Welfare States in East Central Europe

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Content: Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-88725-0 - Welfare States in East Central Europe, 1919-2004 Tomasz Inglot Frontmatter More information Welfare States in East Central Europe, 1919­2004 This is the first comparative-historical study of welfare states (social policies) in the former communist region of East Central Europe. Tomasz Inglot analyzes almost one hundred years of expansion of social insurance programs across different political regimes. He places these programs in a larger political and socioeconomic context, which includes the most recent developments since the advent of democracy. Based on this research, he argues that despite apparent similarities, the welfare states of East Central Europe, Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic and Slovakia since 1993), Poland, and Hungary have pursued distinct historical paths of development and change. He examines the highly unusual evolution of these welfare states in detail, tracing alternating periods of growth and retrenchment/reform, which he links to political and economic crises under communist rule. Inglot uses this comparative analysis of welfare systems to examine the continued influence of history over the politics and policies of the social safety nets in Eastern Europe. Tomasz Inglot is currently Professor of Political Science and Director of the international relations Program at Minnesota State University. His articles have appeared in Communist and Post-Communist Studies, Perspectives on Political Science, and Polityka Spoleczna (Warsaw), and he co-edited the collected Conference papers of the 2005 meeting on East European social policy at the Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars. He is also the recipient of a Fulbright Fellowship, IREX travel grants, and an ACLS Postdoctoral Fellowship in East European Studies.
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-88725-0 - Welfare States in East Central Europe, 1919-2004 Tomasz Inglot Frontmatter More information Welfare States in East Central Europe, 1919­2004 TOMASZ INGLOT Minnesota State University, Mankato
© Cambridge University Press
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-88725-0 - Welfare States in East Central Europe, 1919-2004 Tomasz Inglot Frontmatter More information
cambridge university press Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sa~ o Paulo, Delhi
Cambridge University Press 32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013-2473, usa www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521887250
C Tomasz Inglot 2008
This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.
First published 2008
Printed in the United States of America
A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library.
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Inglot, Tomasz, 1961­
Welfare states in East Central Europe, 1919­2004 / Tomasz Inglot.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
isbn 978-0-521-88725-0 (hardback)
1. Public welfare ­ Europe, Eastern ­ History ­ 20th century. 2. Human services ­ Europe,
Eastern ­ History ­ 20th century. 3. Social workers ­ Europe, Eastern. 4. Europe, Eastern ­
Social policy. I. Title.
hv238.i54 2008
361.6 509430904 ­ dc22
2007033649
isbn 978-0-521-88725-0 hardback
Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls for external or third-party Internet Web sites referred to in this publication and does not guarantee that any content on such Web sites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.
© Cambridge University Press
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-88725-0 - Welfare States in East Central Europe, 1919-2004 Tomasz Inglot Frontmatter More information In loving memory of my mother, Anna Dubowska-Inglot and in honor of my late grandfather, Stefan Inglot
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-88725-0 - Welfare States in East Central Europe, 1919-2004 Tomasz Inglot Frontmatter More information Contents
Figures and Tables Acknowledgments
page ix xiii
Introduction: Understanding Past and Present Social Policy
Development in East Central Europe
1
Postcommunist Welfare States in Transition
3
The Scope of Analysis: East Central European Welfare States in a
Historical Perspective
6
Summary of the Main Argument
8
The Dependent Variable: Major Social Insurance Programs in East
Central Europe
15
A Brief Note on Data and Methodology
17
Summary of the Book
19
1 The Welfare State in East Central Europe: A Conceptual and
Theoretical Reconsideration
21
The Welfare State as a Research Problem: West and East
22
Understanding Historical Legacies of Social Policy in East Central
Europe
43
2 Institutional Legacies: State Building, Regime Change, and the
Development of National Welfare States in Czechoslovakia,
Poland, and Hungary, 1919­1989
54
Social Protection as a State-Building Project
55
Preexisting Social Policy Institutions
56
Domestic Political and Socioeconomic Conditions
57
Ideational Context: Foreign Influences and Domestic Debates
60
Czechoslovakia
62
Poland
78
Hungary
97
vii
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-88725-0 - Welfare States in East Central Europe, 1919-2004 Tomasz Inglot Frontmatter More information
viii
Contents
Summary: Comparison of Institutional Legacies and
Developmental Stages of the Czechoslovak, Polish, and
Hungarian Welfare States
109
3 Policy Legacies and Welfare States under Communism: Cycles
of Social Policy Expansion and Retrenchment in
Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Hungary, 1945­1989
119
Policy Legacies and the "Communist" Welfare States in East
Central Europe
119
Cycles of Crisis and the Development of the Welfare State under
Communism in East Central Europe
127
Czechoslovakia
131
Poland
147
Hungary
176
Summary: Comparison of Social Policy Legacies of Communism in
East Central Europe
195
4 Historical Legacies, Welfare State institutions, and the Politics
of Social Policy Reforms in Postcommunist East Central
Europe, 1989­2004
211
Historical Legacies and Competing Explanations of
Postcommunist Social policy developments
212
Institutional and Policy Environment of the Welfare State at the
Threshold of Regime Change
214
Institutional Reforms and the Replication of the "Emergency"
Policy Cycles of Welfare State Expansion and Retrenchment
during the Postcommunist Era
216
Czechoslovakia
219
The Czech Republic
226
Slovakia
238
Poland
252
Hungary
277
Comparative Summary: Path Dependence in Post-1989
Development of Welfare States in East Central Europe
295
Conclusion: Postcommunist "Emergency" Welfare States and
Theoretical Exploration of Institutional Change and Social
Policy Development
306
theoretical implications
307
Bibliography
315
Index
341
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-88725-0 - Welfare States in East Central Europe, 1919-2004 Tomasz Inglot Frontmatter More information Figures and Tables
figures 1.1 Conventional model of postcommunist social policy reforms 1.2 Historical stages of welfare state development in modern Europe (West and East, 1880­2004) 1.3 Theoretical model for the study of historical legacies, institutions, and patterns of social policy development and change in East Central Europe 3.1 Developmental paths of social policy in Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Hungary under communist rule, 1945­1989
page 39 43 51 207
tables
1.1 Institutional components of the early welfare states in East
Central Europe during the interwar period, 1919­1939
25
1.2 Three basic institutional components ("layers") of the
communist welfare systems in East Central Europe, 1949­1989
26
1.3 Four "institutional layers" of the "postcommunist welfare
state"
32
1.4 Analytical framework for the study of temporal path
dependence in welfare state development in East Central
Europe (adopted from Ekiert and Hanson, 2003)
45
2.1 Employment categories in Czechoslovakia, 1922 and 1930
63
2.2 Growth of pension insurance in Czechoslovakia, 1930­1937
66
2.3 Pension insurance in Czechoslovakia, 1930­1937
67
2.4 Growth of pension insurance in Czechoslovakia, 1947­1950
74
2.5 Growth of pension insurance in Czechoslovakia, 1946­1950
75
2.6 Occupational structure in Poland according to the 1921 census
79
2.7 Annual growth of social insurance protection in Poland,
1921­1938
80
ix
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-88725-0 - Welfare States in East Central Europe, 1919-2004 Tomasz Inglot Frontmatter More information
x
Figures and Tables
2.8 Growth of state pension entitlements in Poland, 1934­1938
81
2.9 Employment categories in interwar Hungary, 1920 and 1930
98
2.10 Social insurance coverage in Hungary, 1930­1980
101
2.11 Adoption of the first national social insurance laws and major
benefit programs in Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Hungary
109
2.12 Comparison of the major normative characteristics (principles)
of the national welfare states in Czechoslovakia, Poland, and
Hungary
111
2.13 Summary and comparison of major dimensions of institutional
development (institutional legacies) of the national welfare
states in East Central Europe
113
2.14 Temporal sequencing (stages) of institutional development
of the national welfare states in East Central Europe
116
3.1 Cycles of ECONOMIC GROWTH in Czechoslovakia, Poland,
and Hungary, 1950­1988
130
3.2 Czechoslovakia: social expenditures for major cash benefits
as percentage of net material product, 1949­1991
133
3.3 Poland: expenditure for cash benefits as percentage of wage
fund, 1947­1957
150
3.4 Poland: comparison of the dynamics of social expenditures
in selected categories as percentage of net material product,
1955­1988
155
3.5 Poland: social expenditures for major cash benefits as
percentage of net material product, 1956­1990
159
3.6 Hungary: social expenditures of major cash benefits as
percentage of gross domestic product, 1960­1990
186
3.7 Summary of the key social policy developments under
communist rule in Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Hungary,
1945­1989: cycles of welfare state expansion and retrenchment 196
3.8 Comparison of five essential social policy legacies of
communism in Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Hungary
203
4.1 Dynamics of GDP growth and unemployment rate in East
Central Europe, 1990­2003 (Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic,
and Slovakia)
228
4.2 Czech Republic: social expenditures for major cash benefits as
percentage of net material product, 1948­1991
229
4.3 Czech Republic: social expenditures for major cash benefits as
percentage of gross domestic product, 1992­2002
231
4.4 Slovakia: social expenditures for major cash benefits as
percentage of net material product, 1949­1994
240
4.5 Slovakia: social expenditures for major cash benefits as
percentage of gross domestic product, 1993­2003
249
4.6 Poland: social insurance expenditures for major cash benefits as
percentage of gross domestic product, 1989­2002
256
4.7 Pension replacement ratio in East Central Europe, 1990­2000
269
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-88725-0 - Welfare States in East Central Europe, 1919-2004 Tomasz Inglot Frontmatter More information
Figures and Tables
xi
4.8 Poland: comparison of changes in real household income,
1989­1992
270
4.9 Poland: annual rate of increase in social insurance expenditures,
1991­1995
271
4.10 Hungary: social expenditures for major cash benefits as
percentage of gross domestic product, 1988­2003
279
4.11 Comparison of real dynamics of net average real pensions
and wages in Poland and Hungary, 1989­1995
289
4.12 Postcommunist cycles of welfare state expansion and
retrenchment in Eastern and Central Europe after 1989
304
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-88725-0 - Welfare States in East Central Europe, 1919-2004 Tomasz Inglot Frontmatter More information Acknowledgments
My involvement with social welfare issues began as an incident of history. One evening, in mid-November of 1981, as a second-year student of the University of Wroclaw, Poland, I attended a meeting of the strike committee of the Independent Student Association (NZS, the only officially registered, openly anticommunist civil society organization in the Soviet bloc before 1989). The main agenda included the assignment of key leadership positions for the upcoming strike action. In a matter of minutes we filled all required posts, except one: a person responsible for the everyday welfare needs of the striking students on campus. After a rather long and futile discussion, with no volunteers forthcoming, I finally decided to raise my hand. As the youngest of the group and eager to join this historic revolutionary undertaking, I failed to realize what all this meant in reality; that I would have to take care of several hundred people for almost three weeks in a country where grocery stores were totally empty of goods, save for salt and vinegar. In fact, I had to improvise a lot on the job, which included organizing an impromptu supply of tea and snacks from the neighboring women's convent and sending out daily teams of fellow students at sunrise to purchase the first and only deliveries of milk and bread at government-run stores before everybody else got there. Thanks to the solidarity and collective effort of many friends and supporters, including numerous anonymous donors from the surrounding community and even from abroad, we managed to pull it off and ended the strike with a promise of a comprehesive educational reform. A couple of weeks later, however, general Wojciech Jaruzelski declared martial law. I was "interned" and kept in various prisons for several months. My mother, who intervened on my behalf at the highest levels of the communist secret police, later told me that according to the martial law authorities I was guilty of "conducting independent socioeconomic activities." These events eventually led to my political exile in the United States in 1983. This book project took many years to complete and I owe my deep gratitude to numerous people whose friendship, encouragement, advice, criticism, generous support, and all kinds of assistance contributed to its success. First xiii
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xiv
Acknowledgments
of all, my wife, Joanna, also a former student of the University of Wroclaw, offered me her continuous love and support throughout the difficult years of immigration, graduate study, and beyond. I cannot thank her enough for that. Early on, Stephen J. Anderson sparked my interest in comparative social policy as a rapidly growing area of study within political science. His seminar at the University of Wisconsin-Madison made me realize how much we still needed to learn and discover about the welfare states in the former communist world. During the past decade I also benefited greatly from comments, suggestions, and support of fellow political scientists, and experts in communist and postcommunist politics, Grzegorz Ekiert, Jan Kubik, Anna Seleny, Stephen Hanson, Valerie Bunce, and Sharon Wolchik, all of whom urged me to continue my work in this area. I am also grateful to Theda Skocpol for her encouragement and insightful comments at the earlier stages of my research, as well as to Paul Pierson, Shannon O'Neil Trowbridge, Michal Rutkowski, Stefan Korbonґ ski, and Jaґ nos Kornai for their help in later years, as this project continued to develop. Most recently, I benefited a lot from the friendship and collaboration with my friend and colleague, a fellow expert on East European social policy, Michael Cain, who cheered me on during the final period of work on the manuscript. I am also very grateful to the anonymous reviewers for Cambridge University Press for their insightful comments and constructive suggestions that helped me immensely in the process of revising and improving the book. This book, of course, would never have happened without the warm welcome and invaluable assistance of numerous individuals during my field research in East Central Europe. In the Czech Republic I would like to especially thank Miroslav Hirsl, Jana Klementovaґ , Jizґi Kraґ l, Martin Potu cek, Gabriela RoЁ snerovaґ , Josef Suchel, Igor Tomes, Petr Vґisek, and Marketa Vyґ litovaґ . In Hungary, I am deeply grateful to Rudolf Andorka, Ilona Antal, Kaґ laґ manneґ Antal, Maґ ria Augusztinovics, Gabriella Beґki, Peґter Bod, TuЁ nde Czinder, Ottoґ Czuґ cz, Zsuza Ferge, Peґter Gedeon, Zsolt Hargitai, Maґ ria Major, GyoЁ rgi Marosi, Katalin Novaґ k, Gabriella Papp, Andraґ s Simonovits, Juґ lia Szalai, and Reґka Szemerkeґnyi. Also, my very special thanks go to Edit SzeґpvoЁ lgyi, Peґter Szivos, Istvaґ n GyoЁ rgi Toґ th, Kaґ rolyneґ Tokaji, and Tamaґ s Varga for their help with the statistical data. Moreover, I owe a tremendous debt of gratitude to my Hungarian friends and colleagues Dorottya Szikra and Beґla Tomka, who helped me understand the past and present of social policy in that country. In Poland, numerous individuals contributed much to this project over many years. Danuta Almert, Michal Boni, Agnieszka Chlonґ -Dominґ czak, Marek Goґ ra, Helena Goґ ralska, Ewa Lewicka, Teresa Liszcz, Jan Litynґ ski, Marek Mazur, Malgorzata Pawlisz, Anna Pochwala, Jan Rulewski, Anna Semenowicz, Jerzy Szreter, and Irena Woґ ycicka helped me untangle the complexities of the communist and postcommunist politics of social insurance. Ministers of labor and social policy ­ Jacek Kuronґ and Andrzej Baё czkowski, both of whom sadly passed away in recent years ­ did even more than that, allowing me for a short while to become a witness to important events and policy decisions during crucial periods of postcommunist welfare reforms. Stanislawa
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Acknowledgments
xv
Golinowska, Miroslaw Ksieёzopolski, Zofia Czepulis-Rutkowska, late Andrzej Tymowski, and Aleksandra Wiktorow shared with me their impressive knowledge and long-term expertise in Polish and East European social policy. I also owe special thanks to the personnel of the Social Insurance Institution (ZUS) and especially to Ewa Borowczyk and Hanna Zalewska (the head of the statistics department) and Leszek Zienkowski from the Central Statistical Office in Warsaw for their cooperation during many months of my research there. Furthermore, this book would never have been written in the first place without the warm welcome and generous research assistance that I received from the past and present directors (Malgorzata Klossowska and Jolanta Gawron) and the personnel of the Central Library of Labor and Social Security in Warsaw. I remain greatly indebted to them. In Slovakia, I benefited from the invaluable assistance of Renaґ ta Baґ lintovaґ , Marek Jakoby, Marek Lendackyґ , and Michal Szabo. I am also extremely grateful to Radislav Bednarik, Kvetoslava Repkovaґ , and Michaela Szaboovaґ of the Center for Work and Family Studies in Bratislava for their help in acquiring precious statistical data on the Slovak social insurance programs. Research for this book was supported by grants from the Fulbright Commission (in the early stages) and also by IREX and most recently by the fellowship grant from the American Council of Learned Societies. During many years I also received generous financial assistance and other types of research support from Minnesota State University (MSU)-Mankato (including Graduate School Faculty Research Grants and travel grant support). I would like to especially thank my former department chair, and now professor emeritus of political science, Doran Hunter, who never stopped believing in my work and whose support for my research went far beyond a usual call of duty. I am also grateful to the present and former political science chairs, Joe Kunkel and Bill Lewinski, and to all my departmental colleagues, especially Jackie Vieceli, with whom I shared many days of joy and anxiety while working on this project over the years. Furthermore, I want express my gratitude to the College of Social and Behavioral Sciences at MSU, in particular to the former dean, Susan CoultrapMcQuinn, and the current dean, John Alessio, for all their help and support. My graduate assistants Sara Fliflit and Nick Lyons spent many hours helping me prepare the statistical tables and figures, and they deserve extra thanks for their hard work. Our departmental Office Manager, Pat Davis, was always there to help; so was the longtime manager of the Dean's office, Becky Gunderman ­ I appreciate this very much. Finally, I owe my gratitude to the editors of Cambridge University Press; first and foremost the Senior Acquisitions Editor Lewis Bateman for his kindness and the smooth handling of the publishing process; the production and copy editor Stephanie Sakson, for her exceptional professionalism and efficiency; and finally, the production controllers Shelby Peak and Mark Fox for bringing it all to a successful conclusion. This book is dedicated to the memory of my mother, Anna Dubowska-Inglot, and my paternal grandfather, Stefan Inglot. Their integrity, dedication, and love of knowledge will always remain the greatest inspiration for me and my work.
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