Toxicity and accumulation of lead and chromium in Hydrocotyle umbellata

Tags: Thailand, Mahidol University, accumulation, lead nitrate, Commission on Higher Education, Post-graduate Education, Burapha University, Ministry of Education, Environmental Science, Research Program, Mahidol University International College, Environmental Science, Technology and Management, BABYLONIA AREOLATA, digestive system, Hydrocotyle umbellata, Kasetsart University, cadmium exposure, Typha angustifolia, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Cr, toxicity symptoms, alterations, CADMIUM POISONING, Bangkok, Thailand, Environmental Biology, religious ideology, religious reform, religious reforms, Travel Industry Management Division, KING MONGKUT, Hilltop Palace, Experimental Parasitology, political vision, Bangkok, Pb, Peter Smith International College, physical buildings, political visions, INDIA AND BURMA, metal concentration
Content: Mahidol University Annual Research Abstracts, Vol. 33
481
TOXICITY AND ACCUMULATION OF LEAD AND CHROMIUM IN HYDROCOTYLE UNBELLATA (NO. 1220) Jiraporn Yongpisanphop1, Maleeya Kruatrachue2, and Prayad Pokethitiyook1 1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand; 2International College, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. Key words: lead, chromium; accumulation, toxicity, Hydrocotyle umbellata The aquatic plant, Hydrocotyle umbellata, was studied for its toxicity and accumulation of lead (Pb) and chromium (Cr) in a synthetic solution. Plants were cultured in a modified's nutrient solutions supplemented with 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg Pb/L as lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] and 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg Cr/L as potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). They were separately harvested after 3, 6, 9, and 12 days. Plants exposed to Pb and Cr showed significant decreases in the biomass productivity and total chlorophyll content when the exposure time and metal concentration were increased. The accumulation of Pb and Cr in the plants was significantly increased, but it was not linear with the exposure time and metal concentration. Both metals were accumulated higher in the roots than in the shoots. The bioconcentration factor of Pb was higher than that of Cr at the same exposure time, indicating a higher accumulation potential of Pb than Cr in H. umbellata. Toxicity symptoms of both metals showed a reduction in the production of new plantlets, withering of petioles, and change in color of roots from light green to dark brown. Pb caused leaf chlorosis, whereas Cr caused leaf necrosis. The toxicity symptoms increased when the exposure time and metal concentration were increased. (Supported by Post-graduate Education, Training and research program in Environmental Science, Technology and Management under the Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Thailand. Published in Journal of Environmental Biology 26(1) 79-89 (2005))
ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDIES ON
LOCALIZATION OF LEAD IN ORGANS OF
TYPHA ANGUSTIFOLIA GROWTH ON
CONTAMINATED SOIL
(NO. 1221)
Thanawan Panich-pat1, Peerasak Srinives 2, Maleeya Kruatrachue3, Prayad Pokethitiyook4, Suchart Upatham5, and Guy R. Lanza6
1Faculty of Liberal Arts and Science, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Nakorn Pathom 73140, Thailand; 2Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Nakorn Pathom 73140, Thailand; 3Faculty of Science and Mahidol University International College, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 4Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand; 5Faculty of Science, Burapha University, Chonburi 20130, Thailand; 6Environmental Sciences Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.
Key words: Typha angustifolia, narrow-leaved cattail, lead accumulation, TEM, ultrastructure A greenhouse study was conducted to observe the localization of lead in narrow-leaved cattail, Typha angustifolia. Light and transmission electron microscopic studies were performed on root, rhizome and leaf of the cattail grown in control (75 kg dry weight of soil with no added lead) and in the same weight of soil amended with 20,000 mg lead nitrate. At 15 and 90 days after planting, most lead was accumulated in root cells around vacuoles and slowly transported to leaves. In the lead-contaminated soil, parts of the root cell wall were damaged at the end of the experiment. Lead was deposited in the rhizome near the cell wall. Similar deposits were observed in the roots and rhizomes suggesting that lead was transported and localized in a similar area, whereas the leaf cells accumulated lead in the chloroplasts. (Supported by Post-graduate Education, Training and Research Program in Environmental Science, Technology and Management under the Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Thailand. Published in ScienceAsia 31: 49-53(2005)) ACUTE AND SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF LEAD TO THE SPOTTED BABYLON BABYLONIA AREOLATA(NEOGASTROPODA, BUCCINIDAE) (NO. 1222) P. Supanopas1, P. Sretarugsa2, Maleeya Kruatrachue3, Prayad Pokethitiyook1, and Suchart Upatham4 1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand; 2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand; 3Faculty of Science and Mahidol University International College, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 4Faculty of Science, Burapha University, Chonburi 20130, Thailand. Key words : Babylonia areolata, lead, acute toxicity, subchronic toxicity, histopathology The acute and subchronic toxicity of lead was determined in the spotted babylon, Babylonia areolata. The 96-h static bioassay was conducted to estimate the median lethal concentration (LC 50). The snails were exposed to lead nitrate (Pb[NO3]2). The LC50 Values for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h were 29.31, 14.64, 12.44 and 10.50 mg Pb/ L, respectively. In the subchronic experiment, the snails were exposed to 0.5 mg Pb/L (10% MATC, the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration) of lead nitrate for 3 mo. Lead accumulation was found in different organs with the greatest accumulation in the stomach and lesser in the esophagus, gill, rectum, digestive gland, proboscis, and foot. The histopathologic alterations in the digestive system and gills of B. areolata were studied by light microscopy. The general tissue alterations were decrease in length of cilia, decrease in acidophilic granules, slight distension of nuclei, and the loss of heterochromatin. There were increases of mucous vacuoles, damaged ciliated cells, and enlargement of vacuoles. (Supported by Post-graduate Education, Training and Research Program in Environmental Science, Technology and Management under the Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Thailand. Published in Journal of Shellfish Research 24(1) 91-98 (2005))
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482
HISTOPATHOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS IN
THE EDIBLE SNAIL, BABYLONIA AREOLATA
(SPOTTED BABYLON), IN ACUTE AND SUB-
CHRONIC CADMIUM POISONING
(NO. 1223)
P. Tanhan1, P. Sretarugsa2, Prayad Pokethitiyook1, Maleeya Kruatrachue3, and Suchart Upatham4
1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand; 2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand; 3Faculty of Science and Mahidol University International College, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 4Faculty of Science, Burapha University, Chonburi 20130, Thailand. Key words: cadmium, gastropod, Babylonia areolata; histopathology Histopathological alterations in 6- to 8-month-old juvenile spotted babylon, Babylonia areolata, from acute and subchronic cadmium exposure were studied by light microscopy. The 96-h LC 50 value of cadmium for B. areolata was found to be 3.35 mg/L, and the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) was 1.6 mg/L. Snails were exposed to 3.35 and 0.08 mg/L (5% of MATC) of cadmium for 96 h and 90 days, respectively. After exposure the gill, the organs of the digestive system (proboscis, esophagus, stomach, digestive gland, and rectum), and the foot were analyzed for cadmium accumulation. The results showed that most digestive organs had a high affinity for cadmium. The main target organ was the stomach, which could accumulate on average 1,192.18 µg/g dry weight of cadmium. Cadmium was shown to accumulate to a lesser extent in the digestive gland, gill, rectum, esophagus, proboscis, and foot. Histopathological alterations were observed in the gill and digestive organs (proboscis, esophagus, stomach, and rectum). The study showed that the stomach and gill were the primary target organs of both acute and subchronic exposure. Gill alterations included increased size of mucous vacuoles, reduced length of cilia, dilation and pyknosis of nuclei, thickening of basal lamina, and accumulation of hemocytes. The epithelial lining of the digestive tract showed similar alterations such as increased size of mucous vacuoles, reduced length of cilia, and dilation of nuclei. In addition, fragmentation of the muscle sheath was observed. (Supported by Post-graduate Education, Training and Research Program in Environmental Science, Technology and Management under the Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Thailand. Published in Environmental Toxicology 20: 142-149 (2005))
TOXICITY AND ACCUMULATION OF LEAD AND
CADMIUM IN THE FILAMENTOUS GREEN ALGA
CLADOPHODA FRACTA (O.F. MULLER EX VAHL)
KUTZING : A LABORATORY STUDY
(NO. 1224)
Key words: Cladophora fracta; lead, cadmium; toxicity, accumulation The toxicity and accumulation of the heavy metals, lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in a common filamentous green alga, Cladophora fracta, were studied. C. fracta were cultured in a modified Chu No.10 medium, which was supplemented with 5, 10, 20, 40 or 80 mg/L of Pb or 0.5, 1, 2, 4 or 8 mg/L of Cd, and were separately harvested after 2, 4, 6, and 8 days. The toxicity symptoms of Pb and Cd to C. fracta showed damage and reduced number of chloroplasts, disintegrated cell wall and death. There were significant decreases in the relative growth and total chlorophyll content when the exposure time and concentration were increased. The accumulation study showed that there were significant increases of metal levels in algal tissue when the exposure time and concentration were increased. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Pb was higher than that of Cd at the same duration, suggesting that the accumulation potential of C. fracta for Pb was higher than that for Cd. (Supported by Post-graduate Education, Training and Research Program in Environmental Science, Technology and Management under the Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Thailand. Published in ScienceAsia 31: 121-127 (2005))
EFFECTS OF PRAZIQUANTEL AND ARTESUNATE
ON THE TEGUMENT OF ADULT SCHISTOSOMA
MEKONGI HARBOURED IN MICE
(NO. 1225)
Wanee Jiraungkoorskul1, Somphong Sahaphong 1,2, Prasert Sobhon3, Suda Riengrojpitak1, Niwat Kangwanrangsan1
1Department of Pathobiology and 3Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Thailand; 2Mahidol University International College, Mahidol University, Thailand.
The effects of praziquantel and artesunate on the tegument of adult Schistosoma mekongi harboured in mice were compared using scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Forty-two mice infected with S. mekongi for 49 days were treated intragastrically with either 300 mg/kg praziquantel or 300 mg/kg artesunate. Mice were sacrificed 1 or 3 days post-treatment. Worms were collected by perfusion and examined by SEM. One to 3 days after administration of artesunate, the tegument of S. mekongi showed severe swelling, vacuolization, fusion of the tegumental ridges and loss or shortening of the spines on the trabeculae, collapse and peeling. Praziquantel induced similar tegumental alterations as those observed after administration of artesunate, but they were less severe. Three days post-treatment, there was evidence of recovery only in the case of praziquantel. The results of our study suggest that artesunate is more effective than praziquantel in causing tegumental damage in adult S. mekongi, and provides a basis for subsequent clinical trials.
(Parasitology International 54, (2005); 177-183)
Chantana Lamai1, Maleeya Kruatrachue2, Prayad Pokethitiyook1, Suchart Upatham3, and Varasaya Soonthornsarathool1
1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand; 2Faculty of Science and Mahidol University International College, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 3Faculty of Science, Burapha University, Chonburi 20130, Thailand.
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Mahidol University Annual Research Abstracts, Vol. 33
483
EURYTREMA PANCREATICUM ; THE IN VITRO
EFFECT OF PRAZIQUANTEL AND TRICLABEN-
DAZOLE ON THE ADULT FLUKE
(NO. 1226)
Wanee Jiraungkoorskul1, Somphong Sahaphong1,2, Tawewan Tansatit1, Niwat Kangwanrangsan1, Siriporn Pipatshukiat2
1Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand; 2Mahidol University International College, Mahidol University, Thailand.
Key words : Eurytrema pancreaticum, praziquantel, triclabendazole
The efficacy and tolerance of the 80 µg/ml praziquantel (PZQ) and 40 µg/ml triclabendazole (TCZ) against adult stage Eurytrema pancreaticum in vitro were investigated at 3, 12, and 15 hours incubation. Motility of the flukes and histopathological changes were studied. Sudden paralysis and death were observed after exposed to PZQ as early as 3 hours incubation. In contrast, the TCZ treated flukes showed active mobility at all intervals. By light microscopic examination, severe damages in various organs such as tegument, muscle, and testes were observed early at 12 hours incubation of these drugs. PZQ caused more severe damage to flukes than TCZ. There were vigorous contraction of musculature, progressive shrinkage of circular and longitudinal muscles, vacuolization and disintegration of the tegument disrupting the worms' outer surface including detachment of spines in the PZQ treatment. The cells in testes were slightly increased in size and followed by degeneration leaving several hollow spaces. The uterus and vitelline glands remained unaffected. The direct observation of the fluke motility and light microscopic study highly suggested that praziquantel was more effective than triclabendazole treatment for the eurytremiasis infection.
(Experimental Parasitology 111, (2005); 142-147.)
KING MONGKUT'S VISIONS OF MODERNITY
THROUGH HIS HILLTOP PALACE : A TOURISM
INTERPRETATION CONTEXT
(NO. 1227)
Sompong Amnuay-ngerntra
Travel Industry Management Division, Mahidol University International College, Mahidol University. E-mail: [email protected] mahidol.ac.th
Key words : King Mongkut, the Hilltop Palace and religious reforms this article investigates King Mongkut's political vision through his Hilltop Palace situated in Phetchaburi, Thailand. Being one of the provincial landmarks due to its rich heritage values and spectacular geographical setting, the palatial complex has been an outstanding heritage site attracting more than 400,000 visitors annually. However, little attention has been paid to an interpretive knowledge (content) of the physical buildings, which have a great
significance of political and religious meanings. Interestingly, the Hilltop Palace reflects King Mongkut's political visions of modernity and religious ideology influenced by the "West". The study reveals that the king used his buildings as a diplomatic tool to represent his "global views" when European imperialism threatened Siam during the mid-nineteenth century. King Mongkut manifested his roles and Siam's political position as a modern state through the EuropeanSino-Siamese hybrid architectural style at his palatial complex that now has no "life". Also, the bell-shaped pagoda style within the site complex reflects his religious reforms aimed at upgrading monastic practices and purifying the canon. His reformed Buddhist sect, Thammayut, is characterised as a rational, intellectual, and humanistic approach. Such religious reform was integrated with scientific knowledge, which he had learned in his contact with the Christian missionaries while in his monkhood and later as the king. An understanding of this building interpretation can be applied to other heritage sites associated with King Mongkut, which require a better insight into his abstract political and religious ideology. (Presented to the Third Asia-Pacific CHRIE (APacCHRIE) Conference, at Shangri-La Hotel, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 26-28 May, 2005)
ASHOGHI EFFENDI=S LETTERS TO THE BAHA= IS OF INDIA AND BURMA DURING THE [email protected] Baha=i Studies Review (UK). Forthcoming. (NO. 1228) Peter Smith International College, Mahidol University. Key words : Baha=i Studies/ Religion in India and Burma. There are as yet few studies of the early history of the Baha=i communities of India and Burma. This paper provides a brief overview of the development of the Baha=i Faith in India and Burma up to 1921, and then offers summary notes on administrative and community developments which occurred during the 1920s under the guidance of Shoghi Effendi, including the establishment of a joint national spiritual assembly, the development of Baha=i Periodical Literature, and the work of international travelling teachers. The difficulties of uniting the Baha=i communities, of gaining support for the new National Assembly and of expanding the Baha =i support base are noted, as is the changing role of women within the Baha=i community as a whole.
ABABI [email protected] In Encyclopaedia Iranica (US).
Forthcoming.
(NO. 1229)
Peter Smith and Moojan Momen
International College, Mahidol University.
Encyclopaedia article Persecutions and martyrodoms of babis during the 1844-1864 period. Estimates of number of those killed, and an account of the Babi concept of martyrdom and of the impact on these martyrdoms on Iranian society and the development of the Baha=1 Faith.
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