Understanding the travel behavior of Generation Y, JM Raunio

Tags: Generation Y, generation, travelling, travel, travel behavior, Pendergast, Generation Y members, Y1, the generation, cent, Y2, members, travel decisions, P. Benckendorff, CAB International, personal development, motivation, travel career, tourist attractions, travel habits, everyday routines, Suvantola, travel experience, defining characteristics, Respondents, travel research, Annals of Tourism Research, Generation members, D. Pendergast, UNWTO World Tourism, tourism motivation
Content: Master's thesis One year Human Geography 15 credits Understanding the Travel Behavior of Generation Y Jenni Maria Raunio i
MID SWEDEN UNIVERSITY Department of Tourism Studies and Human Geography Examiner: Ioannides Dimitri, [email protected] Supervisor: Solene Prince, [email protected] Author: Jenni Maria Raunio, [email protected] Degree program: Master in Human Geography, 60 credits Semester, year: spring, 2014 ii
Copyright 2014 by Jenni Maria Raunio iii
UNDERSTANDING THE TRAVEL BEHAVIOR OF GENERATION Y Department of Tourism Studies and Human Geography Mid-Sweden University May 2014 Master in Human Geography Jenni Maria Raunio ABSTRACT This paper studies the travel patterns and motivations of Generation Y members living in Sweden and in Finland. The research is made from Generation Y members' point of view. Earlier studies have discussed Generation Y's travel behavior, but no research was found studying the differences between the age groups inside the Generation Y. As the Generation Y is a big generation group, it is important to notice the possible differences within this group. This research aims to find out the possible differences between the young and the older members of the generation. The purpose of the study is to contribute to the understanding of Generation Y's travel behavior, which is important to understand for tourism planning, as the younger part of the generation will enter the tourism markets in the near future. The research is a quantitative study, testing a hypothesis that there are differences in the travel behavior between the younger and the older members of Generation Y. An electronic survey was sent to various persons, using social media as a tool for reaching the target group for data collection. The survey was done using a SoGo online survey tool. Collected data was moved into an SPSS for analyzing. The results indicated that there was no significant differences found between the two age groups. However the results show the Generation Y respondents' motivation, values, expectations, experiences and attitudes towards travelling. The results will help in understanding Generation Y's travel behavior, and help examine and define the potential differences in this generation group. For future work, the findings of this research could be compared with qualitative research, made by interviewing tourism professionals and Generation Y members. KEYWORDS: generation, Generation Y, travel behavior, travel motivation, generation study iv
UNDERSTANDING THE TRAVEL BEHAVIOR OF GENERATION Y By Jenni Maria Raunio A Master's Thesis Submitted to Mid-Sweden University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of Master in Human Geography May 2014 Approved: Dimitri Ioannides (PhD) Solene Prince (PhD student) v
TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 1 The research question .................................................................................................... 2 Earlier research concerning Generation Y and youth travel.......................................... 3 Structure ........................................................................................................................ 5 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK............................................................................. 6 Generation ..................................................................................................................... 6 The new generation ....................................................................................................... 8 Travel motivation theories........................................................................................... 10 Tourist types ................................................................................................................ 12 Modern travel .............................................................................................................. 14 Motivation for travel.................................................................................................... 15 Travel styles................................................................................................................. 18 Decision making process ............................................................................................. 19 Travel information sources .......................................................................................... 20 Research Methods ......................................................................................... 23 Data collection approach ............................................................................................. 23 Research design ........................................................................................................... 24 RESULTS ................................................................................................................... 26 DATA ANALYSIS..................................................................................................... 33 Use of travel information sources among Generation Y ............................................. 33 Travelling style among respondents ............................................................................ 34 Travel motivation ........................................................................................................ 34 DISCUSSION............................................................................................................. 38 REFERENCES .......................................................................................................... 40 APPENDICES............................................................................................................ 44 Appendix 1 - Group statistics of the Independent Samples Test................................. 44 Appendix 2 - The T-test for equality of means ........................................................... 45 Appendix 3 ­ The paper survey (used in Sweden) ...................................................... 47 vi
LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Generation chart by year, name and age group .......................................1 Table 2. Respondents' country of residence by age groups. ....................................... 26 vii
LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Maslow's need hierarchy pyramid....................................................11 Figure 2. Travels taken abroad during past the three years and during the past 12 months. ................................................................................................................ 27 Figure 3. Sources of inspiration for travel for the age group Y2. ............................... 28 Figure 4. Sources of inspiration for travel for the age group Y1. ............................... 29 Figure 5. Travelling styles. .......................................................................................... 29 Figure 6. The use of mobile applications for acquiring information when travelling. 31 Figure 7. The use of Internet for acquiring information when travelling.................... 31 Figure 8. The use of travel literature for acquiring information when travelling........ 32 viii
INTRODUCTION
Generation Y is the latest generation on the tourist market with an age range of 11 to 37 years (table 1). Many members of Generation Y are already travelling and some will be starting to travel in the near future. Generation Y members, in comparison to the previous generations, Generation X, Baby Boomers and the Silent Generation (table 1), are said to be "confident and relaxed, conservative and the most educated generation ever" (Pendergast, 2010, p. 5). They have been living and growing up in a globalized world with multi-cultural influences and technological advancements. Pendergast (2010) says that the most important influence of Generation Y's travel behavior has been the Internet, and everything that has come through development of Information and Communication Technologies, and through globalization. Family structures have been changing. With fewer siblings, with more divorced parents and with more working mothers, Generation Y members have grown up in a sheltered environment, and are said to be more indulged, self-reliant, independent and seeing themselves as special and entitled (Moscardo & Benckendorff, 2010). Coleman and Loda (2010) note that Generation Y members are said to leave home later and have more disposable income for shopping and travel. Generation Y members have great tolerance for diversity and for different cultural styles, because of a mix match culture created by globalization, Internet and media (Moscardo & Benckendorff, 2010).
Table 1. Generation chart by year, name and age group (reproduced from Moscardo & Benckendorff, 2010).
Birth year 1925-1945 1946-1964 1965-1976 1977-2003 2004-
Generation name Silent Baby Boomers Generation X Generation Y Generation Z
Age range in 2014 69-89 50-68 38-49 11-37 10 or younger
1
The same generation members are said to share the same generational characteristics, but there are also differences between the members. Differences can be cultural, ideological, religious, political, economical and educational, depending on the generation member's origins (Moscardo & Benckendorff, 2010). A generation is also sharing some of the same values, beliefs and attitudes with the previous and the next generations, especially the oldest and the youngest members of a generation. According to Glover (2010), targeting a whole generation for marketing purposes is unlikely to be successful as there are vast differences within a generation. The topic is important to study, as the younger part of Generation Y will be entering the tourism markets in the near future. Understanding the travel behavior of the new generation will help tourism companies and operators with strategic planning to meet up with the tourism market demand. Generation Y is a big generation group, with age difference of 26 years between the oldest and the youngest members. Understanding the possible differences in needs and values between different generations and within a generation will help tourism companies to invest profitably and sustainably in long-term planning, to provide their employees with information and to help constructing strategies in order to meet the needs of Generation Y travellers (Glover, 2010). Huang and Petrick (2010) note that the studies of Generation Y have mostly concentrated on the demographics, characteristics and on the consumer habits of this generation rather than studying its travel behavior. The research question The study is testing a hypothesis that there are differences in travel motivation within the generation, between the older and the younger members of Generation Y. The main topic of the paper is Generation Y's travel behavior, involving generation research and tourism motivation theories. The paper examines the travel motivations of Generation Y travellers' living in Sweden and in Finland. Those travellers were chosen to be the target group, representing the sample in this study in order to test the hypothesis. The study is examining the research question: Are there intragenerational differences within Generation Y between two different age groups concerning their travel behavior and travel motivations? 2
The research was done using quantitative methods and an electronic survey was sent to Generation Y members living in Sweden and in Finland. In the survey the respondents were asked to give their age, country of residence, and an approximate number of leisure trips taken abroad during the past twelve months and in the past three years. The respondents were asked to rate the importance of different experiences and activities when travelling abroad, to describe their travelling style, give examples of their source of inspiration for travel and to rate how often they use travel books, Internet and mobile applications as a source of information when travelling. The results were used to compare the travel motivations and behavior between the younger and the older members of the generation, to find out possible differences in their travel behavior. This research will contribute to the understanding of Generation Y's travel patterns and behavior, and help examine and define the potential differences in this generation group. Earlier research concerning Generation Y and youth travel Generation Y has been studied in the context of tourism through applied studies of qualitative and quantitative research in North America, Asia and Australasia in Benckendorff, Moscardo and Pendergast's (2010) edited book, Tourism and Generation Y. No earlier research was found studying the intragenerational differences in travel behavior and motivation between the different age groups in Generation Y, or in other generations. Nusair, Bilgihan, Okumus and Cabonoglu (2013) have studied Generation Y's relationship commitment to online social network websites in American universities and Leask, Fyall and Barron (2013) have studied the strategies to engage Generation Y in the UK attractions' sector, and the challenges and possibilities to meet the expectations and needs of this generation as visitors. The findings of both of the studies will be discussed later in the paper. The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) and the World Youth Student and Educational Confederation (WYSE Travel Confederation) has published a report in 2008 called Youth Travel Matters ­ Understanding the Global Phenomenon of Youth Travel, which studied young people's travel patterns around the world in order to get an overview of the trends and characteristics of the `youth travel segment' (UNWTO, 2008, p. 5). The reports findings show that Youth Travel is an 3
economically important and growing industry, and that travel for young people is an opportunity to increase their knowledge by studying and exploring, and that it also gives them better understanding of social issues like poverty, which helps them to become more responsible travellers and reinforce their positive values (UNWTO, 2008). Youth travel research can be used as a source of information when studying Generation Y's travel behavior, but the problem is that youth travel studies are not including the whole Generation Y. Youth traveller classification include travellers with age of 16 to 26 years, leaving the older members of Generation Y out of the classification. UNWTO's youth travel study was made between 2002 and 2007, when the older part of the Generation Y was categorized as youth traveller. Heung and Leong (2007) studied the travel demand, preferences, motives and behavior of university students in Hong Kong universities in 2002, which at that time would belong to the older age group of Generation Y. The results of the survey indicate that there is increasing demand for student travel markets in Hong Kong, and that this segment should be considered as important consumer group in Hong Kong's travel industry. The research was also comparing the differences in travel motivation attributes between students from different disciplines, and significant differences were found between these groups. Heung and Leong (2007) propose that new products and tailor made tours should be offered according to different universities study programs. Heung and Leong (2007) note that students' have more free time than full-time workers, and so more flexible package tours would be more suitable for them, they also note that students want more freedom and independency on decision-making during their travel. Earlier studies have discussed Generation Y's travel behavior, but the difference between the age groups inside the Generation Y, should to be studied more. An Australian research studied the consumer perspectives on short-break holidays, using focus groups from the same generation (Moscardo and Benckendorff, 2010). The research by Moscardo and Bencendorff showed that there are differences in terms of factors like education, financial situation and employment. University students and the same age young workers, showed differences in their travel preferences and consumer choices. According to the findings of the study the university students showed high priority on spending money on their holidays, they were avoiding structured activities, using budget options and preferred socializing. As the young workers, who were the same age with university students, showed low priority on 4
spending money on holidays and preferring structured activities such as sport. Other respondents on the study, who were older, preferred cultural activities and were more flexible with their holiday style. According to Moscardo and Benckendorff (2010), the study shows that education, employment and access to money were the factors that had an effect on holiday choices and caused different behavior between members in the same generation cohort. However the research was concentrated on the intragenerational differences caused by their different social status, not by their age. As Generation Y is a young generation Moscardo and Benckendorff (2010) point out that in the academic literature Generation Y has been dismissed, and that very little research has been made on the relationship of Generation Y and tourism. Research about the matter is important for people working in the travel industry, like tourism policymakers, entrepreneurs, tourist companies, managers and hosts, to help them with futures tourism planning as Generation Y may have new approaches to travel. Glover (2010) notes that the Generation Y is an important consumer group in tourism because of its size and its purchasing power, and that Generation Y's values and behavior might be different than the values and behavior of the earlier generations. Structure To examine the research question proposed, the theoretical framework of the study will provide knowledge of generation theories and definitions concentrating on the characteristics of Generation Y and as well travel motivation theories in order to understand reason why people travel. In the theoretical framework part travel styles, tourist types and the use of travel information sources will be examined through different literature. The research method part will go through the data collection approach and the research design used in this study. The results part will show the outcome of the survey using figures and tables to illustrate respondents' demographics and their attitudes towards the questions proposed. The results of the survey will be examined more in the light of motivation theories in the data analysis part and discussed briefly in the discussion part. 5
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The theory part includes generation definitions and travel motivation theories, explaining the characteristics that define the Generation Y members in general and as a traveller. The motivation theories are used for understanding tourism customer behavior for marketing, and for targeting customer groups. Generation Sociologist Karl Mannheim introduced the concept of generation in 1952, by saying that all generations will have their respective views of the world through the experiences that they shared during their lifetime (in Moscardo & Benckendorff, 2010 p. 17). A generation is defined as a group of people who were all born in a certain period of time, sharing similar cultural experiences, especially in westernized countries. During their lifetime they will experience the same significant life events and changes in society, which will affect them during their formative years (Glover, 2010). Moscardo and Benckendorff (2010) argue that generation cohorts are difficult to determine, because the major historical or social events that define a generation are not as clear as they were with earlier generations whose values and consciousness were influenced by major and distinct events such as the Second World War and the Vietnam War. Leask et al. (2013) note that it is important that the events and experiences that form and help define certain generation must be something that is recognized now and after, and that those events are multicultural and international. In the case of Generation Y, globalization and the development of technologies such as Internet and Mobile phones are events that have affected the members of Generation Y regardless of their nationality, social, economic or cultural background. Pendergast (2010) suggests that the defining key elements that have affected Generation Y besides the development of information technology are the increased fear of terrorism after the World Trade Center attacks in 2001, and increased global financial uncertainties. These factors have affected Generation Y during their formative years and therefore influence the latter's travel behavior. Strauss and Howe (1992) propose that the critical defining events of the different generations of the last century are; the depression and the Second World War for the Silent Generation, the post-war economic growth of the fifties and sixties and the Vietnam War for the Baby Boomers, 6
the economic instability of the seventies for Generation X and the creation of Internet for Generation Y (in Moscardo & Benckendorff, 2010, p. 17). There are different approaches for defining a generation cycle. Pendergast (2010) defines Generation Y as people born between 1982 and 2002. Strauss and Howe (1992) have a wider approach, and they define Generation Y as people born between 1977 and 2003 (in Moscardo & Benckendorff, 2010, p. 17). The average duration of a period considered to hold a generation is of 20 to 22 years (Pendergast, 2010). As Generation Y is a young generation and still evolving, it will take time until it finds its final form, and for this reason it is also hard to define the exact start and ending date (Glover, 2010). This research will follow Straus's and Howe's (1992) classification and apply the wider approach of defining Generation Y, by recognizing persons born between 1977 and 2003 as Generation Y members. Generation members born in the late 70's and early 80's have been witnessing the development of information technology, and the changes caused by globalization, more significantly than the younger part of Generation Y. The older part of the generation has experienced the time before Internet became part of everyday life; this is something that is lacking from the younger part of the generation, due to their age. The older unit of Generation Y has had a longer period of time to travel, than the younger unit, who are becoming independent travellers in the near future. The younger unit has most likely travel experience with parents or relatives, but other members of the family have influenced their travel decisions. As the younger unit of Generation Y reach adulthood, they will gain more authority concerning their own travel decisions. Generation theory can be divided into three core principles: location, actuality and unit (Leask, Fyall & Barron, 2013). Location signifies the birth year of an individual. Actuality refers to the way in which individual react to social-changes, and how these changes are reflected forming the person representing the generation. Unit stands for sub-cohorts inside the broad generation. Pendergast (2010) has divided Generation Y into three units according to their birth year. The oldest unit, called Generation Why, was born between 1982 and 1985. The middle unit of the generation, the Millennials, was born between 1985 and 1999. The youngest unit of the generation, the iGeneration, was born between 1999 and 2002. Comparatively Kupperschmidt (in Leask et al., 2013, p. 21) has divided Generation Y into `waves' of five to seven years where the older members of a 7
generation are part of the `first wave', those in the middle are the `core group', and the youngest members of a generation are part of the `last wave'. Even though generation members share the same kind of experiences, there are still many differences in attitudes, values, behaviors and lifestyles within a generation. The previous and the next generations share some of the same values and attitudes that are passed by from one generation to another. Especially the oldest and youngest parts of generation will share same traits, generation characteristics like values, beliefs and attitudes, respectively with previous and following generations. For example the Millennials, the older unit of Generation Y, will share same traits, for example values in family or work life, with earlier generation, the Generation X, and the younger unit, the iGeneration, will share same traits with the following generation, the Generation Z. The traits effect on the way, how people see and interact with the environment around them (Huang & Petrick, 2010). According to Pendergast (2010), the generation units and the descriptions of their characteristics are the mixture of definitions made by market researchers, demographers, press and media, and the generation members themselves. Also McCrindle and Beard (2007) argue that journalists and media, rather than social scientists have mainly made the new generation's descriptions (in Moscardo & Benckendorff, 2010, p. 17). The labels of generations have been used for marketing and promoting. For example, recent years there has been a lot of talk about Baby Boomer generation's importance in the tourism markets. As this big generation group is retiring from work life with more free time and disposable income for leisure activities like travel, they have been the interest of tourism industry (Glover, 2010). According to Huang and Petrick (2010), Baby Boomers travel greater distances and stay on their holidays longer than other generation cohorts. Marketing plans for targeting the Baby Boomers are specially designed so that they are attractive for this aging consumer group and meet their needs. This kind of tailor made product can be for example health based holiday package (Huang & Petrick, 2010). The new generation During the past three decades society and the experiences of young people have been changing dramatically. According to Furlong and Cartmel (2007), modern society has brought along new kind of possibilities and risks that were unknown to Generation Y's parents and to the generations before them. Advances in technology 8
have improved our quality of life. At the same time we are facing new kinds of risks, like terrorist attacks. The changes in work culture, like temporary employment where workers are hired only for certain period of time and the need for more skilled and educated workforce, has changed the way young people experience their working life compared to their parents. Many of the members of the new generation will stay financially dependent on their families longer than was the case for previous generations (Pendergast, 2010). Generation Y members tend to marry and start a family later than the members of previous generations. The longer period of young adulthood before starting their own family gives them greater opportunities for leisure and travel, and leaves them with more disposable income. The United Nations' World Marriage Data shows that in 1970 the average age to marry for a woman was 23 years and for men 27 years, while in 2009 women's average age to marry was 29 and for men's 32 (United Nations, 2012). The way of spending leisure time has changed. The core activities of the members of Generation Y are watching TV, shopping, socializing and playing computer games (Furlong & Cartmel, 2007). Kellner (1992) claims that, "In the late modernity identity revolves around leisure, centered on looks, images and consumption" (in Furlong & Cartmel, 2007, p. 83). Klein (2000) argues that multicultural corporations use style individualization and diversification as marketing technique to create niche products (in Furlong & Cartmel, 2007, p. 72). Urry (2006) quotes Klein (2000) by saying that the big corporations, like Virgin, Easyjet, Club Med, Nike and Starbucks have changed from manufacturing and selling mere products and turned into brand producers creating `concepts' or `life-styles' directed to the `global teen markets'. Taylor and Cosenza (2002) say that especially services that have the brand `coolness' are attractive to Generation Y as consumers (in Leask et al., 2013, p. 25). Generation Y characteristics. Generation Y members are Internet savvy and they are actively using social media for multiple purposes. According to Nusair et al. (2013, p. 1), Generation Y members "embrace the nature of interactive online media". The role of social media has changed. Originally, online media such as Facebook were used for connecting with friends and family. Nowadays social media is a channel for multiple purposes such as connecting with friends and family. It can be used as a channel for advertising, creating work related contacts, finding jobs, sharing 9
news and information on a global scale and even for finding a life partner and for dating. According to Pendergast (2010, p. 6), the development of information and communication technology, one of the marking events of Generation Y's formative years, has created an even greater gap between Generation Y and the earlier generations' values and traits. Prensky (2001) has named Generation Y members `digital natives' because they were born in `The Information Age' (in Pendergast, 2010, p. 6). Because of Internet and the easy and rapid access to information, Generation Y members are said to be inpatient and intolerant for delays. On other hand Generation Y members have developed ability for multi-tasking and managing different aspects of their lives at the same time (Pendergast, 2010). Since the arrival of social media and the ensuing new way of interacting with people, the meaning of friendship has changed. For the previous generations a friend was someone familiar with whom to interact naturally in everyday situations, as now the friends that people have through Internet might be somewhat unknown (Pendergast, 2010). At the same time Generation Y is said to be more tolerant for diversity, different lifestyles and for multiculturalism (Moscardo & Benckendorff, 2010). According to Moscardo and Benckendorff (2010), the positive attitudes towards diversity can be seen in Generation Y's increased interest towards volunteer tourism. Volunteer tourism is a form of tourism where participants will work for free in a community in order to help a society or environment (Volunteer Tourism Views, 2013). Generation Y members as consumers are said to behave in unexpected ways as they are influenced rapidly by changing trend and celebrity culture (Leask et al., 2013). As Internet and social media have a big influence on Generation Y's consumer culture, new trends can quickly be adopted from around the world, but at the same time they change as fast as they appeared. Travel motivation theories Travel motivation theories come from different fields of social sciences and they help to understand the reasons why people travel in order to define their consumer behavior (Fletcher et al., 2013). In the case of Generation Y it is important to study their travel behavior in the light of motivation theories as it might differ from the behavior of the previous generations' (Fletcher et al., 2013). 10
One of the best-known theories concerning human behavior is Maslow's (1943) need hierarchy theory that helps to understand the levels of human needs and demand (Fletcher et al. 2013). It has been used originally in the field of psychology to understand the hierarchy of basic human needs (figure 1) and their influence on human behavior (Ross, 1988). According to Ross (1988), human behavior theories can be applied in tourism studies to understand people's needs and their choices when choosing a travel destination. The idea in Maslow's need hierarchy is that if the most basic needs are not satisfied, they will become dominant in an individual's behavior. When the basic needs are fulfilled, the next level of needs will start motivating the individual. The needs in Maslow's theory are in hierarchical interaction with each other. Need of selfactualization Need of self-esteem Need of belonging and need of love Need of safety and security Physiological needs: hunger, thirst, rest Figure 1. Maslow's need hierarchy pyramid (reproduced from Fletcher et al., 2013, p. 42) Ross (1998) points out that for tourism research would be more suitable to apply the theory that Murray developed in 1938. Unlike in Maslow's theory, Murray's classified needs are not in interaction with each other; rather they change and evolve independently. Maslow's theory includes physiological and psychological needs and according to Ross (1998), the lowest needs in Maslow's theory, like the need of security and the physiological needs, become priority for tourists only in 11
stressful and negative situations. Murray's theory on the other hand concentrates on the psychological needs and so it can be used for explaining the reasons why people travel. Murray's classification of human needs encompasses achievement, dominance, autonomy, affiliation, play and cognizance. The need of achievement is a need to feel that something difficult has been accomplished. The need of dominance is a need to control others or to control the behavior of a group. The need of autonomy is a need for independence. The need of affiliation is a need to enjoy the company of others. The need of play is a need of relaxation, entertainment, fun, laughter and playing games. Cognizance is a need to explore, to study, to seek knowledge and satisfy curiosity. Fletcher, Fyall, Gilbert and Wanhill (2013) note that approach for tourism motivation studies originate from a range of different disciplinary areas. McIntosh, Goeldner and Ritchie (1995) categorize tourism motivators in four different motivation areas (in Fletcher et al., 2013, p. 44). Physical motivators, such as sport and leisure, are activities for holistic wellbeing of body and mind. Cultural motivators are interests towards foreign cultures, arts, life style, habits etc. Interpersonal motivators, such as meeting new people or visiting friends and family, are creating social contacts outside of our daily life and environment. Interpersonal travel motivators can also be used for spiritual reasons. Status and prestige motivators are described as a need for recognition and attention from others, and can be gained through personal development, such as education, knowledge and life experience. Status and prestige motivators can also be described as an ego boost. Tourist types Tourists behave differently according to their motivations, attitudes, perceptions and personal needs, and their roles can be studied through tourism typologies (Fletcher et al., 2013). Different typologies have been created based on tourist's behavior, personality, geography, socio-economic, and demographic position (Suvantola, 2002). These typologies can be used for marketing purposes, for targeting possible consumer groups, and for creating specific products and services. For example Baby Boomers Travelling (2014) is a company that helps professionals targeting the Baby Boomer's generation in America by providing information and materials. 12
Plog's (1974) theory of traveller types is based on two psychographic extremes (in Fletcher et al., 2013, p. 44-45). The one extreme is a psychocentric or self-centered traveller. They are often conservative in their travel behavior and they prefer travelling to safe and well-known destinations. The other extreme is an allocentric traveller who seeks adventures and new destinations. Most people however are midcentric, belonging somewhere between these two extremes (Fletcher et al., 2013). Cohen's (1972) tourist classification is based on an assumption that tourists seek new experiences and destinations for curiosity, but at the same time they need security and familiarity of their normal lives, thus the destinations needs to be explored from a familiar base (in Fletcher et al., 2013). Fletcher et al. (2013) say that Cohen's tourist classification is a reflection of Plog's theory of psychographic extremes, with psychocentric conservative traveller and allocentric adventure seeker. Cohen (1972) classified different traveller groups according to their preferences to understand the effect of institutionalized tourism (in Fletcher et al., 2013). Cohen's (1972) four tourist groups are the organized mass tourist; the individual mass tourist; the explorer and the drifter (in Fletcher et al., 2013). The organized mass tourists have little or no contact with the local people or culture, and they prefer safe and familiar travel styles with organized holiday packages. The individual mass tourists are similar to the organized mass tourists, but have more flexibility and make more personal choices when travelling, yet still preferring organized package holidays. The explorers are independent travellers who organize their own trips avoiding the mass to some extent, but who are still looking for comfortable accommodation and transport. The drifters are avoiding the tourist industry and its services, trying to be far from the familiarity of home. They do not have any timetables or itinerary, and they prefer living with the local people and mingling with the local people. These four groups shift from familiarity to novelty. Cohen (1972) has divided these four groups in two categories: the institutionalized and the non-institutionalized tourists (in Fletcher et al., 2013). Institutionalized tourists, like the organized mass tourists and the individual mass tourists, are in close contact with the travel industry by using the services of travel agents, tour operators, hotels and transport companies. Non-institutionalized travellers, like the explorers and the drifters, have very little contact with the tourist industry, using only if necessary tourism operators like transport companies to reach destinations or to move from one 13
location to another. In Cohen's (1972) theory the familiarity and home like elements are created through `environmental bubbles', meaning that tourists spend their holidays at a destination in the company of fellow-countrymen, without having any direct contact with the local people or culture (Suvantola, 2002). New cultures, places and people are seen and experienced through this protective `environmental bubbles', without having to leave the familiar and home like space (Jaakson, 2003). The term `environmental bubble' is often connected with mass tourism. Tourists purchases a holiday through their local tourist agency, fly to their destination in a charter plane with other tourists, use the services provided by the home agency and spend their time at the destination with the other holidaymakers from their home country on a package tour. Modern travel In the past years there has been a shift from modern mass tourism towards post-modern independent and more consumer conscious travel that rejects mass products (Arva & Deli-Gray, 2011). The modern tourist, or the mass tourist, was driven by sun, sand, sea and sex, preferring guided package holidays with little contact with local culture or people. In Cohen's (1972) classification modern tourist would be seen as the institutionalized tourist. The post-modern tourist is independent and more individualized traveller, seeking for authentic and real experiences. They are also more environmentally conscious, flexible and they seek quality and value for money (Fletcher et al., 2013). In Cohen's (1972) classification post-modern tourist would be seen as the non-institutionalized tourist. Poon (1993) describes the new type of traveller `The new tourist', as a knowledgeable and sophisticated quality seeker, who expects from travel new experiences, activities, adventures and authenticity, and who also enjoys an educational aspect to his or her holidays among other activities and entertainment (in Fletcher et al., 2013, p. 128). Fletcher et al. (2013, p. 627) describe the new tourist: "a tourist who is experienced, aware of opportunities and empowered". The new tourist does not only mean Generation Y travellers, but all travellers who are seeking new experiences out of the mass. Generation Y members have had greater opportunities to travel than the previous generations (Glover, 2010). Variety of travel destinations have increased, 14
and more frequent flight routes and low cost airlines have made travelling easier, affordable and more obtainable. As generation Y members are born in the age of information technology and so developed to be technologically savvy, finding information through Internet and booking travels is easier than before (Fletcher et al., 2013; Pendergast, 2010). Generation Y members are more aware of increased travel opportunities and are highly interested of visiting domestic and overseas destinations that are offering services and activities for the Generation Y market segment (Glover, 2010). Glover (2010, p. 157) says that Generation Y members are seeing overseas travel as "an obligatory or a rite of passage". According to Pendergast (2010), Generation Y members travel frequently and are more often exploring new destinations and areas, seeking information and new experiences, as they want to get a lot out of their travel. In Europe, with European Union (EU) border formalities hardly existing, people can travel in the EU area more freely without passports or visas. This has made travel much easier for people living inside Europe, like for Finnish and Swedish travellers. People around the world are travelling more frequently than before, and this can be seen through travel statistics. The UNWTO (Kester, 2014) reported 1,087 million international tourist arrivals in 2013. Tourism in total has been growing rapidly in the world, and the number of international arrivals has doubled in a short period of time. In 1995 UNWTO reported 529 million international arrivals worldwide (Kester, 2014). The globalization and economic growth of Asia have had a significant effect on international tourism (Fletcher et al., 2013). According to an International Tourism Bourse's (ITB) World Travel Trends Report 2012/2013, the outbound tourism in Asia Pacific region has risen by seven per cent in 2012 as economic growth enabled people to travel more (ITB). Motivation for travel Push and Pull factors. Dann (1981) describes the motivation for travel through push and pull factors where the exploring is the push factor and the attractive or dreamed destination is the pull factor (in Fletcher et al., 2013, p. 43). Suvantola (2002) uses the concept of escape and search, instead of push and pull factors, as push and pull factors are taken from Migration Studies and are somewhat problematic and mechanical for travel motivation study, when in escape and search the travellers 15
themselves are actors in the process rather than being pushed and pulled by some force. According to Suvantola (2002), people have freedom to escape from everyday life rather than being pushed away from it, and that people are constantly searching for new things rather than being pulled by them. Search can be seen as something that people expect to find through travel, for example going to a desired destination could be a fulfillment of a dream. Escape can be seen as a simple need of change from everyday routines, thus person escapes the familiar place or home to rejuvenate and to `recharge batteries', in other words to relax and take distance before returning to a normal daily rhythm. The motivation to travel could also be an escape from the busy and hectic life to experience a simpler lifestyle in order to relax. Travel is also about self-reflection by giving an opportunity for personal growth. Pattakos (2010) says that travelling to places that are different from our familiar home environment, along with the meaningful, authentic and creative experiences that can be derived there, can give the traveller an opportunity for seeing things from a different perspective and for clearing his or her mind. Travelling cannot only be a physical visit or exploration of a new place, but also an opportunity for exploring oneself. Pattakos (2010) also notes that the search of meaning and the search of oneself are the big trends of the 21st century, and one of the basic motivations of human being. In Maslow's need hierarchy this can be seen as selfactualization, the highest need of the pyramid (figure 1). Also in Suvantola's (2002) findings, especially among backpackers, their most important motivation for travel was personal development, as one can see his or her own life differently when detached from everyday routines. Suvantola (2002) highlights that travel habits can vary depending on one's life situation and time, and that even one trip can have different elements, such as from adventurous jungle trekking in a remote area to a shopping trip in the urban setting of a capital city. Pearce and Lee (2005) note that people's `travel career' evolves with time and with practice. One's motivation to travel changes after gaining more travel experience as the past trips affect future travels. According to Pearce and Lee (2005), people with low travelling experience are more likely to be motivated by factors such as personal development, security, nostalgia, romance and recognition by others, while people with more travel experience are motivated by factors such as nature and selfdevelopment by interacting with the destination, its culture and people. 16
Also a life cycle has an effect on generation's travel behavior. Pearce (in Oppermann, 1995, p. 538) note that that individuals' travel patterns changes during the different faces of their life cycle and the different needs and motivations in the different states of the cycle influence their travel decisions. Authenticity of an experience. According to Suvantola (2002), authenticity is often said to be important motivation factor for travel. MacCannell (1976) says that the tourists search firsthand experiences and authenticity that they cannot find in their daily lives and routines (in Suvantola, 2002, p. 52). Also Dann (1981) has pointed out that the motivation to travel can be a desire or a fantasy of something that is missing from the everyday life (in Fletcher et al., 2013, p. 43). On the other hand, MacCannell (1999) argues that the tourist experience that is created in a touristic setting is inauthentic and superficial. This goes especially in the case of mass tourism. Often the `real lives' of the locals in a touristic setting has been mystified with nostalgy for the purposes of advertisement and marketing, which is not the case in everyday living. MacCannell (1999) claims that tourists are only seeing and experiencing the staged settings of a real life. He also notes that tourists often actually see the real life of the locals, but as they find it dull, they do not pay attention to it. He refers to urban street life in tourist areas and to the experiences and interaction of both, the local people and the tourists, saying "the question of who is watching whom and who is responding to whom can be complex" (MacCannell, 1999, p. 106). Suvantola (2002) argues that the experiences that the tourism industry offers to us are actually seen as positive things. For the tourist it is not necessarily important to know the original purpose of a sight, just the fact that the tourist attraction is presented or displayed is significant enough for him or her (Suvantola, 2002). According to Suvantola (2002), travel is an anti-structure where the rules of everyday life do not apply and that the playfulness of a tourist trip can be the counterbalance for everyday obligations and seriousness. Suvantola (2002) notes that still in the end for many people the obvious and most important reason to travel is simply the need for recreation, and that authenticity is not necessarily important as most of the tourist experiences are reproduced, being part of the play and fun of travelling experience. 17
Travel styles One's travel style varies depending on personal motivations, experiences and expectations among other things. According to Landry (2010), one's travelling style depends on his or her interests and activity to seek new experiences; they could just want to be observers from distance, or go deeper and interact and communicate, trying to actively understand the experiences, foreign cultures and people. For young people, backpacking is often the time between graduating and entering work life. Adler (1985) studied youth travel from a historical perspective discussing how tourism changed in the 19th century from what was called the `Grand Tour' the young European male aristocrats' educational and cultural travel, to more of a middle class modified form of travelling, as before travelling was not understood as something accepted in the society among the working class and the poor. She finds similarities with the `Grand Tour' and the modern `youth travel', and notes that the travel motivation in the `Grand Tour', as also in the modern youth travel is to create an escape from home, everyday life and from adulthood's required family structure, and that travel offers an opportunity to adventure, education and to gain independence (Adler, 1985). According to Adler (1985) youth travel can also be seen as a ritual for separation and for social distance as a rite of passage. Graburn (1983) identifies two tourism categories: the `modal' and the `rites-of-passage' (in Suvantola, 2002, p. 58). The modal type of tourism is a recreational type of tourism. The rite of passage is a type of tourism that occurs in changing life situations, like for young adult after graduation, and it is separating two different periods of life from each other. According to Suvantola (2002, p. 85), "backpacking is about personal development", and that this type of travel gives a feeling of control and freedom. Adler (1985) says that youth travel offers an opportunity for adventure and education. When backpacking, it is not always clear what the destination is. Part of the excitement of backpacking is that there are no exact travel plans or timetables, as one might just wander around and seek for adventures. Backpackers often spend long periods of time travelling with limited budget. Young backpackers might work during their backpacking period to financially support their travel. For example Australia among other countries is offering Working Holiday visas for young travellers, so they can travel and work there legally during a one or two years period. 18
Backpackers often want to be separated from normal tourists. Conventional tourists are often seen as people who prefer organized package holidays and who seek for well-known tourist attractions. The conventional tourist travels for pleasure, for relaxation and for fun. According to Suvantola (2002), their travel motivations have little to do with personal development, they are mostly motivated by escaping daily routines and, in the case of Finnish and Swedish tourists, the motivation is also to escape the long and cold winter in to a warmer place in order to relax. Suvantola (2002) says that it is common among travelling young people that they prefer themselves to be called travellers rather than tourists, as tourists are often connected with negative association of mass tourism. The negative associations with mass tourism can be for example their assumed lack of interest towards the local population, their culture and environment, or the uncool image of a mass tourist. According to Suvantola (2002), tourists are often seen as consumers, when travellers are seen as adventurers. Travellers, in comparison to conventional mass tourists, want to explore new and exotic destinations avoiding popular tourist attractions and actively seeking for better understanding of local people and culture (Suvantola, 2002). Decision making process Finding information for travelling purposes is an important part of making travel plans and is one of the first steps of the decision-making process in order to reduce the risk of using unfamiliar services or of travelling to unfamiliar destinations (Nusair et al., 2013). Travelling can be divided into three phases: the before visiting phase, the during visiting phase and the after visiting phase (Lim, 2012). During all these phases travellers seek, use and share information using different sources. Becoming a traveller is a self-learned process. According to MacCannell (1999, p. 135), "touristic information is found in guidebooks and travel writings, but is more thoroughly diffused throughout the modern world than in the case for some other types of information". In the westernized world with the development of Internet and social media we have a real time access to the same information around the world. Generation Y members are able to follow the same trends, music, fashion, news etc. around the clock 365 days a year. This goes also for travelling and for seeking travel information. The travel industry is advertising tourism with attractive images and messages 19
through mass media. According to Suvantola (2002, p. 98), travel has become a commodity "and our dreams are the material that the travel industry utilizes in advertising it". A destination's image has an effect on one's travel decision-making process. Selby (2004, p. 66) notes that the image, according to psychologists, is a "distinct way of processing and storing multi-sensory information in working memory". Gunn (1972) has explained the destination image building process through three sources: non-commercial sources, commercial sources and first-hand experience (in Selby, 2004, p. 69). Non-commercial information sources are friends, family, literature, media and education. Commercial information sources are operators in tourism industry like tourist boards, destination management companies, travel agencies and other sources that produce advertisement and destination marketing. Giletson and Crompton (1983) argue that friends and family have more influence when making travel decisions than commercial sources (in Selby, 2004, p. 69). According to Pendergast (2010), as Generation Y members are network oriented and interactive, their peers and friends have a great influence on their decisionmaking process and their opinions are highly valued by other Generation Y members. Also, Suvantola (2002) notes that the most influential factor behind our travel choices is the positive stories we hear from other people who have been and experienced a particular destination or place. Finally, the firsthand experience will modify a visitor's image and change the perception created by non-commercial and commercial information, even after returning home and when reflecting on the visit afterwards (Selby 2004). Travel information sources Travel literature. Travel literature has a long history. The first guidebooks for travelling started to appear in the 19th century. John Murray's 1836 Handbook for Travellers was the first example of a modern travel guide by giving advices where to stay and where to go in Britain, in parts of Europe and in further places like New Zealand, Japan and in India (National Library of Scotland). The first modern backpacker or low budget travel guidebooks Across Asia on the Cheap and A Traveller's Notes: Indonesia appeared in 1973 (Suvantola, 2002, p. 134). Across Asia on the Cheap writers Wheeler and Wheeler later established the Lonely Planet Publications whose guidebooks, according to them, are among the most common used travel guides around the world (Lonely Planet). 20
As travel books like Lonely Planet and Rough Guide are available worldwide, it means that many travellers have the same information and therefore travellers tend to end up in the same areas using the same services and visiting the same attractions mentioned in the books (Suvantola, 2002). Internet, social media and mobile applications. With the development of Internet based travel services and with different mobile travel applications travellers' have a great variety of different sources for searching travel information, instead of the habitual guidebooks. Websites and applications can be easily updated from Internet to computers, tablets and mobile phones. Online social networks are strongly affecting Generation Y members' everyday life and they use them actively in forms of text messages, podcasts, blogs etc. (Nusair et al., 2013). Through social media channels, travellers can share their experiences and information with others via blogs, chats, comments, photos and videos, before, during and after their trip. According to Lim (2012), the mobile tourism applications are changing the travel planning processes and the ways that people experience travelling. There are already a great variety of travel applications for smart phones to make travelling to a foreign destination easier, for example map services, language translators, currency converters, emergency help call applications, video calls, messages, flight check in services. According to Nusair et al. (2013), online social networks like Facebook, TripAdvisor, MySpace, Twitter and LinkedIn, have been one of the most important technological innovation impacting the travel industry. TripAdvisor is the world's largest travel site based on travellers' feedback rating 3.7 million accommodations, restaurants and attractions (TripAdvisor, 2014). Travellers are rating and giving reviews of the hotels, restaurants and destinations on the web site, helping other travellers to get first-hand information of locations of their interest. It has been generally criticized that the problem with this kind of user-generated content is that the information cannot be proved to be trustworthy or honest as it is based on personal opinions, and that anyone can use the website without revealing their personality. Hotels, restaurants and attractions can use social networks as a link to connect with customers. Many tourism companies have created Facebook pages where quests can communicate interactively with the company, make reservations, leave comments and be in contact with other guests (Nusair et al., 2013). Leask et al. (2013, p. 40) recognize the importance of peers and social media as a marketing channel for 21
Generation Y by saying that "communication strategies that drive, and are driven by, word-of-mouth and word-of-mouse are critical and reflect more than anything the significant part to be played by online social media when marketing to Gen Y". Nusair and et al. (2013) research of Generation Y's commitment to online social network websites in American universities showed that creating emotional ties between Generation Y consumers and travel related online social network websites was the most important factor to increase Generation Y's customer loyalty and to improve their repurchase and word-of-mouth marketing. Creating emotional ties to Generation Y through online social networks, by creating a sense of social belonging, by making customers feel important and by enhancing activities that create positive feeling, companies can add value to the experiences and services that they offer for Generation Y travellers (Nusair et al., 2013). 22
RESEARCH METHODS The purpose of the study is to test a hypothesis that there are differences in travel behavior between older and younger units of Generation Y. The research will contribute to the understanding of Generation Y's travel patterns and behavior, and help examine and define the potential differences in this generation group. The research part includes discussion of the methods used and the analysis of the survey results. Data collection approach For the study the Generation Y was divided into three `waves' using Kupperschmidt's approach. The oldest age group `the first wave' born between 1977 and 1987 was named as Y1, the middle age group born between 1988 and 1996 as Y2 and the youngest age group `the last wave' born between 1997 and 2003 as Y3. However the youngest age group of the Generation Y, from 11 to 17 years, was left out of from this research, as it might be challenging to collect information of their travel habits. This would require the help of their parents or custodians, and when doing an Internet based survey this might be problematic. As mentioned earlier, the youngest members of the generation are not yet independent travellers, even though 16 years old young adults or students are classified as youth travellers, but parents have normally an influence on their travel behavior and decisions (Fletcher, Fyall, Gilbert & Wanhill, 2013). The target group for this research's data collection was Generation Y members living in Sweden and in Finland, and who were born between 1977 and 1996. This study concentrates on Generation members from age 18 to 37 years. The research included exchange students and immigrants regardless of their origin country, if they were at the time of research living in Sweden or in Finland. Generation Y members living in Sweden and in Finland were chosen for this study because Nordic people travel abroad frequently. According to Medieministeriet's (2011) report, The Nordic Outbound Travel Market, Nordic countries are Europe's third largest outbound travel market, and that they have long holidays with generally high-income level. This is why people living in Finland and Sweden are a good target group for travel research. This study concentrates on the travels taken abroad, and is also excluding work related travel. Also the reason for 23
choosing the Generation Y members living in Sweden and in Finland as a target group for this study was the convenience of collecting and contacting students in Sweden as a Mid Sweden University's tourism master program student, and in Finland because of my Finnish background. An electronic survey was sent to the target group using Facebook as a contact channel to reach Generation Y members. According to statistics, Facebook is the biggest social network channel with 1.3 billion users worldwide (Statistic Brain). Facebook was founded in 2004 and it represents the social phenomenon that has affected Generation Y's social networking behavior in their formative years. Because Facebook is a popular social network among Generation Y members it was easy to reach many people at once. The language of the survey was English, assuming that people who travel have basic knowledge of the language and therefore are able to do the survey in English. The survey was designed to compare respondents' values, expectations, experiences and attitudes towards travelling. The survey was also measuring the influence of Internet, social media, trends and the effect of their peers in their travel behavior and motivations. The survey was done in March 2014 using the SoGo online survey tool. It was sent electronically using Facebook and its various contact groups, like the Mid Sweden University students group, as links to connect with target population. For additional information and for questions and comments, the researcher's contact information was provided with the survey. The survey was made so that the responders could answer to the survey anonymously. The gender of the responder was not important for the research, as Furlong and Cartmel (2007) argue that the modern society with diversity of lifestyles is more complex and unpredictable than before and that in modern society variables like class or gender are blurred. Research design The research is a quantitative research with a deductive approach, comparing two independent groups to one another. After the survey the collected data was moved from SoGo survey tool to Excel and from Excel into an SPSS for analyzing in order to test the hypothesis. An independent T-test was used for data analysis to identify if there are statistically significant differences between the groups, Y1 and Y2. The research was 24
done using parametric testing, assuming that data is not normally distributed. For testing, the two groups must be unrelated, meaning that the same person cannot be part of the two groups at the same time. The survey was designed using the Likert scale to provide measures. The Likert scale measures the respondents' degree of agreement to statements (Smith, 1995). The Likert scale ranks the respondent's attitude from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Smith (1995) notes that the Likert scale is the most common tool for measurement used in tourism research. Because it was easy and simple to use as a method for measuring travel motivation and behavior factors it was chosen to be used as well in this travel research. In Generation Y's travel behavior research a four-point Likert scale was used to measure from one to four the importance of given statements. Also, additional background questions were made to find out the respondents age, country of residence, travel frequency, use of information sources and their opinions about their personal travel style. Survey questions must be built using clear and easily understandable language, so that the responder will understand the question correctly. That is why a pilot test was conducted using friends and family to verify the usability of the research survey. The pilot test showed that the questions were understandable and that the survey program worked correctly. After the pilot test and a spellcheck, the survey was send to the target groups. 25
RESULTS
The survey questions were designed to measure respondents' travel motivation and behaviour. To examine respondents motivation the respondents where asked to rate their importance towards different experiences and activities when travelling, like meeting new people or doing sport (appendix 3). Travel behaviour questions were including the use of different information sources when travelling and the frequency of taken holiday trips (appendix 3). Also additional questions were made to find out respondents' demographics, like their age and country of residence (appendix 3). Together 116 responses for the survey were collected. 96 people filled up the survey using the link for SoGo survey tool that was send for the target group through Facebook. 20 responses were collected manually in Mid Sweden University. In total 110 responses were usable as six of the people who had done the survey through Internet were either too old or not living in Sweden or in Finland. For the validity of the research it was important to include only responses from the respondents that matched the target groups characteristics by their age and country of residence. From Sweden 55 responses were collected, from which 41 of the respondents were from 18 to 26 years old and 14 of the respondents were from 27 to 37 years old. From Finland 55 responses were collected, from which 18 of the respondents were from 18 to 26 years old and 37 of the respondents were from 27 to 37 years old. The number of collected results was even between the two countries but the number of respondents belonging to the younger group Y2 was larger in Sweden, when in Finland more responses collected from people belonging to the older group Y1 (Table 2). Table 2. Respondents' country of residence by age groups.
Age group Y2 18-26 years Y1 27-37 Total
Finland 18 37 55
Sweden 41 14 55
Total 59 51 110
Respondents were asked how many times they have travelled abroad in the past three years and in the past 12 months (figure 2). In the results 49 per cent of the age group Y1 said that they have travelled five or fewer times abroad during the past 26
three years. In the younger age group Y2 56 per cent of the respondents answered that they have travelled abroad five to ten times during the past three years. According to the results the younger part of the Generation Y has travelled more frequently abroad than the older part of the generation. Only 20 per cent of the group Y2 and 16 per cent of the group Y1 have traveled abroad during past three years more than ten times. In the past 12 months period 92 per cent of the age group Y1 and 86 per cent of the age group Y2 have travelled abroad five or fewer times. Only six per cent of Y1 and 14 per cent of Y2 have travelled abroad five to ten times during past 12 months and only two per cent of Y1 have travelled abroad more than ten times.
How many times have you travelled abroad in past 3 years
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 10 or more
5 to 10 times
0 to 5 times 10 or more
Age 27--37 years Y1 Age 18--26 years Y2
5 to 10 times
0 to 5 times
How many times have you traveled abroad in past 12 months
Figure 2. Travels taken abroad during past the three years and during the past 12 months. Respondents were asked to choose their source of inspiration concerning travelling and travel destination choices. The given sources of inspiration were TV, movies, Internet, social media and blogs, friends and family, word of mouth, books or other. Respondents were able to choose more than one option and also give other examples of their sources of inspiration. Among the age group Y2 (figure 3) the most important sources of inspiration was Internet, social media and blogs and friend and family, both representing 23 per cent of all the answers. The next important source was word of mouth with 13 per cent and magazines with 12 per cent. TV as a source of inspiration was representing ten per cent of all the answers and movies and books were both representing nine per cent of all the answers. Other added responses among 27
age group Y2 were YouTube videos, also sport was mentioned to be a source of inspiration for travel. One respondent mentioned cheap accommodation as source of inspiration when choosing travel destination by saying: "I go where I can have cheap accommodation, where my friends are living". Among the age group Y1 (figure 4) the most important source of inspiration was Internet, social media and blogs representing 26 per cent of all the answers. The second most popular source of inspiration was friends and family by 21 per cent. Word of mouth, TV and magazines were each representing 13 per cent and books only six per cent of all the answers in the age group Y1. In this age group one respondent mentioned other source of inspiration for travel being studies.
Inspiration for travel among 18 to 26
years old travellers
Books 9% Word of mouth 13%
Other 1% TV 10%
Movies 9%
Friends & family 23%
Internet, social media, blogs 23% Magazines 12%
Figure 3. Sources of inspiration for travel for the age group Y2.
Respondents were asked to describe themselves as travellers and their travelling style. They were given four options to choose from: tourist, traveller, backpacker or non of these, and the option to describe their travelling style in their own words (figure 5). The meanings and the differences between tourist, traveller and backpacker were briefly described. The tourist was described as someone who prefers organized package holidays, travels for pleasure and seeks well-known tourist attractions. The traveller was described as someone who prefers new and exotic
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destinations avoiding popular tourist attractions, seeking for better understanding of local people and culture. The backpacker was described as someone who spends long periods of time travelling with limited budget, wandering around and seeking for adventures.
Inspiration for travel among 27 to 37
years old travellers
Word of mouth 13%
Other 1% TV 13%
Movies 7%
Friends & family 21%
Magazines 13%
Internet, social
media, blogs
Books
26%
6%
Figure 4. Sources of inspiration for travel for the age group Y1.
60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Tourist Traveller Backpacker Non of these Travelling style
Other
Figure 5. Travelling styles.
Age 18--26 years Y2 Age 27--37 years Y1
29
According to the results (figure 5), 49 per cent of the age group Y1 describes themselves and their travelling style as travellers, 23 per cent as tourist, ten per cent as backpacker and 18 per cent as none of these or other. Other descriptions of the travel style of Y1 were self-organized tourist or the mix of all the three, tourist, traveller and backpacker depending on the purpose of the trip. Also volunteer tourism came up in the answer of one respondent. In the age group Y2, tourist was the most popular option by 32 per cent. 27 per cent had chosen traveller, 15 per cent had chosen backpacker and 16 per cent had chosen none of these options or other. Also age group Y2's descriptions of other travel styles were the mix of all three depending on life situation and low budget traveller. One respondent from the age group Y2 described his or her travelling style by saying that he or she prefers: "living abroad for at least one month, experience, learn more about new country and people". Respondent were asked to rate how often they use mobile applications, Internet and travel literature for acquiring information during their travel. 47 per cent of Y1 and 46 per cent of Y2 said using mobile applications for acquiring information sometimes during their travel (figure 6). 29 per cent of Y1 and 40 per cent of Y2 said they do not use mobile applications for information during their travel. Only 18 per cent of Y1 and eight per cent of Y2 were using mobile applications often and four per cent of Y1 and Y2 said using mobile applications always during their travel for acquiring information. Two per cent of each group said that the use of mobile applications depends of the destinations that they are visiting. One respondent from group Y1 said using mobile applications in western countries. Another respondent from group Y2 said that: "if I stay at a destination for a longer time I would download an application with the local transportation schemes and routes, if available". In the case of using Internet for acquiring information when travelling (figure 7) 66 per cent of Y1 and 53 per cent of Y2 were using Internet for information always when travelling. 20 per cent of Y1 and 22 per cent of Y2 uses Internet often and 12 30
per cent of Y1 and 25 per cent of Y2 uses Internet sometimes for acquiring information. Only two per cent of Y1 said that they do not use Internet when travelling.
50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%
Don't use Sometimes
Often
Always Depends of destination
Use of mobile applications when travelling
Age 18--26 years Y2 Age 27--37 years Y1
Figure 6. The use of mobile applications for acquiring information when travelling.
70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Don't use Sometimes
Often
Always
Use of Internet when travelling
Age 18--26 years Y2 Age 27--37 years Y1
Figure 7. The use of Internet for acquiring information when travelling. 55 per cent of Y1 and 48 per cent of Y2 used sometimes travel literature, like Lonely Planet and Rough Guide, for acquiring information during their travel (figure 8). 22 per cent of Y1 and 27 per cent of Y2 said that they do not use literature. Eight per cent of Y1 and 14 per cent of Y2 used literature sometimes and eight per cent of
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both groups said that they use literature always for acquiring information when travelling. Eight per cent of Y1 and three per cent of Y2 said that the use of literature depends on their destination. According to some respondents from the group Y1, local guidebooks were used when travelling to destinations outside Europe or when travelling for activities like skiing, cycling or climbing. On respondent from the age group Y2 said that travel literature is used: "when I travel to a place where I can see a lot, at Mallorca I would for example not use one".
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0% Don't use Sometimes Often
Always Depends of destination
Use of literature when travelling
Age 18--26 years Y2 Age 27--37 years Y1
Figure 8. The use of travel literature for acquiring information when travelling. The respondents were asked to rate, using a four point Likert scale, the importance of different experiences and activities for them when travelling (appendix 1). The ranking of the importance was from one, meaning not important, to four, meaning very important. When looking at the results of the t-test for Equality of means (appendix 2), it shows that no significant differences were found in the importance of different activities and experiences between the respondents of the younger and the older members of Generation Y.
32
DATA ANALYSIS The hypothesis, that there are differences in the travel motivations and behavior between the younger and the older members of Generation Y, according to the results was proven wrong. No significant differences were found between the two age groups, Y1 and Y2. In the data analysis the results of the survey will be discussed taking into account the travel motivation theories and the generation characteristics mentioned earlier in this paper. As there was no significant differences found in the travel behavior and motivations between the two age groups, the analysis will concentrate on the travel preferences of the Generation Y that came up from the results. Use of travel information sources among Generation Y Travel planning often starts by seeking information of the desired destination. Travellers start creating an image that is based on assumptions, imagination and to information gained through different sources. The image has an effect on travel decision-making process that is a part of the travel planning. Both age groups had chosen the Internet, social media and blogs as an important source of inspiration for travel. This corresponds well with to the image of Generation Y members as the generation that was born in the information age. According to Neuborne (1999), even though the older generations, Baby Boomers and Generation X, are mastering the use of computers and the use of latest computer software the essential difference with Generation Y is that they have become familiar with computers at a very young age (in Dawn & Powers, 2013, p. 598). Also friends and family and word of mouth were popular sources of information for respondents. As social media has created new ways to be connected with friends and peers 24 hours a day, new trends and news spread quickly. According to Peterson (2004) Generation Y members rely on the opinions of their friends that are highly valued when making purchase choices (in Dawn & Powers, 2013, p. 599). The use of books and travel literature for information and as a source of inspiration was not popular among the respondents in both of the age groups. Majority of the respondents said that they do not use travel literature or that they use it only sometimes when travelling. In contrast according to the results more than half of both groups used always Internet for acquiring information when traveling. Internet 33
is more convenient for acquiring information rather than buying a travel book. According to some of the respondents, travel literature was used for special purposes for example for searching information when travelling to do activities like extreme sports. Also the use of mobile applications was not popular among the respondents as the majority said that they do not use mobile applications or use them only sometimes for acquiring information. Travelling style among respondents According to the results there was a difference in travelling styles between age groups Y1 and Y2. The older group Y1 preferred to describe themselves and their travelling style as travellers, as someone who prefers new and exotic destinations avoiding popular tourist attractions, seeking for better understanding of local people and culture, while the younger group Y2 preferred to describe themselves as tourists, as someone who prefers organized package holidays, travels for pleasure and seeks for well-known tourist attractions. As age group Y1 have had more time to travel and experience, their travel career is more developed than the travel career of Y2's. Their age difference and the different positioning in their travel career might cause the differences in their travelling styles. Pearce and Caltabiano (1983) had studied the motivational career in travel and based their study on Maslow's analysis of basic human needs (in Ross, 1988, p. 25). According to their study, the more experienced travellers rated higherorder of needs, like self-actualization and self-development through culture and history, when travellers with low travelling experience were motivated with more basic physiological needs, like relaxation, food and drink and with need of belonging and need of love (Ross, 1988). Also ecological travel and volunteer travel came up in the survey responses when asked to describe respondents travelling style. According to Moscardo and Benckendorf (2010), it is characteristic for Generation Y members that they are increasingly interested in volunteer tourism and helping others, due to their tolerance towards diversity and better understanding of social issues and inequality. Travel motivation As mentioned before, there were no statistically significant differences when comparing the means of Y1 and Y2 when asked to rate the importance towards different activities and experiences when travelling. Cognizance, or the need to 34
explore and satisfy curiosity, is one of the basic needs in Murray's classification. The Generation Y respondents of this study rated the importance of going to places where they have not been before higher (Y1 M=2.63, SD=0.98 and Y2 M=2.85, SD=0.85, t(108)=1.26, p>0.05) than the importance of going to places where friends have not been before (Y1 M=1.35, SD=0.66 and Y2 M=1.48, SD=0.71, t(108)=0.93, p>0.05). The respondents' motivation to explore new places is corresponding to Glover's (2010, p. 160) description of Generation Y characteristics, as Glover says that Generation Y has the "curiosity for new and unique destinations". Respondents' motivation for travelling to new places and exploring would be corresponding to Suvantola's concept of escape and search, when the experience of a new place or destination would be search of something that cannot be found in our home environment. According to Suvantola (2002), travel can be used for personal pilgrimage and for seeking enlightment, in spiritual or non-spiritual ways. Travel for young people can be a way to learn and understand oneself better when exploring and experiencing freedom (Suvantola, 2002). For the respondents of the survey experiencing a simpler lifestyle (Y1 M=2.02, SD=0.88 and Y2 M=2.20, SD=0.89, t(108)=1.09, p>0.05) and understanding themselves better (Y1 M=2.16, SD=0.90 and Y2 M=2.41, SD=0.89, t(108)=1.46, p>0.05) through travelling was somewhat important motivation factor. Self learning and learning about other lifestyles in Suvantola's concept would be the search of something new. Self-learning and development are part of status and prestige motivators that McIntosh, Goeldner and Ritchie (1995) have described in their travel motivation category. Physiological travel motivation factors are part of many motivation theories such as Maslow's (1943) need hierarchy, Murray's (1938) classification of human needs and McIntosh, Goeldner and Ritchie's (1995) tourism motivator category. For the respondents, activities that reduce stress and give them opportunity to ease from the normal daily rhythm were essential when travelling. Also to take it easy, relax (Y1 M=3.16, SD=0.88 and Y2 M=3.00, SD=0.83, t(108)=-0.96, p>0.05.) and to escape from the pressure of the daily life and recharge for future (Y1 M=3.10, SD=0.88 and Y2 M=2.95, SD=0.75, t(108)=-0.96, p>0.05) was both graded as important factors. Suvantola (2002) says that for many the need of change is a strong motivation factor. However doing sport and exercise (Y1 M=2.16, SD=1.03 and Y2 M=2.00, SD=0.87, 35
t(108)=-0.87, p>0.05) and party and go clubbing (Y1 M=1.77, SD=0.84 and Y2 M=1.81, SD=0.75, t(108)=0.32, p>0.05) was valued as less important activities when travelling. One respondent from the age group Y1 had added food and wine as important motivation factor and another from the same age group had added shopping as a way of enjoy and have a good time when travelling. Among the respondents activities and experiences that give them opportunity for learning and trying new things were rated as important when travelling. According to Suvantola (2002, p. 85), people are "actively searching for something" when travelling and in his concept of escape and search seeking for new experiences represents the search. The respondents from both age groups had rated doing different and exiting things (Y1 M=2.84, SD=0.83 and Y2 M=3.09, SD=0.79, t(108)=1.56, p>0.05.), experiencing new and different lifestyles and cultures (Y1 M=2.90, SD=0.76 and Y2 M=3.00, SD=0.87, t(108)=0.63, p>0.05.) and learning new things (Y1 M=2.90, SD=0.70 and Y2 M=2.88, SD=0.89, t(108)=-0.13, p>0.05) as important factors when travelling. According to Suvantola (2002), for young people travel is often about personal development and individual backpacking gives them the opportunity, as personal development is not associated with mass tourism. More traditional activity, visiting well-known tourist attractions (Y1 M=1.82, SD=0.71 and Y2 M=1.85, SD=0.65, t(108)=0.19, p>0.05), was rated with low importance among the respondents. This reflects the shift from modern mass tourism towards postmodern independent travel. According to Cohen's (1972) traveller classification the respondents' interest towards new and different experiences and learning would correspond to the non-institutionalized explorer who travels independently avoiding the mass. The respondents' high importance towards experimenting new food (Y1 M=3.18, SD=0.93 and Y2 M=2.92, SD=0.93, t(108)=-1.47, p>0.05) reflects Poon's (1993) description of `The new tourist' who wants authenticity from his or her travel experiences. According to Suvantola (2002), experimenting local food is a way of getting personally involved with foreign cultures. Trying new food at a destination is an easy way of getting new experiences as eating is one of basic human needs and something that everyone has to do when travelling. Suvantola (2002) says that travel helps to bring people in contact with others and preventing the creation of negative stereotypes, which will lead to more meaningful relationships and better understanding of the others. The respondents' had 36
rated meeting local people (Y1 M=2.69, SD=0.91 and Y2 M=2.71, SD=1.00, t(108)=0.14, p>0.05) and meeting new people and mix with them (Y1 M=2.24, SD=0.97 and Y2 M=2.61, SD=1.07, t(108)=1.92, p>0.05) as important experiences when travelling. In McIntosh, Goeldner and Ritchie's (1995) tourism motivation category meeting new people and creating social contacts are classified as interpersonal motivators. One of the respondents from the age group Y2 had added that important experience when travelling is to: "have fun and spend good time with old and possibly new friends ". Also another respondent from the age group Y1 emphasized the social aspect of travel by saying that important experience when travelling is: "to mix-in with the everyday life of locals and experience the "real" life". In McIntosh, Goeldner and Ritchie's (1995) tourism motivation category the need for recognition and attention from others is classified as status and prestige motivators. According to Suvantola (2002, p. 259), "to gain status from the trip in the eyes of others, the others have to know about it". One of the most significant and defining life events for Generation Y has been the development of Internet and the social media. However when asked the importance of sharing information in social media during travelling and after returning home (Y1 M=1.96, SD=0.87 and Y2 M=2.09, SD=0.86, t(108)=0.75, p>0.05) respondents' had rate it as somewhat important activity. 37
DISCUSSION As a conclusion the hypothesis that there are differences in the travel behavior between the younger and the older members of the Generation Y was incorrect according to the results of the survey, as statistically significant differences was not found between the two age groups. This does not mean that there are no differences inside the generation. The two age groups chosen to this study are born close to each other and don't share big age difference. The youngest members of the Generation Y were not included in this study due to their young age, which were at the time of this study 11 to 17 years old. Generation Y is a new generation and its defining characteristics will still evolve with time. The starting and the ending date of a certain generation are hard to determine. This is why generation will share some of the same characteristics with the generations before and after them. In the case of Generation Y the older members of the generation will share some of the same characteristics, values and believes with the Generation X and the younger members of the Generation Y will share some of the same characteristics, values and believes with the new Generation Z. The travel behavior of the older age group Y1 could be predicted as it might have similarities with the travel behavior of Generation X. Because of the fast developing world the changes happens fast and as the youngest members of the generation will get older there might be significant differences in the travel behavior and motivations between the youngest and the oldest members of the Generation Y. Due to the fast paste of life it is problematic to see one group, in this case Generation Y, as homogeneous. In the future the advancements in information technology, the growing concerns of environmental issues like global warming or even the increased fear of terrorism could have an effect on the travel behavior of Generation Y due to their changed values and believes. Because of the wide generation period, which in the case of Generation Y is 26 years according to Straus's and Howe's (1992) classification, the intragenerational differences are also caused by their different positioning on their life cycles. As the youngest members are in their teenage years the older members have already started or are staring their own families and have been in work life for several years. The intragenerational differences in Generation Y could be studied later when also the youngest age group the Y3 has reached adulthood. 38
In this study a four point Likert scale was used. It might also have an effect to the results if a wider Likert scale ranking was used to measure the importance of different activities and experiences when travelling. For tourism professionals and operators this kind of study could be helpful for their futures operational planning, even if significant differences were not found between the age groups. The results of the survey could still be used as a guideline when making sustainable and profitable planning for the future and when creating activities, travel packages and offering travel services that are targeted for the Generation Y customers. This kind of study could identify the possible opportunities and challenges of the characteristics that describe the Generation Y as a traveller. The Generation Y characteristics, like advanced use of Internet and social media, their high travel experience on a young age, their interest towards new and different designations, their tolerance towards diversity and different life styles as well as the new family structures with single parent households could be used when planning futures tourism products and services. For futures work, a qualitative research could be made, by interviewing tourism professionals, for example companies who are mainly targeting their services to Generation Y members. The findings of the two studies could be compared for possible similarities or differences. Also the same kind of research could be done in other countries or regions using larger target groups. 39
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(Eds.), Tourism and generation Y (p. 27-37). UK: CAB International ITB Berlin. ITB World Travel Trends Report 2012/2013. Available: http://www.itbberlin.de/media/itbk/itbk_media/itbk_pdf/WTTR_Report_2013_web.pdf. [12 Mars 2014]. Jaakson, R. (2003). Beyond the Tourist Bubble? ­ Cruiseship Passengers in Port. Annals of Tourism Research. 31 (1). 44-60. Kester, J. G. C. (2014). UNWTO World Tourism Barometer 2014. Barometer Issues January 2014 Volume 12. Available: http://mkt.unwto.org/en/barometer. [4 May 2014]. Landry, C. (2010). Experiencing Imagination: Travel as a Creative Trigger. In Santa Fe & Unesco International Conference on Creative Tourism & Wurzburger, R. (2009). Creative tourism: a global conversation : how to provide unique creative experiences for travelers worldwide : as presented at the 2008 Santa Fe & UNESCO International Conference on Creative Tourism in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Santa Fe: Sunstone Press. Leask, A., Fyall, A., Barron, P. (2013). Generation Y: opportunity or challenge ­ strategies to engage Generation Y in UK attractions' sector. Current Issues in Tourism. 16 (1). 17-46. Lim, T. Y. (2012, July). Designing the next generation of mobile tourism application based on situation awareness. Paper presented at Southeast Asian Network of Ergonomics Societies Conference. IEEE. Lonely Planet. About Lonely Planet. Available: http://www.lonelyplanet.com/about/company-history/. [27 Mars 2014]. MacCannell, D. (1999). The Tourist: a new theory of the leisure class (new ed.). California: University of California Press. (Original work published 1976) 41
Medieministeriet (2011). The Nordic Outbound Travel Market Nordic-potential and possibilities. Available: http://www.apmadeira.pt/madeira/uploads/recursos/anexos/The%20Nordic%20Travel%20Market_2 011.pdf. [12 Mars 2014]. Moscardo, G., Benckendorff, P. (2010). Mythbusting: Generation Y and Travel. In P. Benckendorff, G. Moscardo & D. Pendergast (Eds.), Tourism and generation Y (p. 16-26). UK: CAB International. National Library of Scotland. Great Escapes: Handbooks for Travellers. Available: http://digital.nls.uk/jma/greatescapes/handbooks.html. [27 Mars 2014]. Nusair, K., Bilgihan, A., Okumus, F., Cobanoglu, C. (2013). Generation Y travelers' commitment to online social network websites. Tourism Management. 35 (2013). 1322. Oppermann, M. (1995). Travel Life Cycle. Annals of Tourism Research. 22 (3). 535552. Pattakos, A. (2010) Introduction and Common themes. In R. Wurzburger, T. Aageson, A. Pattakos, S. Pratt (Eds.), Creative Tourism: a global conversation: how to provide unique creative experiences for travelers worldwide (p. 29-32). New Mexico: Sunstone Press. Pearce, D. G. (2012). Frameworks for Tourism Research. UK: CAB International. Pearce, P. L., Lee, U. (2005). Developing the travel career approach to tourist motivation. Journal of Travel Research. 43 (3). 226-237. Pendergast, D. (2010). Getting to Know the Y Generation. In P. Benckendorff, G. Moscardo & D. Pendergast (Eds.), Tourism and generation Y (p. 1-15). UK: CAB International. Ross, G. F. (1998). The Psychology of Tourism (2nd ed.). Australia: Hospitality Press. 42
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APPENDICES
Appendix 1 - Group statistics of the Independent Samples Test
Group Statistics
Age: 18-26 years Y2 = 0
N
27-37 years Y1 = 1
Go to places where I
0
59
have not been before 1
51
Go to places where
0
59
friends have not been 1
51
before
Experience new and
0
59
different lifestyles and
51
1
cultures
Experience a simpler 0
59
lifestyle
1
51
Understand yourself
0
59
better
1
51
0
59
Take it easy and relax
1
51
Escape from the pressure 0
59
of daily life and recharge
51
1
for the future
0
59
Do sport and exercise
1
51
Visit well known tourist 0
59
attractions
1
51
Do different and exiting 0
59
things
1
51
0
59
Learn new things
1
51
0
59
Meet local people
1
51
Meet new people and 0
59
mix with them
1
51
0
59
Try new food
1
51
0
59
Party and go clubbing
1
51
Sharing information
0
59
through social media 1
51
Mean Std. Deviation
2,847 2,627 1,475 1,353
,8472 ,9790 ,7036 ,6580
3,000 2,902
,8710 ,7551
2,203 2,020 2,407 2,157 3,000 3,157 2,949 3,098
,8863 ,8830 ,8929 ,9027 ,8305 ,8803 ,7526 ,8776
2,000 2,157 1,847 1,824 3,085 2,843 2,881 2,902 2,712 2,686 2,610 2,235 2,915 3,176 1,814 1,765 2,085 1,961
,8710 1,0271 ,6383 ,7129 ,7941 ,8336 ,8922 ,7001 1,0009 ,9053 1,0670 ,9714 ,9338 ,9318 ,7537 ,8388 ,8568 ,8709
Std. Error Mean ,1103 ,1371 ,0916 ,0921 ,1134 ,1057 ,1154 ,1236 ,1162 ,1264 ,1081 ,1233 ,0980 ,1229 ,1134 ,1438 ,0831 ,0998 ,1034 ,1167 ,1162 ,0980 ,1303 ,1268 ,1389 ,1360 ,1216 ,1305 ,0981 ,1175 ,1115 ,1219
44
Appendix 2 - The T-test for equality of means
Equal Go to places variances
where I have assumed
not been
Equal
before
variances not
assumed
Equal Go to places variances where friends assumed
have not been Equal
before
variances not assumed
Experience new and different lifestyles and cultures
Equal variances assumed Equal variances not assumed
Equal
Experience a simpler lifestyle
variances assumed Equal variances not
assumed
Equal
Understand yourself better
variances assumed Equal variances not
assumed
Equal
variances
Take it easy assumed
and relax
Equal
variances not
assumed
Escape from Equal
the pressure of daily life and recharge for future
variances assumed Equal variances not assumed
Independent Samples Test
Levene's
t-test for Equality of Means
Test for
Equality of
Variances
F Sig. t
df Sig. Mean Std. 95% Confidence
(2- Differe Error Interval of the
tailed) nce Differe Difference
nce Lower Upper
2,821 ,096 1,264
108 ,209 ,2200 ,1741 -,1251 ,5651
1,250 99,676 ,214 ,2200 ,1759 -,1291 ,5691
1,269 ,262 ,932
108 ,354 ,1216 ,1306 -,1372 ,3804
,936 107,311 ,351 ,1216 ,1299 -,1359 ,3792
,644 ,424 ,626
108 ,533 ,0980 ,1567 -,2125 ,4086
,632 107,998 ,529 ,0980 ,1550 -,2093 ,4054
1,091 ,299 1,086
108 ,280 ,1838 ,1692 -,1515 ,5191
1,087 105,823 ,280 ,1838 ,1691 -,1515 ,5191
,257 ,613 1,456
108 ,148 ,2499 ,1716 -,0902 ,5900
1,455 105,365 ,149 ,2499 ,1717 -,0906 ,5904
1,192 ,277 -,961
108 ,339 -,1569 ,1633 -,4805 ,1668
-,957 103,644 ,341 -,1569 ,1640 -,4820 ,1683
4,482 ,037 -,958
108 ,340 -,1489 ,1554 -,4569 ,1592
-,947 99,209 ,346 -,1489 ,1572 -,4607 ,1630
45
Equal
variances
Do sport and assumed
exercise
Equal
variances not
assumed
Equal
Visit well variances
known tourist assumed
attractions
Equal variances not
assumed
Equal
Do different and exiting things
variances assumed Equal variances not
assumed
Equal
variances
Learn new assumed
things
Equal
variances not
assumed
Equal
variances
Meet local assumed
people
Equal
variances not
assumed
Meet new
Equal variances
people and assumed
mix with
Equal
them
variances not
assumed
Equal
variances
Try new food assumed Equal
variances not
assumed
Equal
variances Party and go assumed
clubbing
Equal
variances not
assumed
Sharing
Equal variances
information assumed
through
Equal
social media variances not
assumed
2,994 ,086 -,867 -,856 1,113 ,294 ,186 ,184 ,328 ,568 1,555 1,549 4,278 ,041 -,133 -,136 ,961 ,329 ,140 ,141 1,399 ,239 1,915 1,928 ,036 ,850 -1,465 -1,465 ,343 ,559 ,322 ,319 ,034 ,855 ,751 ,750
108 98,629 108 101,347 108 104,028 108 107,051 108 107,765 108 107,696 108 105,775 108 101,521 108 105,189
,388 -,1569 ,394 -,1569 ,853 ,0239 ,854 ,0239 ,123 ,2416 ,124 ,2416 ,894 -,0206 ,892 -,0206 ,889 ,0256 ,888 ,0256 ,058 ,3749 ,056 ,3749 ,146 -,2612 ,146 -,2612 ,748 ,0489 ,750 ,0489 ,454 ,1240 ,455 ,1240
,1810 -,5156 ,1831 -,5203 ,1288 -,2315 ,1299 -,2337 ,1554 -,0664 ,1559 -,0676 ,1547 -,3272 ,1520 -,3219 ,1831 -,3374 ,1818 -,3348 ,1958 -,0131 ,1944 -,0105 ,1784 -,6148 ,1783 -,6148 ,1519 -,2521 ,1530 -,2547 ,1651 -,2032 ,1653 -,2037
,2018 ,2066 ,2793 ,2816 ,5496 ,5508 ,2860 ,2807 ,3886 ,3859 ,7629 ,7603 ,0923 ,0924 ,3499 ,3524 ,4512 ,4516
46
Appendix 3 ­ The paper survey (used in Sweden)
Travel behaviour and motivations of Generation Y (Sweden)
1. Age
18-26 years 27-37 years
2. How many times have you travelled abroad during the past 12 months (not including work travel)? 0 to 5 times 5 to 10 times 10 times or more
3. How many times have you travelled abroad during the past 3 years (not including work travel)? 0 to 5 times 5 to 10 times 10 times or more
4. How important are following experiences and activities to you when travelling?
Not important Go to places I have not been before Go to places friends have not been before Experience new and different life styles and cultures Experiencing a simpler lifestyle Understand yourself better
Somewhat important
Important Very important
Take it easy and relax Escape from the pressure of daily life and recharge for future Do sport and exercise Visiting well known tourist attractions Do different and exiting things Meet local people Meet new people and mix with them Learn new things Try new food Party and go clubbing During and after your trip share information in Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Trip advisor, blogs etc.?
Not important
Somewhat important
Important Very important
6. Information sources Do you use travel books for information when travelling, like Lonely Planet, Rough Guides etc? Do you use Internet for information when travelling? Do you use mobile applications for information when travelling?
Don't use
Sometimes Always Depends of destination. Give an example.
7. How would you describe yourself and your travelling style? Tourist Traveller Backpacker Non of these Other, give an example
8. From where do you get inspiration for travelling? You can choose multiple options!
TV
Movies
Internet,
Magazines Friends &
Books
Word of
social media
Family
mouth
Other, what?
47

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