Turkey in the World War

Tags: Turkey, Constantinople, Berlin, London, New York, Stamboul, Geschichte des osmanischen Reiches, Paris, international peace, Advisory Board of Economists of the Division of Economics and History, TURKEY IN THE WORLD, DIVISION OF ECONOMICS, History, belligerent nations, political power, TABLE OF CONTENTS, The Alliance, Chapter III, War Government Parliament, the World War, historical research, source material, scientific study, Ottoman Empire, Revue du Monde Musulman, Djevdet Pasha, History of Turkey, Midhat Pasha, la Turquie, Djemal Pasha, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, YALE UNIVERSITY, economic cost, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, SOCIAL HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR JAMES T. SHOTWELL, CARNEGIE ENDOWMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL PEACE, Social History
Content: United States of America 'IIIII'
. . .
IN the autumn of 1914,.when the scientific study of ·the effects of
war upon moder~."life· passed suddenly f~om theory to history, t~e
Division of Econo'mics and History of· the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace proposed to adj~st the program of its re-
searches to the new and altered problems which the War presented.
The existing program, which had been prepared as the result of a
conference of economists held at Berne in 1911, and which dealt
.with the facts then at hand, had just begun· to show the quality of
its contributions; but for many reasons it could no longer be fol-
lowed out. A plan was therefore drawn up at the request of the
Director of the Division, in which it was proposed, by means of an
historical survey, to attempt to measure the economic cost of the
-War and the displacement which it was causing in the processes of
civilization. Such an "Economic and Social History of the World
War," it was felt, if undertaken by men of judicial temper and ade-
quate training, might ultimately, by reason of its scientific obliga-
tions to truth, furnish data for the forming of sound public opinion,
and thus contribute fundamentally toward the aims of an institution
dedicated to the cause of international peace.
The need for such an analysis, conceived and executed in the
spirit of historical research, was increasingly obvious as the War
developed, releasing complex forces of national life not only for the
vast process of destruction, but also for the stimulation of new
capacities for production. This new economic activity, which under
normal conditions of peace might have been a gain to society~ and
the surprising capacity exhibited by the belligerent nations for
enduring long and increasing loss-often while presenting the out-
ward semblance of new prosperity-made necessary a reconsidera-
tion of the whole field of war economics. A double obligation was
therefore placed upon the Division of Economics and History. It
was obliged to concentrate its work upon the problem thus pre-
sented, and to study it as a whole; in other words, to apply to it the
tests and disciplines of history. Just as the War itself was a single
event, though penetrating by_ seemingly unconnected ways to the
remotest parts of the world, so the analysis of it must be developed
according to a plan at once all embracing and yet adjustable to the practical limits of the available data. During the actual progress of the War, however, the execution of this plan for a scientific and objective study of war economics proved impossible in any large and authoritative way. Incidental studies and surveys of portions of the field could be made and were made under the direction of the Division, but it was impossible to undertake a general history for obvious reasons. In the first place, an authoritative statement of the resources of belligerents bore directly on the conduct of armies in the field. The result was to remove as far as possible from scrutiny those data of the economic life of the countries at war which would ordinarily, in time of peace, be readily available for investigation. In addition to this difficulty of , consulting documents, collaborators competent to deal with them were for the most part called into national service in the belligerent countries and so were unavailable for research. The plan for a war history was therefore postponed until conditions should arise which would make possible not only access to essential documents, but also the cooperation of economists, historians, and men of affairs in the nations, chiefly concerned, whose joint work would not be misunderstood either in purpose or in content. Upon the termination of the War, the Endowment once more took up the original plan, and it was found with but slight modification to be applicable to the situation. Work was begun in the summer and autumn of 1918. In the first place a final conference of the Advisory Board of Economists of the Division of Economics and History was held in Paris, which limited itself to planning a series of short preliminary surveys of special fields. Since, however, the purely preliminary character of such studies was further emphasized by the fact that they were directed more especially toward those problems which were then fronting Europe as questions of urgency, it was considered best not to treat them as part of the general survey, but rather as of contemporary value in the period of war settlement. It was clear that not only could no general program be laid down a priori by this conference as a whole, but that a new and more highly specialized research organization than that already existing would be needed to undertake the Economic and Social History of the World War, one based more upon national grounds in the first in-
stance, and less upon purely international cooperation. Until the
facts of national history could be ascertained, it would be impossible
to proceed with comparative analysis; and the different national his-
tories were themselves of almost bafBing intricacy and variety. Con-
sequently the former European Committee of Research was dis-
solved, and in its place it was decided to erect an Editorial Board
in each of the larger countries and to nominate special editors in
the smaller ones, who should concentrate, for the present at least,
upon their own economic and social war history.
The nomination of these boards by the General Editor was the
first step taken in every country where the work has begun. And if
any justification were needed for the plan of the Endowment, it at
once may be found in the lists of those, distinguished in scholarship
or in public affairs, who have accepted the responsibility of editor-
ship. This responsibility is by no means light, involving as it does
-the adaptation of the general editorial plan to the varying demands
of national circumstances or methods of work; and the measure of
success attained is due to the generous and earnest cooperation of
those in charge in each country.
Once the editorial organization was established, there could be
little doubt as to the first step which should be taken in each instance
toward the actual preparation of the history. Without documents
there can be no history. The essential records of the War, local as
well as central, have therefore to be preserved and to be made avail-
able for research in so far as is compatible with public interest. But
this archival task is a very great one, belonging of right to the Gov-
ernments and other owners of historical sources and not to the his-
torian or economist who proposes to use them. It is an obligation of
ownership; for all such documents are public trust. The collabora-
tors on this section of the war history, therefore, working within
their own field as researchers, could only survey the situation as they
found it and report their findings in the forms of guides or manuals;
and perhaps, by stimulating a comparison of methods, help to fur-
ther the adoption of those found to be most practicaL In every coun-
try, therefore, this was the point of departure for actual work; al-
though special monographs have not been written in every instance.
The first stage of the work upon the War History, dealing with
little more than the externals of archives, seemed for a while to
exhaust the possibilities of research, and had the plan of the history been limited to research based upon official documents, little more could have been done, for once documents have been labeled "secret" few government officials can be found with sufficient courage or initiative to break open the seal. Thus vast masses of source material essential for the historian were effectively placed beyond his reach, although much of it was quite harmless from any point of view. While war conditions thus continued to hamper research, and were likely to do so for many years to come, some alternative had to be found. Fortunately such an alternative was at hand in the narrative, amply supported by documentary evidence, of those who had played some part in the conduct of affairs during the War, or who, as close observers in privileged positions, were able to record from first- or at least secondhand knowledge the Economic History of different phases of the Great War, and of its effect upon society. Thus a series of monographs was planned consisting for the most part of unofficial yet authoritative statements, descriptive or historical, which may best be described as about halfway between memoirs and bluebooks. These monographs make up the main body of the work assigned so far. They are not limited to contemporary war-time studies; for the economic history of the War must deal with a longer period than that of the actual fighting. It must cover the years of "deflation" as well, at least sufficiently to secure some fairer measure of the economic displacement than is possible in purely contemporary judgments. With this phase of the work, the editorial problems assumed a new aspect. The series of monographs had to be planned primarily with regard to the availability of contributors, rather than of source material as in the case of most histories; for the contributors themselves controlled the sources. This in turn involved a new attitude toward those two ideals which historians have sought to emphasize, consistency and objectivity. In order to bring out the chief contribution of each writer it was impossible to keep within narrowly logical outlines; facts would have to be repeated in different settings and seen from different angles, and sections included which do not lie within the strict limits of history; and absolute objectivity could not be obtained in every part. Under the stress of controversy or
apology, partial views would here and there find their expression. But these views are in some instances an intrinsic part of the history itself, contemporary measurements of facts as significant as the facts with which they deaL Moreover, the work as a whole is planned to furnish its own corrective; and where it does not, othe~s will In addition to the monographic treatment of source material, a · number of studies by specialists are already in preparation, dealing with technical or limited subjects, historical or statistical. These monographs also partake to some extent of the nature of first-hand material, registering as they do the data of history close enough to the source to permit verification in ways impossible later. But they also belong to that constructive process by which history passes from analysis to synthesis. The process is a long and difficult one, howeyer, and work upon it has only just begun. To quote an apt characterization; in the first stages of a history like this, one is only ·."picking cotton." The tangled threads of events have still to be woven into the pattern of history; and for this creative and constructive work different plans and organizations may be needed. In a work which is the product of so complex and varied cooperation as this, it is impossible to indicate in any but a most general way the apportionment of responsibility of editors and authors for the contents of the different monographs. For the plan of the History as a whole and its effective execution the General Editor is responsible; but the arrangement of the detailed program~ of study has been largely the work of the different Editorial Boards and divisional Editors, who have also read the manuscripts prepared under their direction. The acceptance of a monograph in this series, however, does not commit the editors to the opinions or conclusions of the authors. Like other editors, they are asked to vouch for the scientific merit, the appropriateness and usefulness of the volumes admitted to the series; but the authors are naturally free to make their individual contributions in their own way.ln like manner the publication of the monographs does not commit the Endowment to agreement with any specific conclusions which may be expressed therein. The responsibility of the Endowment is to History itselfan obligation not to avoid but to secure and preserve 'variant narratives and points of view, in so far as they are essential for the understanding of the War as a whole· ·····
In the study of the effect of war upon organized society, the history of the Turkish Empire presents a laboratory which neither historian nor sociologist has as yet fully appreciated. Projecting as it did into the modern world the military ethics of ancient and medieval times, it maintained power under conditions which impeded progress and made possible only those liberties which were not directed toward the exercise of political power. The keynote to the whole political organization lay, as Dr. Emin has pointed out, in its military history. Therefore, the revolution of today which has established the new Turkish national state is much more far-reaching than has hitherto been appreciated. This volume, therefore, while it is conceived wholly within the spirit of the series of which it forms a part, deals with the effect of more than a single war. Its fundamental theme is war itself and the effects of the w~r system upon society. Nevertheless it concentrates upon the epoch-making events of the World War and shows its setting in the disruption of social practice and political organization in SouthEastern Europe. . For this difficult task the author, Dr. Ahmed Emin, is peculiarly well qualified, both by reason of his intimate knowledge of the events themselves and because of his training as sociologist and historian. Objectivity in such matters can only be acquired by one who has learned to look at national tradition and outlook through the study of the institutions of other nations; the comparative method must be added to the historical. Fortunately, the author of this volume has been able so to deal with the phenomena of Turkey under the stress of war as to furnish a contribution to science and, at the same time, a· lesson in social and political justice. J. T. S.
FOREWORD THE effects of the World War upon Turkey were exceptionally deep and far-reaching. The main reason for this was the great disproportion between the primitive equipment of Turkey and the huge effort called for by an unequal struggle on various distant fronts with efficiently equipped and powerful enemies. This disproportion was further increased by the policy of the war dictatorship, which reduced Turkey to a dependent position, and turned her into a mere source of supplies and men for Germany and the other Central Powers, instead of enabling her to use her meager resources for her own best good in her own particularly difficult position. The economic and social consequences of this-which ended in total collapse--as well as the ceaseless attempts to solve unlooked-for difficulties by a sort of system of trial and error, form an interesting chapter in the general history of the War. Unfortunately, the source materials for such a study are sadly lacking. To begin with, the changes can only to a limited extent be measured in a quantitative way. The gathering of statistics is the most neglected field of government activity in Turkey.· Prior to 1927 no modern census had ever been taken; even the exact number·of the inhabitants was unknown. The official estimates are based on the population registers. In addition to other technical defects these registers do not give any estimate of the proportion of those not registered, a proportion especially great in Turkey's distant provinces. And as for other statistical material, it is mostly made up either of estimates of varying degrees of accuracy, or of fragments that apply only to limited periods and areas. Certain publications cover the military history of Turkey's part in the War. The reports of the Turkish general staff, and volumes by private military authors contain much accurate information on military matters. There are also many technical works and memoirs, written by leading German generals, by various other participants·, . in the War, and by authorities on military affairs in generaL The data for the political history of the War are less to be depended on. The documents in the archives have not been published, as they have been in the other defeated countries. \Vhat has been
written by th_e former war leaders is necess.arily biased, being published in self-defense. The statements made by the members of the war cabinets before the so-called "fifth division" of the Chamber of Deputies are of a similar character. And most of the private contributions to the political history of the War in Turkey are also more or less biased. Both military and political works speak incidentally of the social and economic effects of the War; but direct and special investigations into any such effects have not as yet been made. During the War military secrecy forbade it. After the War the chaotic conditions which then ruled gave rise to a great deal of bitter agitation against the misrule during the War; but the time was not yet ripe for any inquiry governed by the scientific attitude. The long series \ of books and pamphlets written by serious German economists during the War undoubtedly contain valuable material. They did not, however, dwell on the effects of the War, since they largely aimed at enlightening the German public upon those economic problems that might arise in Turkey after peace was signed. Furthermore, any thorough-going investigation of the economic and social effects of the War would be extremely hard in the case of Turkey. The different parts of the country vary so much that they cannot be reduced to any general average. The influences that were at work differed in effect in different places. In view of this, an investigation of a general character into the various social and economic problems created by the War cannot be expected to be complete in any sense. This present volume aims only at indicating the main lines taken by those problems, and the nature of the ever changing experiments that were made in the hope of coping with them. At the same time, if documents and statistics be few, one thing can at least be said. The author had opportunities to view the war situation from the inside. During the first period of the War, he was at first Assistant-Professor of Sociology and later Professor of Statistics in Constantinople University. In this capacity, he was in constant touch with the late Zia Goek Alp Bey, then Professor of Sociology, who has been held to be the cultural leader of the Turkish Nationalist Movement both before and during the War, and who was an influential member of the Committee of Union and
Progress, the political dictatorship that was be?lltd the war government. AB a war correspondent, the author was able tO get a first-hand view of the machinery by which the War WJLS carried on; and, as an editor, it was possible for him closely to observe the economic and social conditions arising out of the War. In addition, he was, dur-. ing the armistice, exiled to Malta by the British occupationary forces, and interned there for twenty months along with more than ~ hundred of those who had been most prominent in Turkey during the War-goV'emors and cabinet members, senators, deputies, and generals. And this long association with the makers of the War also helped the author to understand what had been going on behind the scenes. A. E. Constantinople, May 1, 1929.
Table of Contents
Chapter I. A Long Career of War
The Background of Conquest. The Machinery of Conquest. The Im-
perial Government. Economics and Religion. The Empire at Its
Chapter II. War Becomes a Losing Business
The Price of Aggression. The Break-up of the War Machine. The D~asty. Turkish Fatalism and the Non-Turk. The Meaning of Fatalism.
Chapter III. The Effort to Survive .
Self-Criticism. Interest in Changes in the West. The Reformers in Possession. The "'Sick Man" Renews His Strength. The Period of "Tanzimat," and the First Young Turks. The Western Powers Give Less Support.
Chapter IV. Back to the Old Regime ·
Abdul-Hamid and the War with Russia. The Tyrant and the Spy System. Constantinople the Favorite. Formation of the "'Committee of Union and Progress." Foreign Intrigue and the Non-Turks. German Organizers, Military and Economic. Macedonia, and the Revolution of 1908,
Chapter V. Young Turk Contributions to National Survival 41 Roseate Dreams. The Bitter Awakening. The Separatist Danger. Bulgarian Independence. Chaos and Counter-Revolution. The "'Committee" Becomes the Despot. The "'Great Cabinet." Peaceful Prospects and the Reality. Balkan Defeat a Gain. More Army Instructors from Germany. The Bagdad Railwa:y. An Era of Good Will.
Chapter VI. How Turkey Entered the War
Moderates and Extremists. Pan-Turanism vs. Pan-Islamism. The Alliance with Germany. Tricked into War. Entente Weakness and Inaction. Turkey To Side with the Victors. Gamblers and High Stakes. A German Admiral Settles the Matter.
Chapter VII. Resources and Equipment
Divided Human Resources. Bad Health Conditions. Education at a Low Point. An Exploited Farming Class. The Inadequac:y of Tur-
key's Railways. Turkey Poor in Fuel. Bad Roads and Primitive Transport. Paralysis of Sea Transport. Lack of Means of Communication. Industrial Limitations. Economic Deficits.
Chapter VIII. War Government Parliament in Turkey. local government in Tutelage. Actual Conditions during the War. The Real Governing Forces. The "General Council." Kemal, or "Kara the Black." The "Outside Places."
· Chapter IX. The General Economic Policy during the War Militarism Gone Mad. War and Money in Turkey. The End of the Capitulations. "Economic Turkism." War-Time Production.
Chapter X. The Food Question Feeding Constantinople. Government Control and Turkish Cooperatives. Kemal Made Food Dictator. One Kind of "Tradesmen's Union." The German System at Work. The "Outside Places" Also Suffer. A Drive for "War Agriculture." Maximum Bread Prices. A Food Commission and a Food Ministry.
Chapter XI. War Trade Large Stocks to Start With. Import Scandals. The Trade in Shipping Permits. Turkey's Anti-Profiteering Commission. War-Time Companies.
Chapter XII. Prices and Wages Paper Currency and Depreciation. Two Sets of Prices. More Price Troubles. Housing Problems. Salaries Withheld .and Salaries Increased. Hardships and Efforts at Cooperative Relief. Failures of Water and Gas Supply. ,
Chapter XIII. War Finances . Falling Revenues and New Taxes. The Tax on Production. War Debts in Paper Money. The War Debt after the War. Taxing by Requisitions. Unifying the Currency.
Chapter XIV. Reforms during the War Growing Freedom and Progress. German Help in Reform. Revising the Calendar. Encouraging the Fine Arts.
Chapter XV. War and Religion The Holy War. The Appeal Fails. Pan-Islamism. German Policies Based on Mohammedan Solidarity. The New Na~ionalism. No Renewal of "The Blessed Period of Felicity." The End of Pan-Islamism.
Chapter XVI. Turkish Nationalism . "Old Turk" Ottomans and ''Young Turk" Nationalists. The NonTurks. Zia Goek Alp, a Chosen Leader. "The Turkish Hearth." PanTuranism and Pan-Turkism. Democracy vs. Imperialism.
Chapter XVII. Racial Problems An Empire of Many Races: Religion Not the Trouble Maker. The Evils of Nationalism. The Arabs. The Kurds. The Greeks. The Jews.
Chapter XVIII. The Armenians and the War
A Scattered People. The Historical Background. The War: Enemies Within. Russian Armenians and Local Revolts. Deportation Is Decided Upon. The First Massacres. The Deportations. Massacres and Counter-Massacres.
Chapter XIX. Education and theWar
Drafted Teachers. A New University and the First Coeducation. Difficulties of Language Reform. The Road to Germany. Turkey's
Boy Scouts. Spreading Education in Other Ways.
Chapter XX. The Emancipation of Women
A "Collective Guardianship" of Women. Abdul-Hamid, Protector of Virtue. A feminist movement Led by a Man. War Work the Emancipator.
Chapter XXI. War Morals
The Elfect of Privations. Bad Examples and Illicit Trading. Drinking and.Gambling. War-Time Turkey and Prostitution. Home Morality Protected by Courts-MartiaL
· Chapter XXII. War and Health
The Handicap of Exhaustion. Mortality Figures for Constantinople. What the Army Sulfered. The Medical Service and Army Losses.
Chapter XXIII. Relief Work .
Little Support from the Government. The Treatment of Prisoners. Splendid Work by the Red Crescent. The Orphan Problem and Private Relief Work. The Society for Finding Employment for Women.
Chapter XXIV. The End ~f the War
Desertions and Brigandage at Wholesale. A Country "Saved by Desertion." The Press Is Allowed To Speak. The Fall of the War Government.
Chapter XXV. Between Life and Death
The "Sick Man" Seemingly at His End. The Victors Support the Forces of Reaction. The Conduct of the Greeks. The "National Pact." Mustapha Kemal Establishes the Angora Govt;rn_ment.
Chapter XXVI. The Social Effects of the Nationalist Move-
Turkey's Enemies Are Her Salvation. A Country with Nothing Left To Lose. Mwitapha Kemal Is Given His Opportunity. The Abolition of Sultanate and Khalifate. Attacking the Whole Front of Reaction. Unification.
Chapter XXVII. The Economic Effects of the Nationalist
Lost Resources and the Loss of Skilled Labor. The First Railroad · Built by Turkish Money. Helping the Turkish Farmer. Higher Taxes, ,but public safety. The Turk Becomes a Man of Business.
Appendix I
Appendix II
AFTER this volume was written, the first really scientific and reliable census was taken in Turkey. This was on October ~8, 19~7. The census was arranged for and carried out with great skill and accuracy by M. Camille J aquart, a Belgian expert who had been appointed director general of statistics in Turkey. Detailed information regarding the methods used in the census has not yet been published, nor are the figures covering language, religion, education, and so on available. The first figures were however published in July, 19~8, by the Board of Statistics, under the following title:
"The General Census of October ~8, 19~7; the Population of . Turkey according to Provinces, Districts, Towns and ·Vil- lages."
Some of the most important data will be found below:
European Turkey Asiatic Turkey
.&.real in Per-
centage of square centage itanti
the whole kilo- of the per 1quare
Population population meter1 whole area kilometer
1,044,306 7.65 23,975
3.15 43
12,615,969 92.35 738,761 96.85 17
Total Black Sea Coast Marmora and Aegean Coast Mediterranean Coast Interior of Asia Minor
13,660,275 2,174,425 2,746,069 753,639 6,941,836
10.00 15.91 20.12 5.51 50.81
762,736 73,621 92,7441 56,279 516,117
100.00 9.66 12.16 7.37 67.66
18 29 · 29 13 13
One-third of the population is comprised in the European provinces and in the western coastal regions, which form together a fourth of the whole area. The density of population which is 43 in Europe, and ~9 near the western coast, falls as low as 8 in the Eastern Provinces. The province of Constantinople (the European section) has a density of 187; the Asiatic section, 85. Next to it come the provinces of Trebizond with 63, Mersine ~6, Tokat ~5, Biledjik
1 Marshes of a total area of 1,170 square kilometers and lakes of a total of 8,434 are not included.
!4, Aintab 19, and Tchanak 18. The lowest, 2, is found in the province of Akkiari in the east. In general the density gradually decreases from the extreme west to the extreme east. There are in Turkey 147 cities with a population exceeding 5,000. They contain 2,780,102 people. These 147 cities may be grouped as follows: 79 contain from 5,000 to 10,000; 39, from 10,000 to 20,000; 14, from 20,000 to 30,000; 7," from 30,000 to 40,000; and 6, from 40,000 up. The cities of the last grou:P are the following:
Constantinople Smyrna Angora Adana Brou Konia
673,029 153,845 74,784 72,652 6~~1 47,286
.-, Turkey is divided into 63 provinces, 328 districts (kazas), and 699 subdistricts (nahiyas). The population living in the seats of provinces and districts numbers 3,305,879. There are, in all, 40,991 towns and villages. On an average, each town or village in European Turk~y has 1,030, and in Asiatic Turkey, 316 inhabitants. The general average in Turkey is 333. Of the total population of 13,660,275, 6,584,474 are males and 7,675,801 are females. That is, the percentage of males is 48.20, and of females, 51.80. In other words the figures are 1,000 to 1,075. With the exception of 15 provinces, the females are everywhere in excess. The proportion amounts, in Kastamuni, to 1,000 to 1,250. ln Trebizond it is 1,000 to 1,207; in Denizli, 1,000 to 1,202; in Mougla, 1,000 to 1,176; and in Afion Kara Hissar, 1,000 to 1,180. In the eastern provinces males are generally in excess. Thus in Bayazet there are 1,193 males to 1,000 females; in Kars, 1,116; and in Van, 1,112 to 1,000.
Industry and Labor.s Industrial establishments Number of employees (about 88,000 being women) Value of yearly production raw material derived from country Raw material imported Horse power of motors Industrial establishments without motor Industrial establishments with motor 1 All sums are in Turkish pounds.
65,245 256,855 482,740,855 208,299,688 29,865,028 163,548 62,428 2,822
300 Coal Lignite Copper Lead Antimony Chrome Manganese Boracite
1929 870,820 759 188 4,911
(tons) 1924 1,088,583 701 830 8,000 3,400 43 12,224
1925 1,703,443 6,061 197 1,441 75 6,667 107 12,347
1926 1,222,387 12,207 7,534 17,673 600 6,445 78 18,360
1923 1924 1925 1926
Importa 144,788,671 193,611,048 242,314,138 234,591,722
Trade.2 E:l)porta 84,651,190 158,867,958 193,119,459 187,742,801
Relations with .A.merica
.agricultural production, 19~5-19~7.
(in kilos)
Wheat Total of other grains Beans, peas, etc. Potatoes Beets Onions Garlic Tobacco Sesame Opium Cotton
19278 1,333,150,811 1,067,246,985 100,222,773 20,738,756 23,935,398 14,453,550 944,421 47,531,635 10,969,168 112,257 38,905,036
1925 1,075,287,021 2,421,479,549 270,833,840 72,602,178 6,483,584 44,796,817 5,563,897 39,348,960 22.,.9.6.1.,.5.0.6 76,011,016
1926 2,469,367,407 2,384,031,152 259,494,399 76,170,398 7,605,101 34,377,08~ 4,925,419 48,024,690 31,211,614 105,884 27,341,532
General total of farm products
2,664,037,881 3,965,646,902 5,350,241,359
Population )!;ngaged in Farming, 19~7.
Number of families Number of individuals Number of plows and machines
1,751,239 9,216,918 1,413,509
8 The year 1927 was dry.
Railways Under Construction.
Samsoun-Turhal Kayseri-Sivas Turhal-Sivas Ankara-Eregli Kutahia-Balikesir Keller-Diari-Bekir
(Normal Gauge) 205.5 km. 180 km. 195 km. 580 km. (coalfields) 225 km. 520 km.
Contracting Company Native Turkish Native Turkish Native Turkish The Swedish Co. Julius Berger The Swedish Co.
Revenue of the Anatolian Railway, 1922-1927.
Revenue from passengers Revenue from merchandise ··, Total gross revenue Net revenue Percentage of expenses to revenue
1911 1928 191.# 1915 1926 19l'T
1,064,'1'08 2,018,4.59 2,548,606 2,939,935 2,882,220 8,522,19'1'
1,909,988" 2,353,816 8,353,086 4.,502,405 4,4'1'6,9'1''1' o,868,4U. 8,089,018 4.,551,526 6,15'1',916 '1,8'1'5,'1'89 8,053,316 9,9'1'2,120 1,260,'1'00 2,'1'83,834 2,9'1'8,492 8,530,135
Transactions of the State "Institution of Loans against Security."
1921 1922 1928 19241 1925 1926 1927
Loa.u 1,556,889 1,486,001 1,158,187 1,959,363 1,906,591 8,851,226 4,165,196
8Miing1 recBi'Dflli 918,982 2,668,680 8,095,108 4,059,706 4,426,060 6,720,745 9,885,086
Statements of the Agricultural Bank.6
Cash on hand
568,572 6,528,992 4,191,720 5,/HO,OOO 11,684,402
Rural loans
17,089,879 19,936,783 20,491,653
10,299,477 15,077,920 80,000,000 80,000,000 80,000,000
Reserve fund
96,902 108,208 230,936 472,596
Savings Net profits
.126,012 192,235
700,735 818,097
728,948 737,735 2,940,455 690,5241 1,680,209 1,809,191
6 All sums are in Turkish pounds.
Turk~sh Corporations, December 31, 19'27.
Character Banks Commercial companies Industrial companies Transportation companies Mining companies Farming companies construction companies Lumber companies Cooperative societies Monopolies Other. corporations·
Nwmber 36 40 45 20 16 6 7 4 27· 9 8
Capital' 183,517,500 9,365,000 8,044,050 6,650,000 6,695,000 1,068,000 1,127,000 3,650,000 8,835,750 32,000,000 1,054,000
APPENDIX IP FOREIGN DEBT OF TURKEY AccoRDING to a table prepared by the Ottoman Public Debt Administration on June 1, 1928, the capital in circulation and the interest and sinking-fund payments due on February 28, 1914, of the Ottoman Public Debt amounted to the totals below:
Loans included in the Mouharrem Consolidation of the Debt Loans not so included
l·tereBI ancl Bin.king fund
ЈT47,936,197.62 ЈT2,157,375.35 94,566,634.68 7,356,019.73
.-, On August 6, 1924, the situation was the following, all amounts regarded as paid being entered under "CapitaP'; and interest and unpaid amortization dues being entered under "Payments Overdue and Outstanding'':
Total amountof the Ottoman Public Debt:
PaymentB overdue a~ outBtancling ·
Loans included in the
Mouharrem ·Consoli-
ЈT 41,306,763 ЈT 6,705,594.85 ЈT 48,012,857.35
J.oans not so included
81,096,075 83,810,473.46 114,406,548.46
122,402,888 40,016,067.81 162,418,905.81
To be collected from Turkey tu a re1ult of the Lau1anne Treaty:
Included in the Mouharrem Consolidation Not so included
25,707,074 54,186,967
2,582,600.24 24,670,844.41
28,239,674.24 78,857,811.41
79,894,041 27,208,444.65 107,097,485.65
1 All figures in this appendix are, with the kind permission of the author, taken from a volume as yet unpublished-The Science of Finaace and Financial Legislation-by Prof. Ibrahim Fazil Bey of the University of Constantinople.
Percentage due fro'"! Turkey: "Consolidated" Not "Consolidated"
62.23 66.82
37.77 74.66
58.82 68.93
Average percentage
In the following table will be found the yeariy amounts due as interest and as sinking-fund payments:
Total annual payments required:
To carry Regular payments amounts overdue
Included in the Consoli-
dated Debt
.ЈT2,157,375.35 .ЈT 335,279.72 .ЈT 2,492,655.07
Not included in the Con-
solidated Debt
6,478,713.48 1,665,523.69
8,636,088.83 2,000,803.41 10,636,892.24
Annual war debt payment due from Turkey:
Included in the Consolidated Debt Not included in the Consolidated Debt
1,342,632.62 4,446,859.67
126,630.01 1,233,542.23
1,469,262.63 5,680,401.90
Percentage due from Turkey: Included in the Consolidated Debt Not included in the Consolidated Debt
62.23 68.64
1,360,172.24 37.77 74.06
7,149,664.53 58.!14 69.75
Total percentage
During the Lausanne Conference the two parties could not agree upon the monetary form in which annual payments were to be made. The position of the independent Ottoman Public Debt Administration was also a subject of acute conflict. These questions were to be settled between the Turkish Government and the bondholders. After repeated negotiations, without result, and on various dates, an agreement was reached in May, 19~8, along the following general lines: 1. The Turkish gold pound was accepted as the unit of payment.
2. The Public Debt Administration in its old form was to be discontinued. Two separate "Councils" (one for the loans included in the Consolidation, the other for those non-included) should sit in Paris as a supervising body. In cases where the two sets of bondholders had interests in common the two Councils might hold common sittings. 3. The Turkish foreign debt was put at .ЈT83,454,679, and the outstanding annuities to be paid by Turkey, at .ЈT~~,!U7, ~86.56. In addition, the share of treasury notes assigned to · Turkey for payment was .ЈT3,5~1,936. 4. Turkey was not to pay in gold the amounts given in the table above. But, in return for her acceptance of the gold standard, the amounts were to be greatly reduced. For eight years, as from June 1, 19~8, to May 31, 1936, Turkey was to make an annual payment of .ЈT~,000,000 in gold. Thereafter payments were to be made as follows: For the next six years, or from June 1, 1936, to May 31, 194~, the annual payment would be .ЈT~,380,000.. For the next five years, or .from June 1, 194~, to May 31, 1947, the annual payment would be .ЈT~,780,000. For the next five years, or from June 1, 1947, to May 31, 195~, the annual payment would be .ЈT3,180,000. And finally, after June 1, 195~, it would be .ЈT3,400,000. 5. Out of such annual payments the expenses of the Councils were first to be met, then interest and bank commissions. The balance would be used for the amortization of the capital. 6. For the periods from 19~9 to 194~, the gross receipts of the customhouses of Galata, Stamboul, and Haidar Pascha were to be offered as a guarantee. After 194~ those of Samsoun would be added. A representative of the Public Debt Council in Constantinople was to supervise receipts, and make weekly reports to the Council.
SOURCES IT is not the intention of the writer to attempt an exhaustive bibliography. Some indications of the source material he has used are given below; but, as indicated in the text, the author has also had access to first-hand material which is as yet unpublished. In spite of the censorship, the Turkish daily papers may be regarded as offering the chief material for an investigation into the social and economic results of the War. For the purposes of this volume the author went through the files of the following periodicals: Berliner Tageblatt (daily), 1915-1916. Current History (monthly), 1919-1925. Darul Funoun Edebiat Fakultessi Medjmouhassi (The Review of the Faculty of Arts of the University) (monthly), 1915-1918. Der Neue Orient (bi-weekly), Berlin, 1917. Thanks to the editorship of Professor Martin Hartmann a good source in which to .study the intellectual movement in Turkey during the War. Deutsche Levante Zeitung, 1915-1918. Harb Medjmouhassi, War Review (bi-weekly), 1914-1918. ldjtihad, Ideal (weekly), 1914-1918. ldjtimahiat Medjmouhassi, Sociological Review (monthly), 1917-1918. Iktissad Medjmouhassi, Economic Review (weekly), 1915. lleri, Forward (daily), 1917-1923. Islam Medjmouhassi, Islamic Review (weekly), 1916-1918. Takvimi-Vekayih (the daily newspaper issued by the Government), 1914-1918. Tanin, The Echo (daily), 1913-1918. Tevhid Efkiar, Unifier of Opinions (daily), 1909-1921. The Near East (weekly), London, 1919-1922. Turk Yourdou, Turkish Hearth (weekly), 1911-1921. Vakit, Times (daily), 1917-1923. Yeni-Medjmouha, New Review (weekly), 1914-1918. An important source for 'Yar history is the series of decrees and laws. These were published in the daily papers, in the official Takvimi Vekavih, and in the form of booklets. . Among the volumes co~~:sulted are the following: Historical Background. Abbot, G. F., Turkey in Transition. London, 1909. Abdurrahman Sheref, Tarikh-i-Devlet-i-Osmanie (History of the Otto- man Empire). Constantinople, 1894.
Ahmed Rassim, Ressimli Osmanli Tarikhi (illustrated Ottoman His-
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·' Paris, 1907.
Fidel, Cainillo, Les premiers jours de Ia Turquie libre. Paris, 1907.
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Leanzon, Le Due, Midhat Pasha. Paris, 1877.
Lutfi, Tarikh-i-Lutfi (History of Turkey). Constantinople, 1873-
Lybyer, A. H., The Government of the Ottoman Empire in the Time of
· Suleiman the Magnificent. Harvard University Press, 1913.
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Moltke, Hellmuth, Count von, Briefe iiber zustiinde und Begebenheiten
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Social. Ahmed Emin, The Development of Modern Turkey, as measured by its press. New York, Columbia University, 1914. Armenie (Delegation d'): L'Armenie et la question armenienne. Para Purabien, 1922. Barres, M., Une enquete au pays du Levant. Paris, Pion, 1923. Bouvet, Le Code familial ottoman de 1917. Paris, Revue du Monde Musulman, 1921. Deny, J., !'Adoption du calendrier gregorien en Turquie. Paris, Revue du Monde Musulman, Vol. XLIII, 1921. Georges-Gaulis, Berthe, Les origines intellectuelles du nationalisme - Turc. Paris, 1922. Great Britain, The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, 1915-1916, James, Viscount Bryce. London Stationery Office, 1916. - - Foreign Office Reports on Conditions in Turkish Prisons, Cund 260. 1919. Johnson, Clarence R., Constantinople To-day. New York, 1922. Oberhumer, E., Die Tiirken und das osmanische Reich. Teubner, Berlin, 1917. Pernot, M., La question Turque. Paris, Grasset, 1923. Said Halim, Prince, La Reforme de la Societe Musulmane. Paris, 1912. Still, John, A Prisoner in Turkey. London, John Lane, 1920. Stoddart, T. L., The New World of Islam. New York, Scribners, 1921< Tekin Alp, Turkismus and Pan Turkismus. Weimar, Kiepenheuer, 1915. Toynbee, Arnold J., The Western Question in Greece and Turkey. London, Constable, 1922. --Nationality and the War. London, Dent, 1915. Valyi, Felix, Spiritual and Political Revolutions in Islam. London, 1925. , Econ~mic. Earle, E. M., Turkey, the Great Powers, and the Bagdad Railway. New York, Macmillan, 1923. Frech, F., Hanig, H., and Sach, A., Die Grundlagen tiirkischer Wirtschaftsver jiingungten. Berlin, Reimer, 1916. Henn.eg, R., Die deutschen Bahnbauten.in der Turkei.
Junge, Reinhard, Die zakiinftige Bedeutung der Tiirkei fiir die deutsche Industrie. Leipzig, 1916. - - Die deutsch-tiirkischen \Virtschaftsbeziehungen. \Veimar, 1917. Mears, E. G., Modern Turkey. New York, Macmillan, 1924. Philippson, Das tiirkische Reich. Weimar, 1915. Publication of the German-Turkish Chamber of Commerce of Frank- furt: Die tiirkische Republik in Wirtschaft und Aufbau. Vol. XVI. Renner, R., Der Aussenhandel der Turkei vor dem Weltkriege. Aus- landswirtsch'aft in .Einzeldarstellungen. Published by the German Minister of Foreign Mairs. Vol. III, Berlin, 1919. Schafer, C. A., Die Entsicklung der Bagdadbahnpolitik. Weimar, Kiepenheuer, 1916. - - Tiirkische Wirtschaftsgesetze. Weimar, Kiepenheuer, 1917. Wiedenfeld, Die Deutsch-Tiirkischen Wirtschaftsbeziehungen und ihre Entwicklungsmoglichkeiten. Leipzig, Drucker, 1915. ·-Zimmermann, Emil, Kann uns Mesopotamien eigene Kolonien ersetzen?
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Stamboul, 1919.
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ries of a Turkish Statesman. London, 1921.
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stein, 1918.
Kayser, L'Europe et la Turquie nouvelle. }Jaris, 1922.
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phore, 1922.
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Stiirmer, Zwei Jahre in der Turkei. Lausanne, 1917.

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