issues: CILT 38 Bibliography
Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines
Dцrnyei, Z. (2001) Motivational Strategies in the Language Classroom Cambridge: CUP Eurydice Report 2006 http://www.eurydice.org/ Evans, M. and Fisher, L. (2009) Language Learning at Key Stage 3: The Impact of the Key Stage 3 Modern Foreign Languages Framework and changes to the curriculum on provision and practice DCSF Genesee, F. (1994). Educating Second Language Children. New York: Cambridge University Press. Graddol, D. (2006) English Next Plymouth: British Council Grenfell, M. (ed) (2002) Modern Languages Across the Curriculum London: Routledge Falmer Holmes, B. (2005) Language Learning for the 21st Century ­ the normalisation of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) within the curriculum for England Position Paper: CILT Hood, P. (2005) in Wiesemes, R. (2005) The Final Report for the Content and Language Integrated Project. London: CILT Krueger, M. & Ryan, F. (Eds.). (1993) Language and content: Discipline- and contentbased approaches to language study, 85-102. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath. Marsh, D. (2005) Guardian Weekly `Adding language without taking away' http://www.guardian.co.uk/guardianweekly/story/0,,1464367,00.html Marsh, D (Ed) (2002) CLIL/EMILE- The European Dimension: Actions, Trends and Foresight Potential Public Services Contract DG EAC: European Commission Marsh, D., Marsland, B., and Maljers, A. (1999) CLIL Initiatives for the Millenium: Report on the CEILINK Think-Tank, Jyvaskyla: University Jyvaskyla. Met, M. (1998) Curriculum decision-making in content-based language teaching, in C. Cenoz., and Genesee, F (eds.), Beyond bilingualism: multilingualism and multilingual education, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Mohan, B. (1986) Language and Content, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA. National Consensus (2001) The Office for National Statistics http://www.statistics.gov.uk/census/default.asp Nuffield Language Inquiry (2000) The Final Report Nuffield Languages Enquiry Languages: the Next Generation. London: Nuffield Foundation Nunan, D. (2004) Task-Based Language Teaching, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. OFSTED 1998 Secondary Subject Reports 1996/1997 Modern Foreign Languages. www.ofsted.gov.uk OFSTED Report 2008 The Changing Landscape of languages www.ofsted.gov.uk Smithers, R and B. Whitford (2006) `Free fall' fears as pupils abandon languages in Guardian Weekly Friday August 25, 2006 http://education.guardian.co.uk/gcses/story/0,,1857964,00.html Stoller, F. (2002) Content-Based Instruction: A Shell for Language Teaching or a Framework for Strategic Language and Content Learning? TESOL: Plenary Address, Salt Lake City, UT. http://www.carla.umn.edu/cobaltt/modules/index.html?curriculum/main.html Wiesemes, R. (2005) The Final Report for the Content and Language Integrated Project. London: CILT Willis, D. and J. Willis. (2001) Task-based language learning. In R. Carter and D. Nunan (eds) The Cambridge Guide to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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Towards an integrated curriculum ­ CLIL National Statement and Guidelines Notes 40
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